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LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

INGLÊS 9º ANO

VOLUME 1

Palavra do autor

BASIS


CAPÍTULO

Consumerism

De uns tempos para cá, temos nos deparado cada vez mais com o lado ruim do consumo desenfreado: a excessiva produção de lixo, a emissão de gases poluentes, a devastação ambiental. Além disso, as pessoas estão se endividando para manter um alto padrão de vida. Mas será que isso é necessário? Neste capítulo, falaremos um pouco sobre o consumismo, a compulsão que leva indivíduos a comprar descontroladamente. Também veremos o impacto disso no nosso cotidiano e na natureza para,em seguida, pensar uma maneira ética de reverter esse quadro, consumindo de maneira mais consciente. Na parte gramatical, o foco será o present perfect tense,, um tempo verbal que não tem equivalente no português. Além disso, estudaremos os advérbios ever, ever already e yet yet, que podemos usar com o present perfect para enfatizá-lo. Let’s get started!


CHECKLIST DO ALUNO TÓPICO 1

CV CE ER DT CR

Consumerism and Advertising

TÓPICO 2

CV CE ER DT CR

Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense

TÓPICO 3

CV CE ER DT CR

Consumerism x Environment

TÓPICO 4

CV CE ER DT CR

Grammar Focus: Adverbs Ever / Already / Yet

LEGENDAS CV - CONTEÚDO VISTO EM SALA CE - CONTEÚDO ESTUDADO PELO ALUNO

DT CR

- DÚVIDAS TIRADAS - CONTEÚDO REVISADO

ER

-

EXERCÍCIOS REALIZADOS


BASE NACIONAL COMUM CURRICULAR (BNCC)

UNIDADES TEMÁTICAS

Interação discursiva Estratégias de leitura Avaliação dos textos lidos

OBJETOS DE CONHECIMENTO

HABILIDADES

 Funções e usos da língua inglesa: persuasão

(EF09LI01) Fazer uso da língua inglesa para expor pontos de vista, argumentos e contra-argumentos, considerando o contexto e os recursos linguísticos voltados para a eficácia da comunicação.

 Recursos de persuasão

 Reflexão pós-leitura

(EF09LI05) Identificar recursos de persuasão (escolha e jogo de palavras, uso de cores e imagens, tamanho de letras), utilizados nos textos publicitários e de propaganda, como elementos de convencimento. (EF09LI09) Compartilhar, com os colegas, a leitura dos textos escritos pelo grupo, valorizando os diferentes pontos de vista defendidos, com ética e respeito.


TÓPICO

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Shutterstock.com

Consumerism and Advertising

Imagem 1.1

We are exposed to so many advertisements every day. Taking into account the average hours of TV viewing, radio listening, newspapers/magazine reading, internet surfing, public street and transport use, it is estimated to be around 250 per day (on the lower side) to 3,000 and above. According to writer Alana Semuels, in an article for the magazine The Atlantic, “Now, thanks to a lot of factors – including ads –, Americans are amassing a lot of stuff. Before the internet, we had amassing: acumulando, aglomerando.

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to reserve time to go browse the aisles of a physical store, only open a few hours a day. Now, we can shop from anywhere, anytime. And, because of the globalization of manufacturing, a lot of products are cheaper than before.” A common psychological principle used by advertisers says that repetition is a way to condition someone mentally. Studies show that the more something is repeated to you, the more you will believe it. Shopping online also makes you feel good. There’s an increase in dopamine when you buy something, according to a research by Ann-Christine Duhaime, a professor of neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School. “As a general rule, your brain tweaks you to want more, more, more – indeed, more than those around you – both of ‘stuff’ and of stimulation and new things – because that helped you survive in the distant past of brain evolution”. And, because of planned obsolescence, it gets easier and easier to replace the things you own. Mark A. Cohen, the director of retail studies at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Business,


mentioned we are accumulating mountains of things. As an experiment, he asks his students to count how many things they have on their backpacks or pockets in class. They start counting up gadgets, cords and accessories, and in the end they have near 50 things.

Facts about consumerism

Dssart studio / Shutterstock.com

- The average American household has more than $7,500 in consumer debt. - In 2014, in the United States, there were already more cars in the streets than licensed drivers. - Homes in the U.S. contain more TVs than people. On average, houses in the U.S. have three working television sets. - Despite being just 12% of the global population, the U.S. and Western Europe account for 60% of private consumption spending. That’s more than half!

Imagem 1.2

Advertisements, like the one above, encourage people to buy products. Many advertisers pick

According to him, “America has become a society of hoarders”. hoarders: acumuladores.

- People in the United States and Europe spend a total of $17 billion a year on pet food; the estimated cost of immunizing every child, providing clean drinking water for all, and achieving universal literacy is $16.3 billion. - Annual expenditures for cosmetics total U.S. $18 billion; the estimate for annual expenditures required to eliminate hunger and malnutrition is $19 billion. - In the United States, more money is spent on fashion accessories than college tuition. The amount spent on shoes, watches and jewelry alone totals $100 billion.

the best part of a product to talk about and show it, along with a nice picture or illustration. Advertising is everywhere: on billboards, on the streets; on TV; in magazines and newspapers; we even see them in movie theaters, before the movies. Advertisers (the people who write the ads) need to be: persuasive, convincing and articulate. They need to find a way to sell their product and to express themselves very well, and that includes using emotional tactics, for instance.

SAIBA MAIS What is planned obsolescence? For a company, it’s better (and more lucrative) when you keep buying their products. So, instead of making them durable, they might use cheap materials or design the product in such a way that it doesn’t last long. This concept is called planned obsolescence. In order to decrease the time between purchases, some companies will plan for their product to become obsolete (unfashionable, no longer able to receive updates) on purpose. In France, for instance, this practice is illegal.

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EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. Where can we see advertisements? 07. Now, take a look at the yogurt ad and write 02. When it comes to consumerism, what is the

down three things in it that might lead people to buy the product.

difference between the era before the internet and now?

03. Write T for true and F for false. ( ) We are exposed to 250 to 3,000 ads a day. ( ) In the U.S., people spend more money on pet food than on cosmetics. ( ) The average American household has three TVs. ( ) Americans spend more money on fashion accessories than on college tuition. ( ) The U.S. alone is responsible for 60% of private consumption spending.

08. What is your opinion on consumer culture?

Do you think there’s a problem worldwide? Elaborate.

09. Pick a product (like a video game, an article

and advertising?

of clothing, a snack, anything you’d like) and try to create an ad for it in your notebook. You can write down below the product’s slogan. Use your imagination!

05. What happens to our brains when we buy

10. Now, you and a classmate will take a look at each

04. What is the connection between psychology

things? Why?

other’s ad and discuss it. Complete the table below.

What is the advertising for? Would you buy this product?

06. Explain, using your own words, what is

Why/Why not?

planned obsolescence and give an example.

Suggestions on improving the ad

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TÓPICO

Shutterstock.com/Adaptado

Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense

Sup, dude! R u going w/ us to the concert?

2

Observe o diálogo reproduzido na Imagem 1.3 . O comentário “Nope, I can’t! I have spent all my money on comics” (Não, não posso! Gastei todo meu dinheiro em revistas de quadrinhos!) enfatiza que a ação foi praticada, mas sem especificar quando aconteceu, demonstrando que a ação é mais importante do que o tempo em que ocorreu. Nesse e em outros casos, usamos o present perfect tense. Construímos este tempo com a seguinte estrutura:

Nope, I can’t! I have spent all my money on comics :(

Sujeito + verbo auxiliar to have + verbo principal no particípio passado + complemento.

Observe em que situações utilizamos o present perfect tense: • Imagem 1.3

Para descrever uma ação que foi praticada em um tempo indeterminado no passado. Example: I have gone with him. (Eu fui com ele.)

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Para indicar uma ação praticada no passado que continua até o presente. Example: We have lived in London since 2010. (Nós moramos em Londres desde 2010.)

Para expressar uma ação que se repete muito no presente, costumando ser enfatizada pelo uso de advérbios como always, ever, lately, frequently, often e recently. Example: She has studied a lot lately. (Ela tem estudado muito ultimamente.)

Para relatar uma ação que acabou de acontecer, fazendo-se necessário o uso do advérbio just. Example: Marco has just started his homework. (Marco acabou de começar sua tarefa de casa.)

ESCLARECENDO Os verbos regulares possuem a mesma forma para o passado simples e o particípio passado. Já os irregulares, quase sempre diferem. Há, também, verbos cujas formas são iguais tanto para o presente simples como para o passado simples e o particípio passado. Verbos Regulares Infinitive

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Participle

Tradução

To study

study/studies

studied

studied

estudar

To finish

finish/finishes

finished

finished

terminar

To love

love/loves

loved

loved

amar

Verbos Irregulares To see

see/sees

saw

seen

ver

To swim

swim/swims

swam

swum

nadar

To be

am/is/are

was/were

been

ser, estar

To go

go/goes

went

gone

ir

put

colocar, pôr

Verbos com Formas Iguais To put

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put/puts

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put


Formas Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa afirmativa

Interrogativa negativa

I You

I/You have worked.

