“Merging COACHING with SPORT SCIENCE & MEDICINE” Winter 2015
Also inside: A World-Class Complex for the INS Québec Sport Nutrition: Moving Beyond Comfort Foods Identifying Competitive Hardiness in Swimmers Active vs Passive Recovery Must Reads … Read, Learn, Excel
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Editorial Welcome to the winter issue of the HP SIRCuit.
With 2015 being declared the Year of Sport, we are excited to raise the profile and engage with the sport community around new and innovative sport research. At the 2014 SPIN Summit in Montreal, held in part at the new INS Québec complex, young researchers and emerging areas of study coming out of Canada’s sports science field were explored. The second annual Dr. Gord Sleivert Young Investigator Awards highlighted interesting topics such as: • lower-body pre-activation in short-track speed skaters, • peripheral fatigue recovery in Paralympic swimmers, • physiological characteristics of elite female rugby athletes, • asthma and bronchospasm symptoms in Canadian national synchronized swimming athletes, and • evaluation of a strength training testing/training protocol.
In the spirit of innovation and nutrition, the entertaining video of Chef Philippe Grand shows athletes new ways to incorporate high nutritional value whole foods into their daily diet. And to round out the innovation theme, check out the research in the new area of competitive hardiness, which explores the link between mental toughness, hardiness, anxiety and optimism for athletes.
Special thanks to the NSSMAC editorial and SIRC/ OTP teams for reviewing and recommending some excellent articles for coaches and ISTs to read. We are always encouraged to hear the great feedback that HP SIRCuit readers appreciate the editorial team insights.
President & CEO SIRC
This is going to be a great year for sport in Canada! Jon and Debra
Jon Kolb, PhD
Director, Sport Science, Medicine and Innovation Own the Podium
E” EDICIN E & M Winter 2015
HING COAC erging
IENC ORT SC with SP
Subscribe to the High Performance SIRCuit here
ator Investi g s d r a Aw
al du Nation Institutrt du Québec Spo Taste in imizing Athletes ice: Opt f’s Adv ndations for ture: Che mmers omme fea Swi Rec l in eo Vid ess Nutritiona Hardin on the petitive mentary earch ying Com ry: A ComRecent Res Identif Recove vs Passive Active the plex for
uit HP SIRC
Debra Gassewitz, SIRC
Dr. Jon Kolb, OTP
Nancy Rebel, SIRC
Josyane Morin, SIRC
Mathieu Charbonneau Jared Fletcher Philippe Giminez Judy Goss Matt Jordan Eugene Liang Stephen MacKinnon Paddy McCluskey Nicole Pringle Rob Rupf Leo Thornley Virginie Tremblay Kieran P. Young
Paul Dorotich, OTP INS Québec
Photos Courtesy of: Athletics Canada Own The Podium SIRC
Sport Information Resource Centre (SIRC) is Canada’s national sport library, established over 40 years ago. Mailing address: SIRC 180 rue Elgin Street, suite 1400 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K2P 2K3 Disclaimer: Author’s opinions expressed in the articles are not necessarily those of SIRCuit, its publisher, the Editor, or the Editorial Board. SIRC makes no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness or suitability for any purpose of the content. Copyright © 2015 SIRC. All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored, transmitted, or disseminated, in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from SIRC, to whom all requests to reproduce copyright material should be directed, in writing. HP SIRCuit is partially funded by
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
WHAT’S INSIDE The Gord Sleivert Young Investigator Awards Identifying Competitive Hardiness in Swimmers
4 16 18 20 24
A World-Class Complex for the Institut national du sport du Québec
Active vs Passive Recovery
Dr. Gord Sleivert Young Investigator Awards
The Young Investigator Awards are a tribute to the sport science leadership that Dr. Sleivert shared with High Performance in Canada. This year’s Award winners share their research findings.
A World-Class Complex for the Institut national du sport du Québec
The INS Québec proudly showcases the development of the facilities available to high performance athletes at its new complex, providing a training environment that puts Canada on the playing field with the world.
Sport Nutrition: Moving Beyond Comfort Foods
Highlights from two workshops offered at OTP’s SPIN Summit 2014 are presented. The focus of the workshops were to give sport nutritionists the tools they need to motivate their athletes to incorporate high nutritional value whole foods on a daily basis.
Identifying Competitive Hardiness in Swimmers
For athletes to be consistent in their performances over a long period of time they need to have psychological characteristics that allow them to adapt to the stress of the environment. Here, competitive hardiness, a concept linking hardiness, optimism and anxiety, is explored within the context of high performance swimming.
Active vs Passive Recovery: A Commentary on the Recent Research
Must Reads … Read, Learn, Excel
With high intensity training comes the need to allow the body to recover in order to return to training and competition as quickly as possible. Research conducted over recent years is profiled showing the latest knowledge in using active and passive recovery in the high performance context. • IST Journal Club Reviews • Recommended Research Readings from SIRC & OTP • New Books @ SIRC www.sirc.ca
4 16 18
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
The Gord Sleivert Young Investigator Awards Philippe Gimenez
Evaluation of Low-frequency Fatigue in Elite Effect of Lower-body Pre-activation on Performance During Repeated Jump Squats Paralymic Swimmers: A feasibility study in Short-track Speed Skaters
HP SIRCuit SIRCuit Winter Winter 2015 2015 HP
Differences in Physiological Characteristics of Elite Female Rugby Fifteens and Sevens Athletes
Dr Gord Sleivert was a pioneer in the field of sport physiology and established innovative training systems and instruments. At the time of his passing in 2012, he was vice-president of Sport Performance at the Canadian Sport Centre Pacific helping establish and build the centre’s performance services team that helps power podium performances for Canadian athletes and coaches.
Established in 2013, The Dr. Gord Sleivert Young Investigator Awards (YIA) is a tribute to the sport science leadership that Dr. Sleivert shared with High Performance sport in Canada. The competition for the award is based on submissions from Canadian graduate students and/or young research/ innovators. The research submitted should have relevance to high performance sport
and/or exercise and its effect in the daily training environment and/or competition and/or athlete health and well-being. An expert committee reviews all the submissions and selects the top projects to make an oral presentation, to which three are awarded the YIA, which includes a plaque and $1,000 to support their continuation in High Performance sport research.
Kieran P. Young
Enhanced Forced Pulmonary Expiratory Function After Performing the Competitive Routine in Elite Synchronized Swimmers
Using the Dynamic Strength Index to Guide Training – A Case Study
HP SIRCuit SIRCuit Winter Winter 2015 2015 HP
Effect of lower-body jump sq
Effect of Lower-body Pre-activation on Performance During Repeated Jump Squats in Short-track Speed Skaters
Philippe Gimenez1, Evelyn
Authors: Philippe Gimenez , Evelyne Chicoine , David Amarantini2, Fabien Dal Maso3 and Jonathan Tremblay1,4 1
Affiliation: 1 Département de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
UMR825 Inserm, Université Paul-Sabatier Toulouse 3, Toulouse, France Laboratoire de simulation et de modélisation du mouvement, Département de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada 4 Institut national du sport du Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada 2 3
Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is known to be a phenomenon by which muscular performance characteristics are enhanced by a prior conditioning activity, which is commonly used prior to an explosive activity in order to potentiate mechanical power output. PAP expression is the result of a delicate balance between the volume and intensity of the conditioning activity and its resulting fatigue (Tillin and Bishop, 2009). In repeated efforts, interplay between fatigue induced by the conditioning activity, accumulated fatigue during exercise and PAP can result in an overall reduction in the expression of muscular power output (PO). The aim of the present study was thus to determine the effects of a lower-body pre-activation targeting hip joint stabilizers, on PO during consecutive sets and blocks of repeated squat jumps in short-track speed skaters. Five short-track speed skating athletes (3 males and 2 females; age: 20.2 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.13 m; mass: 66.0 ± 11.1 kg; all data reported as mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in the study. On two separate occasions, in a randomized order, subjects performed two sets of 9 blocks of 6 maximal repeated unweighted squat jumps separated by a 5 s isometric squat (90°) between each block, with (EXP) and without (CON) a preliminary voluntary conditioning contraction. This prior potentiating exercise consisted in two consecutive 3 s maximal unilateral (left and right) isometric squats against a fixed bar, completed 5 min before the first set of 9 blocks of effort, resulting in a bilateral pre-activation mainly targeting hip abductors and extensors. Sets were separated by 5 min of rest. For each jump, mean PO was measured using a rotary linear encoder fixed at the hips (Tendo Sports Machine, Trencin, Slovakia). Within each condition (CON and EXP), mean PO was then computed for each block (PO1, PO2…PO9). For each set, the effect of block, condition and block x condition were computed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc analysis. A significant main block (p < 0.001), condition (p < 0.001) and interaction effect (p = 0.031) was found for set 1 while only a significant main block effect (p < 0.001) was observed for set 2. As expected, PO decreased continuously during set 1 and 2 for both CON and EXP. PO during the first 5 blocks of repetitions was significantly higher in EXP than CON, while no significant difference was observed in the remaining blocks, except for the block 8. The novelty of the current study lies in pre-activation-induced PAP targeting hip stabilizers and the consequent improvement in performance. Lower-body maximal unilateral isometric pre-activation significantly increased PO in the first half of a repeated jump squats protocol, emulating a 1000 m performance in short-track speed skating athletes. Although this improvement did not persist throughout the protocol, as previously reported when pre-activating prime-movers, pre-activation strategies in synergistic or stabilizing muscle groups could also contribute to a greater performance in the early phase of a race. However, with the small sample size involved in the present study, these preliminary results should be taken cautiously. ∆ 6
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
de kinésiologie, Unive France, 3Laboratoire S2M, Départem
Introduction: Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is known to be a phenomenon by which muscular performance characteristics are enhanced by a prior conditioning activity, which is commonly used prior to an explosive activity in order to potentiate mechanical power output. PAP expression is the result of a delicate balance between the volume and intensity of the conditioning activity and its resulting fatigue (Tillin and Bishop, 2009). In repeated efforts, interplay between fatigue induced by the conditioning activity, accumulated fatigue during exercise and PAP can result in an overall reduction in the expression of muscular power output (PO). The aim of the present study was thus to determine the effects of a lower-body pre-activation targeting hip joint stabilizers, on PO during consecutive sets and blocks of repeated squat jumps in short-track speed skaters. ! Method: Five short-track speed skating athletes (3 males and 2 females; age: 20.2 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.13 m; mass: 66.0 ± 11.1 kg; all data reported as mean ± SD) volunteered to participate in the study. On two separate occasions, in a randomized order, subjects performed two sets of 9 blocks of 6 maximal repeated unweighted squat jumps separated by a 5 s isometric squat (90°) between each block, with (EXP) and without (CON) a preliminary voluntary conditioning contraction. This prior potentiating exercise consisted in two consecutive 3 s maximal unilateral (left and right) isometric squats against a fixed bar, completed 5 min before the first set of 9 blocks of effort, resulting in a bilateral pre-activation mainly targeting hip abductors and extensors. Sets were separated by 5 min of rest. For each jump, mean PO was measured using a rotary linear encoder fixed at the hips (Tendo Sports Machine, Trencin, Slovakia). Within each condition (CON and EXP), mean PO was then computed for each block (PO1, PO2…PO9). For each set, the effect of block, condition and block x condition were computed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc analysis.! Results: A significant main block (p < 0.001), condition (p < 0.001) and interaction effect (p = 0.031) was found for set 1 while only a significant main block effect (p < 0.001) was observed for set 2. As expected, PO decreased continuously during set 1 and 2 for both CON and EXP. PO during the first 5 blocks of repetitions was significantly higher in EXP than CON, while no significant difference was observed in the remaining blocks.! Conclusion: The novelty of the current study lies in pre-activation-induced PAP targeting hip stabilizers and the consequent improvement in performance. Lowerbody maximal unilateral isometric pre-activation significantly increased PO in the first half of a repeated jump squat protocol, emulating a 1000 m performance in short-track speed skating athletes. Although this improvement did not persist throughout the protocol, as previously reported when pre-activating primemovers, pre-activation strategies in synergistic or stabilizing muscle groups could also contribute to a greater performance in the early phase of a race. However, with the small sample size involved in the present study, these preliminary results should be taken cautiously.!
