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Propulsion special

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Dagfinn Lunde on Chinese ship finance

Cosco/China Shipping merger analysis Winter 2015

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Dwarfed

Nation’s shipbuilding capacity contracts dramatically


■ ■ ■ CONTENTS

■ ■ ■ Regulars 3 Editor’s Comment 5 Economy

Many Chinese banks are probably already matching the top names —Ship financier Dagfinn Lunde

7 Lines

11

9 Yards 10 Offshore 11 Finance 13 Commodities 14 Logistics

■ ■ ■ Profiles

15

We are trying to increase the percentage of domestic container transit volumes in our business —Wang Jun, general manager, Dalian Jifa Bohai Rim Container Lines

15 Wang Jun 17 Ed Buttery 18 Tan Jianqiang 19 Maisie Cheng

Since the family exited the handysize segment with Pacific Basin, we’ve not had the market to reenter until now — Taylor Maritime’s Ed Buttery

■ ■ ■ Features

17

21 Propulsion

■ ■ ■ Hubs 25 Shanghai 26 Taipei 27 Hong Kong

■ ■ ■ Reviews 28 Books

■ ■ ■ Opinions 2 9 Charles De Trenck 31 Andrew Craig-Bennett

18

What is really important is that the company is ready when the market comes back — Tan Jianqiang, president of Chongqing Heniu Ro-Ro Ship Transportation

Hong Kong has no resources. People, location and policies have to be our strengths. Competiveness, not incentives, is key — Arthur Bowring, managing director of the Hong Kong Shipowners Association

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UP FRONT ■ ■ ■

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An ASM publication EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Sam Chambers sam@asiashippingmedia.com CHIEF CORRESPONDENT Katherine Si katherine@asiashippingmedia.com CORRESPONDENT Jason Jiang jason@asiashippingmedia.com BEIJING Li Deng Bai SHANGHAI Colin Shek HONG KONG Alfred Romann DALIAN Mark Downing GUANGZHOU Wang Fanglei TAIPEI David Green CONTRIBUTORS Bei Hong, Charles De Trenck, Matthew Flynn, Paul French, Max Hong, Li Dong, Manish Singh, Andrew Craig-Bennett PHOTOGRAPHERS André Eichman, Basil Pao All editorial material should be sent to sam@asiashippingmedia.com or mailed to Office 701, 9 Renmin Lu, Zhongshan District, Dalian, China 116001 COMMERCIAL DIRECTOR Grant Rowles grant@asiashippingmedia.com SALES DIRECTOR Helen Ong helen@asiashippingmedia.com SinoShip advertising agents are also based in Japan, Korea and Scandinavia — to contact a local agent email grant@asiashippingmedia.com for details. Media kits are available TO download at:

www.asiashippingmedia.com All commercial material should be sent to grant@asiashippingmedia.com or mailed to Asia Shipping Media Pte Ltd 30 Cecil Street, #19-08 Prudential Tower Singapore 049712 DESIGN Tigersoft Pte Ltd PRINTERS Allion Printing, Hong Kong SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any shipping-related company headquartered in the People’s Republic of China can receive SinoShip magazine for free. For all other companies a US$100 subscription is charged for 2014’s four issues of SinoShip. Email sales@asiashippingmedia.com for subscription enquiries.

Copyright © Asia Shipping Media Pte Ltd (ASM), 2014 www.asiashippingmedia.com Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this review is correct, the publishers accept no liability for any inaccuracies or omissions that may occur. All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the copyright owner. For reprints of specific articles contact grant@asiashippingmedia.com. Twitter: @sinoship Linked In: SinoShip China Shipping Network

Dry bulk debate seeks positives from double negatives November 19 saw the fourth annual SinoShip Dry Bulk Business Breakfast take place at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club in Hong Kong. Speakers included Wah Kwong’s Tim Huxley, Pacific Basin’s Mats Berglund and Warwick Norman from RightShip. It turned out to be an historic day on which to be holding the discussion – November 19 being the moment the Baltic Dry Index hit a record low of 504 points. Despite this, panellists and delegates felt the current bulker plight was not as bad as that experienced 30 years ago. “It’s not as bad as the 1980s,” said Huxley. Back then there were plenty more ships laid up. Nevertheless, Huxley did feel a bloodbath was on the cards next year. Searching for bright spots, Berglund said that bauxite was back in a big way, while an analyst from DVB, Andreas Rabe, felt India could take up some of the coal slack left by China. The event was sponsored by DVB and RightShip for the fourth straight year. The possibility of Indonesia repealing its ban on unprocessed ore exports was viewed as a bright spot, but on the whole the 45 high level people attending the event were pessimistic. RightShip's Norman discussed how bulkers were declining in quality as the downturn stretched on. Taking a double negative as a positive, Maarten Vis from DVB said: “One bright spot is that there are no bright spots.” What he meant by that is that since there is no glimmer of hope there would be no orders and more scrapping giving the markets time to rebalance.

What’s for sure is that as we head to 2016 the depleted balance sheets among the world’s dry bulk owning community will see some very high profile casualties.

Sam Chambers Editor sam@asiashippingmedia.com

Sinoship WINTER 2015

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Economy ■ ■ ■

Slower than ever but rebalancing achieved ‘For investors the rebalancing story is more important as it indicates the longerterm trajectory of the Chinese economy’

Premier Xi Jinping’s state visit to the UK in October (pictured) indicated just how far some western governments will go to accommodate China these days but most of the media was pessimistic regarding China’s third quarter macroeconomic results. And there was reason for pessimism – the 6.9% GDP growth announced was the slowest since 2009. However, as always, there were bright spots in the third quarter numbers. The more optimistic pointed to the slight acceleration in retail sales growth, with most arguing that this indicated that domestic consumers had shrugged off the A-share market fall. It was a milestone of sorts for China’s economic planners looking to rebalance

the economy through greater domestic consumption - for the first time ever, services and consumption accounted for over half of China’s GDP. Andy Rothman, China analyst with Matthews Asia in San Francisco, also noted that the 6.9% retail sales growth was on a base that is approximately

300% bigger than it was a decade ago (when GDP growth was 10%) meaning that the incremental expansion in China’s economy this year is about 60% bigger than it was a decade ago. Only those new to China watching really consider the GDP number significant. Rather GDP is determined by

Key consumption stats for China Category % growth Sept 2015 over Sept 2014 SUV sales 59 Cinema box office revenues 54 Furniture sales 19 Household appliance sales 11 New home sales 9 Passenger car sales 3 Source: China National Bureau of Statistics

many factors in China including shrinking demographics, slower growth in construction activity and the base effect (as mentioned above). For investors the rebalancing story is more important as it indicates the longerterm trajectory of the Chinese economy. The boost to retail offsets expected declines in the importance of manufacturing and construction. But what is driving greater domestic consumption is important – wages particularly. In the first three quarters of this year, real per capita disposable income rose 7.7%, while over the past decade, real urban income rose 137% and real rural income rose 139%. Some of that increase was driven by government policy: the minimum wage in Shanghai, for example, has risen 187% over the past 10 years. On the industrial side construction is definitely slowing considerably as are heavy industries related to construction. While this is partly, indeed mainly, due to the growth rate of infrastructure and new home construction having peaked there has also been a general fall in global commodity prices. The downside to this is the emergence of renewed rustbelts, mostly in northeastern China where, first the least productive and most outdated state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were located and took a pounding in the 1990s and where, now, the heavy industries being hit by the construction/infrastructure downturn are based. Manufacturing itself remains strong if not connected to construction and this is where jobs growth is occurring right now. So, as we plough through the final quarter of the year, the indicators to watch are not GDP or heavy industry and construction but SME growth, retail sales and continued wages growth. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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LINES ■ ■ ■

China Merchants Group looks set to takeover Sinotrans&CSC in a potential merger between the two shipping giants. The two companies have already integrated their tanker assets by establishing joint venture China VLCC in 2014. As at the end of 2014, China Merchants Group and Sinotrans&CSC had total assets of RMB624.1bn ($98bn) and RMB109.1bn ($17.1bn) respectively.

Chinese state-owned firms ordered a slew of further very large ore carriers (VLOCs), further cementing China’s raw material supply chain link with Brazil. China Merchants Energy Shipping (CMES) came in with an order for 10 VLOCs at domestic yards, while China Ore Shipping, a joint venture between Cosco and China Shipping, also ordered seven 400,000 dwt valemax ore carriers from China’s Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding in November. Both companies already have a number of VLOCs on their books.

China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL) signed shipbuilding contracts with

CSSC-affiliated Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding for the construction of six 21,000 teu mega containerships. The deal comes with five options. The vessels will be the largest boxships ever built in China.

Towards the end of October, Cosco, China’s largest maritime conglomerate, suffered an embarrassing leak, which laid bare the corruption and nepotism that has bedevilled the state-run giant for years. The minutes of a closed-door meeting were reported by Beijing Daily’s official Wechat account and reproduced by news outlets momentarily before being deleted. Xu Aisheng, Cosco’s newly appointed discipline inspection head, was quoted detailing the huge charters Cosco had paid out and other investment errors, and how the company had possibly been involved in illegal activities. “We are asking all units for accountability,” Xu was reported saying.

China Shipping started a grain shipping service with COFCO, China’s largest grain trader. China Shipping has customised a dedicated liner service for

COFCO’s grain imports from Latin America. The new service has deployed one bulker, COFCO 1, for the service and will put another two vessels into service soon. The two companies expect to ship 3.5m tons of grain annually.

Shandong Shipping has applied for a listing on the National Equities Exchange and Quotations (NEEQ). The controlling shareholder of the company, Shandong Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission expects to use the raised funds to “ease financial pressure and make more efficient investments”, it said.

Sino-Global has received a notice of non-compliance from NASDAQ that could threaten the China-backed company’s listing on the stock exchange. The company’s share price traded at below $1.00 per share

for over 30 consecutive business days between September 5 and November 5 and continues to do so, which fails to comply with NASDAQ’s Continued Listing Rule 5550(a)(2), the notice stated on November 6. Sino-Global has an 180-day period ending May 4, 2016 in which to regain compliance by achieving a share price of over $1.00 for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days.

Cosco Shipping has established a dedicated timber shipping department in order to optimise operations of the business. Cosco Far Reaching Shipping, a timber shipping subsidiary of Cosco, has been integrated with Cosco Shipping’s timber carrier assets on the Africa routes. It will manage the entire timber shipping business and vessels used for carrying timber within the group. In addition, some heavylift vessels and multipurpose vessels of Cosco Shipping will be transferred to the department.

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YARDS ■ ■ ■

COV ER

STO RY

Whittled down to size China’s shipbuilding scene has contracted dramatically in 2015. More pain is inevitable next year, warns Sam Chambers In the two years since the last edition of Marintec China, Asia’s largest shipping show, the local shipbuilding industry has changed dramatically. Some of the biggest names have been cut to shreds, mergers have been instigated and white lists deployed. In two years China’s shipbuilding scene has contracted dramatically, down from more than 1,500 yards to less than 100 actually taking orders. SinoShip anticipates that figure to fall still further to the point where a more mature shipbuilding nation emerges like in neighbouring South Korea and Japan where essentially there are around 10 big merged yards per country. Ren Yuanlin, executive chairman of Yangzijiang

Shipbuilding, said earlier this year he felt there was no need for more than 30 shipbuilders with yard facilities not exceeding 60m dwt. In the first nine months of 2015, Chinese shipyards received newbuilding orders totalling 18.16m dwt, a fall of 65.4% compared to the same period of 2014, according to figures from China Association of the National Shipbuilding Industry (Cansi). With Beijing pushing mergers in shipping, speculation continues to be rife that

the two state-run big names in shipbuilding, China State Shipbuilding Corp (CSSC) and China Shipbuilding Industry Corp (CSIC), will be forced to merge. The pair were split apart in 1999. The biggest fall since the last Marintec has been at what was once China’s largest private yard, China Rongsheng Heavy Industries, now known as China Huarong Energy Company. This giant facility in Jiangsu now lies empty, a ghost yard and a symbol of the irrational excess of the build up

Some of the biggest names have been cut to shreds, mergers have been instigated and white lists deployed

of shipbuilding capacity in the People’s Republic in the previous decade. Beijing’s move to make white lists for approved yards for commercial shipbuilding and latterly offshore construction (see next page) has turned the finance taps off for many who failed to make it to these lists, hastening consolidation. With newbuild prices low – and the gap between South Korean and Japanese ships compared to Chinese ones now much narrowed – the scant orders that are coming in are tending to favour Japan and South Korea at the moment. China’s yards will rely on domestic orders for 2016 – another year of severe contraction is inevitable during this painful phase. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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■ ■ ■ OFFSHORE

Beijing gives seven yards a chance of survival

Expect extreme consolidation among China’s offshore yards now that a white list of approved facilities has been published China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) has released the first white list for offshore shipyards, having issued a notice to domestic yards in July asking them to submit applications. Only seven yards – all staterun – have qualified on the first batch, made up of CIMC Raffles, ZPMC, Cosco (Qidong) Offshore Engineering, Cosco Nantong Shipyard, Shanghai Waigaoqiao 10

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Contraction at Chinese yards is inevitable and Beijing has clearly decided that state-run yards will lead the sector through its consolidation phase Shipbuilding, China Merchants Heavy Industry and Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Offshore. The central government is hoping the white list can

optimise offshore building capacity and promote mergers and acquisitions in the industry, with shipyards on the list enjoying favourable policies from the

government and banks. Last year, the central government also released a white list for the commercial shipbuilding industry, something that has helped prune the number of yards in the country. With receipts from offshore deals plummeting in the past two years, contraction at Chinese yards is inevitable and Beijing has clearly decided that state-run yards will lead the sector through its consolidation phase, squeezing finance for those who have failed to make it to the list. Orders for new ships and rigs are simply not happening in the current environment where more than 1,000 rigs have been laid up worldwide and 250,000 offshore-related staff have been made redundant in the past 12 months. With utilisation and charter rates down by more than 40% this year the vast majority of the industry are struggling, hit hard by overcapacity. Deutsche Bank, in a recent report, does not expect the OSV sector to pick up anytime soon. Any offshore contracts which are up for grabs are likely to attract aggressive bidders, and hence drive down prices and margins, Deutsche Bank said. CIMB Research, in another recent report, does not expect a strong rebound for the OSV sector in 2016, and advised investors to focus on tendering activities to discern the sector's shifts. More tenders and enquiries mean the prospect for more work which, in turn, means a positive revision in offshore fleets' utilisation and day rates expectations. Either way, the white list comes at a time where demand for offshore products has completely dropped off the radar. Even those on the list will struggle to make ends meet in the coming 12 months.


