Singapore Bunkering Report 2014

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Bunkering Report 2014


ON 2 points at C B I S ng ering talki

nk ly Like ’s top bu ique d worl t plus un guide v e en re travel apo Sing

Time to debate

Mass flow meters and LNG as fuel take centre stage

An Asia Shipping Media publication


Introducing ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 A Q&A with Iain White

Q: What options do marine operators have available to them

ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 also has enhanced ignition

to comply with the new sulphur cap?

characteristics compared to typical HFO.

From 1st January 2015, sulphur levels in marine fuels will

This helps to optimise combustion, reduce deposits and

be limited to a maximum of 0.10% in the existing Northwest

minimise wear on the fuel system components.

Europe and North America ECAs. In practice, this means that vessels will have to use a distillate, an alternate fuel, or install exhaust gas cleaning systems (also known as scrubbers) that remove sulphur from the exhaust after combustion. Q: What is Premium HDME 50? A: Premium HDME 50 is a new category of marine fuel formulated to meet the 2015 Emission Control Areas (ECA) sulphur limit. It has been specially designed to help marine operators comply with the 0.10% sulphur cap to be introduced in the ECA from 1st January 2015. Q: What performance and safety benefits does Premium HDME 50 offer? Premium HDME 50 offers potential performance and safety benefits versus distillate marine gas oil (MGO) and heavy fuel oil (HFO). It has the performance benefits associated with both MGO and HFO, including: • A low sulphur content associated with MGO • The higher flashpoint and lower volatility properties typically found in HFO

Q: How can Premium HDME 50 help to maintain safety and reliability on-board? With vessels using MGO, some operators chose to install chillers in their systems to increase the viscosity of their fuel. This costly process is avoided with the use of ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50. The higher viscosity of ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 makes storing and handling the fuel on-board similar to HFO. A benefit of having to heat the fuel is a reduction in the risk of thermal shock during fuel switchover when entering and leaving an ECA. This issue can result in pump seizures and engine shutdowns. Q: What ISO standard(s) does ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 comply with? With ExxonMobil Premium HDME being a new category of fuel, there is not an appropriate ISO standard to which it can be held. However, prior to its introduction, ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 was tested with Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, one of the world’s leading shipping and logistics groups, and is suitable for use in main and auxiliary engines and marine type boilers. Q: Is this product approved for use in marine engines?

The properties of ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 allow

The new fuel has received no objection letters from MAN

marine operators to simultaneously:

Diesel & Turbo (MDT) for use in MAN B&W two-stroke and

• Comply with the upcoming ECA sulphur cap • Reduce the risk of engine and boiler damage In addition, ExxonMobil Premium HDME 50 avoids a number of issues that can be associated with HFO. For example, it does not typically contain catalytic fines (aluminium and silicon within marine fuel) or lead to issues with deposits. Copyright © 2014 Exxon Mobil Corporation. All rights reserved. All trademarks used herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries unless otherwise noted.

MAN B&W Holeby genset designs, provided MDT’s specific engine type guidelines are followed. Q: Where is Premium HDME 50 available? It is available for vessels operating in the Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Antwerp region. ExxonMobil also offers MGO at more than 40 ports worldwide.


B:303 mm T:297 mm S:277 mm

3 Editor’s Comment 5 Introduction 9 Singapore 12 Data 14 Round The World 16 Executive Debate 19 Regulations 20 LNG as a Fuel 21 Alternative Fuels 23 Lubes 25 Technology 26 The Secret

Procurement Officer

27 Opinion 28 Travel 29 MarPoll

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Editor’s Comment

Two years – a long time in bunkering


wo years is a long time in the world of bunkering. Since Sibcon, the world’s premier ship fuel event, last took place much has changed … and much remains the same. Shipowners continue to operate off wafer thin margins at best, fuel prices, though down, remain high and legislators from around the world continue to push more and more green regulations shipping’s way. What has changed however is dramatic for the bunkering sector, and is evidenced in the format and conference programme of this year’s Sibcon. Singapore’s pioneering move to promulgate the use of mass flow meters will no doubt hog much of the spotlight at the show and is something we cover in depth on pages 16 and 17. Similarly, back in 2012 when this event was last held, debate still raged as to the likelihood of LNG holding any sway whatsoever in the world of bunkering. That argument has now changed; it’s more now a discussion as to when and if LNG can surpass heavy fuel oil as a fuel of choice. Half of you, our readers, reckon that moment is a long way off – at least 15 years away. Just over 300 readers filled out our online bunkering survey, results of which can be found on the back page. Finally, since there are more than 1,600

Just over 300 readers filled out our online bunkering survey, results of which can be found on the back page

participants at Sibcon from more than 50 countries, let me point you in the direction of page 28 for a useful travel guide for what to see and do in and around our home, Singapore. We might see you for a drink or three at our recommended bar, Ku De Ta (pictured). We hope you find this magazine useful and insightful – as ever, any thoughts, questions or quibbles, drop me a line at sam@asiashippingmedia. com

Sam Chambers Editor Maritime ceo 3


Rising tide of costs and regulations Shipowners, hard pressed by continued weak freight rates, have a lot to put up with when it comes to fuelling their ships


ouglas Raitt, the global manager for bunker and engine performance consultancy, Fobas told us a little while back that the debate on bunkers will become more polarised in the coming two to three years. He is not wrong. Debate on ship fuel has never been hotter with a raft of new regulations hitting the market and plenty of discussion on alternative fuel types taking up many column inches everywhere. “Quality has been a hot topic within bunkering for many years, and there is genuine concern within the shipping industry about the polarisation of standards in the sector,” says Søren Christian Meyer, vice president at OW Bunker. On fuel quality concerns, Eirik Andreassen, ceo of Veritas Petroleum Services (VPS) has much to say. Specifications on gas oils for inland use are getting stricter than for marine. Some refinery streams such as cycle

oils that were traditionally blended into automotive diesels cannot be used any longer or are only used in small quantities. “The marine market is an obvious alternative disposal route for these materials as ISO 8217 does not restrict aromatics and has less stringent limits on ignition quality,” he says. Due to the statutory requirements and the extraordinary demand, fuels from the automotive sector, that normally contain up to 7% FAME, will be used as marine fuels with the well-known challenges related to their long term storage issues. When it comes to their cold flow properties – including pour point and cold filter plugging point, VPS sees more and more examples where although the pour point is within specification, there are operational problems due to wax blocking the filters. Microbiological contamination of distillate fuels is always possible when

water is present, Andreassen explains. A slimy grey/brownish sludge found in the fuel system may indicate that the system is contaminated with microbes. OW’s Meyer reckons owners need to look beyond just focusing on the initial price of the commodity and to adopt a more strategic approach to buying fuel oil. They need to work with their fuel distributors to analyse every element of the procurement process, as well as all the direct and indirect costs that are involved. By taking this total cost of ownership approach, each specific element of buying fuel can be scrutinised to ensure maximum operational and cost efficiencies, Meyer argues.