After a 2-min dynam
2 sets of 9 block in two conditions: Control (CON)
PACC consisted in 2 co and right) isometric squ min before the first set. • 5s isometric squats (9 • 5 min rest between e • Each randomly assig separate days
5 min rest
Figure 1. Representation maximal squat jumps wit
Keywords: post-activation potentiation, vertical jumps, fatigue, linear encoder
Purpose To determine the effects of a lower-body preactivation targeting hip joint stabilizers on power output (PO) during consecutive sets and blocks of repeated squat jumps in short-track speed skaters.
Methods Short-track speed skaters (n = 5) Gender
(men / women)
3 M and 2 W 20.2 ± 2.8
Body mass (kg)
66.0 ± 11.1
1.67 ± 0.13
Table 1. Subject’s characteristics (mean ± SD)
Figure 3. Mean (±SD) P set 1 and 2. * show signi
pre-activation on performance during repeated quats in short-track speed skaters
ne Chicoine1, David Amarantini2, Fabien Dal Maso3 and Jonathan Tremblay1,4
ersité de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, 2UMR825 Inserm, Université Paul-Sabatier Toulouse 3, Toulouse, ment de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, 4Institut national du sport du Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada Figure 2. Illustration of a participant performing sets of squat jumps using a rotary linear encoder to measure average PO.
mic warm-up, subjects performed:
ks of 6 maximal squat jumps
Average PO for each squat jump was determined using a rotary linear encoder fixed at the hips (Tendo Sports Machine, Trencin, Slovakia).! !
For each set, the effect of block, condition and block x condition were computed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc analysis. Level of statistical significance p < 0.05.
5 min rest
5 min rest
n of the experimental protocol. Preliminary contraction only for EXP condition. Each block comprised 6 th 5s unweighted isometric squats between blocks.
Block x Condition
Results Set 1
onsecutive 3s maximal unilateral (left uats against a fixed bar, executed 5 . In addition: 90°) between each block! each set! gned condition was performed on
Mean power output for each block was calculated from the 6 consecutive squat jumps.!
Pre-Activating Conditioning Contraction (PACC)
Table 2. Main effects of the 2-way repeated measures ANOVA for the two sets.
Discussion & Conclusion! •
Each set in the present study was designed to emulate a 1000 m race performance in short-track speed skating.!
The novelty of the current study lies in postactivation potentiation (PAP) induced by a preactivation targeting hip stabilizers and the consequent improvement in performance.!
Pre-activation lead to a significant increase in mean PO in the early phase of the first set of repeated squats jumps!
Pre-activation strategies in synergistic or stabilizing muscle groups may contribute to an improved repeated jump performance. This extends previous results targeting agonists or prime-movers.!
The small sample size in the present study warrants further investigation to better understand the effects of pre-activating synergistic muscle groups on performance and injury prevention.
PO in CON (blue circles) and EXP (red circles) conditions during the consecutive blocks of squat jumps for ificant differences between CON and EXP. * p<0.05; ** p<0.01 and *** p<0.001.
Tillin, N.A., Bishop, D., 2009. Factors modulating postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities. Sports Med 39, 147–166. doi:10.2165/00007256-200939020-00004
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Evaluation of low
Evaluation of Low-frequency Fatigue in Elite Paralympic Swimmers: A feasibility Study
Jared R. F
Authors: Jared R. Fletcher1,2, Shane P. Esau2 and Brian R. MacIntosh1 Affiliation: 1Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB 2 Canadian Sport Institute Calgary, Calgary, AB
Peripheral muscle fatigue present during a training bout may affect current and subsequent training bouts. When force at a given frequency of stimulation is depressed, fatigue is present. A greater depression of force at low stimulation frequencies compared to high frequencies is known as low-frequency fatigue (LFF). LFF is relevant in athletes since it persists for hours or days following training, and can result in a reduced rate of force development and power output, even during maximal exertion. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of evaluating LFF in a group of elite Paralympic swimmers during training. This information could be used to better prescribe exercise prescription and avoid overtraining. LFF was evaluated in six elite Paralympic swimmers (20±2 years, 61±12 kg, IPC disability class S6-S10) on five occasions throughout an 18-day training camp. Electrical stimulation to the right triceps was delivered through a highvoltage stimulator. The torque output at 10 Hz (T10, squarewave trains, 5 V, 50 μs duration) and maximal voluntary torque (MVC) was measured via a dynamometer. The ratio of T10/MVC was considered the amount of LFF; a reduced ratio suggesting an elevated LFF. LFF was significantly different across the 5 measured time points (p=0.003). Following 8 days of low-intensity training, LFF was 0.18±0.10. LFF subsequently decreased following 48-hours of recovery (0.24±0.09). LFF measured two hours following a high-intensity interval session was significantly elevated in all athletes by 3-26% (p=0.03). Measured 8 days later, following a competition, LFF was further elevated by 36±27% to 0.12±0.07 (p=0.002). LFF subsequently recovered following 3 days of low intensity aerobic training; however this recovery was not significant. These results suggest that LFF is significantly elevated following high-intensity training or competition, which may not be abolished fully with low-intensity training or complete rest. ∆
Ø Purpose: Ø To determine evaluating LF swimmers du
Ø Monitoring of elite athlete recovery is an important way to determine: Ø Appropriate time interval between training sessions Ø Physiological readiness for performance Ø Peripheral fatigue, present from present training may affect the ability to respond to subsequent training bouts.
Ø This information c
Ø Better prescri intensity
Ø Optimize reco
Ø Maximize rea training or com
Ø Peripheral fatigue during recovery is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF, Fig. 1).
Ø Measured 5 times Ø Electrical stimulatio
Ø 50 µs square-w Hz. Figure 1. Electrically-evoked force-frequency relationship
of human skeletal muscle. Closed squares indicate a theoretically-measured relationship in the rested state. Open squares show the presence of low-frequency fatigue; a greater depression of force at low stimulation frequencies compared to high frequencies. Adapted from Allman and Rice (2004). J Appl Physio 96:1026.
Ø Low-frequency fatigue (LFF) can persist for hours or days. Ø LFF can impair maximal effort via: Ø Reduced amount and/or rate of force development. Ø Reduced power output. Ø Greater perceived effort for a given intensity.
Figure 2. Experimental s
Ø Maximal voluntary co interpolated twitch (IT
Ø LFF = 10 Hz torque •
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
w-frequency fatigue in elite Paralymic Swimmers: A feasibility study
Fletcher1,2, Shane P. Esau2 and Brian R. MacIntosh1
ce Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB 2Canadian Sport Institute Calgary, Calgary, AB
Ø LFF recovered following 3 days of lowintensity training
the feasibility of FF in elite Paralympic uring training.
Ø This recovery was not significant.
can be used to:
ibe training volume and/or
Ø Measurement of LFF is feasible in elite athletes during training.
overy protocols adiness for high-intensity mpetition
Ø LFF is present and persistent following highintensity training and competition. Figure 3. Electrically-stimulated 10 Hz torque and MVC used to quantify LFF. Data are from a representative subject.
RESULTS Ø LFF was significantly different across the 5 measured time points (Fig. 4). **
over 18-day training camp on of right triceps (Fig. 2)
wave pulse, 500 ms at 10
** * *
Ø Considerable inter-athlete variability suggests athletes respond differently to the same relative training stimulus.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS Ø Determine the extent to which maximal performance is impaired when significant LFF is present Ø Longitudinal measurement of fitness and fatigue may improve performance prediction (Fig. 6)
Figure 4. Training summary and LFF during 18-day training camp. Training session volume (mean±sd) is shown in blue. Grey bars indicate training zone intensity of main set. Zone 2 and 4 indicate aerobic and anaerobic threshold intensity, respectively. Zone 7 is the intensity associated with or greater than maximal oxygen uptake. *indicates significantly different from prior measurement.
ontraction (MVC) with TT) technique
• MVC Torque-1 (Fig 3.)
Ø LFF was reduced following 48-hours of rest Ø Measured 2 hours following high-intensity interval training (HIIT), LFF was significantly elevated (p=0.03). Ø LFF was further elevated 24 hours following 2 days of competition (p=0.002)
Figure 6. Theoretical model of performance. Black line represents performance capability, which can be impaired in the presence of fatigue (red line). Blue arrows represent theoretical performance; larger arrows associated with improved performance.