FINANCE ■ ■ ■

China on track to top ship finance leaderboard Renowned ship financier Dagfinn Lunde makes some bold predictions in this exclusive column

Ship finance is a funny old beast that on the face of it does not look to be in step with shipping freight rates. Here’s the funny thing – while the media is awash with how dire shipping’s fortunes are, sourcing finance for many is frankly simple. Of course financing depends on which type of company you have and what ships you want to finance. If it’s a newbuild you’ll find capital as export credit agencies will do whatever they can to support you. For secondhand buys, if you have a corporate structure, the ships you are buying are less than five years and you have a long-term bank relationship, you should be okay. The problem here is that many traditional shipping banks have disappeared, so many companies have to find a new long-term relationship which is not easy

these days and sometimes you would like to buy a ship older than five years. The other issue when it comes to S&P is that small- and medium-sized owners have practically nowhere to go, they are the ones hurting now. One ready source of cash is China – and given how the giant show that is Marintec China is upon us in Shanghai it seems worthwhile analysing Chinese ship finance. A glance down at Marine Money’s list of top shipping finance institutions shows how Chinese banks have come

up tremendously in recent years: Bank of China in sixth spot worldwide, China Exim (CEXIM) in eighth, and China Development Bank and ICBC high up on the leaderboard too. Bear in mind, these statistics do not include ship leasing. Ship leasing has become huge in China. Chinese institutions are taking a huge bite in leasing; when they underwrite they go for $1bn at a time, seven or eight ships per contract. Having said all this, from personal experience I can vouch that dealing with Chinese finance folk is not easy – I am in the

I’ll give it two years before the likes of Bank of China and CEXIM are matching DNB, Nordea and KfW at the top of the ship finance ranks

midst of a transaction at the moment and I don't mind admitting what a headache it is turning out to be. In terms of interest rates, what Chinese banks offer are not especially competitive. It is more that they have the availability of funds and can underwrite big tickets. Where everyone else has reined in outlays, with capital restraints and the cost of money going up, China has ploughed forth. Here’s a big prediction on Chinese ship finance. With the likes of RBS, HSH, Lloyds Bank, Commerzbank et al falling by the wayside I’ll give it two years before the likes of Bank of China and CEXIM are matching DNB, Nordea and KfW at the top of the ship finance ranks. The fact is if you include ship leasing exposure many Chinese banks are probably already matching the top names. Finally, since this column has skewed towards China, my take on the big news brewing there – the merger between Cosco and China Shipping. Clearly this is politically driven. From a rational economic point of view, these two loss makers are already too big – a full on merger might make matters worse. From a managerial point of view, I believe the best way forward would be not to merge these entities straight up, rather pair up matching sectors – bulk, tanker, box, etc – into new, strong, individual combined companies. Whatever happens, watching China develop maritime-wise is never dull. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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Commodities ■ ■ ■

Copper comedown Dalian correspondent Mark Downing looks at China’s slackened copper demand China’s recent surge in copper imports is not indicative of a rebound in China’s economy but likely low-price restocking. Demand for the third most widely used metal in the world is oft regarded as a bellwether of the economy. But the recent surge in imports is largely due to manufacturers and China’s State Reserves Bureau taking advantage of six-year low prices to restock, rather than representing increased industrial consumption. This highly conductive and malleable metal literally winds up in telecommunication wiring, electric power generation and transmission equipment as well as plumbing and building materials. But sagging consumption — down 24% this year to the lowest since 2009 — suggests that the world’s second largest economy is facing its weakest growth in a quarter century as it transitions from state-sponsored investment towards consumer-led economic growth. China has the sixth biggest copper reserves in the world, at 4% of the total, yet is the second largest copper miner. Since 2002, China has been the world’s largest consumer of copper ores, anodes, and refined copper, accounting for up to 45% of the 23m tonnes of global copper supply. China’s processing and refining capacity have grown significantly over the past decade with now more than a third of global copper smelter production. China’s refined copper production has increased as it processes more foreign ore amid a global glut. Output rose 6.8% in the first 10 months from a year earlier at 6.5m tonnes. When China’s copper

demand growth peaked it was importing copper ores predominantly from Peru and Chile and scrap from the US for smelting and refining. A September Golden Sachs forecast has copper demand set to rise by 3% a year through 2020. Demand has slowed from 6% last year and 11% in 2013. Imports of refined and semi-finished copper products jumped by more than 30% in September to 460,000 tonnes compared to August and 18% in the same month last year. It was the highest monthly shipment total since January 2014 and the first rise since June of last year. But overall year to date imports are still lagging those of 2014, falling 5.5% to 3.4m tonnes. However, financial and arbitrage schemes muddy the measure of China’s actual copper consumption. Witness last year’s Qingdao port scandal – such metal commodity financing got out of hand as stockpiled metals were allegedly pledged multiple times as collateral. Credit Suisse estimated earlier this year that up to a third of Chinese copper imports were leveraged to tap cheap US

dollar loans or for interest rate arbitrage. Such copper commodity financing has now been much diminished. Further, Chinese hedge funds have used copper as a proxy to bet against the Chinese economy. Prevented from spreading rumours about Chinese stocks, speculators turned to copper, aided by inadequate data on domestic stockpiles. Some analysts expect a recovery in China's housing market, with increased bank lending to property developers and homebuyers in the third quarter and the government promising to invest around $315bn in power grid infrastructure, particularly in inland cities. However, corruption investigations earlier this year at state-owned energy companies have slowed grid deployment. Moreover, aluminium is increasingly being used as a substitute for thick power-distribution cables. But a recovery through housing may be some time coming. With a surplus of unsold properties, housing completions have dropped by

15% this year and housing starts are even weaker. Additionally, copper is installed post-construction as wiring, piping, air conditioning and within home appliances. Long-term, the intensity of copper usage in China is likely to grow as average incomes rise. China is well below the level at which copper consumption peaked in Japan. China’s push towards renewable power generation and electric vehicles show promise of increased demand. The Silk Road initiative will likely disrupt seaborne flows as China will source and process significant copper reserves from neighbouring countries along the ancient trade route. By the end of the decade, Mongolia is poised to build the world’s largest copper and gold mine nestled across the border with China. Overall, China’s imports of this red industrial metal are expected to remain weak well into next year owing to weak industrial consumption, increased domestic stockpiles and less metal used for collateral financing. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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■ ■ ■ LOGISTICS

Take off The nation’s express operators are about to go on plane buying binge, reports Jason Jiang

At the end of October, China’s State Council released the first guidance on the development of the express industry. The guidance encourages express companies to develop their business through mergers, listings and setting up cargo airlines. The government will also offer policy support to freighter acquisitions. In the same month, Hangzhou-based YTO Express signed with Boeing for the acquisition of 15 B737-800 freighters, which will all be delivered before 2020 and expand the company’s fleet to 20 freighters. YTO Express is the third express company in China to set up a cargo airline, following EMS and SF Express. It took delivery of its first freighter in September and another two will join the fleet before the end of this year. “China had already exceeded the US and become top of the world in terms of total express volume in 2014. However, there are still less than 100 freighters operating in the market, compared with more than 600 14

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freighters owned just by FedEx itself. There will be an increasing demand for freighters in the future,” says Yu Weijiao, president of YTO Express. SF Express, China’s largest private express company, is also eyeing fleet expansion. The company currently operates a fleet of 42 freighters including 22 owned and 20 on charter. Li Sheng, president of SF Airlines, says the plan is to expand its fleet to 100 freighters by 2020. SF Express is also looking to construct a hub airport in central China. It is currently considering a location in Ezhou, a city near Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province. It is expected to provide services for the highend express delivery market and cover 90% of the mainland with flight times of barely a couple of hours. The company has so far established regional

hubs in Beijing, Hangzhou and Shenzhen. “All of the more than 200 airports on the mainland are designed mainly for passengers. The need for express delivery and cargo is of lesser consideration,” Li says. “Leading global express delivery companies must have such a national or even global air hub. It will increase the company’s overall efficiency and utilisation ratio of its aircraft,” he adds. Wang Guowen, director of the Center for Logistics and Supply Chain Management at the China Development Institute, believes that SF Express’ airport hub has the potential to become the largest possibly in the world. “China has been the largest logistics economy for nearly a decade. With its large population entering an air transport

China is the world’s top express market, yet it has less than 100 freighter aircraft. FedEx, alone, has more than 600

consumption age, there is enough evidence to expect that the air hub will be the largest in Asia, or even in the world,” he explains. The country’s express delivery companies have grown at an annual rate of 30% in the past five years in tandem with the exponential growth of the ecommerce market. Major players in the market have been sought after by investors keen to bring them to the capital market. Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a fund created by Alibaba chairman Ma Yun, acquired an undisclosed stake in YTO Express this year. Market insiders believe it is 20%. STO Express, another major player in the market, is currently making attempts to list the company through a shares-forassets deal with listed company Zhejiang IDC Fluid Control, whose shares have been suspended since August. The deal would give STO Express a listed shell, bypassing China's lengthy IPO process and likely making it the first express company to go public.


PROFILE ■ ■ ■

Dalian calling A feeder subsidiary of a port group has ambitions to grow

D

alian Jifa Bohai Rim Container Lines (DBR), an affiliate company of Dalian Port Group, is looking to further expand its business with eyes on the international market. The company mainly operates feeder shipping services in the Bohai Rim region. It also provides international feeder services to Japanese ports including Hakata, Moji, Nakanoseiki. Dalian Port, an important shipping gateway in northeast China, has been making efforts to expand business through its hinterland strategy in recent years in order to deal with the shipping downturn. The port forecasts that it will handle

440m tons of cargo and complete a container throughput of 10.23m teu this year. “With the fast development of Dalian Port’s hinterland, we have also been expanding our capacity and enhancing our services in order to meet the growing demand,” says Wang Jun, general manager of DBR. Currently the company operates a fleet of eight feeder containerships and has established a feeder network connecting most of the ports in the Bohai Rim region. This year, DBR has further completed its service network by adding a service to Huludao Port in Liaoning. “We have seen great opportunities from the development of the hinterland economy in Huludao. Many major enterprises

We have seen great opportunities from the development of the hinterland economy

including PetroChina, China Metallurgical Group, Siemens have just set up there. The seamless transit service has made more shippers from the region choose Dalian Port as their major export port,” Wang says. “We are also trying to increase the percentage of domestic container transit volumes in our business,” Wang says, adding that the domestic container transit business has become a new growth point for Dalian Port. DBR now provides domestic shipping services from Bohai Rim ports to southern ports including Xiamen and Guangzhou. “Next step we are going to increase the density of our domestic container shipping routes,” Wang reveals. Dalian Jifa Ship Management, a joint venture between DBR and its parent Dalian Port Group, signed shipbuilding contracts with CSIC-affiliated Shanhaiguan Shipbuilding Industry in September for the construction of two 1,100 teu feeder containerships plus four options. The first two vessels are expected to be deployed on the domestic coastal and Yangtze River routes upon delivery delivered in 2017. According to Wang, the company is looking to charter the first two vessels from the new order to another domestic containership operator and is currently in talks with a few companies, and the company will execute the options in the order if the chartering contract is finalised. Recently Dalian Port Group made a capital replenishment of RMB100m into DBR to support the development of the company. According to Wang, DBR is also eyeing expanding its service network to Mongolia and Russia with the support of Dalian Jifa Logistics, a sister firm of the company and its parent Dalian Port.

NEED TO KNOW NEED TO KNOW

DBR Dalian Jifa Bohai Rim Container Lines is a subsidiary of Dalian Port Group. It mainly operates feeder shipping services in the Bohai Rim region and has a fleet of eight feeder containerships, with another two on order.

Sinoship WINTER 2015

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PROFILE ■ ■ ■

Chip off the old block Ed Buttery is buying Japanese handysizes during the downturn, just like his father did 20 years ago

Since the family exited the handysize segment with Pacific Basin, we’ve not had the market to reenter until now

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inda Ho smiles as she recalls how she tried to persuade her godson when he was young not to take a career in shipping. “I told him, try anything else, just not shipping, it’s such a tough business,” says Ho, herself part of Fairmont/Magsaysay shipping dynasty. The thing is her godson was steeped in shipping lore from an early age. “He was determined that this was going to be his future,” Ho says. Ho’s godson is Ed Buttery. The surname might help quickly discern why shipping is in his blood. Ed is the son of one of the most famous names in Hong Kong shipping, Chris Buttery, the legendary founder of Pacific Basin and current backer of Epic Gas. And it seems to SinoShip that Ed is like

a chip off the old block – albeit perhaps a more polished one – wheeling and dealing as he starts up his own fleet. Ed Buttery founded Taylor Maritime in Hong Kong last year. The company name is a nod to his Thai wife, Paula Taylor. Buttery has since gone about pursuing a handysize bulker fleet build up, like Pacific Basin did in the 1990s. Taylor Maritime’s fleet today stands at five ships, the most recent one acquired was the Kwela (32,474 dwt, 2002 built) from Japan’s Santoku Senpaku for $6.8m. The Mitsubishi Heavy-built vessel comes with four 30.5 ton cranes. All the ships bought so far have been Japanese second hand tonnage. “Since the family exited the handysize

segment with Pacific Basin, we’ve not had the market to reenter until now,” Buttery says. “However with Taylor Maritime we are starting small to lay the foundations for a company we hope will be known for being a reliable long-term partner with high standards and well-run ships.” Prior to founding the company, Buttery was at Nordea Bank for two years. Some might argue it is brave or foolhardy even to start a dry bulk company during one of the sector’s worst and most protracted downturns. Others would say the timing could not be better. A source was speaking with Chris Buttery’s cohort and Pacific Basin cofounder Paul Over recently. Over told the SinoShip source: “This is exactly the time when Chris and I would start buying ships in the old days.” Clearly the younger Buttery has his father’s sense of market timing in him too.

NEED TO KNOW NEED TO KNOW

Taylor Maritime Founded in 2014 by Ed Buttery in Hong Kong. Focusing on handysizes. Fleet today consists of five secondhand Japanese vessels.

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■ ■ ■ Profile

Cars along the Yangtze Jason Jiang meets an enterprising tycoon from Chongqing

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hongqing is facing a new round of opportunities for shipping development, despite the current downturn in the market, reckons Tan Jianqiang, president of Chongqing Heniu Ro-Ro Ship Transportation, an integrated shipping company that provides container, bulk and roro shipping services on the Yangtze River, the third longest river in the world. Tan says the economic influences from southwest China has been increasing in the past few years, the central government has also put the development of Yangtze River Economic Belt as one of the key focuses in the latest five-year plan. Chongqing, as the transportation hub in the region, has great advantages for shipping development. “Currently Chongqing is making efforts to develop the city into an intermodal shipping hub for the upstream Yangtze River. Plans to upgrade the port terminals are also on the cards, which will facilitate the development of the industry,” Tan says. Born locally, Tan grew up by the Yangtze River. He is a businessman with shrewd insight on the market. In 2000, he saw opportunities from the river level increase caused by the Three Gorges Reservoir and invested in a roro fleet to transport cars between Chongqing and Yichang. Tan registered the company in 2002. Later he entered the coalmine business and also invested in a number of bulk carriers to transport coal, and then he decided to use the ships to transport iron ore, steel and fertilizers when he saw a downtrend in the coal market. Today Chongqing Heniu controls a fleet of seven roro ships and more than 50 multipurpose vessels that can transport both containers and bulk cargoes covering most of the major ports on the Yangtze River. Total capacity of the fleet is about 500,000 dwt.