Rising prices “The upward trajectory of fuel prices means shipowners are commonly preoccupied with their short-term fuel needs, meaning suppliers must meet the day to day challenge of getting the fuel customers need at the right place, quality and on the right terms,” says Lars Møller, Dynamic Oil Trading’s ceo.

‘Continued demand for credit will lead to more consolidation among bunker companies’ 5

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With the implementation of new emission control area (ECA) regulations and the requirement for more shipowners to burn distillates to ensure compliance, a vessel’s operating costs will rise considerably, particularly for short-sea shipping companies, OW’s Meyer warns. KPI Bridge Oil’s ceo, Carsten Ladekjær, says of the new sulphur regulations coming into force at the start of next year that he is “fairly confident” that the industry will be able to adapt and cope with the challenges that it presents in the long term. Nevertheless, there will be a number of companies, both on the supply and buying side, who will be caught by surprise to some extent, he suggests. Some of the big questions still to be answered, he reckons, are whether the supply side of the industry will be able to cope with demand, what will the actual impact on the prices be, and to what extent will the new regulations be enforced?

Coming consolidation As with so many other sectors of the shipping industry bunkering is clearly set for consolidation. “Continued demand for credit will lead to more consolidation among bunker

‘Liquidity and credit are the single biggest issues in the shipping industry when it comes to fuel supply’ companies with suppliers lacking strength and access to capital losing out to financially robust organisations offering better terms,” says Dynamic’s Møller. This trend will become more acute following the introduction of the 2015 ECA regulations due to increased distillate use, the Danish national reckons. Customers operating in ECAs and burning distillates to comply will require significantly more credit than those operating outside ECA waters. Christoffer Berg Lassen, managing director and ceo of Dubai-headquartered Glander International Bunkering, is also adamant that the industry will contract in terms of the number of companies involved. “The bunkering market is set for consolidation and only a few of the big names in the industry with deep pockets will remain in service,” he says, adding: “Stakeholders must understand this fact and should only deal with major players.” “Liquidity and credit are the single biggest issues in the shipping industry when it comes to fuel supply,” argues

Dynamic’s Møller. “As the amount of credit increases, so does the risk. The financial viability of who we provide credit to is critical, and the due-diligence that is conducted will be of paramount importance.”

LNG looms large Finally, in this brief introduction to key issues the bunkering industry is facing, we turn our attention to liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a marine fuel, something covered in greater detail on page 20. This, as with so much else discussed on these pages, brings inevitable cost increases. Mark Bell, general manager of the Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF), admits, “Converting your fleet to using LNG fuel is not a cheap option and an intermediate solution to meet ECA requirements is to use scrubber technology, itself not cheap by any means. Inevitably, many companies are waiting for the industry to develop and to acknowledge the use of LNG before they can begin to get involved. 7


Innovate to stay ahead The Lion Republic is not resting on its laurels


ingapore may well be the world’s leading bunkering hub, but that does not mean operating there is easy. Far from it. In fact, there is nowhere more ferociously competitive than the Lion Republic hence the ongoing contraction in the number of bunker suppliers. Since the last meet up of SIBCON, the top bunkering event held every two years in Singapore, some 22% of the bunkering field have either folded or had their licences cancelled by the Maritime & Port Authority of Singapore (MPA). As we went to print there were 64 suppliers left. This year’s bunker sales have been rather flat. In the first eight months sales for all products currently stand at 28.18m tons, just 60,200 tons more than in the same period in 2013. More worrying for the bunker sellers – though not for hard-pressed shipowners – are falling prices. As we went to print the outright price of Singapore 380 CST ex-wharf bunker fuel fell to its lowest in

‘When mass flow meters come in a lot of smaller players will find it difficult’

more than 44 months hitting $553 per ton. Competition is also felt increasingly by the republic’s mandarins with neighbouring ports in Malaysia and Indonesia making much noise of late about establishing credible bunkering rivals to Singapore. Competition, however, breeds innovation – and it is here that the Southeast Asian nation leads the pack, whether it be via its mass flow meter introduction or preparing for an LNG fuel future. “What stands out in the Singapore bunker scene in 2014 is the positive

effort put in by the port authority team to improve bunkering standards,” says Rahul Choudhuri, coo, Asia, Middle East and Africa for Veritas Petroleum Services. “Improving the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Bunkering by bunker barges/tankers or SS600, implementing mass flow meters, making it clear to all bunker industry players, whether surveyor, supplier or ship, that corrupt practice will not be tolerated, these are all signals that Singapore takes its bunker business seriously and will continue

Coast Guard clamp down Singapore’s Police Coast Guard (PCG) says it will continue to actively tackle illegal bunker trading. A spokesman for the Singapore Police Force says it had arrested 58 people, six vessels, and taken 17,363 in cash since 2013. “The Coast Guard will continue to conduct enforcement operations and checks, as well as engage relevant stakeholders to clamp down on the illegal sales of MGO [marine gas oil],” said the spokesman. Tugboats continue to be modified in

order to carry greater quantities of fuel oil than they would ordinarily and then used as transporters for the illegal bunkers. “These tugboats are a fire hazard and pose a danger to other vessels in the area,” added the police spokesman. The PCG has said that in the first seven months of 2014 compared to all of last year there had been a tenfold increase in illegal fuel trade volume so far in 2014. Those found guilty of theft of bunker oil face seven years in jail and a fine. Those who buy the stolen oil could be jailed for five years and fined. 9