Questions? Comments? Scan the QR code to be directed to Jared’s
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Differences in Physiological C
Differences in Physiological Characteristics of Elite Female Rugby Fifteens and Sevens Athletes. Authors: 1Stephen MacKinnon, 1Kieran P. Young, 1Tyler Goodale, and 1Dana AgarNewman Affiliation: 1Canadian Sport Institute Pacific, Victoria, Canada
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in physiological characteristics of elite female Sevens and Fifteens rugby athletes. While previous research has examined the physiological characteristics and game demands of both women’s Sevens and Fifteens, it has yet to compare the physiological characteristics of female athletes between the two games. Twenty national female rugby players (Fifteens: 10 Fifteens only players, and Sevens: 10 players selected for both Fifteens and Sevens teams) performed a battery of tests which assessed and compared sprinting ability over 10m and 40m, horizontal jumping, absolute one rep maximal (1RM) strength in the front squat and bench press, as well as 1600m time. Rugby Sevens players were found to be faster in both the initial 10m sprint and 40m sprint and they performed better on jumps and had lower 1600m times. Rugby Fifteens group had larger body masses and were found to be stronger both in 1RM bench press and 1RM front squat tests. Results of this study coincide with previous research suggesting that Sevens and Fifteens rugby require athletes with different physical characteristics. Strength and conditioning coaches prescribing programs to rugby athletes who compete in both Sevens and Fifteens should consider having different training blocks to emphasize the unique physical attributes of each rugby code. Coaches working with elite single sport rugby athletes should focus on specialization in training throughout the entire training year. ∆
1Ca Purpose • The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in physiological characteristics of elite female Sevens and Fifteens rugby athletes • Previous research has examined the physiological characteristics and game demands of both women’s Sevens and Fifteens • Research has yet to compare the physiological characteristics of female athletes between the two games
Methods • Twenty national female rugby players (Fifteens: 10 Fifteens only players, and Sevens: 10 players selected for both Fifteens and Sevens teams) performed a battery of tests • Tests assessed sprinting ability over 10m and 40m, horizontal jumping, absolute one rep maximal (1RM) strength in the front squat and bench press, as well as 1600m time • Alpha was set at p≤0.05 and a student’s ttest was applied to determine significant differences between groups • Cohen’s d was then calculated to measure the size of effect between Fifteens and Sevens players, according to Hopkins’ effects sizes of <0.2, 0.2-0.6, 0.6-1.2, 1.22.0 and >2.0 were considered trivial, small, moderate, large and very large Results • Rugby Sevens players were found to be faster in both the initial 10m sprint and 40m sprint • Rugby Sevens players performed better on jumps and had lower 1600m times. • Rugby Fifteens group had larger body masses and were found to be stronger both in 1RM bench press and 1RM front squat tests
F (x Mass (kg) 0-10m Sprint (sec) 0-40m Sprint (sec) Standing Broad Jump (m) Standing Triple Jump (m) Front Squat (kg) Bench Press (kg) 1600m run (sec)
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
• Results of this stu better in the 160 correlates with p greater movemen • Test scores of the supporting previo reduced number similar physiologi • Fifteens players strength. Greater conditioning scor expenditure and • Many of the fifte needed for the sp number of contac • Results of this stu require athletes w
RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012
Characteristics of Elite Female Rugby Fifteens and Sevens Athletes
on, 1Kieran P. Young, 1Tyler Goodale, and 1Dana Agar-Newman
anadian Sport Institute Pacific, Victoria, Canada Practical Applications Results Table
Fifteens x̄ ± SD) 81.04 ±12.24 1.89 ±0.13 6.03 ±0.37 2.19 ±0.15 6.59 ±0.49
CV (%) 15.11
89.4 ±12.08 73.6 ±6.80 407 ±39.62
6.86 6.17 6.75 7.49
Sevens (x̄ ± SD) 70.42 ±5.61 1.81 ±0.06 5.63 ±0.16 2.30 ±0.11 6.94 ±0.38
CV (%) 7.97
Effect size Moderate
87.50 ±5.86 68.14 ±6.77 371.60 ±21.54
udy indicate that elite female Sevens athletes were lighter, faster, performed 00m run, and possessed a greater horizontal jumping ability. This result previous findings, that the game of Sevens is a highly physical game with far nt and physiological demands per minute of play than the game of Fifteens. e Sevens group displayed smaller Coefficient of Variation (CV) values ous research conducted on male Sevens athletes which is likely related to the of athletes on field, leading to an increased need for all athletes to develop ical characteristics and skill sets were found to have larger body masses and demonstrated higher absolute r body mass could in part be responsible for the lower cardiovascular res, sprint time, and jumping scores as excess mass can increase energy lower power to weight ratios eens only athletes played in the Tight 5, therefore this added mass may be pecific demands of the position, which include the set piece and a high ct situations udy coincide with previous research suggesting that Sevens and Fifteens rugby with different physical characteristics
• Strength and conditioning coaches prescribing programs to rugby athletes who compete in both Sevens and Fifteens should consider having different training blocks to emphasize the unique physical attributes of each rugby code • Coaches working with elite single sport rugby athletes should focus on specialization in training throughout the entire training year
References 1. Higham DG, Pyne DB, Anson JM, Hopkins WG,
Eddy A. Comparison of activity profiles and physiological demands between international rugby sevens matches and training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014:1. 2. Suarez-Arrones L, Nuñez FJ, Portillo J, MendezVillanueva A. Match running performance and exercise intensity in elite female rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(7):1858-1862. 3. Suarez-Arrones L, Portillo J, Pareja-Blanco F, Sáez de Villareal E, Sánchez-Medina L, MunguíaIzquierdo D. Match-play activity profile in elite women's rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(2):452. 4. Hene NM, Bassett SH, Andrews BS. Physical fitness profiles of elite women’s rugby union players. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance . June 2011 (Supplement), pp. 1-8. 5. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2009 Jan;41(1):3-13. 6. Higham DG, Pyne DB, Anson JM, Eddy A. Physiological, anthropometric, and performance characteristics of rugby sevens players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(1):19. 7. Gabbett TJ. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of elite women rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):875881.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Enhanced forced pulm competitive ro
Enhanced Forced Pulmonary Expiratory Function After Performing the Competitive Routine in Elite Synchronized Swimmers Authors: Virginie Tremblay1, Claude Poirier2, Philippe Gimenez1, Jonathan Tremblay1,3 Affiliation: 1Département de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC 2 Service de pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC 3 Institut national du sport du Québec, Montréal, QC
The aim of the current study was thus to compare the symptoms of asthma or bronchospasm reported using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) by elite synchronized swimmers with an assessment of forced pulmonary function before and after performing their competitive routines. Eleven female synchronized swimmers from the Canadian Senior National Team participated in this study. Symptoms of asthma were graded by all athletes using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), prior to experimentation. Pulmonary function was assessed on two separate days using a handheld spirometer (MIR Spirobank G) at the start of the training session. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75) were measured both at rest, before the warm-up, immediately following the execution of the routine and 30 seconds later. Athletes performed the competitive routine on their own and not as a team; the free routine (4.2 min) on the first day and the technical routine (3.0 min) on the second day of experimentation. Comparisons between trials and routines were made using repeated measures ANOVA. When a significant interaction effect was found, Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analyses were performed to locate differences. Results show that none of the athletes reported symptoms of asthma using the ACQ and all athletes had normal pulmonary function at rest. When compared to resting values, a mean increase of 13% (3.93 ± 0.72 to 4.45 ± 0.73 L) in FEV1 was observed after performing either routine and PEF, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 were also significantly higher (p < 0.05). FVC was not significantly different after performing either routine (5.12 ± 0.96 vs 5.40 ± 0.97 L) and, overall, no significant difference in pulmonary function was observed between either the technical or free routine. Conclusions drawn show that symptoms of asthma (or the absence thereof) reported in the ACQ are in agreement with the pulmonary function measured by a portable handheld spirometer. This study confirms previous reports of an improved post-exercise airway conductance in asymptomatic athletes, as measured by FEV1. In synchronized swimmers, the observed increase in FEV1 could be due, at least partly, to their training environment (warm and humid air), the characteristic breathing patterns (repeated apneic episodes), and exercise or movements specific to the sport. ∆
Virginie Tremblay1, C 1Département
de kinésiologie, Univer Montréal, Mon
Introduction: Athletes are known to be at risk of airway dysfunction with studies consistently reporting a prevalence between 30 and 70%, depending on the group of athletes studied and the diagnostic criteria employed. Symptoms of airway hyperresponsiveness or exercise-induced asthma are commonly reported in synchronized swimmers but their manifestation in their daily training environment were never reported. The aim of the current study was thus to compare the symptoms reported using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) by elite synchronized swimmers with an assessment of forced pulmonary function before and after performing their competitive routines.! Method: Eleven female synchronized swimmers (22.1 ± 2.2 years; 172.1 ± 5.3 cm; 61.2 ± 6.7 kg; data reported as mean ± SD) from the Canadian Senior National Team participated in this study. Symptoms of asthma were graded by all athletes using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), prior to experimentation. Pulmonary function was assessed on two separate days using a handheld spirometer (MIR Spirobank G) at the start of the training session. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75) were measured both at rest, before the warm-up, immediately following the execution of the routine and 30 seconds later. Athletes performed the competitive routine on their own and not as a team; the free routine (4.2 min) on the first day and the technical routine (3.0 min) on the second day of experimentation. Comparisons between trials and routines were made using repeated measures ANOVA. When a significant interaction effect was found, Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis were performed to locate differences. ! Results: None of the athletes reported symptoms of asthma using the ACQ and all athletes had normal pulmonary function at rest. When compared to resting values, a mean increase of 13% (3.93 ± 0.72 to 4.45 ± 0.73 L) in FEV1 was observed after performing either routine and PEF, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 were also significantly higher (p < 0.05). FVC was not significantly different after performing either routine (5.12 ± 0.96 vs 5.40 ± 0.97 L) and, overall, no significant difference in pulmonary function was observed between either the technical or free routine. ! Conclusion: Symptoms of asthma (or the absence thereof) reported in the ACQ are in agreement with the pulmonary function measured by a portable handheld spirometer. This study confirms previous reports of an improved post-exercise airway conductance in asymptomatic athletes, as measured by FEV1. In synchronized swimmers, the observed increase in FEV1 could be due, at least partly, to their training environment (warm and humid air), the characteristic breathing patterns (repeated apneic episodes), and exercise or movements specific to the sport.! ! ! ! Keywords: spirometry, synchronized swimming, exercise-induced asthma, airway conductance
• The competitive free an on two separate days!
• Forced expiratory pulm using a portable handh
• Reliability of FEV1 and Pearson moment corre
• Comparisons between repeated measures AN
• When a significant inte post-hoc analysis were
Purpose Compare symptoms of asthma or bronchospasm reported using the Asthma Control Questionnaire in elite synchronized swimmers with an assessment of forced pulmonary function before and after performing the competitive routine.
Figure 3. Reliability o FEV1 (A) and FVC (B) measurements before executing each routin
• 11 female synchronized swimmers (22.1 ± 2.2 years; 172.1 ± 5.3 cm; 61.2 ± 6.7 kg; data reported as mean ± SD) from the Canadian Senior National Team! • Administration of Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) prior to experimentation! • Pulmonary function was assessed early in the morning, before and immediately after executing the free and technical routines (duration of 4.2 and 3.0 min, respectively)
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
monary expiratory function after performing the outine in elite synchronized swimmers
Claude Poirier2, Philippe Gimenez1 and Jonathan Tremblay1,3
rsité de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, 2Service de pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de ntréal, QC, Canada, 3Institut national du sport du Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada
nd technical routines were performed
d FVC at rest was measured using the elation between the two routines!
n trials and routines were made using NOVA !
eraction effect was found, Tukey’s HSD e performed to locate differences
Volume (L) or Flow (L/s)
Figure 1. Portable handheld spirometer
> 0.05 0.04
Table 1. Comparisons between pre- and post-routine average values.
Figure 4. Results from expiratory pulmonary function tests before and after the execution of the competitive routine. * shows significant (p < 0.05) differences. A
monary function tests were completed held spirometer (MIR SpiroBank G)
Figure 2. Swimmer completing forced expiratory function assessment after executing the free routine.
• • Figure 5. Sample flow-volume loops for two swimmers (A and B), before and after executing the competitive routine.