I/You haven’t worked or have not worked.

Have I/you worked?

Haven’t I/you worked? or Have I/you not worked?

He She It

He/She/It has worked.

He/She/It hasn’t worked or has not worked.

Has he/she/it worked?

Hasn’t he/she/it worked? or Has he/she/it not worked?

We You They

We/You/They have worked.

We/You/They haven’t worked or have not worked.

Have we/you/they worked?

Haven’t we/you/they worked? or Have we/ you/they not worked?

Exemplos

1. I have been to Fortaleza. (Estive em Fortaleza.) 2. We have found the campsite. (Encontramos o local do acampamento.) 3. Where have they gone? (Aonde eles foram?) 4. I have been very busy at work recently. (Eu tenho estado muito ocupado no trabalho recentemente.) 5. She has visited Paris at least four times. (Ela visitou Paris pelo menos quatro vezes.) 6. I have just arrived from Honolulu. (Acabei de chegar de Honolulu.) Para identificar o present perfect tense em um texto e usá-lo corretamente, de acordo com a forma adequada para cada situação, é necessário conhecer bem os verbos irregulares. Veja alguns exemplos na tabela a seguir:

Infinitivo

Passado Simples

Particípio Passado

Tradução

To arise

arose

arisen

erguer, levantar

To become

became

become

tornar-se

To begin

began

begun

começar, iniciar

to bet

bet

bet

apostar

To bite

bit

bitten

morder

To bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

To break

broke

broken

quebrar

To bring

brought

brought

trazer

To build

built

built

construir

To burn

burnt/ burned

burnt/ burned

queimar

To buy

bought

bought

comprar

To cast

cast

cast

lançar

To catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

To choose

chose

chosen

escolher

To come

came

come

vir

To cost

cost

cost

custar

To awake

awoke

awoken

acordar, despertar-se

To be

was/ were

been

ser, estar, ficar

To cut

cut

cut

cortar

To bear

bore

borne/ born

suportar, aguentar

To deal

dealt

dealt

tratar, lidar

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

beat

beaten

bater, superar, vencer, derrotar, espancar

To dig

To beat

To do

did

done

fazer

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To draw

drew

drawn

desenhar, traçar, puxar, arrastar

To hurt

hurt

hurt

ferir(-se), machucar

To dream

dreamt/ dreamed

dreamt/ dreamed

sonhar

To keep

kept

kept

manter, conservar, preservar

To drink

drank

drunk

beber

To know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

To drive

drove

driven

dirigir, guiar

To lay

laid

laid

pôr, colocar, derrubar, deitar

To eat

ate

eaten

comer

led

led

conduzir, liderar, dirigir, comandar

To fall

fell

fallen

cair, desagradar, abater-se, decrescer, diminuir

To lead To learn

learnt/ learned

learnt/ learned

aprender, ficar sabendo

To feed

fed

fed

alimentar, nutrir

To leave

left

left

partir, deixar, sair

To feel

felt

felt

sentir, notar

To lend

lent

lent

emprestar

To fight

fought

fought

lutar, brigar

To let

let

let

permitir, deixar

To find

found

found

achar, encontrar

To lie

lay

lain

deitar, jazer

To fit

fit (fitted)

fit (fitted)

servir, ajustar, adaptar, caber, assentar

To lose

lost

lost

perder

To light

lit

lit

acender, iluminar

To fly

flew

flown

voar

To forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

To make

made

made

fazer, criar, elaborar

To forget

forgot

forgot/ forgotten

esquecer(-se)

To mean

meant

meant

significar, querer dizer

To forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

To meet

met

met

encontrar(-se), reunir(-se)

To freeze

froze

frozen

congelar, gelar

To pay

paid

paid

pagar

To get

got

got/ gotten

obter, conseguir

To partake

partook

partaken

participar

To give

gave

given

dar

To prove

proved

proved, proven

provocar, comprovar

To go

went

gone

ir

To put

put

put

pôr, colocar

To grow

grew

grown

crescer, florescer, germinar

To quit

quit/ quitted

desistir, abandonar

To hang

hung

hung

pendurar, suspender

quit/ quitted

To read

read

read

ler, interpretar

To have

had

had

ter, possuir

rode

ridden

To hear

heard

heard

ouvir, escutar, ter notícias

To ride

cavalgar, andar de bicicleta, carro, etc.

hidden

esconder(-se), ocultar

To ring

rang

rung

soar, tocar (campainha, telefone)

To rise

rose

risen

erguer-se, levantar-se

To run

ran

run

correr, apressar-se

To hide

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hid

To hit

hit

hit

bater, chocar-se

To hold

held

held

segurar, agarrar

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To saw

sawed

sawn

serrar

To steal

stole

stolen

roubar, furtar

To say

said

said

dizer, afirmar, declarar

To stick

stuck

stuck

cravar, fincar

To see

saw

seen

ver, perceber

To strike

struck

struck

bater, golpear

To sell

sold

sold

vender

To send

sent

sent

enviar, mandar

To swear

swore

sworn

jurar

To set

set

set

pôr, dispor, ajustar

To sweep

swept

swept

varrer

To sew

sewed

sewn, sewed

costurar, coser

To swim

swam

swum

nadar

To shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, agitar, apertar a mão (em cumprimento)

To swing

swung

swung

balançar

To take

took

taken

tomar, pegar, levar

To teach

taught

taught

ensinar

To tell

told

told

dizer, contar

To think

thought

thought

pensar, achar

To throw

threw

thrown

lançar, atirar

understood

understood

entender, compreender

To wake

woke

woken

acordar

To wear

wore

worn

vestir, usar, trajar

To wet

wet/ wetted

wet/ wetted

molhar, umedecer

To win

won

won

ganhar, vencer

To wring

wrung

wrung

espremer, torcer

To write

wrote

written

escrever

To shave

shaved

shaven/ shaved

barbear-se

To shine

shone

shone

brilhar

To shoot

shot

shot

atirar, ferir com tiro

To show

showed

shown

mostrar, apresentar

To sing

sang

sung

cantar

To sink

sank

sunk

afundar

To sit

sat

sat

sentar(-se)

To sleep

slept

slept

dormir

To slide

slid

slid

escorregar, deslizar

To smell

smelt/ smelled

smelt/ smelled

cheirar

To sow

sowed

sown/ sowed

semear

To speak

spoke

spoken

falar

To speed

sped/ speeded

sped/ speeded

apressar(-se)

To spend

spent

spent

gastar (dinheiro), passar (tempo)

To spoil

spoiled/ spoilt

spoiled/ spoilt

estragar, destruir, mimar (crianças)

To spread

spread

spread

espalhar, estender

To stand

stood

stood

ficar ou pôr-se de pé

To

understand

Try to sing, learn and have fun with the Irregular Verbs Rap.

ACESSE O LINK Link sugerido • https://bit.ly/2Ehdgso

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EXERCITANDO EM AULA 11. Fill in the gaps with have or has.

b) New York / gone / She / has / to

a) I _________________ decided to visit the Queen Park. b) She _____________ gone. She must be at home already. c) They / talked / meeting / our / have / about c) They _____________ printed many flyers to our trip in June. d) Mike _____________ picked everybody up to our meeting. e) The beautiful brunette __________ shown up at my place to celebrate my birthday.

d) never / We / have / in / city / lived / this

12. Complete the sentences using the present perfect form of the verbs given.

a) I _________________ (be) to Paris many times. b) She ________________ (travel) a lot since 2010. c) They ______________________ (choose) a different itinerary so far. d) Joane and Miranda ____________________ (decide) to go to the North this time.

14. Follow the example to make questions using the present perfect: Example: (They / go / to Honolulu) Have they gone to Honolulu? a) (miss / They / the train)

e) This problem ____________________________ (be) solved by the hotel staff.

13.

Unscramble the sentences below.

a) found / I´ve / on the / luggage / my / plane

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b) (in Curitiba / How long / she / live)


c) (you / do / What)

16. Translate to English. a) Você já almoçou?

d) (flights / How many / to Hawaii / he / take)

b) Ela não tem ido à faculdade ultimamente.

15. Write the sentences below in the negative form of the present perfect:

a) My father has been a good painter. c) Você sempre tem chegado bem na hora.

b) You have waited for me.

17. Choose the incorrect sentence. a) b) c) d) e)

c) They have gone out lately.

He has written five letters. I have been here since the beginning. Stan have went to the post office. Mabel and Soos have learned a lot today. My friends and I have paid attention to class all week.

18. Now, correct the incorrect sentence from the last

question.

d) Cathy has gone to the hairdresser.