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Freshwater Supply Services

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to exercise leadership in this respect,” Choudhuri reckons. Says Lars Møller, Dynamic Oil Trading’s ceo, “One of the key challenges for Singapore, as for all bunker markets, is to remain competitive in the face of competition from other bunker ports and to continue to supply the high quality products that shipping companies need. Singapore is not immune to this challenge, despite the benefits of its location and the strength of the bunkering infrastructure

in place here, and understands that it doesn’t have a divine right being the biggest bunker port in the world.” Lim Teck Cheng, the ceo of Singapore’s largest bunker vessel operator, Hong Lam Marine, argues that one consequence of this quest for innovation is a natural further culling of the number of companies within his sector. “When mass flow meters come in a lot of smaller players will find it difficult,” says Lim, who anticipates the playing field

being cut by another 10% making the sector more sustainable in the long run. There are too many bunker tankers in Singapore now, admits Lim. Mass flow meters can supply 15 to 20% more than before, he points out, which in turn means there will be no need for 15 to 20% of today’s bunker tankers. However, there are a still a number of single hull tankers plying Singapore waters so eventually everything should balance out, Lim maintains.

Investment in local research The National Metrology Centre and Mogas Flow Lab (MFL) signed a research collaboration agreement in April this year to provide scientific metrology expertise and consultancy for the establishment of a primary liquid flow standard, construction of a heavy hydrocarbon calibration rig (HHCR), and a R&D lab in flow measurements for bunkers. MFL is investing approximately S$20m for the building of the R&D lab, HHCR and associated facilities. The lab will be the first of its kind to use actual bunker fuel as the flow medium. When completed, the facility

will give the local maritime industry a head start in allowing locally-calibrated bunker mass flow meters (MFM) to have a direct traceability to the standard mass. On the collaboration, Dr Thomas Liew, NMC’s executive director, says: “This assures business partners owners and buyers - of quantity standards, promotes fair trade, and also enables local suppliers to attain industry standards and related accreditation/ certification, enabling them to access the global market.” NMC and Mogas are currently

in discussion and assessing sites appropriate for the facility. Expected to occupy 5,000 sq m, the facility is targeted to commence construction in early 2015. Other initiatives by NMC for the bunker industry include providing metrology expertise to verify the data of MPA’s acceptance tests as well as the establishment of a new liquid flow lab with the capability to measure the mass flow rates of water-based synthetic fluids, using the gravimetric method, down to a measurement uncertainty of 0.05%. 11


Fuel Oil Spot Price 800


$ 600

500 JUN12




Singapore 180cst Singapore 380cst

Rotterdam 180cst Rotterdam 380cst






Houston 180cst Houston 380cst

Singapore Bunker Sales 50000



Metric Tons 30000

Price of Singapore 380 CST ex-wharf bunker fuel on October 2, a 44-month low



0 2005









List of top 20 Singapore bunker suppliers (2013)











































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Fujairah steps up Competition is heating up in the Middle East


ujairah is bolstering its oil facilties. The United Arab Emirates’ only port on the Arabian Sea will build greater storage and more VLCC berths so that Fujairah (pictured) can handle 12m barrels of oil, 50% more than its current capacity. Four new 1m barrel tanks are being built while a new giant VLCC berth is also under construction with a view to completion in mid-2016. Another VLCC berth is also being mulled, local authorities said. Fujairah is the world’s second largest bunkering hub after

‘One of the main ports snapping at Fujairah’s heels is Sohar’ Singapore. A new, 300,000 cu m capacity oil storage facility, which will include bunkers, is set to open too. Fujairah is also mulling offering LNG bunkering too, local sources tell SeaShip News. Fujairah’s investments come as a number of other ports in the region are looking to take away some of its business.

Rotterdam and Zeebrugge step on the gas

North European ports Rotterdam and Zeebrugge are leading the way in offering liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for ships. From July 1 this year, Rotterdam (pictured), one of the world’s top three bunkering ports, has been offering LNG for ships calling. The port is mainly targeting containerships for this new fuel type.


Anglo-Dutch Shell has committed to underwrite the construction of a bulk-breaking unit at the Gasunie/ Vopak operated Gate LNG terminal in Rotterdam. Bulk breaking allows large volumes of LNG, stored in large tanks, to be divided into manageable portions for small offtake loads. The new LNG for transport

One of the main ports snapping at its heels is Sohar in Oman. Having recently boosted its in port bunkering services with the addition of a 6,000 mt IFO barge and 500 cu m gasoil barge, Sohar is home to plenty of bunkering storage facilities. This includes Omanoil Matrix Marine Services (MXO), an independent joint venture between Germany’s Matrix Marine Holding and Oman Oil and the company responsible for bringing the new barges to Sohar; and world-leading liquid bulk terminal operators, Oiltanking Odfjell.

LNG leaders infrastructure includes the construction of a new jetty which will make LNG more widely available as a transport fuel for vessels in northwest Europe. Rotterdam has also announced it is now looking to establish a carbon monitoring index, which could pave the way for Rotterdam and others offering reduced fees for bunker saving vessels. Meanwhile, this July, France’s GDF Suez along with Japan’s Mitsubishi and NYK signed a framework agreement to develop an LNG bunkering market through LNG bunkering vessels, starting in Zeebrugge in Belgium. This partnership has seen NYK order an LNG bunkering vessel and a bunkering contract signed between GDF Suez and United European Car Carriers (UECC), a short-sea operator in the Northern Europe Emissions Controlled Area (ECA).