“Thanks to the fast development of Chongqing Port, there is growing demand for roro shipping services. More and more shippers choose to ship their cars from and to Chongqing on the water instead of land,” Tan says. In the first ten months of 2015, Chongqing Port handled a record of 209,000 cars, up 36.3% year-on-year. Tan reckons one of the major issues in the market now is still overcapacity, and he admits the profit of the company has sharply declined due to the continued downturn in the sector. “In the current situation, we have done many measures including cost control and fleet optimisation to avoid suffering losses,” Tan says. Tan also invested in a shipyard Heniu Fuxing Shipbuilding - in Yunyang,

The company is ready when the market comes back 18

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Chongqing in 2012, and the shipyard has delivered seven 7,500 dwt, 436 teu multipurpose vessels for Chongqing Heniu this year. Tan is confident that the market will get better in the near future. “There are only bankrupt companies, but no bankrupt industry,” he says with optimism. “What is really important is that the company is ready when the market comes back.”

NEED TO KNOW

NEED TO KNOW

Chongqing Heniu Chongqing Heniu Ro-Ro Ship Transportation was established in 2002, and provides container, bulk, roro shipping services on the Yangtze River. It currently owns a fleet of seven roro ships and more than 50 multipurpose vessels.


PROFILE ■ ■ ■

New director has plenty in her intray Maisie Cheng has taken over at Hong Kong’s Marine Department. She will need to get up to speed fast to placate the city’s owners

The HKSR will continue to enhance its services and provide shipowners with technical support and advice

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here was a collective groan among Hong Kong’s shipowners when it was announced at the end of August there was another change at the Marine Department, a government body that has been somewhat of a revolving door in terms of senior appointments in recent years. “We’ll have to start all over again,” one owner confided to SinoShip, on efforts by the private sector to get across to government the issues affecting maritime in the territory. Michael Wong stepped down as director of the Marine Department, the government organisation tasked with looking after port affairs and the territory’s very large shipping register, to be replaced by Maisie Cheng. Wong had been in the position for just 18

months. Aged 54, Cheng has served in various bureaux and departments including being deputy secretary for transport and housing from February 2010 to June 2012. She had been director of government logistics since January 2013. Cheng takes on the role with plenty in her intray. Making the department – and especially the register – more responsive was among the key pleas by the 250 people surveyed by SinoShip recently. "As the director of the Marine Department,” Cheng tells SinoShip in one of her first interviews in the new job, “I aspire to work closely with my colleagues to promote excellence in marine services, to ensure safe operation of the port and all

Hong Kong waters as well as to operate the Hong Kong Shipping Register and safeguard the quality of the Hong Kong registered ships.” The register passed the 100m gross ton mark at the end of September and is the fourth largest in the world. Its fast growth has not necessarily been met with a commensurate increase of people at the Marine Department, local owners have complained. Cheng is adamant however that more will be done to improve service levels at the flag. “The HKSR will continue to enhance its services and provide shipowners with technical support and advice,” Cheng insists. In addition, she says the Marine Department will continue to improve its coordination with relevant mainland authorities to provide better protection for Hong Kongregistered ships when they are in international waters and in foreign ports.

NEED TO KNOW NEED TO KNOW

HONG KONG MARINE DEPARTMENT The government organisation tasked with looking after port affairs and the territory’s very large shipping register.

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Propulsion ■ ■ ■

Less focus on output Katherine Si looks at how the nation’s engine manufacturers have changed priorities in the downturn

A

s the core equipment of ships, the propulsion system accounts for 15% to 25% of the total value of a ship. Moreover, the propulsion system will directly affect the reliability, energy-saving, environment protection and efficiency of ships – the propulsion system has always been at the centre of building any modern cargo ship. China, which ascended to the top of the global shipbuilding ranks in recent years, has since moderated its shipping ambitions – harsh market forces have made it realise that quality not quantity counts in shipbuilding. Similarly, on the engine manufacturing front, China is beginning to think more than just output figures. The nation wants to be more specialised. Beijing has

approved a special project for the marine power sector and is planning to launch a low-speed diesel engine project. The preparation works have started. The nation’s shipbuilding association (CANSI) held a marine propulsion seminar in November in which the future of the sector was discussed and goals set. “China has made quick progress in the sector in recent years. The marine propulsion industry has entered into a key development stage. The cooperation between the industry and the finance sector will promote the fast and healthy development of it,” says Ma Yunxiang, director of the planning department at state-run shipbuilding conglomerate, CSSC. Liu Xiangyuan, an expert on naval

China will establish emission control areas for vessels within the next five years

equipment, suggests the nation should establish a ‘national team’ to focus on the research and development of marine propulsion products. As well as specialising there is a clear mood in the nation to develop greener engines. Considering the increasing pollution at domestic ports from more and more ships calling, China will establish emission control areas for vessels within the next five years, according to the Ministry of Transport. As a result there is an urgent need to develop greener propulsion systems. As in the nation’s shipping and shipbuilding sector, consolidation is happening fast across the nation’s marine engine manufacturers. This has seen CSIC, another state-run giant shipbuilding conglomerate, put most of its engine assets into its Shanghai-listed subsidiary Fengfan while its southern rival CSSC has increasingly put most of its engine assets into subsidiary, Hudong Heavy Machinery. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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Propulsion ■ ■ ■

China leads with LNG Beijing is supporting initiatives to switch from heavy bunker fuel

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acked by Beijing, which is under pressure from citizens to clean up the environment, China looks set to be the only place outside of Europe to really support the concept of LNG as a ship fuel. The nation is pushing ahead with emission control areas, likely due in 2020 and the Yangtze has been designated as the petri dish to trial LNG. Earlier this year Chinese leasing companies CLNG Finance and Maifutong signed a sale and lease-back agreement

Propelled to the front A leading marine propeller manufacturer, Wärtsilä CME Zhenjiang Propeller, is investing in a new production line and an intelligent plant. “Affected by several consecutive years of depression of the shipping and shipbuilding industry, the propeller makers are facing a true winter now, however, the cutting-edge technology and high quality of the products make the company able to achieve three and four times output growth in fixed pitch propellers and controllable pitch propellers respectively this year compared to 2013,” Johnny Liu, managing director of Wärtsilä CME Zhenjiang Propeller, tells SinoShip.

with Shanghai-based LNG Power Shipping for 200 LNG-fuelled vessels. The riverine bulkers will range in size from 700 dwt to 1,300 dwt. LNG Power Shipping ordered 200 ships at Hong Kong-listed Honghua Group for RMB760m in August, with schedule for delivery before September 2016.

China LNG has also signed strategic cooperation agreements, valued at $754m, with nine shipyards in China covering the financing, manufacturing and retrofitting of LNG-fuelled vessels, as well as the construction of LNG and clean diesel bunker stations in the country.

The Yangtze has been designated as the petri dish to trial LNG The company has managed to buck the trend with output up despite the depressed market. Liu believes that overcapacity and the depressed shipping market brings great challenges for the industry players, however, opportunities exist, as the industry consolidates. “Currently, we are investing in an intelligent factory, an advanced manufacturing control system, which will be able to show us the manufacturing process online, and we can let Big Data talk and intervene in the manufacturing process when necessary,” Liu says. The intelligent factory will commence operation early next year.

Wärtsilä CME Zhenjiang Propeller is a joint venture established in 2004 between Wärtsilä and China Marine Equipment Co. In 2007 Wärtsilä CME expanded and a new additional factory was inaugurated.

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HUBS: SHANGHAI ■ ■ ■

Obstacles to growth Jason Jiang looks at how the city is planning ahead Shanghai is well on track towards its ambitious goal to develop into an international shipping center. In early November, Shanghai’s local government announced that it has started the legislation work for the Shanghai International Shipping Center in an effort to meet the growing legal demand from the development. The draft of the legislation is expected to be completed by the end of this year. “Shanghai has made significant progress in shipping infrastructure development, management system innovation, talent training in the past couple of years, however, there are still lots of improvements that need to be made to enhance the operational environment for shipping-related companies,” says Zhang Yongfeng, director of the international shipping research office at the Shanghai International Shipping Institute (SISI). “The legislation for the Shanghai International

Shipping Center is critical to safeguard the healthy development of the center,” Zhang adds. Shanghai Port completed a container throughput of 27.39m teu in the first three quarters of 2015, up 3.5% year-on-year. According to an official from Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG), the port is currently working on plans to develop the international LCL (less than container load) transit business as one of its primary goals. The group considers it as an important area to develop a new growth point. “Currently Busan Port, Hong Kong Port and Singapore Port have occupied most of the international LCL transit business in Asia. Shanghai, as the leading containerport in the world, however, is lagging behind in this area,” the official says. Zhao Nan, a shipping expert at SISI, says Shanghai has a great geographic advantage for international LCL transit business, but it is also facing a series of challenges.

International LCL transit volumes account for about 50% and 80% of Busan and Singapore’s total container throughput respectively, while the percentage at Shanghai Port is only less than 7%. Shanghai started trial operations of international LCL transits at its Free Trade Zone from July 2014, but the business has not developed well. Tang Qin, a senior official from Shanghai Tongjing Logistics, which was among the first batch of companies approved by the authorities to start trial international LCL transits, said transits in Shanghai Port could save about 15% operating cost and about 20% logistics time for shippers in China comparing with Singapore Port and Hong Kong Port. However, he admits the business is still immature in Shanghai. According to Zhao, the long distance between Yangshan Port and Waigaoqiao Port has increased transit times and logistics costs for the shippers,

and the customs procedures for transiting between the two ports are also complicated, which has restricted the development of the business. In addition, the port of departure tax rebate policy is only applicable in a small trial area. Most shippers would rather transit the cargo from Busan, Hong Kong and Singapore. “Currently government is working to develop favourable policies and a service platform for the international LCL transit business, and SIPG is also trying to expand its feeder transit business to provide seamless connection between the two port areas, ” Zhao says. “The authorities should further loosen up restrictions on the cargo transit,” he suggests. Amid the increasing cargo volume at the port, Shanghai is also facing challenges from port congestion and pollution problems. The government earlier considered Hengsha Island near Shanghai and Da Yang Shan Island near Zhoushan for expansion. However, it still hasn’t made the decision due to various obstacles. It is currently inviting bids for the masterplanning of the port optimisation and expansion. At the end of October, SIPG made a plan for the promotion of shore power at the port in order to ease the increasingly serious air pollution in the city. Statistics from SISI showed that PM2.5 emissions from international ships docking at Shanghai Port accounts for more than 66% of the total volume. According to the plan, more than half of the port terminals in Shanghai will adopt shore power technology by 2020. It has already had two shore power trial projects. Another six shore power projects will also start construction in 2016. SIPG expects to lower PM2.5 emissions in its main port areas by 20% by the end of 2017. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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■ ■ ■ HUBS: TAIPEI

Island’s rail link to Europe Exports can now head from Taichung to Hamburg overland, writes Katherine Si

It might be an island but that has not stopped authorities in Taipei looking at a landbridge connection to Europe to get its exports to key markets quicker. Taiwan has suffered many consecutive months of declining exports. The government is desperate to make its exports more competitive. To this end the island has launched a new rail-sea transport service – the Taiwan-Pingtan-Europe SeaRail Multimodal Transport Train. As an export hub in Asia, Taiwan’s foreign trade volume hit $588bn in 2014, including $65bn to Europe. The first trial run of the Taiwan-Pingtan-Europe SeaRail service was launched in 26

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early November from central Taiwan to Germany. Containers were shipped by the vessel Hai Xia from Taichung in Taiwan to a terminal in Pingtan, Fujian. The containers were then transported by trucks to Jiangyin Port and then by a train heading

days, which is between 15 to 30 days less than by sea. The route of the multimodal transport train will cover several inland ports, four export ports, through 20 Chinese provinces, 10 countries in Central and West Asia, and 28 in Europe.

The total train journey is around 11,000 km long to Hamburg in Germany, via Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Moscow, Belarus, the Czech Republic, and Berlin. The total train journey is around 11,000 km long. The Taiwan-Pingtan-Europe transport route takes 16 to 20

Currently, Fujian, Taiwan’s nearest neighbour, is promoting its transport links with the island, and is building the Fuping railway (FuzhouPingtan) due for operation in 2019. The new railway will be

connected directly to the sea terminal, and will improve the transport efficiency of TaiwanPingtan-Europe transport route. Taiwan-Pingtan-Europe Sea-Rail service will be part of Beijing’s national strategy to attract Taiwan to participate in the development of One Belt One Road, the ambitious infrastructure push led by President Xi Jinping to yoke China and Central Asia and Europe together. This Fujian rail link is not the first Taiwan effort in this domain. Earlier this year, Taiwan’s leading container shipping company, Evergreen, jointly developed a sea-rail transport service with Ningbo port.