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TÓPICO

3

Consumerism x Environment

Shutterstock.com

As consumerism spreads, Earth suffers, study says

Imagem 1.4

Approximately 1.7 billion people worldwide now belong to the “consumer class”—the group of people characterized by diets of highly processed food, desire for bigger houses, more and bigger cars, higher levels of debt, and lifestyles devoted to the accumulation of non-essential goods.

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“Rising consumption has helped meet basic needs and create jobs”, Christopher Flavin, president of Worldwatch Institute said in a statement to the press. “But as we enter a new century, this unprecedented consumer appetite is undermining the natural systems we all depend on, and making it even harder for the world’s poor to meet their basic needs.” The report addresses the devastating toll on the Earth’s water supplies, natural resources, and ecosystems exacted by a plethora of disposable cameras, plastic garbage bags, and other cheaply made goods with built-in product-obsolescence, and cheaply made manufactured goods that lead to a “throw away” mentality. Globalization is a driving factor in making goods and services previously out of reach in developing countries much more available. Items that at one point in time were considered luxuries—televisions, cell phones, computers, air conditioners—are now viewed as necessities. “Most of the environmental issues we see today can be linked to consumption”, said Gary Gardner,


director of research for Worldwatch. “As just one small example, there was a story in the newspaper just the other day saying that 37 percent of species could become extinct due to climate change, which is very directly related to consumption.” National Geographic (adapted)

toll: consequência indesejável; exacted: infligido, imposto; plethora: superabundância, excesso.

Watch a short animated video that shows the damage done to the environment.

Link sugerido • https://bit.ly/36UnwWs

Shutterstock.com

3.1 – Ethical consumerism

because of values that go beyond the product itself. Let’s say there are two factories, both that make beauty products; but one of them tests on animals and the other one does not. You might think to yourself: “To whom am I giving my money? Should I be buying something that caused the suffering of animals?”. People who are ethical consumers also boycott companies they don’t agree with, like companies that test on animals, companies that use slave labor or that mistreat their employees in any way. This movement can cause real change, because companies might improve their way of going about things. They can increase their employees wages, stop hurtful practices, donate to charity or NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs), decrease the amount of plastic they use in their packaging, etc. They might be a part of the ethical marketing movement. A company that engages in ethical marketing, for example, is TOMS. They have a “one for one” deal: for every product purchased, one person gets help. According to the company’s founder, TOMS Shoes has provided over 86 million pairs of shoes to children since 2006; TOMS Eyewear has restored sight to over 600,000 people since 2011. Now, they have a clean water initiative, provide training for skilled birth attendants and distribute birth kits containing items that help a woman safely deliver her baby.

wages: salários

Shutterstock.com

Imagem 1.5

Is there an alternative to excessive consumerism? If you think about not only the product you’re buying, but also the process that goes behind making that product, you’re being an ethical consumer. Ethical consumerism is a form of political activism where you choose to buy one product over another

Imagem 1.6

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SAIBA MAIS Who x Whom Nem sempre é fácil perceber a diferença entre who e whom. Até os falantes nativos se confundem, porque o whom é usado em situações formais, sendo raramente empregado na fala e em conversas informais. A seguir, vamos aprender algumas maneiras de usar um ou outro. Usamos who quando queremos nos referir ao sujeito. Ele pode ser aplicado como pronome interrogativo ou para substituir o sujeito. Examples: Who is there? (Quem está aí?) Anyone who is sick should stay at home. (Qualquer um que esteja doente deve ficar em casa.) Já o whom é empregado quando nos referimos ao objeto da frase, ou seja, à pessoa ou coisa que sofre a ação. Assim como seu similar, também pode ser pronome interrogativo. De modo geral, o uso de whom requer uma preposição, que vem antes dele. Examples: To whom am I giving my money? (A quem estou dando meu dinheiro?) The company hired the woman with whom we made that project last year. (A empresa contratou a mulher com a qual realizamos aquele projeto no ano passado.)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 19. What is suffering because of consumerism?

a) Earth’s natural resources and capitalism. b) The environment, the company owners and the ecosystem. c) People’s jobs and water supplies. d) Earth’s water supplies, natural resources and ecosystems.

21.

How is globalization related to the increasing harm done to Earth?

20. According to the text, are there advantages to consumption? If so, write them down below.

22. How many species could become extinct

because of climate change? a) 37 species. b) 37% of species. c) 37,000 species. d) 3.7% of species

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23. Now, together with a classmate, you will

propose 5 suggestions to help stop the damage to Earth caused by consumerism. Discuss among yourselves and then write them down.

27. Now, imagine you’re in charge of speaking

with the president or director of a company that isn’t ethical and you have to convince them to change their company’s ways of doing things. Write down below your speech to them. Remember: you have to be persuasive and use convincing arguments!

24. Explain, using your own words, what is ethical consumerism.

25. There are three harmful practices committed by companies in the text. Find them and list them down below.

1. 2. 3.

26. Write T for true and F for false.

( ) Ethical consumerism is a form of activism. ( ) Ethical consumers boycott companies with harmful practices. ( ) TOMS is not an ethical company. ( ) TOMS has given over 86 million pairs of shoes to children since 2016.

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TÓPICO

4

Grammar Focus: Adverbs Ever / Already / Yet Shutterstock.com

Imagem 1.7

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Observe que, no último quadrinho, há uma sentença na forma interrogativa negativa do present perfect e a presença do advérbio ever: “Haven’t you ever seen a pimple in your life?” (Você nunca viu uma espinha na vida?) Agora, considere a tabela a seguir e, depois, os exemplos que a seguem: Advérbios

Already

Ever

Yet

Uso

Affirmative Sentences

Interrogative Sentences

Interrogative Sentences

Negative Sentences

Significado

Já (quando se fez algo antes do esperado)

Já (em algum momento da vida)

Já (quando se espera que a resposta seja afirmativa)

Ainda não; Até agora não.

Exemplos: •

I have already bought the air tickets to go to England. (Já comprei as passagens aéreas para ir à Inglaterra)

Have you bought the air tickets yet? (Você já comprou as passagens aéreas?)

Have you ever been to the USA? (Você já esteve nos Estados Unidos?)

Has she ever traveled by boat? (Ela já viajou de barco?)

I have bought some of the tickets but I haven’t bought all of them yet. (Já comprei algumas das passagens aéreas, mas ainda não comprei todas)

APROFUNDAMENTO Already também pode ser usado na forma interrogativa para expressar surpresa, principalmente quando se pressupõe uma resposta afirmativa. Example: Have you already bought the air tickets to go to England? (Você já comprou as passagens aéreas para ir à Inglaterra?)

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28. Complete the sentences below using yet, ever or already.

— “Have you ________________done any volunteer work?” — “Yes, I have. I have ______________________ done some volun-teer work. Actually, I have just done some of it at that new nursing home. And you?” — “No, I haven’t. I haven’t done any volunteer

Shutterstock.com

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

They – do work _________________.”

29. Follow the example: Shutterstock.com

30. Complete the sentences with ever, already or yet. a) Have you _____________ been to the United Kingdom? b) I am here ______________. Where are you? c) Sarah hasn’t done her homework __________. d) I have _______________ done my homework.

Shutterstock.com

I - be = I have already been to the farmer’s market.

31. Correct the sentences below. a) Mariah hasn’t done that already.

b) Finn has arrived yet and he’s waiting for us.

He – make c) Haven’t you yet seen a plane?

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ANOTAÇÕES

CONSUMERISM

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FORA DA CAIXA Offensive advertising Neste capítulo, você estudou como a publicidade é capaz de estimular o consumo por meio de estratégias as mais variadas. Engajadas nessa missão de atrair novos consumidores e na ânsia de deixar uma marca, não é raro que agências de publicidade errem a mão e lancem campanhas controversas, de mau gosto e até ofensivas. A respeito desse assunto, leia o texto a seguir, publicado pelo site Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential. Often the sale of consumer goods depends on the success of their ad campaigns. As a result advertising agencies are forced to compete with one another over innovation and public recognition in advertising. Such competition may spur outlandish and sometimes offensive ad campaigns, which inevitably attract the viewer’s eye. Although audience attraction is the goal of the advertising industry, their methods may be questionable outlandish: estranho, grotesco when exploitation of sensitive and potentially offensive situations is involved. The exploitation of sensitive issues for the sole purpose of selling a product is offensive. Such is the case of advertisements exploiting sensitive social, political, religious and sexual situations. When offensive advertising practices are the norm, the society eventually becomes desensitized to what is vulgar and inappropriate. The public should be able to decide what it doesn’t want to see when it turns on the television or pages through a magazine.

HATE FURY RAG E

Fonte: http://encyclopedia.uia.org/en/problem/141133

RAG

E

HATE FURY FURTYE HA

ATE Y H RAGE

FUR

HATE

HATE RAG E

E RAG Y FUR Y TE FUR HA

E HAT FURY RAGE

HATE FURY HATHEA E FURY T HATE HATE HATE HATE HATE

RAGE

FURY

FURY RAGE

FURY FURY FURY


Observe as campanhas publicitárias a seguir e comente, em inglês, por que cada uma delas é de mau gosto, ofensiva e/ou controversa.