Impending North America ECA changes playing field Plenty of LNG infrastructure is nearing completion in the US


n North America, the price and developing availability of LNG makes it “irresistible” as a fuel for shipowners, according to Mark Bell, general manager of the Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF). Shale basins in the US have enough natural gas to last for 100 years, leading Federal Maritime Commissioner William P. Doyle to also recently suggest there is a bright future for LNG as a fuel in North America. Sulphur limits coming into place in the North American Emission Control Area (ECA) next year will make LNG the most economical compliant fuel, with a price below that of marine gas oil (MGO), Doyle observed. “Based on current forecasts, natural gas delivered for production of LNG in the

US is now more than 50% less expensive on an energyequivalent basis than marine residual fuel and marine distillate fuel,” he said. Already, US shipping entities such as Harvey Gulf International Marine and Totem Ocean Trailer Express (TOTE) are pressing ahead with LNG-fuelled vessels and associated refuelling infrastructure. Another high profile firm, LNG America, is set to offer owners with gas solutions when its LNG bunker barges deliver next year. “There appears to be many opportunities available for those looking to operate LNG fuelled vessels and/or

‘Natural gas delivered for production of LNG in the US is now more than 50% less expensive on an energy-equivalent basis than marine residual fuel and marine distillate fuel’

enter into the LNG bunkering and fuelling sectors,” Doyle said while speaking at a Marine Log conference. Meanwhile, membrane containment specialist GTT has recently signed an agreement with Louisiana’s Conrad Shipyard for the future production of LNG membrane tanks for storage and transportation. Earlier in the year, Conrad and naval architect Bristol Harbor Group International (BHGI developed a concept design for a 4,200 cu m LNG bunker barge.

South Africa must up its game South Africa is seeing larger ships calling more often and has the potential to offer more bunkering services, if it invests swiftly before regional competitors jump ahead of this strategically well located nation. The International Bunker Industry Association (IBIA) is working with South African authorities to try and develop the republic’s bunkering infrastructure. IBIA has advised the African nation to open up its bunker market and produce fuel in line with global carbon and sulphur content restrictions, adjust its fuel pricing structure to be competitive against South American and Asian ports,

and create safe offshore refuelling areas. Limited fuel storage facilities combined with ageing refineries that are unable to produce low sulphur 380 cst bunker fuel have put the brakes on South Africa’s bunkering progress. There are plenty in the region looking for bunkering business. For instance,

Mauritius has made ambitious plans to supply up to 900,000 tons of bunker fuel a year, something that would hammer South Africa’s bunkering industry. Still, there is some progress. Fuel storage terminal operator Burgan Cape Terminals (Burgan) has just announced that it will spend $26m over the next two years towards expanding oil and fuel storage in South Africa’s Cape Town harbour. Burgan CEO Wandile Mseleku said the expansion efforts will include more efficient truck loading along with adding an extra tanker berthing facility. 15

Executive Debate

En masse take up? Leading names point out the pros and cons of mass flow meters


ecently SeaShip News was hosting a lunch for a number of top Hong Kong shipowners. One of the great stories to emerge from the seven-course fare atop the Mandarin Oriental was bunkering-related. Having completed a full fill up of all four fuel tanks somewhere in Southeast Asia, a handysize was ready to depart when one of the fuel tanks ruptured. “It’s not a problem,” the chief engineer relayed back to his superiors in Hong Kong, “we’re just moving the contents of the fourth tank to the other three tanks.” The incredulous shipowner was left bemused. “How could they move this fuel across if the other tanks were supposedly full?” he told the other owners at the lunch. His tale is one of so many of fraudulent bunker activities. Can the impending mandatory introduction of mass flow meters really ease shipowner concerns that they are being ripped off every time they fuel up?


Singapore’s pioneering move

Singapore, the world’s leading bunkering hub, is leading the way with mass flow meters. The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) is introducing requirements for direct measurement of the mass of oil delivered during bunkering operations. This is understood to be the first such mandatory measure in any port worldwide. In their Port Marine Circular No.08-14, MPA announced that the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Bunkering (SS 600) is in the process of being revised and that all bunker tankers operating in the port will be required to install an MPA approved mass

‘No one is suggesting that mass flow meters can solve the problem overnight’

flow metering (MFM) system. Enforcement dates for the new system to be fitted will apply to all new bunker tankers applying for a bunker tanker licence by the end of this year and for all existing bunker tankers by the end of 2016. The updated version of SS 600 will be launched at this year’s Sibcon. “Bunkering with mass flow meters from a supply barge would be certainly better than the present arrangement,” comments one Asian-based dry bulk operator. “Mass flow meters will provide better accuracy, correction for temperature and density and eliminate issues such as the cappuccino effect due to pumping of air with fuel,” he adds, before cautioning that the size of the mass flow meter to receive bunkers is large for installation onboard and requires sufficient space for modification. Its cost is also high – installation can be as high as $180,000. Søren Christian Meyer, vice president at OW Bunker, is an adamant

Executive Debate MFM supporter, saying: “Investing in technology such as mass flow meters that ensures that the correct amount of fuel oil is supplied is the most effective way of solving the quantity issue within the industry.”

Time savings OW Bunker has already reported significant time savings with the use of mass flow meters during bunkering operations in Singapore. OW Bunker has distributed bunker fuel with an MPA-approved mass flow meter installed onboard its bunker tanker Marine Noel, cutting the bunkering time of each average delivery by up to four hours. OW claims a one-year time charter for a VLCC, which has an average day rate of about $24,000, will save up to $4,000 in terms of time when bunkering with one of OW’s flow meters. “Although no one is suggesting that mass flow meters can solve the problem overnight, they certainly represent an important step forward in our ability to ensure the quantity of fuel delivered,”

‘The buyer should always have a surveyor onboard’ reckons Dynamic Oil’s ceo Lars Møller. Møller commends the MPA for engaging with the industry over commercial and operational issues that need to be resolved ahead of the meter introduction. “The MPA understands that mass flow meters are not a plug and play solution, they have invested in the development of the technology and have spoken of the need for this significant change to be introduced in phases, which is sensible. They also recognise that tank gauging still has a role to play, in conjunction with the use of mass flow meters,” he says.

Surveyors still needed Eirik Andreassen, ceo of Veritas Petroleum Services, says that while meters are all very well, there’s still a need for human verification for full peace of mind for owners.