HUBS: HONG KONG ■ ■ ■

Tick, tock Getting firm maritime policies in place before the current Hong Kong administration passes on power is concentrating minds at the local shipowners’ association Arthur Bowring, managing director of the Hong Kong Shipowners Association (HKSOA), always comes across as a man with a lot on his plate when SinoShip comes calling. This latest visit, however, it seems he’s also a man in a hurry to get things done – there’s a clock ticking that’s seemingly getting ever louder in the HKSOA’s Wan Chai office. What’s clear is that while he might be very unpopular with the local population at large, CY Leung, the chief executive of Hong Kong, has done – and will do – more for local shipping than any other leader since reunification in 1997. The problem? Leung leaves in 2017 (and so the rumour mill goes, Bowring might retire by then too), hence the tick tocking. Bowring has just got back from this year’s successful London International Shipping Week (LISW) when SinoShip pops by. LISW has clearly impressed. Throughout the week the British government has been bombarded with facts and figures from UK industryled reports on the importance of maritime to the local economy. Bowring laments that Hong Kong’s major maritime reports this century have all been commissioned by government. “Industry-led reports help persuade government,” he says. Nevertheless, Bowring

remains upbeat by Leung’s clear commitment to shipping. “The chief executive has said he’ll set up a statutory maritime authority,” Bowring says. “There is in government,” he adds, “an intention to reorganise and to have a better consultative system.” With the clock above him ticking, Bowring then stresses: “We have to get this in concrete by 2017 when CY Leung will leave power.” It is not just the upper echelons of government, Bowring says he can see other parts of the state – Hong Kong Invest, the Hong Kong Trade Development Council among others – showing a greater interest to shipping. At this point, Bowring reverts to familiar mantra that

People, location and policies have to be our strengths

he has issued time and again over his near-20 year reign at the HKSOA. “Hong Kong is a barren rock in the South China Sea,” he says. “It has no resources. People, location and policies have to be our strengths. Competiveness, not incentives, is key.” Hong Kong government does not do sectoral support, he points out. Bowring reckons Hong Kong has people and location sorted. “What we need now is policy,” he maintains. With government coming out in support of shipping the key now is to get the city’s Legislative Council – the de facto parliament – to follow suit, Bowring says. Bowring will be more than ably accompanied in his quest

to garner support by the new leadership at the association. Sabrina Chao, the 41-year-old chairman of Wah Kwong, has just been anointed the new chairman of the HKSOA, with China Navigation’s chairman JB RaeSmith in as deputy chairman, giving the body a very youthful, punchy four years of leadership. “We have so many strengths as a shipping centre, but they are often not properly recognized or promoted,” Chao tells SinoShip, adding: “We need to make sure that Hong Kong is top of the list when companies are looking to expand their presence in the region, so we need to talk up our advantages.” More double taxation agreements with key trading partners are among early priorities for the Wah Kwong boss. The clock is ticking. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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■ ■ ■ BOOKS

Down to the sea in ships Paul French applauds a recent raft of books that look at life at sea

In his new travelogue of crossing the seas in containerships award-winning author Horatio Clare declares at the start, “Our lives depend on shipping but it is a world which is largely hidden from us. In every lonely corner of every sea, through every night, every day, and every imaginable weather, tiny crews of seafarers work the giant ships which keep landed life afloat.” Clare’s book, Down To The Sea In Ships: Of Ageless Oceans and Modern Men, is a rare beast – a book that looks both at the nuts and bolts of commercial shipping as well as being a highly readable literary feast of anecdotes about the sea, ships, sailors and international trade. Big rusty containerships and lumbering giant VLCCs don’t normally inspire lyricism in the way the tall ships and Indian clippers of yesteryear did, but 28

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Clare was writer-in-residence for the Danish container shipping giant Maersk. Onboard to record life he sails from Felixstowe to Los Angeles via the Suez Canal and China and then takes a second journey from Antwerp to Montreal in "a ragged old battler". He examines exactly how containerships from China supply the rest of the world with goods and how oil tankers supply China with the fuel to produce them. But within this narrative he sprinkles the greats of waterborne literature – Joseph

Conrad, Jerome K. Jerome – as well as his own lyrical meanderings. What emerges is part travel writing, part history, part economic examination of global trade. But what’s important is that, for those in the shipping business, he reminds us that the sea is a magnificent thing we should never stop fearing or ever take for granted while, for those “landlubbers” who never see a ship larger than a local ferry or a millionaire’s yacht in a harbour, the seas remain the vital arteries of trade. Rose George’s Deep Sea and

Big rusty containerships and lumbering giant VLCCs don’t normally inspire lyricism in the way the tall ships and Indian clippers of yesteryear did

Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry That Brings You 90% of Everything is another personal voyage aboard ship. However, George looks at other ships that are rarely seen – for instance, pirates and illegal factory ships. George also looks at the shore-bound communities that rely on shipping. Not just the stevedores, dockers and shipbuilders, but shipping’s informal workforce, such as the beachcombers who track the 10,000 containers that are lost every year, the robots who are gradually replacing human crews, and the environmentalists campaigning against the tide of marine pollution. And finally, a voyage with another writer aboard the largest of the leviathans crossing the oceans – Geoff Dyer’s Another Great Day at Sea where the man who normally writes about D.H. Lawrence or modern art joins the crew of the aircraft carrier the USS George Bush, on active service in the Arabian Gulf. Dyer sees the carrier as a microcosm of society, a decent sized town on the oceans with 5,000 people living and working on a giant hunk of floating steel. Literature has always embraced the power of the sea – from Homer to Melville’s Moby Dick, Conrad’s ocean going adventures, Victor Hugo, Hans Christian Andersen, and so many others. These three books show that the sea, the ships that sail upon it and the crews that work aboard those vessels still have the power of great drama and inspire awe among those who spend most of their lives ashore.


OPINION ■ ■ ■

Can you make a national champion out of failures? Charles De Trenck has some stern words about the Cosco/China Shipping merger

After many years of rumours, we now have confirmation that China’s government is moving to reorganise its largest shipping companies. China’s mandarins may have little recourse but to hire the likes of McKinsey or potentially other consultants, accountants and banks in trying to sort out the mess that will be a Cosco-China Shipping merger-reorganisation. NOL’s management, under the partial guidance of Temasek, and let’s not forget McKinsey, allowed the APL business model to continue drifting further into an abyss where old containerlines go to get further picked apart. The Koreans, some Japanese, Taiwanese and many others have drifted to one extent or another into the same abyss. And the Chinese state carriers, as we well know, fell deepest into the abyss of financial disorganisation. There have been several obvious what managements and markets often saw as uncontrollables during the economic and global trade sea changes of

the last few years, especially on the container side of business. Some of these include: continued massive subsidisation by governments; continued freefor-alls in top managements, poor industry controls and borderline corruption; massive pass-the-buck mentalities among controlling groups; global trade growth slowdowns. A mix of these issues could be seen by a few managements early on. Either it was Maersk or family businesses (OOCL, Wan Hai, Hamburg Sud) that would have seen these problems coming a little earlier. None of them were new. We saw many of these issues in large global banks as well. Citigroup. Bank of America. And so many others. When a company has a group of people who jockey their way to the top and then get handed the purse strings of a behemoth with hidden nooks to hide things, seemingly bottomless pits to continue reorganising, free money from governments, it is easier to pretend to be competent. Until the music really stops.

People got the wrong commission structures, accounts were improperly triaged. And some senior managers, especially in state-run companies in places such as China, had every opportunity to seize selfgain where there was none to be had. China created the biggest of massive bubbles the world has seen as a result of governmentinduced wasteful and selfenrichment industrial policies. It follows that we will continue to see the biggest of massive bailouts as well. We’ve been on about this for years. But we have yet to visualise the full impact in perspective. Plunging commodities recently has been one key ramification. But for there to be a quasi-orderly deflation, we need to proceed in stages. Cosco, CSCL and other companies will need to spend years reorganising container services and customers. The integration of CoscoCSCL should be more scientific. In most cases, McKinsey and investment banks have not found proper solutions that pay

for anyone’s effort to date. But most likely similar methods will be used again. And we will have to see where the Cosco+CSCL equation comes closer or further from equalling two. We all know that 1.X is the answer. But none of us know what X will be until we see the numbers after the fact. Can an X output of two merged China companies be similar to an X from more developed economy companies? And do the state mandarins need to pay money to outsiders to merge these behemoths? Will equations handed to shareholders in Shanghai and Hong Kong contribute to share value longer term? In developed economies shareholders would stand a good chance of taking rude beatings. But somehow in China shares go up on this type of news. China will likely create a behemoth containerline – a national champion – that will hold its own in the top player leagues. But it should really farm off the bulk into a completely different corporate animal. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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Marina Bay Sands


OPINION ■ ■ ■

Why shipping is a third world industry Andrew Craig-Bennett takes the industry’s green promoters to task

You may recall a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen in which a young and vain emperor is persuaded into buying from two confidence tricksters a suit of clothes that are “invisible to anyone who is unfit for their position or just hopelessly stupid”. When the emperor is dressed by the charlatans in the wonderful new clothes, everyone pretends to see them, until a small child, too young to know better, calls out: “But the emperor’s got no clothes!” I used to work for a shipowner who, when a competitor bought an investment bank, said, “I like to own things that I can walk up to and pat.” His judgment proved correct. We mistrust things that we cannot see in shipping because, to speak frankly, our industry operates on rather a low level of trust, and we suspect that if we cannot see something, there is

probably a scam going on. Paying for carbon dioxide produced in the course of a business - or ‘emissions trading’ to give it a sexier name - looks remarkably like the Emperor’s New Clothes. A lot of clever people busy making money out of something that we stupid people cannot see, or touch, or reliably measure, and telling us that it is all for the good of the planet. There are plenty of scams involving stuff that we seldom see, but which we think we can measure, such as fuel oil, both as bunkers and as cargo (in the minds of some tanker owners, there is little difference) and we are used to them. Magic pipes, weird and wonderful piping plans, contents of bunker hoses dropped back – this is the stuff of everyday shipping. We all know those venerable war horses, the International

Chamber of Shipping, in the blue corner, representing capital in the form of shipowners, and the International Transport Federation, in the red corner, standing for labour in the form of seamen and dockers. Well, it seems there is another ITF, and the ICS has picked a fight with this one, too. This one is the International Transport Forum, and it is an OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) think tank. It has decided that merchant ships ought to pay $25 per tonne of carbon dioxide emitted. Diving deeper into alphabet soup, this proposal popped up at the UNFCCC – the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as part of a proposed MBM (Market Based Measure) in accordance with UNFCCC CBDR (Common But Differentiated Responsibility).

CBDR means that rich countries ought to pay more than poor countries. The International Transport Forum thinks this would raise $26bn annually. The ICS does not agree. The ICS says – and this is the good bit – that because some 70% of the world’s ships fly the flags of UNFCCC non-Annex I developing countries, the CBDR rules ought to apply and shipping should be paying, if anyone ever does pay, a levy on the basis of what industries in poor countries pays, which would be about a third as much. This is specious reasoning. Every schoolboy knows that the flag of a ship has no necessary connection with the domicile or nationality of their owners, and indeed that shipowners are, as a class of people, a bit different to peasant farmers and such folks. I cannot recall when I last saw a shipowner driving a bullock cart. Wait – it gets better! I quote the ICS press release: “Shipping meanwhile has already reduced its total CO2 emissions by more than 10% (2007- 2012) and CO2 per tonne-mile by around 20% (2005 - 2015). It is therefore on course for carbon neutral growth.” Well, I’m staggered! What public-spirited folks we all are! The ICS sees fit not to mention that its start dates for both runs of numbers coincide with the greatest boom our industry has ever known, with ships dashing from A to B at top speed, and they continue through a period of high fuel prices to end in a period of deep recession. Amazing as it may seem, if you slow your ship down, it burns less fuel per ton mile, but don’t let’s go telling the world that. Oh, and the good news – none of this will happen any time soon. The IMO stopped talking about it in 2013, and is due to resume next year. So that’s all right, then. Put the emperor’s clothes back in the dressing up box. Sinoship WINTER 2015

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■ ■ ■ PHOTO FINISH


PHOTO FINISH ■ ■ ■ RARE SIGHT A bulker nears completion as the BDI hovers at record lows 在BDI指数跌到历史低点的同时,一艘散货船即将完工


Bringing maritime media out of the dark ages

Does your Chinese marketing for 2015 make the cut? www.sinoshipnews.com Sinoship 2014.indd 1

27/1/14 11:59 pm


动力特刊 中远中海合并分析 2015年冬季刊

m 日 在 .co 每 更新 247 文 ash 中 .spl w ww

Dagfinn Lunde谈中国船舶融资

www.splash247.com

缩水 中国造船产能 大幅下跌


ClassNK 伴随海事产业而成长 不断进取,积极应对 随着全球经济发展与结构转变,当今的海事产业正面临各种前所未有的挑战。 日本海事协会(简称ClassNK)注册船舶总吨约占世界商船总吨的20%,是全球 知名的船级社。我们充分理解海事产业的需求,并根据海事产业对安全航运的需 要,积极开展全新的服务与技术研发。在ClassNK主页上,您可以了解到更多我 们为保障各种船舶安全、防止海洋环境污染所作出的努力。www.classnk.or.jp


目录 ■ ■ ■

■ ■ ■ 定期报道 3 编者语 4 经济 6 班轮 7 船厂 9 离岸 10 金融 11 商品 12 物流

■ ■ ■ 人物专访 13 王骏 15 Ed Buttery 16 谭建强 17 郑美施

■ ■ ■ 专题 18 动力

■ ■ ■ 枢纽

一些中国银行可能已经跻 身顶级船舶融资机构之列 —船舶融资人 Dagfinn Lunde

13

24 书籍

■ ■ ■ 意见

我们正努力提高国内集装箱 运输量在我们的业务中所占的 比例 — 王骏 大连集发环渤海集装箱运输

总经理

自从家族退出太平洋航运旗 下的灵便型船运输业务,我 们直至今日才迎来再次进入 市场的机会。

14

— Taylor Maritime Ed Buttery

21 上海 22 台北 23 香港

■ ■ ■ 评论

10

重要的是,当市场复苏时,公司 已蓄势待发

15

— 重庆河牛滚装船运输 董事长 谭建强

25 Charles De Trenck 27 Andrew Craig-Bennett

香港没有任何资源。人和、 地利和政策必须成为我们的优 势。竞争力是关键,而不是激 励措施 — Arthur Bowring 香港船东会董事总经理

17

Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

1


*** ADVERT


编者语 ■ ■ ■

www.sinoshipnews.com ASM刊物 编辑主管 Sam Chambers sam@asiashippingmedia.com 首席通讯记者 司湘

katherine@asiashippingmedia.com 通讯记者 姜浩

jason@asiashippingmedia.com 北京 上海 香港 大连 广州 台北

Li Deng Bai Colin Shek Alfred Romann Mark Downing Wang Fanglei David Green

供稿人

Bei Hong, Charles De Trenck, Matthew Flynn, Paul French, Max Hong, Li Dong, Manish Singh 摄影

André Eichman, Basil Pao 所有编辑资料请发送至sam@asiashippingmedia.com 或邮寄到中国大连中山区人民路9号701办公室, 邮编116001 商务主管 Grant Rowles grant@asiashippingmedia.com 销售主管 Helen Ong helen@asiashippingmedia.com SinoShip同时也在东京、首尔和奥斯陆设有广告 代理机构。欲获取当地代理联系信息请发送邮件 到grant@asiashippingmedia.com。 媒体信息可在www.asiashippingmedia.com下载。 所有商务资料请发送至grant@asiashippingmedia. com 或邮寄到Asia Shipping Media Pte Ltd 30 Cecil Street, #19-08 Prudential Tower Singapore 049712 设计 Tigersoft Pte Ltd 印刷 香港雅联印刷有限公司 订阅 总部设在中国的所有海运公司都可以免费获取SinoShip 期 刊。对于 所 有 其 他 公 司,订 阅 S i n o S h i p 2 014 年 4 期 需 要 收 费10 0 美 元 。订 阅 每 月 发 行 两 次 的 P D F 格 式 的 S i n o S h i p电子 新 闻(包 含 独 家 新 闻 、数 据 和 分 析)需 收 费5 0 0 美 元。订 阅 咨 询 请发 送 邮 件 到 su b s@ asiashippingmedia.com。 版权 © Asia Shipping Media Pte Ltd (ASM), 2014 为确保 本刊物所包含信息的准确性,尽管作出了所有努 力,但出版社 对可能出现的任何错误或疏忽不承担任何 责任。版权所有。未事先获得版权拥有人的书面批准,不 得对本刊物的任何部分进行复制、储存于检索系统或以 任何形式或方式传输。