As previously reported, many synchronized swimmers show a supranormal expiratory pulmonary function for their age and body size! Circadian variations in pulmonary function could affect early morning measurements! Warm and humid air in the pool environment could alleviate symptoms of asthma or bronchospasm! A chlorinated environment was previously reported to negatively affect pulmonary function in swimmers
of ) e ne
• • •
Symptoms of asthma (or the absence thereof) reported in the Asthma Control Questionnaire are in agreement with poolside pulmonary function tests ! Measuring pre- and post-exercise pulmonary function using a portable handheld spirometer seem to be reliable! Repeated apneic episodes combined with powerful underwater movements executed against a closed glottis could increase intrapulmonary pressure and induce a transient increase in airway conductance! This could result in increased expiratory flow in synchronized swimmers after executing their routine
References 1. Parsons J P, Hallstrand T S, Mastronarde J G, Kaminsky D A, Rundell K W, Hull J H, Storms W W, Weiler J M, Cheek F M, Wilson K C and Anderson S D 2013 An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline: exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187 1016–27! B
2. Bjurström, R. L., & Schoene, R. B. (1987). Control of ventilation in elite synchronized swimmers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(3), 1019–1024.!
3. Price, O. J., Hull, J. H., Backer, V., Hostrup, M., & Ansley, L. (2014). The Impact of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction on Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0238-y
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
QUICK DESIGN GUIDE Kieran Young
Using the Dynamic S
(--THIS SECTION DOES NOT PRINT--)
This PowerPoint 2007 template produces a 36x48 inch professional poster. You can use it to create Using theyour Dynamic Strength Index research poster and save valuable time placing to Guide Training – A Case titles, subtitles, text,Study and graphics.
Authors: 1Kieran P. Young We provide a series of online tutorials that will guide through the poster Affiliation: 1Canadian Sportyou Institute Pacific, Victoria, Canada design
process and answer your poster production questions.
Introduc4on Directly comparing isometric and ballis/c peak force measures may provide valuable insight into the training status, and training needs of an athlete. By focusing on the least developed component or performance “quality” the greatest neuromuscular adapta/on may be elicited due to the increased opportunity for adapta/on resul/ng in superior performance improvements.1
To view our template tutorials, go online to PosterPresentations.com and click on HELP DESK.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the dynamic When you1,2are ready to print your poster, go online strength index (DSI) could be used to guide specific training to PosterPresentations.com. interventions. One elite female diver participated in this study. A repeated-measures design was used to assess the impact of 1.866.649.3004 Assistance? a 13 week Need training interventionCall usingustheatathlete’s DSI. Testing consisted of maximal strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump testing. If the change in performance was greater than the typical error (TE) then the change was considered to be of practical importance.2,3 Based on previously reported guidelines placeholders for using theUsing DSI,4the training for the first block (weeks 1 -6) consisted To add text, click inside lifting, a placeholder the poster of low intensity technical Olympic maximalonlower body and type or paste your text. To move a placeholder, strength training in the squat and deadlift exercise and moderate click it once (to select it). Place your cursor on its intensity upper body strength training. Training for the second frame, and your cursor will change to this symbol block (weeks 7-13) consisted of moderate intensity Olympic Click once and drag it to a new location wherelifting you and ballisticcan strength training, maximal lower body strength training resize it. and moderate intensity upper body strength training. The athlete performed Section 3 strength sessions a week in addition to 7 diving Header placeholder specific sessions a week. Click and drag this preformatted section header
placeholder to the poster area to add another Six weeks of maximal strength changes in the section header. Usetraining sectionresulted headersinto separate DSI greatertopics than the (0.02) as well your as 1RM front squat (1.5kg) or TE concepts within presentation.
The purpose of this study was to inves/gate whether the dynamic strength index (DSI)1,2 (squat jump peak force/isometric mid-‐thigh pull peak force) could be used to guide speciﬁc training interven/ons.
and IMTP peak force (69N)2 leading to a 0.05m improvement in the CMJ performance. Interestingly, following the addition of moderate intensity Olympic lifting and ballistic strength training during the Text second block of placeholder training, only improvements in 1RM front squat Move this preformatted text placeholder to theblock were reported. Perhaps the athlete required a longer training a new body text. (>6 weeks) poster in ordertotoadd better utilise her of new level of strength.5 The DSI is a valid and effective means of targeting specific areas of relative deficiency such as improving CMJ displacement. Strength and conditioning coaches should concentrate on improving lower Picture placeholder body maximal strength before including ballistic strength training. Move this graphic placeholder onto your poster, size Further, training blocks that include should it first, and then click it ballistic to add aexercises picture to the be longer thanposter. 6 weeks in order to facilitate the appropriate training adaptation. ∆
Student discounts are available on our Facebook page. Go to PosterPresentations.com and click on the FB icon.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
One elite female d 65.4kg) who was a Commonwealth Ga in this study. A rep used to assess the interven/on using t the physical prep i n c r e a s e p e a k countermovement j the CG as this is c successful divers.3 Tes$ng Tes/ng occurred at consisted of maxim jump tes/ng. Maxim of a 1 repe//on m squat, as well as (IMTP) using previo portable force pla transducer (PT5A, F Australia) was used jump. Both the transducer were in Measurement Syste and kinema/c data further analysis. If was greater than th change was cons importance.2,6 Training Based on previou using the DSI,7 train 1 -‐6) consisted of lo li_ing, maximal lo (>90%1RM) in the and moderate inte training (60-‐80%1R block (weeks 7-‐1 intensity (50-‐75% ballis/c strength tr strength training an body strength train strength sessions a speciﬁc sessions a w
RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012
Strength Index to Guide Training – A Case Study 1Kieran P. Young
Th (ve co If te
nadian Sport Ins/tute Paciﬁc, Victoria, Canada Methods
diver (age 25.5 years; mass a member of the Canadian ames (CG) team par/cipated peated-‐measures design was impact of a 13 week training the athlete’s DSI. The goal of para/on program was to d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e jump (CMJ) in the lead up to considered a key a\ribute in
t weeks 1, 7 and 13, which mal strength, CMJ and squat mal strength tes/ng consisted maximum (1RM) in the front an isometric mid-‐thigh pull ously described protocols.4,5 A ate and a linear posi/on Fitness Technology, Adelaide, d to assess the CMJ and squat force plate and posi/on nterfaced with the Ballis/c em so_ware to record kine/c with peak values retained for the change in performance he typical error (TE) then the sidered to be of prac/cal
Table 1. Lower body measures of strength and power over 3 diﬀerent tes/ng occasions*
While previous research has shown that the DSI can iden/fy speciﬁc areas of rela/ve deﬁciency2,7, this is the ﬁrst study that concentrates on improving a speciﬁc p e r f o r m a n c e o u t c o m e i . e . C M J p e a k displacement. Six weeks of maximal strength training resulted in changes in the DSI greater than the TE (0.02) as well as 1RM front squat (1.5kg) and IMTP peak force (69N)2 leading to a 0.05m improvement in the countermovement jump performance. Interes/ngly, following the addi/on of moderate intensity Olympic li_ing and ballis/c strength training during the second block of training, only improvements in 1RM front squat were reported. Perhaps the athlete required a longer training block (>6 weeks) in order to be\er u/lise her new level of strength. 8
Week 13 Week 7 Week 1 Tes4ng Tes4ng Tes4ng Body mass (kg)
CMJ Peak Displacement (m)
Squat Jump Peak Force 1540.6 (N) IMTP Peak Force (N)
1RM Front Squat (kg)
*denotes a change from previous tes/ng results greater than the TE
usly reported guidelines for ning for the ﬁrst block (weeks ow intensity technical Olympic ower body strength training squat and deadli_ exercise ensity upper body strength RM). Training for the second 13) consisted of moderate %1RM) Olympic li_ing and raining, maximal lower body nd moderate intensity upper ning. The athlete performed 3 week in addi/on to 7 diving week.
Ve Go pr th be po 10 be
Mo Th co yo an la th bu to
Im TE pla lef ne
The data suggests that using the DSI is a valid and eﬀec/ve means of targe/ng speciﬁc areas of rela/ve deﬁciency such as improving CMJ displacement. Strength and condi/oning coaches should concentrate on improving lower body maximal strength before including ballis/c strength training. Further, training blocks that include ballis/c exercises should be longer than 6 weeks in order to facilitate the appropriate training adapta/on. References
TA ex ad ta cli ch
1.Young KP, Haﬀ GG, Newton RU, Sheppard JM. Reliability of a novel tes/ng protocol to assess upper-‐body strength quali/es in elite athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:871-‐875. 2.Sheppard JM, Chapman D, Taylor K-‐L. An evalua/on of a strength quali/es assessment method for the lower body. J Aust Strength Cond. 2011;19(2):4-‐10. 3.Sands WA, McNeal JR, Shultz BB. Kine/c and temporal pa\erns of three types of ver/cal jump among elite interna/onal divers. Sports Med., Training and Rehab. 1999;9(2):107-‐127. 4.Haﬀ GG, Carlock JM, Hartman MJ, et al. Force–/me curve characteris/cs of dynamic and isometric muscle ac/ons of elite women olympic weightli_ers. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):741-‐748. 5.McGuigan MR, Newton MJ, Winchester JB, Nelson AG. Rela/onship between isometric and dynamic strength in recrea/onally trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(9):2570-‐2573. 6.Sheppard JM, Cormack S, Taylor K-‐L, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Assessing the force-‐ velocity characteris/cs of the leg extensors in well-‐trained athletes: The incremental load power proﬁle. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1320-‐1326. 7.Young KP, Haﬀ GG, Newton RU, Gabbe\ TJ, Sheppard JM. Assessment and monitoring of ballis/c and maximal upper body strength quali/es in athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014; Published online ahead of print (July 17, 2014): doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2014-‐0073. 8.Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Adapta/ons in athle/c performance a_er ballis/c power versus strength training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(8):1582-‐1598.
Mo To th ch cre
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
A WORLD-CLASS COMPLEX FOR THE
INSTITUT NATIONAL DU SPORT DU QUÉBEC
n September 19, the Institut national du sport du Québec (INS Québec) officially openned its new sports complex and Montreal headquarters. A marvel of over 150,000 square feet over five levels and located in the heart of Montreal’s Olympic Park, its physical and technological attributes instantly attracted users. The facility boasts single-sport training areas designed to world-class standards, a sport medicine clinic, laboratories and cutting edge equipment. In fact, more than 90% of the area at the new site is assigned to athlete services. Under the direct control of the INS Québec, the clinic, which directly adjoins several sports facilities, occupies 6,779 square feet to offer expanded and often instantaneous services including medical consultations, physiotherapy and massage therapy. Nutrition, hydrotherapy, physiology and biomechanics laboratories, a sleep clinic, teaching room and a specialized training area are also part of the new complex.