“A surveyor is still needed for the verification of the flow meter reading and control of sampling,” Andreassen insists, adding: “As a prudent measure, the buyer should always have a surveyor onboard to take the opening manual measurement of the bunker tanker for the verification of the flow meter reading.” Quite so, agreed P&I Club Gard in a recent advisory. Bunker surveyors will still be needed during bunkering operations, Gard claims. “A bunker surveyor should still conduct bunker surveys ... to check for signs of cappuccino bunkers and other malpractices,” Gard said in a release. Surveyors should also check that meters are reset to zero before commencement of bunkering, and to ensure that there is no possibility of bypassing the meters. “The integrity of the measurement process relies on ensuring that the whole delivery system, and not just the meter, is completely secure,” said Gard. The meters still need meter maids appears to be the message from the industry. 17

Singapore Market Report 2014

Still rising? Why Singapore will remain Asia’s maritime hub

An Asia Shipping Media publication

Publis hing in Nov ember


Mitigating operational risks Edwin Bloemen from Veritas Petroleum Services on what owners need to be aware of with the forthcoming marine gas oil switch


rom 1 January 2015, ship operators will need to review and modify operational procedures for compliance with the MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 14 which limits the fuel sulphur content for vessels operating in Emission Controlled Areas (ECAs) to a maximum of 0.1%. It is believed that marine gas oil (MGO) or distillates will replace low sulphur residuals as the preferred fuel for ECA operations. However, the switch from residual to distillate fuel complicates the change-over procedure of vessels operating in and out of ECAs. This very real risk of engine failure resulting from a change-over of fuels from residual to distillate can be seen in the increase in the number of loss of propulsion (LOP) incidents in California since 2009 when the California Air Resources Board regulation requiring ocean going vessels (OGVs) to switch to distillate fuels within 24 nautical miles (nm) of the California coastline was implemented. The difference in viscosity of these fuels increases the risk of system failure. Hence, there is a heightened need for a meticulous monitoring system of temperatures during change-over in order to obtain an optimum operational viscosity. During change-over, the vessel operates on a blend of two different products. The risk of incompatibility between residual and distillate fuels is higher than when blending two residual

fuels. As such, there is an increased risk of sludging, potentially resulting in filter clogging and/or sticking fuel pumps and in extreme cases, fuel starvation which leads to engine failure. The shift in attention to MGO is not expected to produce significant issues in meeting the increasing demand on a global scale. The current practice of refiners re-directing their existing production rather than producing more distillates to meet the marine demand will likely increase with the global volume. Adding blending components, such as light cycle oils, to these streams enables (regional) traders to blend a product to specification and meet the market’s demand. This may lead to a further deterioration of the fuel quality and consequently operational difficulties when using these fuels. This attitude is noticeable when evaluating for example the cold flow properties of a fuel. The normal range of temperatures of the cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP) may be disturbed by improving the PP through additives. PP is the only of the three parameters included in the ISO 8217 specification. Unusual differences in CP, CFPP and PP impede a reliable estimation of transfer temperatures and the risk of wax formation through which filters may clog. The increasing inclusion of blending components may be linked to the higher number of low flash point MGOs. The

flash point indicates the presence of volatile components and as such the risk of fire or explosion. As a safety requirement, the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention has set the lower limit of a fuel’s flash point at 60°C. Originating from biofuel, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) is known to be an integrated part of most automotive diesels. Aside from having good ignition and combustion properties, FAME has a strong affinity with water and may degrade the flow properties of a fuel. Together with water, FAME serves as a nutrient for microbes. The potential operational difficulties caused by microbial growth should not be underestimated. If growth is not prevented, microbes can cause filters to clog and pitting/corrosion in fuel tanks and system to occur. Having good housekeeping practices onboard and possibly preventive treatment with biocides will assist in minimising the risk of microbial growth. More stringent environmental regulations, increasing demand and a changing supply chain result in more complicated fuel compositions. As such, it is becoming increasingly more difficult to assess the quality and predict the behaviour of fuels. The involvement of expert fuel partners has become imperative to reduce the risk of operational difficulties and consequently managing costs. 19

LNG as a Fuel

Lots of hot air Inevitable? A way off? The debate rages on


little while back James Ashworth, lead consultant with Singaporebased oil and gas consultancy, Tri-Zen International, told our sister title, Maritime CEO, that shipping is going through a seismic shift in its adoption of LNG as a fuel. Not mincing his words, he stated, “We are witnessing the greatest change in shipping since Winston Churchill advocated the move from coal, a UK plentiful strategic reserve, to imported oil for the Royal Navy.” Arguably the beginning of this July may well have been the moment when the overplayed ‘chicken and egg’ discussion about LNG as a fuel came to an end. On July 2, Japanese line NYK ordered the world’s first LNG bunkering vessel. In a joint initiative to develop a global market for the LNG bunkering business, NYK concluded a framework agreement with France’s GDF Suez and Mitsubishi Corporation to distribute LNG in Europe. The vessel will be delivered in 2016, and will be based at the port of Zeebrugge. The vessel will deliver LNG to LNG-fuelled vessels operating mainly in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Going forward, the joint venture is looking to roll out similar vessels across the globe. In Northern Europe, about 50 LNGfuelled vessels — most of which are ferries, cruiseships, and offshore related vessels — are already in operation.