干散货研讨会力 求“负负得正” 第四届年度SinoShip干散货运输商务早餐 会 于11月19日在香港外国记者俱乐部召 开。 发言人包括华光海运的 Tim Huxley、太 平洋航运的 Mats Berglund 及RightShip公司 的 Warwick Norman。 原来在这一天召开研讨会具 有历史意 义— —波罗的海干散货指数于11月19日 这天报504点,创历史新低。 但研讨会成员和代表认为散装船目前面 临的困境并没有30年前糟糕。 “ 情 况 并 没 有 上 世 纪 八十 年 代 糟 糕。”Huxley表示。当时闲置的船舶要多得 多。但Huxley确实感觉明年可能会经历一 场“腥风血雨”。 在寻找亮点的过程中,Berglund 表示, 铝 土矿严重 减 少,而来自DV B 的 分析 师 Andreas Rabe 认为印度可以在一定程度上 弥补中国带来的煤炭萧条。 该 会 议已是 连 续 第四 年由DV B 和 RightShip赞助。 人们认为一个亮点是,印度尼西亚可能 撤销禁止出口未加工矿石的禁令,但整体 而言,出席会议的 45 位高层人员都有些悲 观。RightShip 公司的 Warwick Norman 论 述了随着衰退之势蔓延,散货船质量的下 降。 DVB的 Maarten Vis 认为负负得正,他表 示: “没有亮点就是一个亮点。”他的意思 是,既然不存在没有订单的可能,更多的拆 船让市场有时间重新平衡。

毋庸置疑的是,当我们走进2016年,在 全球干散货运输团队中,资产负债表一贫 如洗的成员将损失惨重。

Sam Chambers Editor sam@asiashippingmedia.com Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

3


■ ■ ■ 经济

慢中求稳 重新平衡 “对于投资者而言,重新平衡更重要,因其表明中国经济的长期发展轨迹”

习近平主席于十月前往英国进 行国事访问(照片),这表明一 些西方国家政府近来会如何接 纳中国,但多数 媒体对于中国 第三季度的宏观经济成果持悲 观态度。感到悲观也是情有可 原的,已宣布GDP增长6.9%,下 滑到了自2009年以来的最低水 平。然而,第三季度数字一如既 往的存在亮点。 持比 较 乐观 态度的人 士指 出,零 售 销 售 额 增 长 略 有 加 速,其中大部 分人争 辩说,这 表明国内消费者已经摆脱A股 市场下跌阴影。对于希望通过 扩大内需来调整经济结构的中 国经济规划者而言,这勉强称 4

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得上是一个里程碑,服务和消 费有史以来第一次占中国GDP 的一半以上。旧金山铭基亚洲 中国分析师Andy Rothman还指

出,零售销售额增长6.9%的基 数比十年前高300%左右(当时 GDP增长10%),这意味着本年 度中国经济增量扩张比十年前

中国的主要消费统计数据

类别

2015年9月同比2014年9月的增长%

SUV销售额 电影票房收入 家具销售额 家电销售额 新房销售额 乘用车销售额 资料来源:中国国家统计局

59 54 19 11 9 3

高60%左右。 只有新来的中国观察者才会 看重GDP数字。中国GDP由许多 因素决定,包括人口萎缩、建筑 活动增长放缓和基数效应(如 上所述)。 对于投资者而言,重新平衡 更重要,因其表明中国经济的 长期发展轨迹。零售增速抵消 预料到制造业和建筑业的重要 性下降。但是,扩大内需的推动 因素非常重要——特别是工 资。本年度前三个季度,人均可 支配收入上涨7.7%,而在过去 十年,实际城市收入上涨137% ,实际农村收入上涨139%。其 中一些增长的推动因素是政府 政策:例如,上海最低工资标准 在过去十年上涨187%。 就 工业 而 言,建 筑 必定 大 幅放缓,与之相关的重工业也 不例外。虽然部分原因是基础 设 施 和 新房建 筑 的 增 长 速 度 见顶,当然这也是主要原因, 同时全球大宗商品价格都在普 遍下跌。不利之处在于“铁 锈 地带”死灰复燃,主要是在中 国东北地区,首先是该地区生 产力最低、最落后的国有企业 (SOE)在20世纪90年代遭受重 创,而现在,重工业又因建筑/ 基础设施低迷受到冲击。如果 没有牵扯到建筑,制造业本身 依然强劲,而且目前正在出现 就业增长。 因此,当我们在本年度最后 一个季度破浪前进时,需要观 察的指标并非GDP或重工业和 建筑业,而是中小企业增长、零 售销售额和持续的工资增长。


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■ ■ ■ 班轮

招商局集团即将并购中国外运 长航,两大航运巨头即将走到 一起。两家公司已于2014年建 立合资公司中国能源运输有限 公司,将双方的油轮资产合二 为一。截至2014年末,招商局 集团和中国外运长航的总资产 分别为人民币6,241亿元(980 亿美元)和人民币1,091亿元 (171亿美元)。

中国多家国有公司再次订购大 量超大型矿砂船(VLOC),进一 步巩固中国与巴西之间的原材 料供应链。其中,招商局能源 运输公司(CMES)与国内船厂 签下建造 10艘VLOC的订单; 中远集团与中国海运集团共同 成立的合资公司中国矿运有限 公司也于11月向中国上海外高 桥造船公司订购七艘载重量达 400,000吨的 Valemax型矿砂 船。两家公司此前均已拥有多 艘 VLOC。

中海集装箱运输公司(CSCL)与 中船集团旗下子公司上海外高 桥造船公司签订造船合约, 委托后者建造六艘载重量达 21,000标准箱的大型集装箱 船。该交易还附带五份待生效 合约。这些船舶将是中国迄今 为止建造的最大的集装箱船。

十月末,中国最大的海运集团 中远集团遭遇尴尬泄密,腐蚀 该国营巨头数年之久的腐败和 裙带关系曝光。北京日报的官 方微信账户公开了一份秘密会 议的会议记录,尽管消息后来 被删除,但各大新闻媒体已纷 纷转载。报道援引中远集团新 任纪检组长徐爱生的话,详细 描述了中远集团支付的巨额租 船费及其他投资错误,以及该 公司如何被卷入非法活动。据 报道,徐爱生表示, “我们正在 调查所有单位的责任。”

中国海运与中国最大的粮食 贸易集团中粮集团启动了一条

粮食运输航线。中国海运为中 粮集团从拉丁美洲进口的粮 食定制了一条专属班轮运输航 线。新航线部署了一艘散货船 COFCO 1(中粮1号),并将在 不久投入另外两艘船舶。两家 公司预计每年将运输350万吨 粮食。

山东海运已提交在全国中小企 业股份转让系统(NEEQ)挂牌 的申请。据称,该公司控股股 东山东省国有资产监督管理委 员会希望利用筹集的资金“缓 解财务压力,做出更有效的投 资”。

Sino-Global接到纳斯达克发出 的违规通知,这可能威胁到该 中国公司在该证券交易所的上

市。11月6日的通知上写道,在9 月5日至11月5日期间有连续30 多个交易日,该公司股价低于 每股1.00美元,且这一现象继 续存在,这不符合纳斯达克上 市规则第5550(a)(2)条。如果在 截至2016年5月4日之前的180天 中,Sino-Global的股价至少连 续10个交易日高于1.00美元,则 将重新合规。

中远航运已设立专门的木材 运输部门,以优化该业务的运 营。中远集团旗下运输木材的 子公司中远远达航运已与中远 航运非洲航线的木材运输船 资产完成整合。该部门将管理 整个木材运输业务,以及该集 团内用于运输木材的船舶。此 外,中远航运的部分重货船和 多用途船舶将划转至该部门。

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船厂 ■ ■ ■

封面

故事

缩小规模 2015年,中国的造船业已大幅缩水。Sam Chambers警告说,明年中国的造船业将承受更多必然的痛苦 自 从 上 一 次 亚洲最大的船 展,即中国国际海事会展举行 后的两年间,当地的造船业发 生了巨大变化。一些大型企业 已被分割离析,兼并的浪潮已 蓬勃兴起,且白名单的部署工 作正逐渐展开。 在两年间,中国的造船业已 大幅缩水,造船厂数量从 1500 余所减少至目前实际仍在接单 的不足 100 所。SinoShip预计这 一数字将进一步下跌至一个比 较成熟的国家造船局面出现, 如同邻国韩国和日本。在韩国 和日本,每个国家 基本上都有 10 个左右经过合并之后的大型 船厂。

今年早些时候,扬子江船业 执行董事长任元林表示,30多 所造船厂已无6千万载重吨以 下堆场设施的需求。 根据中国船舶工业行业协会 发布的数据,2015年前三季度 中,中国船厂接收的新建订单 总量达 1816万载重吨,与去年 同期相比下降 65.4%。 随着中国政府大力推进航运

行业的并购,关于造船业的两 大国营企业,即中国船舶工业 集团公司(CSSC)和中国船舶 重工集团公司(CSIC)将被迫合 并的传言甚嚣尘上。这两大企 业是在 1999 年被拆分的。 自上次海事会展以来,一度 成为中国最大私营船厂的中国 熔盛重工(现称中国华融能源 公司)承受了最大的跌幅。该公

一些大型企业已被分割离析,兼 并的浪潮已蓬勃兴起,且白名单的 部署工作正逐渐展开

司位于江苏的大型工厂现已空 空荡荡,如同一座鬼城,成为过 去十年里中华人民共和国非理 性造船产能过剩的象征。 中国政府针对已批准的商业 造船厂及后期近海工程企业推 出白名单的举措,使得那些无 法进入名单的企业难以获得融 资,从而只能加速进行整合。 随着新船价格降低,现在中 国与韩国和日本的船只价格相 比价差拉近许多。 目前,涌入 的少量订单招标依旧倾向于日 本和韩国。2016 年,中国的造 船厂将依赖于国内订单。在这 令人头疼的时期,船厂规模严 重缩减是不可避免的。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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离岸 ■ ■ ■

中国政府给予 七家造船厂一线 生机 获批船厂白名单现已公布,中国的海工船厂有望迎来大整合

中 国 工 业 和信息化部(MIIT ) 已经公布第一批海工船厂的白 名单,七月曾向国内船厂发布通 知,要求它们递交申请。 只有七家船厂— —均为国 有船厂— —被列入第一批名 单,分别是:中集来福士,振华

重工,中远(启东)海洋工程, 中远南通船厂,上海外高桥造

船,中国招商局重工,大连船舶 重工海洋工程。

中国船厂发生缩减是不可避免 的,中国政府已经明确表示国营船 厂将引领本行业渡过此整合时期

名单上的船厂享有来自政府 和银行的优惠政策,中央政府 希望这份白名单能够优化海工 建造能力,促进行业并购。 去年,中央政府还针对商用 造船业发布了一份白名单,此 举使得国内的船厂数量有所削 减。 由于过去两年海工交易收入 大幅下滑,削减中国船厂的举 措是不可避免的,且中国政府 已经明确表示国营船厂将引领 本行业渡过此整合时期,挤压 未能进入名单的船厂的利润。 在当前情况下,订购新的船 舶和钻井平台是不太常见的事 情。因为在过去一年里,全球有 1000 多座的钻井平台已经搁置 不用,25万海工相关工作人员 被解雇。 由于今年利用率和租船率跌 幅高达 40%,本行业的绝大多 数公司均因遭受产能过剩的沉 重打击而苦苦挣扎。 德意志银 行在 最 近的一 份 报告中表示,并不指望海洋工 程辅助船行业(OSV)能很快回 暖。德意志银行表 示,任何竞 标中的离岸合同都希望能吸引 积极的投标人,从而压低价格 和利润率。 联昌国际研究所在近期的另 一项报告中表示,预计 2016 年 海洋工程辅助船行业(OSV) 不会有强烈反弹,建议投资者 重点关注招标活动,以识别该 行业的变化。更多投标及询盘 意味着更多的就业前景,反过 来,也意味着对海工船队的利 用 率 和日费率 预 期 的 积 极 调 整。 无论如何,白名单的发布正 值离岸产品的需求完全在意料 之外之时。即使是列入白名单 的船厂来年也需努力做到量入 为出。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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■ ■ ■ 金融

中国正稳步成为顶级 船舶融资国 知名船舶融资人 Dagfinn Lunde 在这个独家专栏中进行了大胆预测

船 舶 融 资 是由来已久的有趣 事物,表面看来,它似乎滞后于 运费的增长。有趣的地方在于 – 尽管媒体充斥着航运业运景 堪忧的报道,很多公司要想融 资其实很简单。 当然融资取决于您拥有什么 类型的公司以及您要为什么船 融资。如果是 新船,那您会得 到资金,因为出口信贷机构会 竭尽所能向您提供支持。 要 是 二手 船 的 话,如 果 您 的公司结构良好,您要买的船 龄低于五年,并且您与银行有 长期业务关系,那么资金也不 是 问 题 。这 里 有一 个 问 题, 很多传统的船舶银行消失了, 所以不少公司不得不寻求建立 新的长期关系,这在今时今日 并不容易,有时候您还想要买 10

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船龄超过五年的船。另一个问 题是如果是中小型船舶的买卖 (S&P),船东基本可以说是走投 无路,正是他们在遭受挫折。 一个现成的现金来源在中国 – 而且考虑到对我们来说, 上海举办的中国国际海事会展 (Marintec China)相当盛大,似 乎很值得分析一下中国的船舶 融资。 看看 Marine Money 的顶级 船舶融资机构名单,就能发现

中国的 银 行 排 名近 年 已巨幅 提升:中国银行的全球排名是 第六,中国进出口银行排名第 八,中国开发银行和中国工商 银行排名也很靠前。请注意, 这 些 统计数 据不包 括船 舶租 赁。中国的船舶租赁规模已经 变得巨大。中国的机构在租赁 市场份额很大;在认购时他们 一次就出手 10 亿美元,每个合 同购买七到八艘船。说了这么 多,根据个人经验,我可以肯定

我认为再过两年时间,中国银 行、中国进出口银行等银行就能与 DNB、北欧联合银行 (Nordea) 和复兴信贷银行 (KfW) 平起平 坐,稳居顶级船舶融资机构之列