QUESTÃO COMENTADA

RESOLUÇÃO

01. - She ____________ nice chocolates from Gramado.

a) b) c) d)

has bring have bring has brought have brought

QUESTÃO COMENTADA

RESOLUÇÃO

02. Which is the correct form? a) b) c) d) e)

The Mr. Patrick is our professor since March. Mr. Patrick have been our professor since March. Mr. Patrick is our professor since March. Mr. Patrick has been our professor since March Mr. Patrick has been our professor from March.

QUESTÃO COMENTADA

03. (MACKENZIE) a) b) c) d)

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A: Was that the 9 o’clock train? B: Yes, you ___________ it. have just missed has just missed have just miss have just missing

9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1

RESOLUÇÃO


EXERCÍCIOS DE FIXAÇÃO TÓPICO 1: Consumerism and advertising

Shutterstock.com

Read the text below and answer the questions accordingly.

One of the major changes in the last century has been the rise of the consumer. But this isn’t something that just happened – the consumer was created, and the way it happened is an important lesson in engaging people on sustainable business. The key figure in this story is Edward Bernays. Bernays was the nephew of Sigmund Freud. He combined his uncle’s work on unconscious desires with thinking on crowd psychology to influence the masses. His basic idea was that human behaviour is driven more by emotion than by logic and that, by controlling that emotion at a group level, you could get people to do what you wanted them to do. In his book, Propaganda, he said: “If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it?” One of his first major campaigns was getting women to smoke. At the time it was socially unacceptable for women to be seen with a cigarette. That meant half the number of potential customers for The American Tobacco Company. So Bernays arranged for a group of rich debutants to light up simultaneously during the 1929 Easter Day Parade. He saw that it was news, not advertising, that would get the message to the people and told the press that there was going to be a protest that day on “lighting the torch of freedom”. It was this phrase that hit

the headlines – squarely positioning smoking with female independence and liberty. From that moment on, smoking was seen as a sign of freedom for women, and grew as a result. This was a classic appeal to the emotional rather than the rational. It is quite clear that smoking does not make you free, but the association made women feel powerful, and it stuck. Guardian (adapted)

01.

What is the text about? Use your own words.

02. Who is the key figure in this story? a) b) c) d)

Edward Bernays The American Tobacco Foundation Sigmund Freud Guardian

03. About Edward Bernays, answer:

a) Was he related to someone famous? Who?

b) Do you know who that is? If so, write down below.

04.

What was Bernays’ main idea regarding human beings?

CONSUMERISM

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05. Do you

agree with that view of the world?

Elaborate.

06. The text talks about one of his first campaigns.

Describe it using your own words.

10. They _________________ in this pool lately.

a) b) c) d)

have not swim have not swam has not swum have not swum

11.

He _________________ British Airways. has never flown never have flew has never flew never has flown.

a) b) c) d)

12. Complete the sentences with the present perfect: a) We _______________________ (to travel) to Miami.

07. Now, try to come up with your own campaign,

based on Bernays’ idea that, by controlling people’s emotions, you can make them do what you want. Think of a product and target it to a new set of customers, for instance, or create a brand new product. You can also use a slogan, a phrase that creates impact, like “Lighting the torch of freedom”.

b) I ____________________ (not to go) to the office. c) She _________________ (already to see) her family. d) _________ they __________ (to walk) to the square?

13. Rewrite the sentences without the contracted form. Pay attention if you need to use is or has. a) Julie’s a smart girl.

TÓPICO 2: Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense

b) She’s traveled to London.

c) He’s studied a lot for the test.

Choose the best option for the exercises below.

08. Why ___________ a bus ticket again?

a) b) c) d)

you have bought you have buy have you bought has you bought

09. She ____________ nice chocolates from Belgium.

a) b) c) d)

578

has bring have bring has brought have brought

9º ANO – INGLÊS

14. Choose the correct option to complete this excerpt. “Where is Louisia?”, shouted Paul. “Paul”, said Mrs. Schobert softly […] “Louisia has not __________ nor __________. She has not __________ home yet. I am sorry. I don’t know what to think.”

VOLUME 1


a) b) c) d) e)

called – wrote – come called – wrote – came call – wrote – came call – written – came called – written – come

15.

Things ___________ a lot since October. changed has are changing has changed change have changed

a) b) c) d) e)

a) (They / to work on Sundays recently)

b) (She / to play the piano recently)

c) (I / to have breakfast lately)

16. Choose the item that completes the answer. later Enjoy the concert!

Where are James and Mary?

TÓPICO 3: Consumerism x Environment Read the text below and answer the questions accordingly. Increasing consumerism

............................................................................

to a concert.

MARY

a) b) c) d)

JAMES

They will go ... They have gone... They went ... They would go ...

17. The

verb tenses “have speculated”, “have determined” and “have known” are: a) Past perfect b) Simple present c) Present perfect d) Past participle e) Gerund

18. Follow the example: (He / to watch television lately) He has watched television lately. He hasn’t watched television lately.

The rise of consumerism has had a detrimental impact on the planet. For example, clothes and apparel from the fashion and textiles industries are made using extensive amounts of water, energy, chemicals and raw materials, all of which place heavy demands on Earth’s natural resources. Increasing consumerism may also result in “a shift away from values of community, spirituality, and integrity, and toward competition, materialism and disconnection”, said Dr Wei, quoting US psychologist Madeline Levine, who has close to 30 years of experience. And according to a study in 2012, consumerism may also lead to depression. People are incurring punitive levels of debt and working longer hours to pay for their highconsumption lifestyle, which results in them spending less time with family, friends, and community organisations. Dr Seshan said that “perhaps the most serious cost is human well-being”, adding that much research on the psychology of well-being shows that the most reliable predictor of long-term happiness is building and maintaining many positive long-term human relationships. “Consumerism often comes in the way of those relationships”, he said.

CONSUMERISM

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19. The

text mentions negative side effects of consumerism on Planet Earth. List them below.

TÓPICO 4: Grammar Focus: Adverbs Ever / Already / Yet

24.

Insert the adverbs in their right place. a) They have taken this train. (never)

b) Have you seen this film? (ever)

20.

Aside from the impact on Earth, it can also have an effect on interpersonal relationships. What does increasing consumerism do in this instance?

c) I have read a newspaper. (always)

21. The

text mentions a serious mental illness connected to consumerism. Which is it? a) Lack of happiness. b) Competitivity. c) Anxiety. d) Depression.

d) She hasn’t talked to me. (yet)

22. How does consumerism drive people away from

family and friends? Use an example from the text.

25. Answer the questions below using yet or already. 23. Now, what’s your opinion on how consumerism affects your life and the lives of your friends and family? Elaborate.

a) Have you seen the new Spider-man movie? No, ________________________. b) Has your daughter been to the new museum in town? Yes, ________________________. c) Have you bought the ticket for the concert you were telling me about?

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9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1


Yes, ________________________. d) Have Fred and Mike finished their homework? No, ________________________.

26.

Complete the sentences with ever, already or yet.

b) We ____________ (not do) our homework yet. c) How long _________ you __________ (study) English? d) I ____________ (live) in the countryside since I was born.

a) Have you _______ been to the United Kingdom? b) I am _______ here. Where are you? c) Sarah hasn’t done her homework _______. d) I have _______ done my homework.

27. Construct the sentences below using the present perfect. a) ______________________________________ (She / already / to listen to music.) b) ______________________________________ (I / yet / not / to go swimming.) c) ______________________________________ (They / never / to play an instrument.) d) ______________________________________ (Andy / ever / to travel abroad?)

28. Complete the sentences with the present perfect: a) I ____________ (work) as a teacher for 20 years. b) Who ____________ (take) my umbrella? c) __________ you __________ (travel) abroad? d) __________ your father __________ (work) in a multinational?

29. Use

the present perfect to complete the

sentences. a) __________ anyone __________ (see) my coat?

CONSUMERISM

CAPÍTULO 1

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CAPÍTULO

Internet slang

Neste capítulo, veremos a linguagem da internet: aquelas abreviações comuns nas redes sociais, como Instagram, Twitter e Tumblr Tumblr.. Essas contrações são bem populares, principalmente entre os mais jovens. Em um mundo cada vez mais antenado, é comum encurtar as mensagens e comunicar-se de maneira rápida, inclusive nos memes. Além disso, vamos falar sobre as mudanças da língua e seus agentes: as adolescentes. Pesquisas relatam que a nossa linguagem é moldada, majoritariamente, por mulheres. Na seção gramatical, abordaremos o uso do present perfect com a preposição for e os advérbios since, never, never lately e recently.. Além disso, veremos as diferenças entre o simple past e o present perfect perfect.