To support the increasing number of LNG-fuelled vessels in operation, the challenge is to develop and improve the supply infrastructure. Despite NYK’s commendable start much more needs to be done in this department, says Erik Lewenhaupt, a senior executive with Sweden’s Stena. “The world fleet is large and in many segments it will not be economically feasible to convert vessels to other propulsions,” he maintains, adding: “It will therefore take a considerable time before we see changes away from fuel oil propulsion in larger numbers.” However, on the longer term Stena believes LNG together with methanol has a large potential to be big marine fuels. “The challenge with LNG,” says Lewenhaupt, “is the infrastructure and the pricing where we need to see investments in shore tanks, terminals and bunkers vessels on a large scale to make this an accessible alternative worldwide as well as more competitive pricing which is linked to market price of LNG and not bunker oil to compensate for the substantial handling and investment costs for shipowners.” As these factors are still uncertain Stena is also running a parallel track with methanol which is equally environmentally friendly - but easier to handle as a marine fuel. Stena will in 2015, as a world first, convert a large

ropax ferry, Stena Germanica, to methanol propulsion. One tanker manager in Singapore questions whether there is critical mass yet for this huge LNG fuel switch. “Do you build bunker vessels for LNG to supply non-existent ships, or do you build ships and hope that bunker suppliers will set up shop,” he muses, suggesting that dual fuel is likely to be the answer for the next 20 years. Meanwhile, Thoresen Shipping boss, Ian Claxton, will be holding off any LNG investments for the time being. “Initial expense, space lost to fuel storage, safety and, of course, the reliance on the current cost differential between LNG and bunker oil to pay for the additional cost of equipment not being reliable 10 years ahead, all contribute towards this technology being a non-affordable luxury for the average dry bulk operator at this time,” he says. Bureau Veritas has recently published a comprehensive set of guidelines on LNG bunkering. BV’s technical director, Jean-Francois Segretain says, “Fears over [LNG’s] availability in the bunker chain are holding back owners from adopting it. Part of the issue is that ports and terminals wishing to provide LNG as bunkers and shipowners wishing to have LNG-powered ships do not have agreed international standard bunker procedures to work to.” All this will change soon.

Alternative Fuels

In the race Ethane and methanol both have their champions as the fuel of the future


hile LNG has jumped to the front of the queue in the ‘world’s next ship fuel’ debate there are other runners and riders. Take ethane as an example. The US shale gas revolution is seeing ethane carriers being ordered in quantity now. The use of the cargo onboard to power these ships is likely, albeit there are safety issues that need to ironed out, according to a recent study from British classification society, Lloyd’s Register (LR). “The window of opportunity to tie up ethane exports and secure tonnage to serve this trade is now open to feed potential markets in Europe and Asia,” said Tim Protheroe, president of Lloyd’s Register North America. Lloyd’s Register claims it has identified the technical risks and best technical pathways to help ensure that near term demand for large VLECs can be met by shipyards and gas containment system suppliers. Type C containment systems generally used for ethane, ethylene, and similar cargoes are feasible only up to tank sizes of around 40,000 cu m. Prismatic Type B tanks or membrane systems would better suit ethane carriers of 80,000 cu m or above. LR has already issued an approval in principle for an ethane-powered MAN Diesel engine, and the engines are set to be supplied by the end of 2015. Since storage of ethane needs high

‘Ethane requires less bunkering time than heavy fuel oil’ pressure, LR has stipulated new fuel valves, control blocks and other systems will be needed. Three new liquefied ethylene gas carriers (LEGCs) ordered by Ocean Yield ASA of Norway will be the first oceangoing vessels to be powered by

ethane. The ships, ordered this July and each with a 36,000 cu m capacity, will be built at Sinopacific Offshore & Engineering in China. They are scheduled for delivery in the second half of 2016, powered by MAN B&W ME-GI low-speed, dual-fuel engines. Ethane is more competitively priced than heavy fuel oil (HFO), requires less bunkering time, and produces negligible sulfur emissions and 15 to 20% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, MAN Diesel claims.

Pros and cons of methanol Douglas Raitt, global manager for bunker and engine performance consultancy, Fobas has greater hope for methanol, an energy source that has not had the same media exposure as LNG as a ship fuel, but one he maintains is “attractive” on price, technology and from an infrastructure point of view. “Methanol, from a face value point of view, is more compelling than LNG,” Raitt reckons. With the first ships running on

methanol set for delivery next year, Raitt’s point of view is gaining some traction. The fuel, which is already used in light aircraft and race cars, is currently more costly than diesel and less efficient to burn. A big advantage, however, is in its storage. Because methanol does not need to be kept under pressure like compressed natural gas (CNG) or kept very cold like LNG, it can be stored it

existing ship tanks. The first orders for this fuel type will run on 95% methanol and 5% diesel. Canada’s Waterfront Shipping Company, a subsidiary of methanol supplier Methanex Corp, will charter some of the vessels now being built, and Swedish operator Stena will also start using the fuel to power one of its ferries next year. Stena has said it may convert up to 25 other ferries to use the fuel depending on the success of the first ship. 21



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More than just price There’s plenty that owners and managers will demand when choosing a lube supplier


t is fair to say that the selection of lubricants onboard ship has never been more tricky or scrutinised. Since the market crash of 2008 cost cutting has been uppermost in ship operators’ minds, desperate to stay afloat in what have been intensely tricky financial times. After bunkers, insurance and crew costs, lubes make up the next highest cost in the daily running of a ship, typically accounting for around 10% of costs. However, price is not the most important aspect shipowners and operators look for when selecting a lube supplier, according to a wide-ranging survey we carried out with around 100 shipowners and managers on key lube issues. Price, while important for sure, only ranked number three in the selection criteria. Michael Moschonas, chief technical officer with Greece’s Almi Tankers, lists product quality and suitability, the reputation of the supplier, technical support and services, worldwide availability of all grades, before

‘The greatest challenge the industry is facing is actually being able to supply the correct grades that the ships need, at the ports where they need the oil’ mentioning price. On the issue of price a fleet manager in the tanker sector based in Singapore says: “Some might say rebates based on volume, but I would prefer a good upfront price with no accounting games.” Ian Claxton, managing director of Thailand’s Thoresen & Co, says quality product with no contamination, a guaranteed delivery period without delays to vessel or offhire and strong after sales support such as laboratory testing,

training on use and handling, product news and regulatory information updates, all go a long way when selecting a lube supplier. Meanwhile, the purchasing manager of one of the world’s largest containerlines has another thing he is looking out for when choosing a lubricant company. “Since some new regulations are coming in, we are looking whether their products are recommended by the equipment maker,” he says. Quite so, agrees Kishore Rajvanshy, managing director at Hong Kong’s Fleet Management. In the last year there has been a change in rules for engine design which requires a change in the grade of lubricating oil, Rajvanshy explains. This is specific to new electronic engines where there is a requirement for TBN 100 for cylinder lubrication. “The stock and availability for this grade is not there in many normal ports of lifting and in other ports it is a much bigger challenge,” he says, adding: “For the VGP compliance, the availability for the stern tube lubrication which will match the stern tube seal maker requirement is also a challenge. Approvals for major brands are pending.” Rajvanshy, as with almost all respondents, touches on the issue of global availability, something that clearly vexes a huge percentage of shipowners and managers. “We want a supplier who works with us to achieve the best physical asset protection, security of supply and competitive costs for supply operations,” says Mark Haslett, director of procurement at Wallem Ship Management. “The greatest challenge the industry is facing is actually being able to supply the correct grades that the ships need, at the ports where they need the oil,” concludes Haslett. 23