地说中国的融资机构并不好打 交道 – 我现在正处理一桩交 易,不介意告诉大家这件事让 我有多头疼。 中国的银行提供的利率并无 太大竞争力,他们的优势更在 于手 握现金,能够签大单。别 人都在控制花费,资本限制加 剧和资金成本在上升时,中国 却勇往直前。 对于中国船 舶融 资的大 胆 预 测 就 是 这 样 的。随 着 苏 格 兰皇家银行 (RBS)、德国北 方银行 (HSH)、劳埃德银行 (Lloyds Bank)、德国商业银行 (Commerzbank) 等靠边站,我认 为再过两年时间,中国银行、 中国进出口银行等银行就能与 DNB、北欧联合银行 (Nordea) 和复兴信贷银行 (KfW) 平起平 坐,稳居顶级船舶融资机构之 列。事实上,如果考虑到船 舶 租赁业务,中国多家银行可能 已经赶超顶级机构了。 最 后,由于 这个 专 栏 重 点 转向中国,我要提下那里正在 酝酿的重大新闻 – 中国远洋 运 输 集 团 和中国 海 运 集 团的 合并。很明显政治力量推动了 这一举措。从理性的经济角度 看,这两家亏损企业规模已经 过大 – 合并后整体可能情况 更糟糕。从管理角度看,我认为 最好的发展方式是不直接合并 这两家实体,而是将匹配的领 域 – 散货、邮轮、集装箱等 – 单独合并成强大的新公司。 无论事情怎样进展,观察中 国的海运发展永远不会是枯燥 无味的事情。


商品 ■ ■ ■

铜需求走低 大连记者 Mark Downing 看中国铜需求放缓 中国的铜 进口量近日飙升,但 这并不意味着中国经济反弹, 而更像是低价囤货。对这一全 球使用广泛性排名第三的金属 的 需 求常 常 被 视 为 经 济风 向 标。但近日进口量的激增主要 是因为制造商和中国国家物资 储备局抓住六年最低价的机遇 囤货,并不代表工业消耗量增 加。 铜具有良好的导电性,且可 塑性高,主要用于通信线路、发 电和输电设备以及管道和建筑 材料。今年,中国的铜消耗量下 降24%,达到自2009年以来的 最低点,这一萎缩现象表明全 球第二大经济体在从国家支持 投资向消费引导型经济增长的 转型过程中,遭遇到25年来的 最慢增长。 中国的铜矿产资源储量位居 全球第六,占全球总储量的4% ,但也是第二大铜矿开采国。 自20 02年以来,中国已成为全 世界最大的铜矿石、铜阳极和 精炼铜消耗国,在 2 , 3 0 0万吨 全球铜供应量中所占的比例高 达45%。中国的加工和冶炼能 力在过去十年内大幅提高,现 占全球铜冶炼厂产量的三分之 一以上。中国的精炼铜产量增 加,因为在全球供过于求的环 境中,其加工更多国外矿石。今 年前十个月的产量较去年增加 6.8%,达 650 万吨。 当中国的 铜 需 求 增长 达 到 顶峰时,主要从秘鲁和智利进 口铜矿石,从美国进口废铜进 行 冶 炼 。高 盛 九 月的 预 测 表 示,2020 年之前,铜需求量将 按 3% 的年增长率增长。需求 量增长已从去年的 6% 及2013 年的 11% 下滑。 今年九月,精炼铜和铜半成

品的进口量较八月猛增30%以 上,达460,000吨,比去年九月 多18%。这是自2014年1月以来 月运输总量最高的一 个月,也 是自去年六月以来首次出现上 涨。但总的来看,本年迄今的 进口量仍低于2014年同期的进 口量,下降5.5%,只有 340 万 吨。 然而,财务计划和套利方案 扰乱了对中国实际铜消耗量的 衡量。去年,中国青岛港发生大 宗商品融资丑闻 — — 多方 涉嫌重复质押库存金属骗取贷 款,导致此类金属大宗商品融 资失控。瑞士信贷今年早些时 候估计,高达三分之一的中国铜 进口量被用来获取低息美元贷 款或进行利率套利。此类铜大 宗商品融资现已大大减少。

此外,中国对冲基金将铜当 作看空中国经济的押注。由于 被禁止散布关于中国股票的谣 言,加上国内库存数据不足,投 机分子将目光投向铜。 考虑 到 第三季度银 行提 高 向房地产开发商和购房者的贷 款,以及政府承诺投资约3,150 亿美元建设电网基础设施,尤 其是在内陆城市,部分分析员 预计中国的房地产市场将迎来 复苏。但今年早些时候对国有 能源公司的贪腐调查已拖慢电 网部署进度。此 外,铝逐渐成 为粗配电线缆的替代品。 但借助房地产复苏可能尚需 时日。由于未售房产过剩,住房 竣工量今年下降15%,住房开 工率甚至更加疲弱。此 外,铜 是用于住房竣工后的电线、管

道、空调和室内电气设备。 从长期来看,随着平均收入 的提高,中国的铜使用量可能 会增加。中国的铜消耗量远远 低于日本曾达到的顶峰。中国 大力推进可再生能源发电和电 动汽车,表明需求有增长的潜 力。 “一带一路”倡议可能会影 响海上运输量,因为中国将从 古丝绸之路贸易通道沿线的邻 国采购和加工大量铜矿储量。 到这个十年底,蒙古国准备在 与中国接壤的边境上修建全世 界最大的铜金矿开采企业。 总而言之,由于工业消耗疲 软、国内库存增加及用于抵押 融资的金属减少,预计中国对 这一“红色工业金属”的进口疲 弱态势将持续到明年。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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■ ■ ■ 物流

起飞 我国快递运营商即将展开飞机收购潮,Jason Jiang报道

十月底,中国国务院就快递行 业的发展提出了第一个指导方 针。该指导方针鼓励快递公司 通过合并、上市和设立货运航 班做强做大。政府也将为货运 飞机的购置提供政策支持。 同月,总部位于杭州的圆通 快递就购置 15 架波音 737-800 货机与波音公司签署了协议, 这批飞机将在2020年前交付, 届时该公司的货机数量将增加 至20架。 圆通快递在中国是继中国邮 政特快专递和顺丰快递之后, 第三家设立货运航班的快递公 司。该公司于九月份启用首架 货机,到今年年底将再增加两 架货机。 “在快递总量方面,中国已 于2014年超过美国位列全球第 一。然而,市场上运行的货机数 量还不足100架,而仅联邦快递 一家公司就拥有超过60 0架货 机。未来对货机的需求将日益 12

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增加。”圆通快 递董事长喻 渭 蛟表示。 中国最大的私营快递公司顺 丰快递也在着眼于机队扩充。 该公司目前管理着一支拥有42 架货机的机队,其中22架为自 有,20 架为租机。顺丰航空总 裁李胜表示计划到2020年将机 队扩充到100架货机。 顺丰快递还考虑在华中建设 一个航运枢纽。该公司目前正 在考虑的一个地点是鄂州,位 于湖北省会武汉附近。这有望 为高端快递市场提供服务,并 以区区数小时的飞行时间覆盖 90%的大陆市场。该公司迄今 已在北京、杭州和深圳建立了

区域性枢纽。 李先生表示: “大陆200多个 机场都是为客机而设计的。快 递和货物的需要被放在次要地 位。” “领 先的全 球性快 递 公司 必须拥有这样的全国性甚至是 全球性的航运枢纽。这将提高 公司的整体效率和飞机的利用 率。”他补充道。 综合开发研究院物流与供应 链管理研究所王国文所长认为 顺丰快递的航运枢纽可能成为 在全世界都算是最大的一处枢 纽。 “中国在过去近十年里,一 直是物流规模最大的经济体。

中国作为世界上最大的快递市 场,只拥有不到 100 架货机。 而仅联邦快递一家公司就拥有超 过 600 架货机。

随着我国庞大的人口进入航运 消费时代,我们有足够的证据 期望该航运枢纽成为亚洲乃至 世界最大的。”他解释道。 伴随着电子商务市场呈现的 爆发式增长,中国的快递公司 在过去五年一直保持 30%的年 增长率。业内大型公司颇受投 资者追捧,这些投资者都非常 期待他们加入资本市场。 阿里巴巴,以及由阿里巴巴 集 团主 席马云 创 立 的 云 峰 基 金,今年从圆通快递购入了数 目不详的股份。业内知情者认 为份额为 20%。 业内另一大型公司申通快递 目前正尝试通过与浙江艾迪西 流体控制股份有限公司的资转 股交易完成上市,艾迪西是 8月 份以来一直停牌的上市公司。 该项交易将帮助申通快递避 开中国冗长的首发上市程序借 壳上市,从而有望成为第一家 上市的快递公司。


人物专访 ■ ■ ■

大连的呼唤 大连港集团旗下支线运输子公司雄心勃勃求发展

连港集团旗下附属公司大 连集发环渤海集装箱运输 有限公司(DBR)放眼国际 市场,以期进 一步扩大公

司业务。 该公司主要在环渤海区域经营支线运 输服务,也为博多、门司、富海等日本港口 提供国际支线运输服务。 大连港是中国东北的重要航运通道,近 年来一直通过其腹地策略努力拓展业务, 以应对航运业的衰退。

该港口预计今年将处理4.4亿吨货物, 并完成1,023万标准箱的集装箱吞吐量。 “随着大连港腹地的快速发展,我们也 一直在扩大我们的运载能力及提高我们的 服务,以满足不断增长的需求。”DBR总经 理王骏表示。 目前,该公司经营着一支由八艘支线集 装箱船组成的船队,已建立一个连接环渤 海区域大多数港口的支线网络。 今年,DBR 新增连通辽宁葫芦岛港的服 务,进一步完善其服务网络。

我们从腹地经济的发展中看到巨大机遇

“我们在葫芦岛港看到腹地经济发展 的巨大机遇。包括中石油、中冶集团、西门 子在内的许多大型企业在这里落户。无缝 运输服务使该地区越来越多的承运商选择 大连港为他们的主要出口港。”王骏表示。 “同时,我们努力提高国内集装箱运输 量在我们的业务中所占的比例。”王骏表 示,并补充指出国内集装箱运输业务已成 为大连港的新增长点。 DBR现提供从环渤海各大港口出发的国 内运输服务,目的地包括厦门和广州等南 方港口。 “下一步我们将增加国内集装箱运输线 路的密度。”王骏透露道。 DBR与其母公司大连港集团共同成立的 合资公司大连集发船舶管理有限公司,与 中国船舶重工集团公司附属公司山海关船 舶重工有限公司,于九月签订造船合同,委 托后者建造两艘1,100标准箱的支线集装 箱船,另外签订四份待生效造船合同。预 计前两艘船舶将在2017年交付,计划投入到 国内沿海和长江航线。 王骏表示,该公司打算将计划订购的头 两艘船舶租给其他国内集装箱运营商,目 前正在与几家公司洽谈,该公司将在敲定 租船合同后执行待生效合同。 近日,大连港集团为 DBR 补充一笔一亿 元人民币的资金,以支持该公司的发展。 王骏表示,DBR 也在考虑在姊妹公司大 连集发物流有限公司及其母公司大连港集 团的支持下,将其服务网络拓展到蒙古和 俄罗斯。

DBR 大连集发环渤海集装箱运输有 限公司是大连港集团旗下子公 司。该公司主要在环渤海区域经 营支线运输服务,拥有一支包括 八艘支线集装箱船的船队,并 已订购两艘新船。

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燃料检测和第三方公证行业的领域者

威力大石油服务公司(VPS) 提供解决方案改进及帮助船 舶运营商达到有效燃油管理 包括燃油成本,运营效率, 和符合各燃料章程的要求。

1981年我们推出世界的第一个对于船舶燃料检测 程序的行业。如今,客户仍然是我们业务的中心和 重点。

威力大石油服务公司

Europe Rotterdam Zwolseweg 1 2994 LB Barendrecht P.O. Box 9515, 3007 AM The Netherlands T + 31 (0) 180 221 100 E rotterdam@v-p-s.com

www.v-p-s.com

我们拥有全球性的技术专家网络和办事处,四个 独资的专业燃料化验室分布于鹿特丹,新加坡,休 斯顿和富查伊拉的战略要地,与接入全球200个 数量公证的网络。

Asia, Middle East & Africa Singapore 27 Changi South Street 1 Singapore 486071 T + 65 6779 2475 E singapore@v-p-s.com

Americas Houston 318 North 16th Street La Porte, Texas 77571 USA T + 1 281 470 1030 E houston@v-p-s.com


人物专访 ■ ■ ■

子如其父 Ed Buttery在低迷期从日本购买灵便型运输船,就像他父亲20年前所做的那样。

自从家族退出太平 洋航运旗下的灵便型 船运输业务,我们直 至今日才迎来再次进 入市场的机会。

D

oris Ho 微笑着回忆起在教子年 轻的时候自己曾经如何劝说 他不要在船运业发展。“我 告诉他,什么都可以尝试,就 是不要考虑船运,这行太艰难。”身为 Fairmont/Magsaysay 船运帝国成员的她说 道。 问题是这位教子从小就沉浸于船运方 面的学问。Ho 说道:“他心意已决,认 为这就是自己的未来。” 她的教子就是 Ed Buttery。也许透 过这个姓氏可以很快发现他的船运血 统。Ed 的父亲是 Chris Buttery,香港船 运界最具盛名的人物之一,太平洋航运的 传奇创始人和 Epic Gas 如今的幕后东主。

在SinoShip看来, 子如其父——尽管也许 更为文质彬彬一些,但Ed在建立自己的 船队时非常在行。 Ed Buttery 去年在香港创建了 Taylor Maritime。该公司的命名是他对自己的泰 国妻子 Paula Taylor 的一种致意。自那时 起,他一直在为建立一支灵便散货船队而 奔忙,就像太平洋航运在二十世纪九十年 代所做的那样。 Taylor Maritime 如今的船队规模有五条 船,最近购置的一条是以 680 万美元从日 本三德船舶株式会社收购的 Kwela (32,474 净载重吨, 2002 年完工)。三菱重工建造的 这条船舶带四个30.5吨的吊机。此前购买 的所有船舶都是日本二手船舶。

“自从家族退出太平洋航运旗下的灵 便型船运输业务,我们直至今日才迎来再 次进入市场的机会。”Buttery 表示。“ 然而,成立 Taylor Maritime 之后,我们从 小处着手奠定基础,希望公司成为业内可 靠的长期合作伙伴,保有高标准和运营良 好的船舶。” 在创建该公司之前,Buttery 曾在北欧 联合银行 (Nordea Bank) 任职两年。 也许会有人提出,在干散货运输领域 最为持久的衰退期还开设公司简直就是勇 敢或者鲁莽。另外一些人则会说这个时机 再好不过。 一位消息人士最近曾经与 Chris Buttery 的朋友兼太平洋航运共同创始人 Paul Over 攀谈过。Over 告诉这位SinoShip消息 人士:“这正是当年 Chris 和我开始购买 船舶的那种时机。” 显然小 Buttery 也身具其父那种对商机 的洞察力。