Optimal Performance Environment
Coupled with our range of high quality services, this sporting infrastructure provides us with an environment of optimum performance which now allows our high performance athletes and coaches to compete on equal terms with the best sporting communities around the world,
Tom Quinn, Chairman of the Board.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Developed in 2008, this project was accomplished with the financial support of the Government of Québec. The Government invested $ 24.5 million for the construction of the facility, with another three million directed towards the acquisition of equipment. Construction took place between February 1st, 2013 and May 16, 2014. The management of this project was unusual because private partners contributed to some aspects of the project, incorporating their latest products or their most recent technological innovations. Some companies associated with the complex are using it today to showcase their excellence and their close links with high performance sport. Français
Three new sports - judo, fencing and gymnastics – have been added to the other five high performance training groups swimming, synchronized swimming, diving, water polo and short track speed skating who are already in residence at the complex. “The judo dojo, for one, provides a highly stimulating environment for athletes”, observes Daniel De Angelis, President of Judo Québec and General Secretary of Judo Canada. “It is located in a fully glassed-in area on the second floor, a visually exceptional space, overlooking the Olympic pool.”
“With this new complex and its intervention model involving 7 regional multi-sport training centers and 17 single-sport training centers, the INS Québec becomes an even stronger partner for sport federations”, concludes Marc Gélinas, its President and CEO. “And we say to our financial partners that it is more pertinent than ever to accompany us to this point in our history. In return, we will show that our vision is a winning proposition for athletes and for high performance sport in Canada.” ∆
Institut national du sport du Québec
Members of the high performance training group for fencing can now count on 24 pistes for their training purposes, allowing for the coexistence of athletes from the three weapons of the discipline and which meet with international standards in facility design. “We no longer have an excuse not to perform in the future as we will have the same advantages as the large nations”, recently exclaimed Dominique Teisseire, both Technical and Administrative Director of the Fencing Federation Québec and Chairman of the Canadian Fencing Federation’s High Performance Committee. The complex can also accommodate other athletes and external training groups, such as the 17 provincial high performance training groups. Attendance at the complex is rising each month: nearly 4,500 people had crossed the threshold in October 2014 alone. www.sirc.ca
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
MOVING BEYOND COMFORT FOODS Featuring Chef Philippe Grand
uring Own the Podium’s SPIN Summit 2014, a number of workshops were held at the new Institut national du sport du Québec facilities. The workshop we are highlighting was designed to give sport nutritionists the tools they need to motivate their athletes to incorporate high nutritional value whole foods on a daily basis. This interactive cooking demo held in the new Institute’s kitchen and delivered from a trained chef with experience cooking for athletes, featured practical tips and easy recipes prepared from food containing high value ingredients like nitrates, antioxidants, iron, omega-3 and taking into consideration some special diets to provide ideas, tips and tools to helps athletes get the most out of their meals. Part A
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Sport nutritionists will be armed with easy recipes, cooking tips and the confidence to lead an efficient and informative cooking demo for their athletes.
Nutrition Workshop: Part A
In Part A of the workshop, Chef Philippe Grand takes us through simple recipes to prepare beets, featuring beet chips and a beet burger, as well as chicken liver. Recognizing that these two ingredients are a little out of the comfort zone of many people, Chef Philippe demonstrates how address the flavors and textures of each. Nutritional Tips: • Beets contain a great number of nutritional benefits: Vitamins A, B and C; antioxidants beta-carotene and beta-cyanine; folic acid, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, and fiber are all present. But most significantly beets are full of nitrate which is converted to nitric oxide a powerful vasodilator which means increased blood flow to the muscles. • As a startlingly high percentage of high performance athletes are deficient in iron, chicken liver is a great food source to address iron status for athletes. It also contains Vitamin A, copper, folic acid, purines and cholesterol. Athletes also see its effectiveness in fighting fatigue.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Kitchen Tip: Add a zip of lemon juice or
vinegar (cidar, balsamic etc.) at the end of your recipe to add a boost of flavour.
Nutrition Workshop: Part B
Part B The second part of this workshop focuses on different proteins – tofu, kidney beans (legumes), bulgur, and fish/seafood. Again, Chef Philippe provides recipes featuring alternative ingredients that are less common but full of great nutrients. Add some great new high-impact nutritionally focused recipes to your kitchen. The Chef also shares some of what he considers essential basics for the athlete kitchen from equipment/tools to spices and sauces. Nutritional tips: • Tofu is a naturally gluten-free and low calorie; it contains no cholesterol and is a great source of protein, iron, and calcium. For a more solid texture try freezing your tofu before use. Thaw it absorbing the moisture with a paper towel and then it will absorb marinades and flavorings more readily. Chef Philippe demonstrates how to fry it in cubes or how to create a spread with it for great sandwiches or wraps. • Another great source for iron and protein are kidney beans. Kidney beans and other legumes are a great alternative to animal-based proteins. Check out how to make kidney bean patties/nuggets which are great in sandwiches or eaten on their own, and a kidney bean spread that adds a great nutritional boost to wraps and sandwiches
• Coarse bulgur is another one of those versatile grains that can be served as a side dish or cooked as a breakfast cereal. It is a whole grain that is high in protein and protein, is a good source of iron and B-12, and is low in fat.
e file Recip Chef f rom pe Philip d Gran
• Looking for a lower priced source of complete protein? Try canned herring or oysters. While herring provides omega 3, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium, oysters contain iron, omega 3 fatty acids, calcium, zinc, and vitamin C. ∆
t i u C R SI NCE
Subscribe to the High Performance SIRCuit here
E” EDICIN E & M Winter 2015
HING COAC erging
IENC ORT SC with SP
ator Investi g s d r a Aw e:
Al al du Nation Institutrt du Québec Spo Taste in imizing Athletes ice: Opt f’s Adv ndations for ture: Che mmers omme fea Swi Rec l in eo Vid ess Nutritiona Hardin on the petitive mentary earch ying Com ry: A ComRecent Res Identif Recove vs Passive Active the plex for
uit HP SIRC
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
HARDINESS IN SWIMMERS
Judy Goss, PhD and Rob Rupf, MSc Canadian Sport Institute Ontario
onsistency or repeatability in athletic performance is viewed as a statement of how good you really are. The one hit wonders may garner our attention but only momentarily. A baseball player who consistently hits over .350 or a basketball player who’s free throw percentage is over 85% will not only demand the high salary but also the accolades of their fellow teammates. However, in endurance sports such as swimming, cycling and rowing, athletes are overloaded with training stress to force physiological adaptations. Often there is a lag time in adaptation and for this reason these athletes may not compete as often as other athletes. Prior to competition, training stress is reduced or tapered off and athletes are rested with the hope that they will respond by performing well. Timing the taper is difficult in itself and the effects only last 6 to 10 days for some athletes. On the day of competition all athletes are trying to perform their best but some of these athletes will only have 2 tapers throughout an entire year, although they may be asked to compete at a high standard for up to 6 weeks after this taper period. For an athlete to be consistent in their performances over a long period of time one would hypothesize that there needs to be some psychological component at play as well. Mental toughness, psychological resiliency, hardiness and grit have been researched and written about in popular literature as facets that are essential for high performance and represent key components that might allow us to understand how athletes may compete to
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
KEY POINTS • It is physically and mentally challenging for swimmers to perform consistently well over several competitions. • In this study, competitive hardiness did distinguish between those swimmers who performed well and those who do not. • More research is needed to determine how to effectively measure the construct of competitive hardiness.
this high level during a taper period over an extended period of time. Mental toughness has been described as a collection of personal characteristics that allow individuals to regularly perform to, or around, the best of their abilities regardless of circumstances faced (Clough et al, 2002; Coulter et al, 2010; Hardy et al, 2014; Jones et al, 2007). The definition is something most agree on, however, what actually constitutes mental toughness is a completely different matter. Some focus on the individual’s personal characteristics and believe that mental toughness is an innate quality or a trait like dimension of personality (Clough et al, 2002), while others believe it can be taught, developed and created or may be dependent on situational, environmental and coaching factors (Gucciardi et al, 2009). There is no clear agreement on what makes an individual mentally tough.
Grit has been described by Angela Duckworth as the tendency to sustain interest in and effort toward very long-term goals (Duckworth et al, 2007). Grit has been found to be highly predictive of achievement more so than intelligence tests, standardized scores or report cards (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009; Buam & Locke, 2004). It focuses on sustained effort and self-control. Resiliency has also been conceptualized as related to mental toughness but still different. It has been defined as the ability to bounce back or recover from stress, to adapt to stressful circumstances, to not become ill despite significant adversity and to function about the norm in spite of stress and adversity (Carver, 1998; Tusaie & Dyer, 2004). Probably most central to resiliency is the protective factors or attitudes and one’s ability to adapt (Davda, 2011). However, much of the resiliency research has focused on individuals who are forced to adapt due to traumatic
events such as natural disasters (Goodman & West-Olatunji, 2008), serious illness (DenzPenhey & Murdoch, 2008) or death of a family member (Mancini & Bonanno, 2009). A theme carried throughout all these concepts is an individual’s appraisal of a stressful life event. Whether it is a difficult math test, a number one ranked tennis opponent, a grueling two hour training session, or the downsizing at your job, the effect of stress is predominately based on one’s appraisal of it. Hardiness has been one of the most widely researched concepts for its stress buffering quality (Kobasa el al, 1982). A person high in hardiness is said to possess or view the world in such a way that they feel in control of what is happening, challenged and committed to what they are doing (Maddi, 2002). At the core of hardiness are factors of challenge, commitment, and control which are tenants of mental toughness and resiliency. Athletes who are high in hardiness have been found to excel further than those who are not (Sheard & Golby, 2010). Thus, the purpose of the study is linking the factors of hardiness, optimism and anxiety in a term called “competitive hardiness” that may make it possible to distinguish these athletes who have consistent performances over long periods of competition.
and 14 females. The average age was 16.4 years with a range from 14 to 19. Written informed consent was obtained prior to commencing the data collection. Athletes and their coaches were provided with video footage of their races and a comprehensive race analysis package along with a general overview of mental skills to work on based on the psychological inventories that they completed for participating in the study. All the athletes in the study completed the Beliefs Questionnaire (CHS) (Nowack, 1990), Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheire & Craver, 1985), and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) (Martens et al, 1990).
DATA COLLECTION Results from the swimmers’ performances during a six week period of high level competition during two taper periods during two consecutive years (Table 1) were collected. Swimmers who were able to swim within 1% of their seed time consistently across all these meets over both years were deemed to be consistent swimmers (responders). Those who could not were deemed to be inconsistent (nonresponders). Those swimmers who were not involved in at least two meets over the taper period were not included in the analysis.
Athletes were recruited through the Ontario High Performance Sport Initiative whereby they were identified by Swim Ontario and others were identified by Swim Canada’s National Junior Team Head Coach. There were 31 swimmers in the study, 17 male
In order to test for significant differences between the groups, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the continuous variables and the Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test for the categorical variables was used.