CHECKLIST DO ALUNO TÓPICO 1

CV CE ER DT CR

Cyberslangs

TÓPICO 2

CV CE ER DT CR

Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense with For, Since, Never, Lately, Recently CV CE ER DT CR

TÓPICO 3 Teenage Girls and the English Language

CV CE ER DT CR

TÓPICO 4 Grammar Focus: Simple Past vs. Present Perfect

LEGENDAS CV - CONTEÚDO VISTO EM SALA CE - CONTEÚDO ESTUDADO PELO ALUNO

DT CR

- DÚVIDAS TIRADAS - CONTEÚDO REVISADO

ER

-

EXERCÍCIOS REALIZADOS


BASE NACIONAL COMUM CURRICULAR (BNCC)

UNIDADES TEMÁTICAS

OBJETOS DE CONHECIMENTO

HABILIDADES

Interação discursiva Estratégias de leitura Práticas de leitura e novas tecnologias Estudo do léxico Comunicação intercultural

 Funções e usos da língua inglesa: persuasão

(EF09LI01) Fazer uso da língua inglesa para expor pontos de vista, argumentos e contra-argumentos, considerando o contexto e os recursos linguísticos voltados para a eficácia da comunicação.

 Recursos de argumentação

(EF09LI07) Identificar argumentos principais e as evidências/exemplos que os sustentam.

 Informações em ambientes virtuais

 Usos de linguagem em meio digital: “internetês”

 Construção de identidades no mundo globalizado

(EF09LI08) Explorar ambientes virtuais de informação e socialização, analisando a qualidade e a validade das informações veiculadas. (EF09LI13) Reconhecer, nos novos gêneros digitais (blogues, mensagens instantâneas, tweets, entre outros), novas formas de escrita (abreviação de palavras, palavras com combinação de letras e números, pictogramas, símbolos gráficos, entre outros) na constituição das mensagens. (EF09LI19) Discutir a comunicação intercultural por meio da língua inglesa como mecanismo de valorização pessoal e de construção de identidades no mundo globalizado.


TÓPICO

1

Cyberslangs

Shutterstock.com/Adaptado

The internet has changed language. Humans always used words to communicate with others and express themselves, but, in the written language, communication is usually direct but lifeless, ordinary. However, lately, not only are we transmitting our message (with our word choices), but also we’re conveying the tone of our message. You may ask: how? A new way to express our tone on text messages is using all caps (short for “all capitals”), for instance. . John: I just took the test and I passed! I got my driver’s license :D

Mike: oh my good FINALLY

Alicia: JOHN I’M SO HAPPY FOR YOU!!!!!!

Imagem 2.1

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9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1

You can express joy, surprise or just add a different intonation. Now, because of the internet, we can do that every day. Another way the internet has changed our way of communicating is through cyberslangs, like acronyms we use to shorten our texts. For example, instead of writing “hahaha”, you might say “LOL” when talking to a friend: it means laughing out loud. Check out a few slangs you might have seen on the internet or even used yourself! LOL - Laugh out loud IDC - I don’t care IRL - In real life LMK - Let me know SMH - Shaking my head OMG - Oh my god IMO - In my opinion... TFW - That feeling when… FYI - For your information... BTW - By the way...


Another common thing on “internet speak” is replacing a word with the way it sounds. For instance, sometimes you is spelled u, because those words sound the same when said out loud. Other examples are: see and c; are and r; be and b; okay and ok. It’s very common to use them not only in text messages but also on Twitter. This social network used to have a 140-character limit in every “tweet”; in 2017, that number changed to 280, double the amount. Still, that’s not a lot. But brevity is the whole point of the network. Originally, Twitter’s 140-character limit

was established to resemble an SMS text message (which was how tweets were published before mobile apps!): you could only text using 160 characters – the remaining 20 characters were reserved for the person’s username. According to the company, the reason they changed their limit was to help people be more expressive. “Our research shows us that the character limit is a major cause of frustration for people tweeting in English”, the company said.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. According to the text, how has language changed after the internet?

02. In your opinion, do slangs make it easy or

04. About

Twitter, answer the following questions according to the text. a) What was the original character limit and why did the company choose it?

b) What made them change the limit?

difficult to communicate? Elaborate.

05. Now, imagine you have 280 characters to

talk about how your day went. What would you say and how? Try to use the slangs we saw or even the ones you already know.

03. Take a look at the text below and write down with the full form of the abbreviated words. omg, karen! lmk about our plansk? imo it’s gonna b good! btw, have u seen that new movie? smh... it was so bad!!!!! anyways, c u there?

INTERNET SLANG

CAPÍTULO 2

587


TÓPICO

2

Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense with For, Since, Never, Lately, Recently Present Perfect

for

por, durante, há

(has/have ) + (past participle)

never

nunca

lately

ultimamente

recently

recentemente

x Passado

Presente

Futuro

Como sabemos, o present perfect pode ser empregado de diferentes maneiras. Porém, quando ele vem seguido de alguns advérbios ou preposições, indica uma ação que começou no passado e continua até o presente. Veja os exemplos a seguir:

588

In english

Em português

since

desde

9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1

1. Uso com since: para mencionar desde quando a ação vem ocorrendo. Examples: • We have been here since 10 a.m. (Estamos aqui desde as dez da manhã.) • My family has lived here since 1974. (Minha família mora aqui desde 1974.) • Your look has changed a lot since I last saw you. (Sua aparência mudou muito desde a última vez em que o vi.) 2. Uso com for: para indicar o período de duração total de uma ação.


Examples: • I have worked here for 8 years. (Trabalho aqui há 8 anos.) • Dan has studied at this school for 3 years. (Dan estuda nesta escola há 3 anos.) 3. Uso com never: para indicar que algo não aconteceu, mas com o verbo sempre na forma afirmativa. O never fica entre o verbo auxiliar have e o verbo principal.

Examples: • We haven’t been to Poland recently. (Não temos ido à Polônia recentemente.) • I have eaten only seafood lately. (Tenho comido apenas frutos do mar ultimamente.) • Matthew has moved recently. (Matthew se mudou recentemente.) Assista ao vídeo a seguir, com a versão em inglês do clássico Asa Branca, de Luiz Gonzaga, com vários exemplos de present perfect.

Examples: • Anna has never gotten a promotion. (Anna nunca conseguiu uma promoção.) • I have never done that before. (Nunca fiz isso antes.) • We have never drunk soda. (Nós nunca bebemos refrigerante.) 4. Uso com lately e recently indica o que aconteceu (ou não) recentemente e são posicionados no final da oração.

Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/xp2Rz4

SAIBA MAIS As expressões last year e the last year têm significados diferentes: • •

Last year se refere ao ano antes deste e é considerado um tempo específico. Se estamos falando em 2020, last year é 2019. Já the last year indica os 365 dias anteriores, independentemente da data. Se estamos falando em setembro de 2019, the last year vai até setembro de 2018.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 06. Complete the sentences with the present perfect and since, for, never, lately or recently, if necessary.

b) Bob _________________________(write) seven

a) He________________________________ (live)

c) ______________________, I haven’t been feeling well. I think I’m catching a cold.

animal books _____________________ 2010.

in Africa_______________five years.

INTERNET SLANG

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d) Jane hasn’t skated ________________ she was a kid.

I have _______ been to London, but I hear it’s great. There are several things to do there: parks to visit, museums to see, restaurants to go

e) _______________________ (you, speak) to the Angolan ambassador ________________? f)

Unemployment _________________(not decrease) _____________.

g)

____________________(he, be) to the Sahara Desert_________________?

07. Unscramble the sentences below. a) grandparents / I / talked / haven’t / to / lately. / my

to. _______, it has gotten cold, because it’s winter season. If I were there, I’d have to use several layers: I get cold very easily! My sister has been to London, for work, and she loves the city. Our aunt and uncle have lived there _______ 3 years now, so maybe I’ll visit them soon.

09. Choose the incorrect sentence in the present perfect tense. a) I haven’t been here lately. b) Since when have you done your chores? c) Amanda have works at this company since 8 years. d) We haven’t eaten like this for years! e) Mike and Sam have never tried sushi. 10. Below, rewrite the incorrect sentence from the

last question in the right way. b) My / hasn’t / mom / any / done / homework / she / since / in / was / school.

c) been / Gaby / on / has / phone / her / for / hours / 2.

d) They / never / have / sailed.