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How to trim bunker bills With fuel costs so high, there’s many innovations hitting the market


uel saving is all about reaching optimal speed using as little fuel as possible, according to the homepage of Denmark’s GreenSteam. While this sounds simple, it is anything but in practice. This is because optimal settings of operational parameters – such as trim, speed and propeller RPM – depend on a range of conditions – load, waves, wind, water depth and so on. GreenSteam offers a simple but at the same time very advanced fuel saving system for vessels making it possible to reduce fuel consumption by 4-5% on average. In 2006, three computer engineers started a research project looking to improve how draft was measured on big ships. Over time, they realized that there was an opportunity to provide new value to shipping companies by combining modern statistics or ‘machine learning’ with these new sensors and other data collected in real-time from vessels. Since then, several shipping companies have started using what became GreenSteam fuel saving solutions. Another Danish firm is growing at around 25% a year as its fuel saving solutions become more popular. Propulsion Dynamics was formed back in 2001 by three entrepreneurs envisioning that great savings could be made from monitoring and optimising ship’s hull and propeller performance. “The performance of a ship’s hull and propeller generally deteriorates over time as a result of bio-fouling, corrosion, increased roughness, mechanical damage,” explains one of the founders, Christian Brobeck, “and in order to be able to deploy optimal maintenance strategies shipowners, operators and managers need to start by monitoring and quantifying performance characteristics.” Today, Propulsion Dynamics serves more than 35 shipowners with vital KPIs for more than 450 ships through its CASPER Service by providing monthly performance reports as well as numerous

web-based tools for performance comparison and fleet-wise analysis.

Green changes Jukka-Pekka Mäkinen is the president and ceo of The Switch, a Finnish company focused on alternative energy, working in many sectors other than marine. Being involved in plenty of other sectors gives Mäkinen opinions on how shipping can buck up its green credentials. In wind turbine designs, for instance, there has been a rapid transition to advanced drive trains that include permanent magnet (PM) machines and variable speed drives. The drivers behind this development have been the needs for higher power and lower levelized cost of energy. The Switch has already delivered machines up to 8.6 MW. Today, the trend is towards lower speeds of 10-20 rpm direct drives and 100-400 rpm mediumspeed drives. Earlier in the wind power industry, however, the machines were running at 1,500 rpm. These lower speeds offer better operational reliability over the lifetime of the equipment and a simpler gearbox construction. “Now, these same machine-drive train combinations are available also for use in marine applications,” says Mäkinen. Penny Haire, managing director of oceanographic IT firm, Tidetech, is also absolutely convinced that shipping will have to embrace green technology and the sooner the better. “Going green is a business decision and those who pursue these technologies most aggressively will see the earliest returns,” she maintains. Tidetech boasts the first vessel optimisation application offering combined tidal and non-tidal current data for integrated vessel speed and route optimisation. Shipowners, whether in liner or bulk trades, are increasingly searching out the best route optimisation and weather software as they take every measure

possible to reduce their sky-high bunker bills, argues Haydn Jones, the ceo of Applied Weather Technology (AWT). AWT is in the process of introducing a group of new products. These include version 7.0 of its Bon Voyage System onboard ship weather forecast and route optimisation software. This latest version provides high resolution weather and current data as well as having improved route optimisation functions.

Ship of the future Greg Atkinson, the founder of Japanbased Eco Marine Power (EMP), has been busy of late promoting his Aquarius Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV). The Aquarius USV (pictured) will incorporate marine computer systems and lightweight flexible marine solar panels. The Aquarius USV will be powered by a solar-electric hybrid marine power solution which will also feature a solar panel array designed by EMP. Onboard batteries will be recharged via the solar panel array or via ship or shore power using rapid battery recharging technology. A variation of the Aquarius USV will include a stand-alone version of Eco Marine Power’s unique EnergySail technology in order to extend the vessel’s range and allow for additional sensors to be fitted. Lab testing of technologies to be used for the Aquarius USV has already commenced and a prototype is scheduled to commence operational tests during 2015. 25

The Secret Procurement Officer

Go with the flow? No way! A man tasked with buying bunkers for a large fleet reveals his gripes about the bunkering industry in this remarkably frank article


e have come a long way from the gun slinging days of bunkering. Or have we? Gangsterism. Steal for pleasure. Entrap the engineer. Fool the naive ship owner. The new global structure of supply and demand, quality and quantity focus, regulatory compliance, environmental pressure have all resulted in an industry that is increasing complex yet offers a control mechanism if you are willing to pay for it. It gives operators the choice we need. We understand Caveat Emptor. But the recent chatter on mass flow metering seems to have taken a demonic life of its own. Like as if we have suddenly been visited by God Himself to solve this issue with His own God flow meter which measures everything perfectly. Hail God flow meter. When once we all believed in good ol’ fashioned measurements, suddenly the whole world is denouncing this as an epidemic. How do you pour yourself the correct quantity of a glass of wine? Want to use a complicated piece of vibrating technology to measure it? Keep it simple, I say. Our good oil companies, who have used this simple and tested method of human touch for decades, are now out in force denouncing it. I wonder if this is purely to seek the economic advantage of selling us more for the same old bunker fuel? Make hay while the sun shines. Go with the flow. Don’t get me wrong. Support technology, I will. Fit mass flow meters on my ships, I may. But to tell me my ship tank measurements do not matter is forgetting that it is I who is doing the buying. It is I who have the foresight of experience. It is I who have the dollars. I will most surely insist that my ships check their bunker fuel quantities received every time. Now and in the distant future. When I am paying one million bucks for refuelling my ship every time, please don’t tell me how I should measure this or that or not. You do your check, I do mine. It is my dollars. It is my decision. I am the buyer. Trying to tell me, over and over again, that filling my ship is like filling my car – then I say bunkum. You expect me to sit back and receive my million dollar purchase doing no checks of my own. Have you just lost it? Perhaps, you want me to be cheated some other more complicated way? Read my lips