Summer Nationals, July 19-22
Age Group Nationals, July 25-30
North American Cup Challenge, August 2-4
Junior Pan Pacific Championships, August 23 -25
Summer Nationals, July 17-20
Age Group Nationals July 24-29
Canada Summer Games, August 4-9
Junior World Championships, August 26-30
RESULTS Psychological Data The Beliefs Questionnaire (CHS) (Nowack, 1990) measured cognitive hardiness and the data collected found that the average scores for the swimmers was 107 (range from 76 to 137) which falls within the average range of the normative data. When the swimmers were placed in non-responders and responders, the average hardiness scores were not significantly different. The responders average hardiness score was 108.8 (range 94 to 100) and non-responders slightly higher at 111.1 (range 76 to 137). Dispositional optimism is defined as a generalized expectation that good things will happen (Scheier & Carver, 1985). Research has also found that “optimists typically maintain a high level of subjective well-being during times of stress than people who are less optimistic” (Scheier & Carver, 1993). The Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier & Carver, 1985) was used to measure optimism. Scores range from 0 to 24. The swimmers were found to have an overall generally optimistic outlook, with an average score of 15.83 that falls into the moderate range (14-18). There was only one swimmer who scored in the high optimism range (19-24). There were a total of 6 swimmers who scored in the low optimism range (0-13). Three of the less optimistic swimmers were identified as non-responders; the other 3 were not included in the analysis as they did not meet other criteria. State and trait anxiety was measured by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) (Marten et al, 1990). This test measures the tendency of an athlete to experience anxiety when competing in a sport. It is used to measure competitive trait anxiety. The swimmers were found to have an average score of 19.5 (range 13 to 25) this is in the average range. The SCAT was the only instrument that approached significant difference with responders being more anxious than non-responders. Overall results indicated that the psychological inventories were not significantly different between the responders and non-responders, (Figure B).
Table 1 – Swim Meets
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Figure C – Competitively Hardy vs Not Competitively Hardy
Performance Performance consistency, defined by responders and non-responders, differed significantly at the beginning of the taper period. However, these differences disappeared by the end of the taper period, thus as competition period lengthened, previously inconsistent swimmers were able to increase their performance level. Figure D provides an interesting graphic of the responders being more consistent in their performances across the four competitions however, the non-responders outperformed the responders at the final competition of the summer season.
Figure B – Psychological Inventories
Competitive Hardiness To address the question, do competitively hardy swimmers outperform ones that are not competitively hardy? we looked at swimmers who fit the profile. Competitively hardy individuals would score low on anxiety and high on cognitive hardiness and optimism. There were 4 swimmers who fit these criteria along with 2 athletes who were deemed not competitively hardy (low cognitive hardiness, low optimism and high anxiety). Analysis showed that the competitively hardy swimmers did outperform those who are not competitively hardy (Figure C).
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Figure D – Performance consistency across 4 competitions for responders and nonresponders.
The focus of the study was to determine if the proposed psychological construct of competitive hardiness could distinguish between swimmers who performed consistently well over several competitions. The results indicate that competitive hardiness did distinguish between these athletes. One of the most difficult issues in the study was identifying exactly how to determine or define “consistently well” or as referred to as responders. As swimmers mature in their swimming career, they tend to specialize in their strokes and races. With the group of junior swimmers in this study, many were still swimming several events and were having a good level of success in most events. This complicated the research, since there were some inconsistencies even within the 4-day competition in athlete performance let alone across 4 competitions for a period of 6 weeks. Overall, the swimmers were found to be generally consistent. We had initially identified 95% of their personal best times as a cut off but had to revise it to 99%. We also had a few athletes who were responders in year 1 but had inconsistent results in year 2. As such, while they displayed consistency these athletes were regarded as non-responders. Athletes who are high in hardiness have been found in many instances to have superior performances (Maddi & Hess, 1992; Sheard, 2009; Sheard & Golby, 2010). Another factor that made the analysis difficult was the number of athletes that actually fit the profile. There were four athletes who fit the profile of being competitively hardy (high cognitive hardiness, high optimism and low anxiety) and only two who fit the profile of not being competitively hardy (low cognitive hardiness, low optimism and high anxiety). One explanation is that the questionnaires were not specific enough to the athletes. For example, on the CHS, one question is “just for variety’s sake, I often explore new and different routes to places that I travel to regularly (e.g. home, school, training).” Some of the athletes don’t even drive; therefore they really don’t have control over this type of question. Further research would be recommended into a sport specific and age appropriate questionnaire. We would
also suggest that “consistency” is affected by several external factors including the number of races that swimmers compete in during one competition. This is evident within the Age Group Nationals and Canada Games/ NACC competitions in which these swimmers’ priorities may be affected by the swim teams’ need to gain points. Thus the number of events the athletes competes in, increases during these meets adding extra physiological load. Interestingly, responders were observed to be more anxious than the non-responders. This might be explained in two ways; swimmers who are more anxious put more pressure on themselves to perform each and every time they race, while the less anxious swimmers are not as concerned about their performance which may mean that they are not at the ideal energy level each and every time they race. One of the most striking finding was that the swimmers identified as non-responders outperformed the responders in the final competition of the summer. This could indicate that when the stakes were high, the swimmers who were less anxious did perform better, or perhaps were better able to manage the pressure, expectations and high stress situations better than those who were more anxious. The non-responders were also slightly higher in hardiness which might also fit the model of being competitively hardy.
CONCLUSIONS The results confirmed that competitively hardy swimmers do outperform those that are not. The limitations of this is the number
of swimmers that meet the criteria of being competitively hardy and those that were not was low (N=6). If we can identify factors that psychologically affect an athlete’s response to training and competition stress and learn what questions to ask, this will allow us to teach the mental skills and strategies to help others manage the stress better and maintain performance. The research identifies many areas within this topic for future research. Implications of this research illuminate issues around planning and scheduling. It is difficult for these swimmers to handle four high level competitions back to back. They may need more time to recover physically, mentally and emotionally. These high level competitions can be difficult to manage. Swimmers are away from home and out of their normal routine for several weeks, which for some is the first time in their lives they have been away for more than 4 weeks. The focus of the study was to determine if the proposed psychological construct of competitive hardiness could distinguish between swimmers who performed consistently well over several competitions. The results indicate that competitive hardiness did distinguish between these athletes. As swimmers or athletes in general are confronted with physiological stress in the form of training load and psychological stress in the form of several high level competitions, their cognitive appraisal of this as a challenge and/or something that they can manage is paramount to their response, behaviour and in the end, performance. Competitive hardiness may be viewed as a scaled-down model of mental toughness or resiliency. ∆
Dr. Judy Goss is a Mental Performance Consultant at the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario where she has worked since 1999. She works in the Integrated Support Team’s with Figure Skating, Trampoline, and Wheelchair Basketball. Judy provides mental skills training, program management and leadership, and research development for these sports. Rob Rupf is a physiologist with the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario, where he works with multiple sports including trampoline. He is also currently engaged in a PhD program at the University of Toronto, studying the role of warm ups in sports.
References Baum, J. & Locke, E. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skills, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587-598. Carver, C. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models and linkages. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 245–266. Clough, P. J., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002) Mental toughness: the concept and its measurement. In I. Cockerill (Ed.), Solutions in Sport Psychology (pp. 32-43). London: Thomson. Coulter, T., Mallett, C., & Gucciardi, D., (2010). Understanding mental toughness in Australian soccer: Perceptions of players, parents and coaches. Journal of Sport Sciences, 28(7), 699-716. Davda, A., (2011). A Pilot Study into measuring Resilience. Ashridge Business School. http://www.ashrigde.org.uk Denz-Penhey, H. & Murdoch, J.C. (2008). Personal resiliency: serious diagnosis and prognosis with unexpected quality outcomes. Qualitative Health Research, 18, 391-404. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087- 1101. Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (Grit-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174 Goodman, R.D. & West-Olatunji, C.A. (2008). Transgenerational trauma and resilience: Improving mental health counselling for survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30, 121-136. Gucciardi, D.F., Gordon, S., Dimmock, J., & Mallett, C.J., (2009). The role of coaches in facilitating mental toughness in adolescent endurance athletes. Journal of Sport Science, 27, 1483-1496. Hardy, J.H., Imose, R.A. and Day, E.A. (2014). Relating trait and domain Mental Toughness to complex task learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 68, 59-64. Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2007). A framework of mental toughness in the world’s best performers. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 243-264. Kobasa, S.C., Maddi, S.R., & Kahn, S. (1982). Hardiness and health: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Behavior, 27, 133-149. Maddi, S.R. (2002). The story of hardiness: twenty years of theorizing, research and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal, 54, 173-185. Maddi, S.R. & Hess, M.J. (1992) Personality Hardiness and success in basketball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23(4), 360-368. Mancini, A.D., & Donanno, G.A. (2009). Predictors and parameters of resilience to loss: toward an individual difference model. Journal of Personality, 77, 1805-1832. Martens, R., Vealey, R., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Leeds: Human Kinetics Nowack, K.M.(1990). Initial development and validation of a stress and health risk factor instrument. American Journal of Health Promotion, 4, 173-180. Scheier, M,. & Carver, C. (1985). Optimism, Coping & Health: Assessment and Implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247. Scheier, M., & Carver, C. (1993). On the power of positive thinking: The benefits of being optimistic. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 26-30. Sheard, M. (2009) A cross-national analysis of mental toughness and hardiness in elite university rugby league teams. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 109(1), 213-223. Sheard, M. & Golby, J. (2010). Personality hardiness differentiates elite-level sport performances. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 8(2), 160-169. Tusaie, K., & Dyer, J. (2004). Resilience: A historical review of the construct. Holistic Nursing Practice, 18, 3–8.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Active vs Passive
A commentary on the recent research Nancy Rebel, MLIS Director of Content Development, SIRC
igh performance athletes train hard and compete hard. At the highest levels,
improvements in performance come by the smallest of measures. In order to gain those small increments of improvement an athlete must create a physiological adaption beyond which their body has already achieved, for their body to overcome. This means pushing their training further and further. To balance this high intensity training, recovery must also occur to allow for subsequent training sessions. The purpose of recovery is to allow the body to physically repair itself from exertion as well as for the mind to get a mental break. Being able to recover quickly allows the athlete to apply more stress during training and to do so more frequently during the training cycle. This training-recovery cycle however, is nothing new. Coaches and athletes have been incorporating training and recovery strategies for many years. But at question is: what is the best way to recover in order to resume exertion? With this in mind, this article will be taking a look at the recent research around active and passive recovery. Within their training cycles coaches and athletes generally incorporate hard training days and light training days. And while they may not have considered it purposefully, with the inclusion of these light days of training they are practicing active recovery. Active recovery is training at a lower intensity (generally between 20% and 60% of maximal aerobic power) between bouts of high intensity training or on the day after
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
a hard workout. Active recovery focuses on completing a workout at a low intensity that is just high enough that it gets the blood moving and helps reduce residual fatigue in the muscle. The goal is to help the body recover faster so that an athlete can re-engage in training or competition sooner and at an optimal level. Using muscles in training or competition before they have properly recovered may increase the likelihood of sub-par performance and injury risk. Active recovery is often compared with passive recovery to achieve physiological and mental regeneration. In this context, passive recovery is at its most simple – rest – taking a day off from any exertion-related activities. Passive recovery is emphasized when doing any sort of activity could cause further fatigue. Much research has been conducted around effective recovery methodologies. Previous research has claimed some of the following benefits for active recovery:
• Reduces lactate build up in muscles • Improves psychological relaxation • Encourages lactic acid removal and speeds recovery – low intensity exercise improves blood circulation which also helps remove lactic acid from the muscle • Stimulates just enough circulation and triggers endocrine responses lightly • Active recovery forces nutrient-filled blood into the muscles which are necessary for regeneration Here we will look at some of the recent studies done around active versus passive recovery in a variety of contexts.