08. Read the text below, underline the sentences in the present perfect and add the proper adverb or preposition.

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VOLUME 1


TÓPICO

3

Teenage Girls and the English Language Move over Shakespeare, teen girls are the real language disruptors What does it mean to disrupt language? Let’s start with the great English disruptor: William Shakespeare. Shakespeare is celebrated to this day not just because of his plays but because of what he added to our language—he created over 1,700 words, some say. But recent scholars have questioned that number. If Shakespeare was inventing dozens of new words per play, how did his audience understand him? It’s likely he had an excellent understanding of the vernacular and was just writing down words that his audience was already using. So if Shakespeare wasn’t disrupting the English language, who was? The answer is: young women. A pair of linguists at the University of Helsinki conducted a study that read 6,000 personal letters written between 1417 and 1681. They looked at 14 language changes that occurred during this period, like the switch from mine eyes to my eyes,

and the change from hath, doth, maketh to has, does, makes. In 11 out of the 14 changes, they found that female letter-writers were changing the way they wrote faster than male letter-writers. In the three exceptional cases where the men were ahead of the women, these men had greater access to education at the time. In other words, women are ahead of the game when it comes to word-of-mouth linguistic changes. Although this pattern happens, we still don’t know why. We do know that young women tend to be more socially aware, more empathetic, and more concerned about how their peers perceive them. Women also tend to have larger social networks, which means they’re more likely to be exposed to a greater diversity of language innovations. MCCULLOCH, Gretchen. Quartz (adapted).

scholars: estudiosos; vernacular: vernáculo, o idioma nativo de um país; word-of-mouth: boca a boca; peers: pares, iguais, semelhantes.

INTERNET SLANG

CAPÍTULO 2

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SAIBA MAIS Do for emphasis “We do know that young women tend to be more socially aware…” Você estranhou o uso do verbo do nessa frase? Ele foi aplicado corretamente! No simple present, a estrutura da frase é subject + base form of the verb. Naquela frase, poderíamos dizer “We know that young women tend to be more socially aware…”, mas a presença do verbo do antes do verbo principal serve para dar ênfase. Essa estrutura, que não tem equivalente no português, também pode ser usada para ações que ocorreram no passado. Nesse caso, o verbo de ênfase vira did, e o verbo principal passa para o presente.

• • •

Veja mais alguns exemplos: Are you sure Michael didn’t pass? He does study everyday! (Você tem certeza que Michael não passou? Ele estuda todo dia!) I do like you, I promise! (Eu gosto de você, eu prometo!) Our children did tidy up their rooms, I saw them. (Nossos filhos arrumaram seus quartos, eu os vi.)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 11. According to the text, who’s the great English disruptor? Why?

12. Write down below the changes in language mentioned by the text.

13. During a study, researchers read 6,000 letters from 1417 to 1681. Using your own words, describe what were their findings.

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9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1

14. Write down T for true and F for false.

( ) Up until now, men were the ones leading the change in the English language. ( ) In the 6,000 letters read, women changed the way they wrote faster than men. ( ) There’s a very clear reason why women lead linguistic changes. ( ) Compared to men, women have a larger social circle.

15. According to the text, a reason why women

usually lead linguistic changes is because they are exposed to a greater diversity of language innovations. Do you agree that diversity is important? Elaborate.


TÓPICO

Grammar Focus: Simple Past vs. Present Perfect

4 Shutterstock.com

Imagem 2.2

INTERNET SLANG

CAPÍTULO 2

593


Present Perfect

Dominio Público

O simple past descreve uma ação que ocorreu em um tempo determinado no passado. Observe: Simple Past I went to Dublin last week.

I went to Dublin last month.

I went to Dublin last year. I have been to Dublin. I went to Dublin last Saturday.

I went to Dublin in 2001.

I went to Dublin 3 months ago.

Imagem 2.3 - Pontos turísticos de Dublin

No quadro ao lado, as expressões em negrito funcionam como advérbios e são usadas com o simple past para expressar o tempo determinado em que a ação ocorreu. Já no caso do present perfect, não usamos tais advérbios porque esse tempo verbal expressa uma ação que aconteceu em um tempo indeterminado no passado ou que ainda não acabou.

APROFUNDAMENTO Quando uma pergunta começar com when, não se usa o present perfect, apenas o simple past. Example: When did you think about it? (Quando você pensou nisso?) Os verbos to be born (nascer) e to die (morrer) não são utilizados com o present perfect porque já indicam um período específico. Use-os apenas no simple past!

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 16. Use the present perfect or the simple past of

a) _____________ you ever________________to

the verbs in parentheses.

Cairo? (to be) No. I _______________never _______________to Cairo (to be), but Mike

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9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1


____________already _____________________

ever ____________________________ (to eat)

(to be) there. He _________________________ (to be) there last month.

a Yellow Cocada? No, I __________________ never ___________________ (to eat) a Yellow

b) ________________________________ you ever Cocada, but Susan _______________________ ____________________________(to dance) the already _________________________ one. She kizomba? No, I ___________________________ never_______________________ (to dance) the

___________________(to eat) a Yellow Cocada when she was in Angola.

kizomba, but my neighbors ________________

17. Write down PP if the sentences are in the present perfect or SP if they are in the simple past.

already _____________________ (to dance) it. They __________________________ (to dance) kizomba when they were in Angola. c) I _______________ (to hear) that song hundreds of times. I __________________________(to hear) it for the first time when I was a boy.

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

I have never done this before. Ed went to the party last night. Have you ever been to London? They ate at the new restaurant today.

18. Write

down sentences about your day yesterday using the correct tense. a) ________________________________________

d) She __________________ (to go) to the lab two hours ago. e) The Baboon’s Life is his favorite book. He __________________(to read) it three times. b) ________________________________________ f)

The American explorer Robert Peary ________________ (to discover) the North Pole in 1909.

g) Helen herself _____________________ (to fix) the TV set more than once.

c) ________________________________________

h) I_______________________________ (to try) to stop smoking several times. i)

___________________________________ you

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QUESTÃO COMENTADA

RESOLUÇÃO

01.

a) b) c) d) e)

Last night I ________________my keys. I had to call my flatmate to let me in. Lose. Have lost. Lost. Has lost. To lose.

QUESTÃO COMENTADA

RESOLUÇÃO

02. Na frase “I’ve spoken with a number of workers”, o tempo verbal é: a) b) c) d) e)

present simple present continuous past simple present perfect past perfect

QUESTÃO COMENTADA

RESOLUÇÃO

03. A melhor versão inglesa da pergunta “Vocês já fizeram isto antes?” é

a) b) c) d) e)

596

Did you done that before? Have you done that before? Had you done that before? Have you did that before? Did you did that before?

9º ANO – INGLÊS

VOLUME 1


EXERCÍCIOS DE FIXAÇÃO 02. What is it about?

TÓPICO 1: Cyberslangs Read the text and answer the questions accordingly. Book Review The Internet has done good things to the English language. That’s the most important thing linguist Gretchen McCulloch has to say in her book, Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language. McCulloch makes a compelling argument that Internet language, and emoji in particular, is restoring life to relatively emotionless text. For hundreds of years, public writing was limited to formal contexts like newspapers and books, written by educated people using very formal language for the edification of other educated people. Even fiction draws a clear line between informal dialogue and formal narration. On the Internet, on the other hand, the lines are much less clear. Private, informal writing (like shopping lists or notes passed between students at the back of a classroom) is now publicly visible. To McCulloch, this is more exciting than it is scary. McCulloch describes a variety of conventions Internet users have developed for informal writing, from emoji, which function like punctuation or gestures, to YELLING IN ALL CAPS, misspelling words in ways that reflect their own accents, or stretching out words with internal spaces to make a point clear. Each of these devices tries to imitate a spoken one, and their use allows Internet users to write in the same way that they talk, thereby expressing themselves more fully and more creatively. ARS Technica (adapted)

01. What genre is the text?

a) b) c) d) e)

Poetry Pamphlet Review Biography Fiction

03. According to the text, does the book think the

Internet was good or bad? Copy a sentence from the text that confirms your answer.

04. What was the difference between public writing before and now?

05. What are some of the changes we can see on “Internet speak”?

06. Choose the correct answer. a) No one mispronounces words on the Internet. b) In fiction, the dialogue and the narration are written the same way. c) Using all caps lets people know you are speaking in a low voice. d) Users are expressing themselves more creatively. e) Internet users are more formal nowadays. 07. Connect the slang to its equivalent. I. II. III. IV.

BRB TY TBH HRU

( ( ( (

Thank you How are you Be right back To be honest

) ) ) )

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08. Rewrite the sentences below in their full form.

a) ____________________ (you, see) my phone? It was here a minute ago.

a) omg! i can’t wait to c diane on monday! b) She is a fast sprinter, but she ____________________ b) hi, john. hru?

(not win) any medals _____________. c) He ___________________________ (not regain)

c) lol. idc, sally. imo this was for the best. consciousness ___________ the accident. d) How long ________________ (she, live) in Egypt?

09. Use

the space below to post something on Facebook. You can talk about whatever you want, but try writing down as many slangs you can and use other Internet speak tools (like using all caps).

e) Susan is not here. She ___________________ (move) to Korea. f)

How many exercises _______________________ (you, do) today?

g) Melanie _______________________ (find) her cat. Choose the correct alternative.

11. Have you ________ been to England? a) b) c) d)

for since never ever

12. The train hasn’t arrived _______. a) b) c) d)

yet ever for never

13. Have you been reading _________?

TÓPICO 2: Grammar Focus: The Present Perfect Tense with for, Since, Never, Lately, Recently

10. Complete the sentences with the present perfect

and since, for, never, lately or recently, if necessary.