Taylor Maritime 2014年由 Ed Buttery 在香港创 建。专注于灵便船运输业务。 如今船队拥有五条日本制造的 二手船舶。

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■ ■ ■ 人物专访

整车长江滚装运输 Jason Jiang采访一位勇于进取的重庆企业家

庆市河牛滚装船运输公司 董事长谭建强认为,尽管 当前市场低迷,但重庆即 将迎来新一轮航运发展机 遇。该公司是一家综合性航运公司,在世 界第三长河长江提供集装箱、散装和滚装 运输服务。 谭建强表示,中国西南部的经济影响力 在过去几年中不断提高,中央政府也已将 长江经济带的发展定为“十三五”的主要 重点之一。 作为该地区的运输枢纽,重庆占尽航运 发展优势。 “目前,重庆正在努力将自己建设为长 江上游的联运枢纽。促进行业发展的港口 码头升级计划也十拿九稳。”谭建强表示。 谭建强是土生土长的重庆人,从小在长 江边长大。他是一位对市场独具慧眼的商 人。2000年,三峡工程蓄水,长江水位上 升,他抓住这一机遇,投资建设一支滚装船 队,在重庆与宜昌之间运输轿车。谭建强 在2002年注册公司。 之后,他涉足煤矿行业,并投资散货船 运煤,随着煤炭市场的衰落,他又决定用 船运输铁矿石、钢铁和肥料。 今天,重庆河牛经营着 7 艘滚装船及 50 多艘运输集装箱又能运输 散货的多用途 船,覆盖长江沿岸的大多数主要港口。船 队的总装载量约为50万吨。 “得益于重庆港的飞速发展,市场对滚 装运输服务的需求不断增长。越来越多的 承运商抛弃陆路,选择通过水路运输经由 重庆的轿车。”谭建强表示。 2 015年前10 个月,经由重庆港的轿车 数量创下纪录,达 20 9,0 0 0 辆,同比增长 36.3%。 谭建强认为,目前市场中的主要问题之

一仍是产能过剩,他承认,由于市场持续 低迷,公司的盈利已大幅下降。 “在当前形势下,我们已采 取许多 措 施,包括控制成本,优化船队,以免遭受亏 损。”谭建强表示。 2012年,谭建强还投资重庆市云阳县的 一家船厂——河牛复兴船厂,该船厂今年 已为重庆河牛交付七艘多用途船,每艘船 舶载重量达7,500吨(436标准箱)。 谭 建 强 坚 信 市 场 将 在 不久 的 将 来 复 苏 。“只有 倒 闭 的 企 业,没 有 倒 闭 的 行

当市场复苏时,公司已蓄势待发 16

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业。”他乐观地说道, “重要的是,当市场 复苏时,公司已蓄势待发。”

重庆河牛 重 庆 市 河牛滚 装 船 运输 有限 公司于2002年成立,在长江提 供集装箱、散货、滚装运输服 务。该公司现有七艘滚装船及 50多艘多用途船。


人物专访 ■ ■ ■

新处长面临诸多待决事务 郑美施女士已执掌香港海事处。她需要加快速度适应角色以安抚香港的船东

香港船舶注册处 (HKSR) 将继续提高 服务水平,为船东提供 技术支持和建议。

我们预计海运业大周期中将出现泡沫崩溃

月底宣布海事处又有一项 人事变动的时候,香港的 船东们怨声群起,因为该 政府机构最近几年曾经历 过走马灯似的高层任命。 “我们又要重新来过了。”一位船东在 向中船吐露私营企业界为让政府了解影响 该地区海事活动中存在的问题所作的努力 时表示。

黄伟纶已从香港海事处处长的位置上 卸任,这个负责管理港务和香港规模非常 庞大的船舶注册事务的机构现由郑美施女 士继任。黄在位仅仅18个月。 5 4岁的郑女士曾服务于各 个局处,在 2010年2月至2012年6月间曾担任运输及房 屋局副秘书长。她从2013年1月起曾任政府 物流服务署署长。 郑女士入职后面临诸多待决事项。中船

在最近对 250 人进行的调查中了解到的诸 多诉求中的关键一项就是希望该处,尤其 是注册部门加强响应。 郑女士在新上任后首次接受中船采访时 说道: “作为海事处处长,我渴望与同事紧 密合作,促进海事服务精益求精,确保港口 运营和香港所有水域的安全,并管理香港 船舶注册处,保障香港注册船舶的质量。” 该注 册处在九 月底突 破1亿吨注 册总 吨位水平,名列世界第四。当地船东曾抱 怨,其快速发展未必与海事处人数的增加 相称。 不过郑女士坚定地表示将采取更多措 施改善旗下的服务水平。 郑女士宣称, “香港船舶注册处将继续 提高服务水平,为船东提供技术支持和建 议。”此外,她还表示海事处将继续通过增 强与大陆相关权威机构的协作,为在香港 注册的船舶在国际水域和国外港口的安全 加强保障。

香港海事处 该政府机构负责管理港口事务 和香港规模非常庞大的船舶注 册事务。

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■ ■ ■ 专题

产量居次 Katherine Si 谈论中国的发动机制造商在行业低迷中如何转移重心

为船舶 的核心设备,推

进系统占船舶总价值的 15%-25%。此外,船舶推 进系统将直接影响船舶 的可靠性,节能性,环保性以及效率—— 推进系统一直都是建造现代船舶的核心。 中国,最近几年攀升到全 球造船行业 的领先 地位,调整了其 在 航 运领域的野 心— —严峻的市场形势使其认识到质 量而非数量是造船业的关键。同样的,在 发动机制造前沿,中国开始考虑产量以外 的数据。中国希望更专业化。北京通过了船

舶动力专项,计划启动一个低速柴油机项 目。准备工作已经开始。 中国造船协会CANSI在11月举办了船用 动力研讨会,讨论了这个领域的未来和目 标。 “中国近几年在这个领域取得了快速 的发展。船用动力行业已经进入关键发展 阶段。业者和金融领域的合作 将 推 进 这 个行业的快速健康发展,”中国国有造船 巨头中国船舶工业集团规划部主任马云翔 表示。 刘祥源,舰船设备专家,建议应该成立

中国将在未来五年建立船舶排放控制区 18

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一只“国家级小组”专注于船用推进产品的 研发。 除了专业化以外,中国明确表明要开发更 环保的发动机。考虑到来自国内港口和更 多停靠船舶带来的与日俱增的污染,中国 将在未来五年建立船舶排放控制区,据交 通运输部的消息。因此开发更加环保的推 进系统尤为紧迫。 正如中国的航 运和造船 领域,合并在 这个国家的船用发动机领域也在快 速发 生着。 另一家国有造船巨头中国船舶重工, 将 其大部分的发动机资产整合到其上海上市 的子公司风帆集团,而其竞争者,掌控南方 船厂的中国船舶工业也将其主要的发动机 资产整合到子公司沪东重机。


动力 ■ ■ ■

中国领先LNG 北京支持从重型燃料中转型的倡议

北京支 持,在市民要求清

洁环 境的压 力下,中国意 欲成为除欧洲以外唯一真 正支持LNG作为船用燃料 理念地方。中国正在推进排放控制区域, 可能在2020年实施,长江成为试用LNG的 培养皿。 今年早些时候,CLNG Finance和Maifutong

向前推进 一家领先的船用螺旋桨制造商,镇江中船 瓦锡兰螺旋桨有限公司,正在投资一条新 的生产线和一座智能工厂。 “受持续多年航运和造船业低迷的影 响,螺旋桨制造商目前面临真正的严冬,然 而,领先的技术和高质量的产品使得公司 今年的产量和2013年比大幅增长,定距桨 产量将实现三倍增长,可调桨产量将实现 四倍增长,”镇江中船瓦锡兰螺旋桨有限公 司总经理Johnny Liu告诉SinoShip. 尽管市场低迷,公司的产量却实现了逆 势上扬。

与上海LNG Power Shipping达成200艘LNG燃 料船售后回租协议。这些河运散货船吨位在 700 dwt到1,300 dwt之间。LNG Power Shipping 八月在香港上市的宏华集团订购这200艘 船,价格达到7.6亿元,预计在2016年九月前

交付。 China LNG还与中国九家船厂签订了 战略合作协议,价值7.54亿美元,涉及融 资,LNG燃料船的建造和改造,以及在国内 建造LNG和清洁柴油加注站。

长江成为试用LNG的培养皿 Johnny认为产能过剩和持续的航运 市场低迷给行业带来了极大的挑战, 不过,机会并存,因为行业也在整合。 “目前,我们正在投资一座新的智 能工厂,一套先进的生产控制系统,可 以实现生产过程在线直播,我们可以 让大数据讲话,在必要的时刻对生产 进程进行干预,” Johnny表示。 这座智能工厂预计在明年初投入 运营。 镇江中船瓦锡兰螺旋桨有限公司是 瓦锡兰和中船设备公司在2004年成立 的合资公司。2007年公司扩大规模, 建立了新的厂区。

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枢纽:上海 ■ ■ ■

发展中的障碍 Jason Jiang 谈论该市如何规划未来 上海正在紧锣密鼓地顺利实现 成为国际航运中心的宏大目标。 十一月初,上海市政府宣布 已启动建设上海国际航运中心 的立法工作,以满足发展过程 中不断产生的法律需求。立法 草案预期将在年底前完成。 “过去几 年上海 在 海 运 基 础设施建设、管理体制创新、 人才培训方面已经取得重大进 展,然而,要为航 运 业有关 企 业改善运营环境还有许多需要 改进的地方。”上海国际航运研 究所(SISI)国际航运研究办公 室主任张永锋表示。 “为上海国际航运中心进行 立法工作对于保障该中心的健 康发展至关 重要。”张先生补 充道。 上海港在 2 015年前三季度 完成了2 ,739万标准 箱的吞吐 量,同比增长3.5%。

上海国际港务集团 (SIPG) 的一位官员表 示,在该港目前 正在研究的计划中,将发展国 际拼箱货 (LCL) 转运业务作为 主要目标。该集团将此视为开 发新成长点的重要领域。 “目前釜山港口、香港港口 和新加坡港口已经占据了亚洲 国际 拼 箱 货 转 运 业 务 的 绝 大 部分。上海作为世界上领先的 集装箱港口在这方面却落在后 面。”该官员表示。 SISI 的一位航运专家赵楠 表示上海在拼箱货转运业务方 面拥有巨大的区位优势,但同 时也面临着一系列挑战。 国际拼 箱货转 运 业 务量在 韩国和新加坡分别占到集装箱 总吞吐量的50%和80%,上海 港则低于7%。 上海港从2014年7月起开始 在自贸区试运营国际拼箱货转

运业务,但发展情况不好。 第一 批 获准 开展国际拼 箱 货转运业务试点运营的上海同 景物流的高级官员唐秦表示, 与新加坡港和香港港口相比, 中国承运商经上海港转运可以 节省约 15% 的运营成本和大约 20% 的物流时间。然而,他承 认在上海这类业务仍不成熟。 赵表示,洋山港和外高桥港 之间较长的距离给承运商增加 了转运时间和物流成本,在两 个港口之间转运所需报关程序 也比较复杂,这限制了这类业 务的发展。此 外,离境 退税政 策在享受此类待遇的港口只适 用于一小部分试点区域。多数 承运商宁愿从釜山、香港和新 加坡转运货物。 “目前 政 府 正 在 为国际 拼 箱货转运业务研究制定优惠政 策和服务平台,上海国际港务

集团也在试图扩展其支线转运 业务,为两个港区提供无缝衔 接。”赵表示。 “ 有关机 构应该 进 一步放 宽对 货物转运的限制。”他建 议道。 随 着 港口货 物 量 的 增 加, 上海也在面临港口拥堵和污染 问题的挑战。早先政府考虑过 利用上海附近的横沙岛和舟山 附近的大杨山岛进行扩充。然 而出于各种障碍,决定仍未作 出。现在政府正在为港口优化 和扩充总方案进行招标。 十月底,上海国际港务集团 制定了一项计 划,提高港口岸 电供应能力,以缓解市内日益 严重的空气污染问题。SISI 的 统计数据显示上海港停泊的国 际船舶排放的 PM2.5 固形物占 到总量的66%以上。 根 据 该 项 计 划,上 海 超 过 半 数的 港口码 头都 将在 2 0 2 0 年前采用岸电技术。目前已经 有两个岸电试点项目。另外六 个岸电项目也将在2016年开始 建设。上海国际港务集团希望 在2017年底之前将主要港区的 PM2.5 排放降低20%。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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■ ■ ■ 枢纽:台北

台湾岛与欧洲的铁路连接 出口商品现在可以从台中通过陆路发向汉堡,Katherine Si 报道

纵然这座岛屿孤悬海上,这也 无碍于台北当局考虑建立通向 欧 洲的陆路连接,让出口商品 更快地送往主要市场。 台湾连续多月出口下滑。政 府急盼出口更具竞争力。为此该 岛已经推出了新的海铁联运服 务——台湾经平潭至欧洲的 多式海铁联运。 作为亚洲的出口枢纽,台湾 的外贸总量在 2 014 年达 到了 5,880亿美元,其中650亿出口 到欧洲。 台湾经 平潭至 欧 洲海 铁联 22

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运服务将于十一月初启动,从 台湾中部出发,驶向德国。 集 装 箱由海 峡 轮 从台湾台 中装运,抵达福建平潭的集散 港。之 后 这 些 集 装 箱 先 通 过 货车运输抵达江阴港,然后装 上列车发往德国汉堡,途经新 疆、哈萨克斯坦、莫斯科、白俄 罗斯、捷克共和国和柏林。该 铁路线总里程约1万1千公里。 台湾经 平潭至 欧 洲运输 线

需时16至20天,比海路少15至 30天。 这条多式铁 路 运输 线涵盖 数个内陆港、四个出口港,经过 中国20个省、中西亚10个国家 和欧洲28个国家。 目前,台湾的近邻福建省正 在推进与该岛的运输联系,在 建的福平线(福州至平潭)预 期于2019年投入运行。这条新 铁路线将直接连接到平潭集散

该铁路线总里程约1万1千公里

港,可以提高台湾经平潭至欧 洲运输线的效率。 台湾经平潭至欧洲海铁联运 服务将纳入北京当局的国家战 略,以吸纳台湾参与在习近平 主席引领 下为将中国、中亚和 欧洲联系起来而推出的宏大的 一带一路基础设施建设。 这条 经 过福 建的铁 路联系 已不是台湾在这方面所作的首 次努力。今年早些时候,台湾领 先的集装箱运输公司长荣海运 就和宁波港联手发展了海铁联 运服务。