Power Output Lopez, Smoliga & Zavorsky1 looked at cycling sprint interval training and examined the difference between active recovery and passive in terms of power output in subsequent training bouts. Using 30-second cycling sprints, this study found that active recovery (pedalling at 1.1W/kg between sprints) significantly impeded performance in the second sprint, but significantly improved
performance in later intervals. The authors observe that passive recovery was beneficial for peak power generation when only two high intensity training bouts were performed with either a short (30-second) or moderate (4-minute) rest period. Active recovery provided “increased aerobic contributions to power production to supplement anaerobic pathways of ATP production”.
Strength and Power Accumulation of blood lactate has been shown to hinder athletic performance due to its contribution to decreased muscle work and subsequent increase in fatigue. A study of a maximal bench press strength test protocol examined the effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate concentration and power output. Lopes et al.2 used a bench step exercise as active recovery in effect using a different muscle group than the one used in the bench press exercise. Their findings showed that while the active recovery protocol did promote greater blood lactate removal, no effect on strength performance was seen possibly due to the different muscles used.
Lactate and Repeated Exertion Swimmers in competition are often required to perform multiple bouts of high intensity exertion within short spans of time leading to fatigue that will ultimately affect their final performance. Hinzpeter et al.3 examined active versus passive recovery in terms of lactate dissipation and performance within a single day exercise protocol for swimmers. The two-day protocol required swimmers to perform regeneration exercise between exertion on the first day and rest bouts between exertion on the second day. The overall results showed that while blood lactate levels rose during the progressive exercise bouts, the regeneration exercises increased the rate of lactate dissipation over the passive recuperation protocols.
Hormonal Responses In studying triathletes/cyclists performing 4-minute intervals on a cycle ergometer, Wahl et al.4 found that active recovery “promoted anabolic process and may lead to proangiogenic conditions more than with passive recovery”. They saw transient increases in circulating levels of cortisol, testosterone, T/C ratio, hGH, VEGF, HGF and MIF. Their findings suggested strong support for chronic
application of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in significantly increasing endurance performance as the hormonal responses to active recovery promoted tissue growth and repair more so than passive rest. A second study examined levels of serum testosterone and progesterone in athletes after incremental exercise to exhaustion using passive and active recovery. Mazreno et al.5 tested active sprinters in their protocol by drawing blood samples at baseline, immediately post-exercise, and 10-minutes after recovery post-exercise. Their studied showed that passive recovery showed a greater decrease in testosterone and progesterone levels compared to active recovery, however, the decrease was not significant. They concluded that type of recovery and timing of post-recovery had no effect on testosterone and progesterone level.
It seems with the multitude of variables involved, be they intensity, volume, interval length, short-term versus long-term, etc. there is still much research to be done. Coaches and athletes are advised to find the balance between volume, intensity and rest for maximum training/competition benefits within the context of their sport and competitive level. What has been determined is that active recovery will aid in the dissolution of lactate, regeneration of muscle tissues and reduces the risk of injury or overtraining. However, there is always room for passive recovery as well. Rest allows both the mind and body to heal and provides a break between adaptations. While we have briefly looked at active versus passive recovery, the relationship of active warm-down with other measures of recovery should be taken into consideration. ∆
Endurance Wahl et al.6 looked at passive and active recovery during a high-intensity shock microcycle in junior triathletes to determine its effect on oxygen consumption, performance parameters and the long-term effects of these recovery modalities. In essence the study revealed that after a 14-day shock microcycle, time trial performance and peak power output were increased over the short period of time. However, it was also observed that intensity and arrangement of the interval training (especially load-rest intervals) should be further studied as only passive recovery showed improvements in endurance performance.
Active vs contrast temperature water immersion? More recently in the research we are seeing comparisons between active recovery, passive recovery and water immersion. Early findings suggest that water immersion produces similar results as active recovery in the removal of lactate possibly due to the alternate dilation and constriction of the blood vessels with the different water temperatures instigating increased blood flow to the immersed muscles and thereby increasing lactate removal. This requires more research as it presents a significant alternative that may be better for some athletes due to the reduction of exertion to achieve similar results.
References 1. Lopez E, Smoliga J, Zavorsky G. The Effect of Passive versus Active Recovery on Power Output Over Six Repeated Wingate Sprints. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport December 2014;85(4):519-526. 2. Lopes F, Panissa V, Julio U, Menegon E, Franchini E. The Effect of Active Recovery on Power Performance during the Bench Press Exercise. Journal Of Human Kinetics March 2014;40:161-169. 3. Hinzpeter J, Zamorano Á, Cuzmar D, Lopez M, Burboa J. Effect of Active Versus Passive Recovery on Performance During Intrameet Swimming Competition. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach March 2014;6(2):119-121. 4. Wahl P, Mathes S, Achtzehn S, Bloch W, Mester J. Active vs. Passive Recovery During Highintensity Training Influences Hormonal Response. International Journal Of Sports Medicine June 15, 2014;35(7):583-589. 5. Mazreno A, Nodoushan I, Hajian N. Comparison Of The Effects Of Active And Passive Recovery After Incremental Exercise To Exhaustion On Serum Testosterone And Progesterone Levels Of Athletes. / Usporedba Učinaka Aktivnog I Pasivnog Oporavka Nakon Stupnjevitog Opterećivanja Do Iscrpljenja Na Serum Testosterona I Progesterona U Krvi Sportaša. Sport Science June 2013;6(1):28-32. 6. Wahl P, Zinner C, Grosskopf C, Rossmann R, Bloch W, Mester J. Passive Recovery is Superior to Active Recovery During a High-Intensity Shock Microcycle. Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) May 2013;27(5):1384-1393. 7. Active Recovery. SIRC Blog. Posted July 31.2014.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
MUST READ... Must Reads … Read, Excel, Learn
IST Journal Club The goal of the IST Journal Club is to share ‘must reads’ on cutting edge performance based applications, training/competition variables, and proactive medical interventions, selected by performance service experts representing various professional disciplines associated with Integrated Support Teams.
Competing effects of pain and fear of pain on postural control in low back pain? Mazaher M, Heidari E, Mostamand J, Negahban H, and van Dieen JH. Spine. 2014 Dec 1;39(25):E1518-23.
Reviewed by Eugene Liang Recent literature and the market have shown a keen interest in movement competency or literacy and the screening of them. Within these screens, basic postural assessments are commonly used as baseline measurements. Though it is common knowledge that pain has a direct effect on posture and movement, the fear of pain (FoP) from previous injury is assumed to have a similar affect. This is often observed and interpreted, clinically and in an applied setting, as favoring uninjured limbs, reluctance to move into a direction of pain or as physical/ postural imbalances. Mazaheri and colleagues investigate the effects of lower back pain (LBP) and FoP on postural sway; a simple measure of postural stability and balance. Utilizing groups with current LBP, previous LBP and no history of LBP, the authors observed the postural sway on stable and less stable bases as well as differing cognitive tasks. Their findings suggest that LBP is the mediator of postural sway and FoP has no effect. The authors’ findings also suggest that there is a greater investment of cognitive 26
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
New Books @ SIRC SIRC, in collaboration with Human Kinetics, features four books of interest to high performance sport.
Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription. Seventh Ed. Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics. Heyward, V.H. and Gibson, A.L. (2014). Kinetics.
High-Performance Training for Sports. Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics. Joyce, D. and Lewindon, D. (2014).
control on postural sway with current LBP; especially with increased task demand. For clinicians, as Mazaheri and colleagues suggest as clinical implications of their results, prioritizing pain control for LBP patients is key to postural stability. ∆
Olympic Athletes’ Experiences of a Post Games Career Transition Program. McArdle, S., Moore, P., & Lyons, D. (2014). The Sport Psychologist, 28, 269-278.
Reviewed by Judy Goss Any article on athletes in transition will catch my eye as I began my career at the COC’s Olympic Athlete Career Centre many years ago. However, as most countries struggle to find a balance between how to best prepare an athlete for transition and when to engage them, this article is no different. This study investigated Français
Handbook of Neurological Sports Medicine. Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics. Petraglia, A.L., Bailes, J.E. and Day, A.L. (2015).
Pacing: Individual Strategies for Optimal Performance. Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics. Thompson, K.G. (2015).
a three-tiered, post-games career transition support program conducted by the Irish Institute of Sport during the 2012 Olympic Games. The first tier was an informal “mental cool down” which took place after the athlete’s performance at the Games. This consisted of a 10-20 minute check-up with a sport psychologist in the Olympic Village. The second tier took place 4 to 5 weeks after the Games was an opportunity to formally debrief and participate in a group workshop all aimed a normalizing the postgames transition experience and refocusing on the athlete’s next steps. If the athlete needed continued support they would be referred to the appropriate professional (tier 3). The study found that athletes perceived the normalization of the emotional and psychological challenges of the post-games period and the use of problem focused coping to redirect the athletes focus as helpful. However, some athletes found the “mental cool down” during the Games had not provided them with sufficient time to process their Olympic experience. ∆
British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system. Pollock N, James S, Lee J, Chakraverty R. British Journal Of Sports Medicine. September 15, 2014;48(18):1347-1351.
Reviewed by Paddy McCluskey This is a recent article on the grading of muscle injuries. The grading is 0-4, based on MRI features. 0 — a focal neuromuscular injury with normal MRI, or 0 —generalised muscle soreness with normal MRI or MRI characteristic of DOMS. 1 – small injuries (tears) to the muscle. The athlete will usually present with pain during or after activity. The athlete’s range of movement at 24 h will usually be normal. 2 – moderate injuries (tears) to the muscle. The athlete will usually present with pain during activity which necessitates them to stop activity. The range of movement of the affected limb at 24 h will usually show some limitation with pain on initiation of contraction, usually with detectable weakness by the clinician. 3 - extensive tears to the muscle. The athlete will usually present with sudden onset pain and may fall to the ground. Their range of movement at 24 h is usually signiﬁcantly reduced with pain on walking. There is usually obvious weakness in contraction. 4 - complete tears to either the muscle (grade 4) or tendon (grade 4c). The athlete will experience sudden onset pain and signiﬁcant and immediate limitation to activity. A palpable gap will often be felt. There may be less pain on contraction than with a grade 3 injury It includes a letter designation depending if it is A - myofascial, B - myotendinous or C - intratendinous. The hope is that it will allow better standardization of diagnosing muscle and tendon injuries to allow for a more accurate prognosis and treatment plan. ∆
Probiotics supplementation for athletes – Clinical and physiological effects David B. Pyne , Nicholas P. West , Amanda J. Cox , Allan W. Cripps. European Journal of Sport Science. [Ahead of Print]. Published online: 23 Oct 2014.