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a) b) c) d)

for recently ever since

14. I’ve danced _______ I was 10.

a) b) c) d)

for ever since lately


15. Sandra has ______ done this before. a) b) c) d)

never lately since for

16. Have they really been here ______ 8 years? a) b) c) d)

never lately since for

17. Jim and his friends haven’t seen one another _________. a) lately b) for c) since d) ever

18. You have waited ______ 10 am.!

a) b) c) d)

since for lately never

19. Follow the example using the present perfect + since/for. She has spoken English since she was a little girl. They have been married for seventeen years.

a) I ___________________________________ my car __________________ three years. (have) b) We _________________________________ in the classroom ___________________ ten o’clock. (be) c) She/He ____________________ him/her secretly _______________________ many years. (love) d) He ___________________________ a great deal of money_____________________ the day he was

e) My best friend ____________________ in New York ______________________ he was born. (live) f)

They ______________ a great deal of trouble with their car ____________ the day they bought it. (have)

TÓPICO 3: Teenage Girls and the English Language Read the text and answer the questions accordingly. Ways the internet has changed the English Language 1. We’ve added thousands of words of new vocabulary Looking at early internet vocabulary provides a fascinating insight into how quickly new words can be picked up and then abandoned. Many of these terms that sprung up and then disappeared less than ten years later have simply become outdated. Do you recognise or understand any of these: 4COL, AYSOS, GHM, N2MJCHBU, RAEBNC, SWIS or WACI? It’s the kind of thing that you might want to write if you don’t want to take up too much space on a tiny mobile phone screen. But now you would just write it out: for crying out loud; are you stupid or something?; god help me; not too much just chilling how about you?; read and enjoyed but no comment; see what I’m saying; what a cool idea. Faced with a list of incomprehensible abbreviations, it’s easy to see why some people feared that human literacy was doomed and we were returning to a world of inarticulate pictograms. But as the technology improved and abbreviations began to impede communication rather than facilitate it, we abandoned the acronyms. Where old internet slang has fallen out of favour, new slang has appeared. It’s important to remember that a lot of internet vocabulary belongs to the category of slang or jargon; it serves a particular purpose within an in-group, much like professional slang.

born. (save)

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2. We’re learning new grammar rather than losing our ability to speak English

c) GHM

When people are bilingual there have long been concerns that the second language or dialect needs to be suppressed, or they’ll never learn the first one properly. Much the same instinct can be seen with the concerns about what the internet is doing to the English language; what if a generation grow up able only to speak Internet language, and not to read Shakespeare?! But a couple of decades of widespread internet access have demonstrated that Internet dialects operate much like any other dialect: speakers learn to switch confidently and accurately between the two, borrowing words from one to the other as seems appropriate, to the lexical enhancement of both. The internet has changed the English language considerably; long may it continue.

d) N2MJCHBU

Oxford Royale Academy (adapted)

20.

According to the text, what happened to the English vocabulary?

e) RAEBNC

f)

SWIS

g) WACI

23. Write down T for true and F for false.

( ) We are losing our ability to speak English. ( ) People who use Internet language can’t read Shakespeare. ( ) Internet dialects are similar to other dialects. ( ) People who speak two dialects switch between one another with confidence. ( ) Both dialects are improved lexically.

24. Connect the words in the text to their meaning. 21. Choose the correct alternative.

a) All of the new words added to the vocabulary stayed. b) Many terms that appeared disappeared more than ten years later. c) No one was afraid of the changes to the language. d) Some old slang disappears, but new ones are created. e) Internet vocabulary is always a part of a dialect.

22. Write down what the acronyms presented in

the text mean. a)

4COL

9º ANO – INGLÊS

Bilingual Pictogram Acronym Dialect

( ) A picture or symbol that represents a word or phrase. ( ) A form of language spoken by a particular group of people. ( ) A person who speaks two languages. ( ) A word created from the first letters of each word.

TÓPICO 4: Grammar Focus: Simple Past vs. Present Perfect

25. Follow the example:

b) AYSOS

600

I. II. III. IV.

I didn’t like my old car. Now, I have a new car. (buy - already) I have already bought a new car.

VOLUME 1


a) The door was closed. Now it’s open. (open - just) Somebody _________________________ the door. b) Mary’s clothes were dirty. Now they’re clean. (wash - finally) _____________________________________ her clothes. c) Andrew had his wallet with him. Now, he can’t find it. (lose - just) ______________________________________ his wallet. d) My parents lost their keys. Now, they have their keys. (find - recently) _____________________________________ them. e) My car was green at 8 o’clock. Now it’s 9 o’clock and it’s black. (I - paint - for) ____________________ my car ____________ one hour. f)

Dennis used to have a sailboat. Now, he doesn’t have it anymore. (sell - already) _________________________________________ it.

g) Brenda was at the concert five minutes ago. Now she’s not. (leave - just) _____________________________________ the concert.

26. Underline the correct option:

a) She (has win, has won) the game. b) My brother (hasn’t dropped, didn’t drop) a plate last night. c) They (arrived, have arrived) late recently. d) We (have bought, bought) a gift yesterday. e) That cat (has eaten, aten) the fish. f) My parents (lived, have lived) in Scotland.

g) Maria (wrote, has written) many letters lately. h) They (didn’t break, hasn’t broken) a vase last night.

27. Use the present perfect and since or for. a) The President _______________________ in this office ______________________ some years. (dispatch)

b) Bill and his father _________________ together in the same company ________ more than ten years. (work)

c) Everyone ________________________________ well _______________ the beginning of the course. (feel)

d) Our little boy ____________________ an infection in his ear ____________________ he went swimming in the lake a couple of weeks ago. (have) e) I ___________________________________ English _________________ only a couple of years. (speak)

28. Fill

in the gaps with the right forms of the verbs in brackets to complete the following English sentences in the present perfect tense. Example: My little daughter has cut her finger with a knife. (cut) a) They ___________ London. (leave) b) He ___________ a lot of English papers. (bring) c) She ___________ me about it. (tell)

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d) I ___________ a long letter from father this week. (get) e) She ___________. She will speak to you in a minute. (arrive) f)

I ___________ to Radio City. (be)

29. Change the verb into the correct form of the simple past or present perfect.

Choose the option which completes the gaps in the text respectively. a) traveled / stayed / spend / knew / had b) traveled / were / spent / knew / did c) went / stayed / spent / met / had d) went / were / spend / met / did e) were / went / stayed / knew / have

32. Select the alternative that best completes the dialogue below.

a) Yesterday, my mom ________________ (lose) her keys. I had to go back home to open the door for her. b) I ___________ (visit) Paris three times. c) Last year I ___________ (visit) Paris. d) I ___________ (know) my great-grandmother for a few years. She died when I was eight e) I ___________ (know) Julie for three years. We still meet once a month.

30. Mark

the option in which all the verbs are written in the simple past. a) put – drunk – ate – heard – taken b) knew – brought – wanted – made – was c) wrote – come – felt – had – flew d) told – were – begun – gave – read e) left – spent – slept – swum – traveled

31. Read the following text to answer the question. My name is Patrick. I __________ on vacation to Brazil last Summer, and I __________ in a five-star hotel front of the beach in Rio de Janeiro. I went to Rio by plane and I __________ a month there. I __________ a lot of people and we __________ a great time! I want to go back to Brazil as soon as possible.

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Jude: I __________ (see) Mary last Sunday. John: Really? I __________ (not/see) her for years. How is she? a) b) c) d)

saw – haven’t see saw – haven’t seen have seen – didn’t see have seen – haven’t seen

33. Young Nina and her grandmother are having a

conversation:

“Grandma, how long have you and Grandpa been married?”, asked Nina. “We’ve been married for fifty years”, Grandma replied. The sentence “We’ve been married for fifty years” means that Nina’s grandparents a) lived together for fifty years. b) were married for fifty years. c) got married fifty years ago. d) were married for a long time.

34. Choose the correct tense below. We’re still waiting for Bill. He ______ yet. a) b) c) d) e)

hasn’t come haven’t come didn’t come doesn’t come hadn’t come


35. Choose the correct sentence.

a) b) c) d) e)

I live here since 1970. I have lived here since 1970. I am living here since 1970. I will live here since 1970. I would live here since 1970.

36. Fill in the gaps with the correct form (simple past or present perfect). a) Last month I ___________ (go) to Scotland. b) I’m sorry, John isn’t here now. He ___________ (go) to the shops. c) We ___________ (finish) this room last week. d) I ___________ (finish) my exams finally. I’m so happy! e) Yesterday, I ___________ (see) all of my friends. It was great. f)

I ___________ (see) Julie three times this week.

g) She ___________ (live) in London since 1994. h) She ___________ (live) in London when she was a child.