枢纽:香港 ■ ■ ■

时间紧迫 当地船东协会关心的是,现任香港特 区政府卸任之前制定稳妥的航运政策

SinoShip致电时,香港船东 会(HKSOA)董事总经理Arthur Bowring似乎一直自顾不暇。然 而,在最近一次拜访中,Arthur Bowring还是忙不迭的样子,香 港船东会湾仔办事处越发忙得 不可开交。 虽然香港特首梁振英并没有 太受到当地广大民众的欢迎, 但他对于当地航运业的贡献要 比1997年香港回归后历任领导 人都要大。那么,问题是?梁 振英的任期在2017年结束(因 此谣言四起,称Bowring届时也 会退休),因此时间紧迫。 SinoShip拜访时,Bowring刚 从本年度成功落幕的“伦敦国 际航运周(LISW)”归来。LISW 显 然 让 他 印 象 深 刻 。整 个 一 周,英国政府都被英国业内人 士就航运对当地经济的重要性 发起的报告中提出的事实和数 字弄 得焦头烂额。Bow r ing 感 叹道,本世纪香港的重大航运 报告全部由政府委托完成。他 说: “业内人士发起的报告有助 于说服政府。” 然而,Bowr ing 对梁振英致 力于航运的明确决心持乐观态 度。Bowring说: “特首表示, 他会成 立法定海事局。”他补 充说: “政 府有意重组 并制定

更 好 的 协商制 度。” Bowring深知时间 紧迫,强调说: “我们必须 在梁振英于2017年卸任之前将 此事落实到位。” Bowring表示,他发现不仅是 政府上层,还有香港投资推广 署、香港贸易发展局等部门均 对航运业表现出极大的兴趣。 就此,Bowring再次提到他 领导的HKSOA近20年以来多 次发表的、人们已经熟知的观 点。 他说: “香港是中国南海的 荒岛。没有任何资源。人和、

人和、地利和政策必须成为我 们的优势

地利和政策必须成为我们的优 势。竞争力是关键,而不是激励 措施。”他指出,香港政府没有 进行部门支助。 Bowring认为香港拥有人和 与地利优势。他说: “我们现在 需要的是政策。” Bowring表 示,政府挺身而 出支持航运,现在的关键是让 香港立法 会 — — 这个实际 上存在的议会——同样支持 航运。 Bowring经验老到,精明干 练,在 探 索 的 过 程 中 很 容 争 取 到 协 会 新一届领导班 子的 支持。华光海运41岁的董事长

赵 式 明 刚 刚 被 提 名为香 港船东会新一任主 席,China Navigation的主席JB Rae-Smith担任副主席,在他们 领导的4年中,该机构一定会活 力四射,冲劲十足。 赵 式明告诉SinoShip: “作 为航运中心,我们优势明显, 但通常得不到适当的认可或推 广。”她还补充说: “在各个公 司着手进行区域扩展时,我们 需要确保香港成为他们的首要 选择,因此我们需要彰显我们 的优势。” 与主要贸易合作伙伴订立更 多双重征税协议,是这位华光 海运老板早期最看重的事项。 因为时间紧迫。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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■ ■ ■ 书籍

海上生活 Paul French 称赞最近探讨海上生活的大量书籍

获奖作家 Horatio Clare 在他乘 坐集装箱船跨越海洋的游记新 作开头声称: “我们的生活依赖 于航运,但我们对这个领域却 知之甚少。在每一寸寂寥的海面 上,在每个白昼,每个黑夜,各种 可以想象的天气中,一群微不足 道的船员在巨轮上工作,在海上 生活。” Clare编著的书籍Down To The Sea In Ships: Of Ageless Oceans and Modern Men 世所罕有,这本书着 眼于商业船运的点点滴滴,同时 也是一部关于海洋、船舶、船员 和国际贸易的文艺盛宴,通俗易 懂,妙趣横生。 锈迹斑斑的大集装箱船和笨 24

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拙的巨型油轮激发的情怀往往 不同于高大的船舶和昔日的印度 快船,而 Clare 却是丹麦集装箱 航运巨头马士基的常驻作家。他 乘坐“一艘破旧不堪的捕鱼船” ,取道苏伊士运河和中国,从费 利克斯托航行至洛杉矶,然后再 次从安特卫普行至蒙特利尔,记 录船上的生活点滴。中国的集装 箱船如何为世界其他地区供应 商品,而油轮又是如何向中国供

应燃料来推动货运,他想一探究 竟。但是,他在书中提到了水运 文学巨匠Joseph Conrad和Jerome K. Jerome,还有他自己热情奔放 的描绘。新颖之处在于游记、历 史兼而有之,还有部分内容探讨 全球贸易的经济影响。但重要的 是,他提醒从事航运的人们,海 洋瑰丽壮阔,我们要时时保持敬 畏之心,不要想当然,他提醒只 见过当地渡轮或者停靠海港的

锈迹斑斑的大集装箱船和笨拙的 巨型油轮激发的情怀往往不同于高 大的船舶和昔日的印度快船

百万富翁游艇的“旱鸭子”,海洋 仍然是贸易的要道。 Rose George 创作的 Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry That Brings You 90% of Everything 是又一部个人航 海旅行作品。但是,George着眼 于其他更为少见的船只,例如, 海盗船和非法加工船。George 还 着眼于依靠航运的岸边群体。 不只是装卸工人、码头工人和造 船工程师,还有航运业的非正 式员工,例如,追踪每年丢失的 10,000个集装箱的海滨流浪汉、 正在逐渐取代人类船员的机器 人以及反对海洋污染趋势的环 境学家。 最后是另一位作家 Geoff Dyer 登 上 最 大 的巨型 远 洋 舰 跨 越 大洋远航并创作了Another Great Day at Sea,这位作家通常撰写 D.H.Lawrence 或现代艺术,目前 是阿拉伯海湾现役“布什”号航 空母舰船员之一。Dyer 将这艘航 空母舰视作社会缩影,海上一个 大小适度的城镇,有 5,000 人在 这个浮动的钢铁巨人肩上生活和 工作。 文学作品一向敬奉大海的力 量,从荷马到梅尔维尔编著的《 白鲸》、康拉德的远洋冒险、维 克多·雨果、汉斯·克里斯汀·安 徒生等文学巨匠的作品均有对 海洋的描述,不胜枚举。通过这 三本书我们可以看到,海洋、航 海船只以及船上工作的船员仍然 拥有强大的戏剧力量,可以唤起 在陆上度过大部分时光的人们 对海洋保持敬畏之心。


意见 ■ ■ ■

一堆烂摊子能造就冠绝 群伦的国家级企业吗?

Charles De Trenck 对中远-中海合并发表了一番措辞严厉的评论 在传言散 布坊间多年之后,如 今我们掌握的确切信息表明,中 国政府将推进最大的船运公司 的重组。 中国政府要员要想妥善处置 中远-中海合并重组过程中必然 出现的乱局,可以借助的资源并 不多,也许只有启用麦肯锡或是 某些其他的顾问公司、会计事务 所和银行。 东方海皇集团管理层,在淡 马锡的部分指导下,再加上无可 置身事外的麦肯锡,导致APL的 经营模式持续下滑,陷入老牌 集装箱航运公司对其诟病多端 的深渊。韩国公司,部分日本、 台湾和许多其他公司已经在不 同程度上滑向了同一个深渊。而 众所周知的是,中国国有航运公 司在这个财务混乱的深渊中陷 得最深。 有几个明显的因素常常被管 理层和市场视为过去数年经济 和全球贸易风云变化中的不可

控变数,特别是在集装箱业务 领域。其中部分因素包括:持续 的大规模政府补贴;高级管理 层持续的各行其事,薄弱的行 业自律和擦边球式的腐败;监管 组织推卸责任的普遍现象;全 球贸易发展减速。 一些管理层早就应该察觉到 其中某些相互交织的问题。不 论是马士基还是家族公司(东方 海外、万海、汉堡南美)都应该 稍微早一点注意到这些问题的 出现。这些全都不是新问题。我 们在大型全球性银行也发现过 其中许多问题:花旗银行、美国 银行、以及许多其他银行。 当公司有一群人通过钻营上 升到高层,得以掌管巨无霸那只 带隐形隔层的钱袋,动用政府白 送的钱去填补无底洞般的亏空 而继续重组时,的确更容易显示 出能耐。除非凯奏的高歌真的嘎 然而止。 人们最 终 会发现佣金 结 构

错乱,账目处置失当。而部分高 级经理,尤其在中国等一些其 他国家的国有公司当中,在 这 些问题都尚未出现的情形下, 本可以抓住每一个机会获得自 身发展。 由于政府催生了一系列浪费 且拔苗助长的行业政策,中国制 造了全世界前所未见的最大规 模的泡沫。顺理成章地,我们还 将继续见证最大规模的袒护性 救援措施。我们已经就此讨论 过多年。然而我们还未能全面 地设想到相关影响。大宗商品 贬值最近成为一个主要后果。 但要令通货膨胀较为有序地进 行,我们需要 分 步骤推 行。中 远、中海集运和其他公司需要用 多年时间重组集装箱运输服务 和重新分配客户。 中远-中海集运的整合应该 采取更科学的方式。在多数情 况下,麦肯锡和各大投资银行至 今尚未为任何人的举措找到立

竿见影的妥善解决方案。但相 似的方法将很有可能再度付诸 实施。而我们还需要对中远+中 海集运的合并等式在多大程度 上接近于二,或是离二差多远拭 目以待。我们都知道结果会是一 点几。但除非等到既成事实之 后数据出台,我们都无从知道小 数点后究竟是几。合并后的这 两家中国公司的这个数据会不 会和更成熟经济体的公司类似 呢?该国高官是否需要为这两个 巨无霸的合并给外人付钱呢?这 次合并会不会给上海和香港的 股民带来长期股票增值呢?成 熟经济体的股民大有可能遭受 粗暴的打击。但中国的股票似乎 总会随着这类新闻应声涨起。 中国将很可能制造出一家集 装箱航运巨无霸,一家冠绝群 伦的国家级企业,易如反掌地名 列顶级业者俱乐部。他们其实 应该放手让这些巨型公司成为 完全不同的企业。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

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OPINION ■ ■ ■

为什么说运输业 属于第三世界 Andrew Craig-Bennett 对业内的环保提倡者作了一番品头论足

大 家 也 许 都还记得安徒生的 那个童话——一位年轻而自 命不凡的皇帝在两名蛊惑人心 的骗徒劝说下从他们手中购买 了一件“不称职或是愚不可及 的人都无法看见的”衣服。当那 两个招摇撞骗者给皇帝穿上美 妙的新衣时,每 个人都假装能 够看见,直至最后一个年纪太 小不懂事的小孩喊道: “皇帝其 实什么衣服都没穿呀!” 我曾经服务过的一名船东在 一个竞争对手购买了一家投资 银行的时候说 道: “我喜欢拥 有自己能够踏上去并且摸得到 的东西。”他的判断被证实是正 确的。 坦白地说,我们不信任航运 业中看不见的东西是因为我们 这个 行 业 的 运营 环 境 缺 乏 诚 信,而且我们可以怀疑如果有 什么东西我们看不见,也许就

是因为某个骗局正在上演。 为经营过程中产生的二氧化 碳花钱— —或美其名曰“排 放权交易”— —和皇帝的新 衣何其相似。许多聪明人忙着 从我们这些笨蛋无法看到、无 法摸到,也无法可靠地衡量的 东西赚钱,并告诉我们这完全 是为了善待这个星球。 有许 多骗 局 都 涉及我们 很 少见到却自以为可以衡量的东 西,比如分为船用油和货用油 的燃料油(在一些油轮船东眼 里,其 间 几乎没有区 别),而 我们对此已经习惯了。奇妙的 管道,怪异而神奇的管系布置 方案,船用油软管中倒出的物 料 — — 这些就是 船 运业司 空见惯的东西。 我们都认识 那 些 备 受尊 敬 的铁血勇士们,蓝方是以船东 为主 体 、代 表 资 方 的 国 际 海

运商会(International Chamber of Shipping,缩写ICS),红方 则 是 以海员和 码 头 工 人 为主 体 、代 表 劳 方 的 国 际 运 输 联 合会(International Transport Federation, 缩写ITF)。 别 忘 了,似 乎 还 有另 一 个 ITF,而ICS也跟这一方挑起了 战 斗。这一方 就 是 国 际 交 通 论坛(International Transport Form,缩写同为I T F ),而它是 经 合 组织(O E C D)的 智库。它 已经 决 定商船必 须为排 放的 二氧化 碳 支付每吨 2 5美 元。 在这樽字母大杂烩中,更有根 据 联 合国气候 变化 框 架 公约 共同但有区别的责任( Un ited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Common But Differentiated Responsibility, 缩 写UNFCCC CBDR),作为以市 场为基础的措施(Market Based

Measure,缩写MBM)提议的一 部分,而在UNFCCC中作出的这 项提议。CBDR指出富裕国家必 须比贫穷国家支付得更多。 国际交通论坛认为每年会增 加260亿美元。 I C S 不同意 这种观 点。I C S 表 示 — — 这 算是 好 的 方 面— —因为全球大致有70% 的船只挂的是未列入UNFCCC 附录一的发 展中国家的旗 帜,CBDR规则必须适用而且船 运业必须支付,而一旦有任何 一方确实支付,按照穷国船 运 业支付水准征收的款项应该大 约是这个数目的三分之一。 这种理论似是而非。每个学 童都知道船上的旗帜未必和船 东的所在地或国籍有关,而船 东们确实属于和小农户之类的 群众有所区别的阶层。我实在 记不起哪次见过某个船东开着 牛车。 别急— — 更有趣的还 在 后头!让我引用IC S 的新闻 稿: “与此同时船 运 业已经将 二氧化碳总排放量降低了超过 10% (2007年-2012年),将每 吨-英里二氧化碳排放量降低 了大约20%(2005年-2015年) 。因此基于零碳排放的成长已 经走上正轨。” 这下,我完全 错 愕了!我们 都是一群多么有公德心的群众 啊!ICS若无其事地恰好没有提 到它两组数据的起始日期正逢 我们这个行业前所未见的最为 繁荣的时期,一众船只以最高 速度从A点冲向B点,而这些数 据经过了一段时间的高油价, 终结于一段深度衰退期。尽管 看似了不起,如果大家减低船 速,每吨-英里烧掉的燃油就 会更少,那我们就根本犯不着 去告诉世界这些事情。 对了,还有好消息— — 这 些事近期都不会发生。国际海 事组织(IMO)在2013年没再谈 起这事,但预计在明年会重启 这个议题。这下就没事了。 皇帝的新衣 给 收 进了 更衣 柜。 Sinoship   2015年冬季刊

27

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Sinoship Winter Issue 2015  

Sinoship Winter Issue 2015  

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