Reviewed by Nicole Springle As we move into a season when immune function is a key factor that can impede an athlete’s success in both training and competition, interventions that can aid in improving immune response are of increased importance. Among those, probiotic supplementation has shown benefit in reducing frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in athletes. Pyne et al. provide a thorough review of the current evidence coupled with practical points of application for the practitioner interested in implementing probiotic supplementation. The review examines 15 relevant experimental studies in athletes, providing modest evidence that probiotics can provide some clinical benefit to highly active individuals. There are challenges in interpreting the studies due to variations in clinical outcome measures and use of different strains and doses. While the evidence of benefit appears promising, given the small number of studies, and variability in experimental design more research is still required to clarify effective strains, dose response, and mechanisms to optimally inform best practice models for implementation of probiotic supplementation with elite athletes. In addition to supplementation, key nutritional interventions with clearly established links to supporting immune function should be the primary focus. This includes provision of adequate macro- and micro-nutrients to meet energy demands, regular carbohydrate intake during endurance training, maintaining adequate hydration, and emphasizing nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich whole foods as part of a balanced diet. In combination with these foundational principles, probiotic supplementation is a promising intervention for improving immune function and decreasing the risk of compromised training and competitive performances due to illness. ∆
Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training. Stoggl, T. Sperlich, B (2014). Frontiers in Physiology. [Ahead of Print]
Reviewed by Leo Thornley Stoggl and Sperlich (2014) conducted a nine week training study on forty eight well trained endurance athletes (runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross country skiers). The athletes either performed a high volume program, a threshold program, a polarized program or a high intensity program. This was a well-controlled practical study, the work done was logged by heart rate and confirmed to be distinctly different between the programs. The polarized training approach proved to be the most effective at increasing VO2peak, time to exhaustion and peak velocity in the incremental test. Interestingly exclusively training at just high volume or just threshold yielded no improvements in the endurance performance related variables. This highlights the necessity of truly understanding the distribution of work in your training program in order to understand why you may (or may not!) be seeing improvements in your athletes. ∆
Effect of Acute Fatigue and Training Adaptation on Countermovement Jump Performance in Elite Snowboard Cross Athletes. Gathercole, Rob J.; Stellingwerff, Trent; Sporer, Ben C. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2014.
Reviewed by Mathieu Charbonneau
Read Learn Français
This paper clarifies some questions on monitoring training adaptation of elite athletes. We get some confirmation that performance monitoring based on a single field-test is not enough to appraise multifaceted effects of training or acute fatigue on the neuromuscular system. Individual response to training blocks can be understood more deeply with this type of analytics. The athlete will do the same test, the sport scientist will
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
complete more analysis in the background and the practitioner will benefit from more detailed understanding of training results! Considering 16 variables to describe counter movement jump performance, the authors discriminate the performance level and some mechanics (how) behind the output. The literature review is pretty thorough, the authors used statistical approaches like effect size and variability to detect changes. A companion paper describes the validation study (Alternative countermovement analysis to quantify acute neuromuscular fatigue IJSPP 2014, in Press). This work increases confidence of the monitoring methods with the purpose of detecting changes in performance. After years of training, changes in force and power generation are harder to come by. Thus it’s important to optimize neuromuscular coordination (technique) efficiency to maximize the output. It becomes difficult to make judgements on training intervention if an experienced athlete did not improve jump height during a training block. But knowing
that jumps are now done with less contraction time (more explosive) is an important foundation block to support an athlete’s performance in the field during reactive situations. An important part in the athlete development process is to detect what quality is changing, then training can be reoriented accordingly. ∆
Increases in LowerBody Strength Transfer Positively to Sprint Performance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Seitz L, Reyes A, Tran T, Villarreal E, Haff G. Sports Medicine. December 2014;44(12):1693-1702.
Reviewed by Matt Jordan Maximal lower body muscle strength is a correlate for running sprint performance. However, the transfer between improving maximal lower body muscle strength in training and concomitant improvements in sprint performance is unclear.
To evaluate the effects of improving lower body maximal muscle strength on improving sprint performance Seitz et al (2014) performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the transfer between gains in the maximal load lifted in the back squat and sprinting. The meta-analysis included 510 subjects in 15 scientific studies. The primary finding was that improvements in lower body maximal muscle strength measured with the back squat transferred positively to sprint performance. The size of this improvement was affected by the level of performance (i.e. in general, the better the athlete the bigger the transfer), frequency of strength sessions per week (i.e. with more than two strength sessions, sprint performance tend to decline) and rest interval (i.e. longer rest intervals favor greater improvements in sprinting). It is interesting to note the authors suggest that using moderate intensities (i.e. 70-84.9% of the 1 repetition maximum) and mixed methods involving high intensity strength training and very low intensity strength training (i.e. < 40% of the 1 repetition maximum) may be optimal for improving sprint performance. ∆
26-28 OCTOBER, 2015 TORONTO, ONTARIO
MERGING THE ART OF COACHING WITH THE SCIENCE OF SPORT 28
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Recommended Readings In our collaborative effort to bring you the latest research in high performance sport, Own The Podiums has selected specific areas of interest to coaches and trainers and SIRC has culled through our resources to provide access to recent research published within these areas.
LTAD Allen S, Vandenbogaerde T, Hopkins W. Career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers: Benchmarks for talent development. European Journal Of Sport Science. October 2014;14(7):643-651.
Segura J, Lundby C. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion. British Journal of Sports Medicine. May 15, 2014;48(10):1-6.
Robertson S, Burnett A, Cochrane J. Tests Examining Skill Outcomes in Sport: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties and Feasibility. Sports Medicine. April 2014;44(4):501-518.
Olusoga P, Maynard I, Butt J, Hays K. Coaching under Pressure: Mental skills training for sports coaches. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review. September 2014;10(3):31-44.
Romann, M., & Fuchslocher, J. (2014). The Need to Consider Relative Age Effects in Women’s Talent Development Process. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 118(3), 651-662.
Steel K, Harris B, Baxter D, King M, Ellam E. Coaches, Athletes, Skill Acquisition Specialists: A Case of Misrecognition. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. April 2014;9(2):367-378.
Wiseman A, Bracken N, Horton S, Weir P. The Difficulty of Talent Identification: Inconsistency among Coaches Through Skill-Based Assessment of Youth Hockey Players. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. June 2014;9(3):447-456.
Anti-Doping Botré F, Torre X, Donati F, Mazzarino M. Narrowing the gap between the number of athletes who dope and the number of athletes who are caught: scientific advances that increase the efficacy of antidoping tests. British Journal of Sports Medicine. May 15, 2014;48(10):1-5. Geyer H, Schänzer W, Thevis M. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping. British Journal of Sports Medicine. May 15, 2014;48(10):1-8. Pitsiladis Y, Durussel J, Rabin O. An integrative ‘Omics’ solution to the detection of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood doping. British Journal of Sports Medicine. May 15, 2014;48(10):1-7. www.sirc.ca
Psychology Anderson R, Hanrahan S, Mallett C. Investigating the Optimal Psychological State for Peak Performance in Australian Elite Athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. July 2014;26(3):318-333. García-Calvo T, Leo F, Gonzalez-Ponce I, Sánchez-Miguel P, Mouratidis A, Ntoumanis N. Perceived coach-created and peercreated motivational climates and their associations with team cohesion and athlete satisfaction: evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences. November 2014;32(18):17381750. Wikman J, Stelter R, Melzer M, Hauge M, Elbe A. Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. September 2014;12(3):185-205.
Periodization Wahl P, Güldner M, Mester J. Effects and Sustainability of a 13-Day HighIntensity Shock Microcycle in Soccer. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. June 2014;13(2):259-265. Clemente Suárez V, González-Ravé J. Four weeks of training with different aerobic workload distributions – Effect on aerobic performance. European Journal of Sport Science. January 2, 2014;14:S1-S7. Freitas C, Aoki M, Franciscon C, Arruda A, Carling C, Moreira A. Psychophysiological Responses to Overloading and Tapering Phases in Elite Young Soccer Players. Pediatric Exercise Science. May 2014;26(2):195-202.
Nutrition Desbrow B, McCormack J, Leveritt M, et al. Sports Dietitians Australia Position Statement: Sports Nutrition for the Adolescent Athlete. International Journal Of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. October 2014;24(5):570-584. Pettersson S, Berg C. Hydration Status in Elite Wrestlers, Judokas, Boxers, and Taekwondo Athletes on Competition Day. International Journal Of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. June 2014;24(3):267275. Shanmugam V, Jowett S, Meyer C. Interpersonal difficulties as a risk factor for athletes’ eating psychopathology. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports. April 2014;24(2):469-476. Martinsen M, Bahr R, Børresen R, Holme I, Pensgaard A, Sundgot-Borgen J. Preventing Eating Disorders among Young Elite Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. March 2014;46(3):435447.
Excel Halson S. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep. Sports Medicine. May 2, 2014;44:1323.
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
For more events, check out the SIRC Conference Calendar.
JANUARY January 10 January 13-15 January 22-24 January 27-29
February 4 Feb 11-14 Feb 27-28
March 9-11 March 20-22 March 27-28 March 30- April 1 April 11-12 April 13-14 April 14-19
BC Sport Conference
Burnaby, British Columbia The 2015 Sports Science Summit London, United Kingdom Danish Sports Medicine Conference: Treatment & Prevention of Copenhagen, Sports Injuries Denmark 2015 Canadian Sport for Life National Summit/Sommet national Gatineau, du mouvement « Au Canada, le sport c’est pour la vie » 2015 Quebec FEBRUARY Change, Challenge and Opportunity: An interdisciplinary Toronto, Ontario symposium on injury prevention in sport and recreation CASEM & OMA Sport Med Conference Ottawa, Ontario MIT Sloan Sports Analytics Conference Boston, Massachusetts MARCH Kingbridge 2nd Annual Canadian Sport Institute Network - Sport Centre, Ontario Sciences and Medicine Workshop Finnish Sports Physiotherapist Association - Prevention: Mission Possible 2015 19th Annual Eastern Canada Sport and Exercise Psychology Symposium Sport Events Congress APRIL 12th International Scientific Conference on Transformation Processes in Sport ICPESS 2015 : XIII International Conference on Physical Education and Sport Science American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) 24th Annual Meeting
Helsinki, Finland Ottawa, Ontario Toronto, Ontario London, England Venice, Italy Hollywood, Florida
2015 #YearofSport 30
HP SIRCuit Winter 2015
Pour plus d’information
For more information
sirc.ca/SIRCuitHP HP SIRCuit Winter 2015