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CAPÍTULO 2

603


GABARITOS CAPÍTULO 1 • CONSUMERISM EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. Television, radio, newspapers/magazines, internet, public streets and transport, movie theaters. 02. Before the advent of the internet, we had to set aside time to go browse the aisles of a physical store, which was only open a certain number of hours a day. Now, we can shop from anywhere, anytime 03. T - F - T - T - F 04. A common psychological principle used by advertisers is that repetition constitutes mental conditioning. Studies show that the more something is repeated to you, the more you will believe it. 05. Humans get a dopamine hit from buying stuff. Your brain tweaks you to want more and more, because that helped you survive in the distant past of brain evolution. 06. Resposta pessoal. 07. Tastefully tart / 100% grass-fed cows / natural flavor / low fat / new. 08. Resposta pessoal. 09. Resposta pessoal. 10. Resposta pessoal. 11. a) have. b) has. c) have. d) has. e) has. 12. a) have been. b) has traveled. c) have chosen. d) have decided. e) has been. 13. a) I’ve found my luggage on the plane. b) She has gone to New York. c) They have talked about our meeting. d) We have never lived in this city. 14. a) Have they missed the train?

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15.

16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

31.

b) How long has she lived in Curitiba? c) What have you done? d) How many flights has he taken to Hawaii? a) My father has not been a good painter. b) You have not waited for me. c) They have not gone out lately. d) Cathy has not gone to the hairdresser. a) Have you had lunch? b) She hasn’t gone to college lately. c) You have always arrived on time./ You have always been on time. (c) Stan has gone to the post office. (d) Yes. It has helped meet basic needs and create jobs. Globalization is a driving factor in making goods and services previously out of reach in developing countries much more available. Items that at one point in time were considered luxuries—televisions, cell phones, computers, air conditioning—are now viewed as necessities. (b) Resposta pessoal. Resposta pessoal. 1. Testing on animals 2. Using slave labor 3. Mistreating employees T-T-F-F Resposta pessoal. ever - already - yet a) He has already made dinner. b) They have already done a car race / road rally. a) ever. b) already. c) yet. d) already. a) Mariah hasn’t done that yet. b) Finn has arrived already and he’s waiting for us. c) Haven’t you ever seen a plane?


EXERCÍCIOS DE FIXAÇÃO 01. Resposta pessoal, mas espera-se que o aluno responda: “The text is about a man called Edward Bernays and one of his campaigns”. 02. (a) 03. a) Yes. Sigmund Freud. b) Resposta pessoal. 04. His basic idea was that human behaviour is driven more by emotion than by logic and that, by controlling that emotion at a group level, you could get people to do what you wanted them to do. 05. Resposta pessoal. 06. Resposta pessoal, mas espera-se que o aluno responda: “Bernays wanted to get women to smoke, so he arranged for a group of rich debutants to light up simultaneously during the 1929 Easter Day Parade. He told the press it was a protest, called ‘lighting the torch of freedom’. Positioning smoking with female freedom and liberty, the amount of women smoking grew”. 07. Resposta pessoal. 08. (c) 09. (c) 10. (d) 11. (a) 12. a) have traveled. b) haven’t gone. c) has already seen. d) have - walked 13. a) Julie is a smart girl. b) She has traveled to London. c) He has studied a lot for the test. 14. (e) 15. (e) 16. (b) 17. (c) 18. a) They have worked on Sundays recently. The haven’t worked on Sundays recently. b) She has played the piano recently. She hasn’t played the piano recently. c) I have had breakfast lately. I haven’t had breakfast lately. 19. Clothes and apparel from the fashion and textiles industries are made using extensive amounts of water, energy, chemicals and raw materials.

20. It causes a shift away from values of community, spirituality, and integrity, and toward competition, materialism and disconnection. 21. (d) 22. People are incurring punitive levels of debt and working longer hours to pay for their highconsumption lifestyle. 23. Resposta pessoal. 24. a) They have never taken this train. b) Have you ever seen this film? c) I have always read a newspaper. d) She hasn’t talked to me yet. 25. a) No, I haven’t yet. b) Yes, she has already. c) Yes, I have bought it already. d) No, they haven’t yet. 26. a) ever/already b) already c) yet d) already 27. a) She has already listened to music. b) I haven’t gone swimming yet. c) They have never played an instrument. d) Has Andy ever traveled abroad? 28. a) have worked b) has taken c) Have / traveled d) Has / worked 29. a) Has / seen b) haven’t done c) have / studied d) have lived

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CAPÍTULO 2 • INTERNET SLANG EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. We can now convey our tone through text messages, expressing joy or surprise, for instance. We can use acronyms to shorten our texts. We can replace a word for a single letter that sounds like the word. 02. Resposta pessoal. 03. Oh my god, Karen!!! Let me know about our plans, okay? In my opinion, it’s gonna be good. By the way, have you seen that new movie? Shaking my head… It was so bad!!!!! Anyways, see you there? 04. a) 140 characters. It was established to resemble an SMS text message (which was how tweets were published before mobile apps.). b) They wanted to help people be more expressive. 05. Resposta pessoal 06. a) has lived - for b) has written - since c) Lately d) since e) Have you spoken - recently f) has not decreased - lately g) Has he been - recently 07. a) I haven’t talked to my grandparents lately. b) My mom hasn’t done any homework since she was in school. c) Gaby has been on her phone for 2 hours. d) They have never sailed. 08. I have never been to London, but I hear it’s great. There are several things to do there: parks to visit, museums to see, restaurants to go to. Lately/ Recently, it has gotten cold, because it’s winter season. If I were there, I’d have to use several layers: I get cold very easily! My sister has been to London, for work, and she loves the city. Our aunt and uncle have lived there for 3 years now, so maybe I’ll visit them soon. 09. (c) 10. Amanda has worked at this company for 8 years. 11. William Shakespeare. Because, according to some people, he created over 1,700 words. 12. “Mine eyes” became “my eyes”; hath, doth and maketh became has, does, makes.

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13. Resposta pessoal, mas o aluno deverá responder algo como: “They looked at 14 changes that occurred. In letters written by women, 11 of these changes were changing how they were writing faster than in letters written by men. The other 3 changes - where men were changing how they wrote faster than women - happened to men who had greater access to education at the time. 14. F - T - F - T 15. Resposta pessoal. 16. a) have - been - have - been - has - been - was. b) have - danced - have - danced - have - danced danced. c) have heard - heard. d) went. e) has read. f) discovered. g) has fixed. h) have tried. i) have - eaten - have - eaten - has - eaten - ate. 17. PP - SP - PP - SP 18. Resposta pessoal, mas espera-se que o aluno use apenas o simple past.

EXERCÍCIOS DE FIXAÇÃO 01. (c) 02. It’s about a book called Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language, written by Gretchen McCulloch. 03. Good. “The Internet has done good things to the English language.” 04. Public writing was limited to formal contexts like newspapers and books, written by educated people using very formal language for the edification of other educated people. Now, Internet language, and emoji in particular, is restoring life to relatively emotionless text. 05. Emojis, which function like punctuation or gestures; yelling in all caps; misspelling words in ways that reflect their own accents; or stretching out words with internal spaces to make a point unmistakably clear. 06. (d)


07. II - IV - I - III 08. a) Oh my God! I can’t wait to see Diane on Monday! b) Hi, John. How are you? c) Laughing out loud. I don’t care, Sally. In my opinion, this was for the best. 09. Resposta pessoal. 10. a) Have you seen my phone? It was here a minute ago. b) She is a fast sprinter, but she hasn’t won any medals lately/recently. c) He has not regained consciousness since the accident. d) How long has she lived in Egypt? e) Susan is not here. She has moved to Korea. f) How many exercises have you done today? g) Melanie has found her cat. 11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (a) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. a) have had - for. b) have been - since. c) has loved - for. d) has saved - since. e) has lived - since. f) have had - since. 20. Thousands of words of new vocabulary were added. 21. (d) 22. a) For crying out loud. b) Are you stupid or something? c) God help me. d) Not too much, just chilling. How about you? e) Read and enjoyed but no comment. f) See what I’m saying. g) What a cool idea. 23. F - F - T - T - T 24. II - IV - I - III 25. a) has just opened. b) She has finally washed. c) He has just lost. d) They have recently found.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

e) I have painted - for. f) He has already sold. g) She has just left. a) has won. b) didn’t drop. c) have arrived d) bought. e) has eaten. f) have lived. g) has written. h) didn’t break. a) has dispatched - for. b) have worked - for. c) has felt - since. d) has had - since. e) have spoken - for. a) have left b) has brought c) has told d) have gotten e) has arrived f) have been a) lost b) have lost c) have visited d) visited e) knew f) have known (b) (c) (b) (c) (a) (b) a) went b) has gone c) finished d) have finished e) saw f) have seen g) has lived h) lived

9º ANO – GABARITOS

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ANOTAÇÕES

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Profile for Sistema GGE

SEPARATA 9º ANO INGLÊS  

SEPARATA 9º ANO INGLÊS  

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