‘How do you pour yourself the correct quantity of a glass of wine? Want to use a complicated piece of vibrating technology to measure it?’ – no way. Legal recourse is about evidence. I will keep my evidence the way I deem fit. I will keep more of it in these complex times. I am the buyer. One caveat. We don’t condone cheating. We want bunkers we pay for. We want fair quality and fair quantity. We don’t care if you use a God flow meter or whatever. We trust our staff to do a good job. You build trust in yours. We understand that some quantity difference is inevitable. But like I said, we expect a fair trade. Where the buyer is respected. Where I have a choice in the market.


Handling costs Regular columnist Andrew Craig-Bennett reckons shipping could do better when combatting high fuel prices


eavy fuel oil has been costing an awful lot of money for some time. No doubt this makes bunker brokers very happy, but ship operators have to decide what to do about it. The first step is to try to predict the future – is this state of affairs going to continue? Most people will say that, whilst there may be big variations in the fuel price, the secular trend is “upwards”, so it makes sense to design ships on the assumption that fuel is going to be scarce and expensive, and we can be very sure indeed that emissions control is here to stay. If an owning company is building a ship to appeal to time charterers, that company can reasonably assume that, if their ship burns two tons a day less than a ship which is similar in most other respects, they will be able to share the saving with the time charterer because the charterer will agree a higher rate, so long as the charterer thinks the owner is telling the truth. The rub is in the “similar in most other respects” – if a ship is simply underpowered, or built to scantlings that are too light, the saving is only going to exist virtually, not in the real world. So it is really a question of putting a demonstrably more efficient propulsion and service system into essentially the same hull. This is where things get disappointing. It is safe to assume that the engine designers will make their new products available to everyone, so that part of the “playing field” is “level”. Beyond that, there are a range of well-known gadgets, some dating back to the last oil price hike, such as wake ducts, which will offer some benefit. To these we may add clever fuel consumption monitoring software, which will make a PSC inspector happy about the SEEMP, even if it does little else. The disappointment stems from two things – first, the lack of a Big Idea. Everyone is tinkering round the edges of the problem, trying to save a bit here, a bit there, but nobody is offering something that will make a real difference – a radically new main engine, for example, perhaps one that uses ceramics to operate at consistently higher temperatures. The second cause of disappointment is that no manufacturers seem interested in really making a difference in the theoretically very large retrofit market. Suppose we have a containership designed

‘Everyone is tinkering round the edges of the problem’ for 24 knots with 30% sea margin – there are an awful lot of those – and we want to cut the fuel bill by 50% whilst running at 18 knots – will it pay to re-engine, or to rebuild the existing engine, and change the prop? This looks like a huge gap in the market, given the long life expectancy of a boxboat, so why are the propulsion system designers not rushing to fill it? I suspect that one reason is that this sort of rebuild of an existing ship, or fleet of ships, is actually harder to finance than a newbuilding. There is a serious lack of joined up thinking in the industry about the problem; it is surely obvious to everyone that the proper way to look at a ship’s fuel consumption and her emissions is to consider the ship’s power demand as a whole, at every stage of a voyage. It is no good building a bulk carrier or a tanker, let alone a containership, which is wonderfully efficient at 90% MCR and at no other point. What we need is plenty of reserve power, combined with high efficiency at lower levels of power demand. The maths and physics of this probably are “rocket science” – but people are pretty good at rockets, now. The verdict on the industry response to fuel prices must be, “Could do better”. 27


Shipping central In Singapore for Sibcon with time to kill? Eytan Uliel provides the inside low down


ead to the Robertson Quay area and start your day with breakfast at one of Singapore’s hippest cafes: Kith Cafe - hands down best coffee in town, or Epicurious - green eggs and ham, oddly delicious (both on Robertson Quay); or Baker & Cook (nearby on Martin Road) who make pastries to die for. Then stroll along the Singapore river, from Robertson Quay to the city (about 3 km). Along the way you’ll pass Clarke Quay, the Singapore parliament and civic district, and Boat Quay, with spectacular views of Singapore’s skyline. Criss-cross the river at various bridges and make sure to see the bronze sculptures that dot the riverfront along the way. For a touch of culture, pop into the Asian Civilisation Museum at Empress Place, where you’ll find a stunning museum in an equally stunning setting. The museum often has excellent temporary exhibitions. Next up: time to shop. Singapore is a land of shopping malls, so why wouldn’t you have a quick wander through the best one? Cab to the Ion on Orchard Mall. The top floors are wall-to-wall designer brand names; you’ll find cooler, funkier stores in the basement levels. Remember most stores don’t open until 11am. If you are up for it, stroll along Orchard Road and check out some of the other malls – the section from Ion to Paragon Mall is best. By now you should be hungry again, so make like a local and head to a hawker stall, which is where Singaporeans get most of their daily sustenance. The Opera Food Court at Ion is a bustling yet gentle introduction to eating, Singapore style. Try local favourites like Hainan chicken rice, laksa (spicy curry noodles and seafood soup) or Singapore chilli crab. For real


local flavour try coffee si – strong brewed coffee with condensed milk, and a serving of kaya toast (a green jam, made of pandan leaf, egg yolk and sugar – sinfully delicious). Finish with a deepfried dough-ball ‘butterfly’, and your local dining credentials are assured. A short cab ride from Orchard Road is the Singapore Flyer (pictured), one of the world’s largest observation wheels. A full cycle takes thirty minutes. Yes, it is cheesy and touristy, but it’s world-class, and the views along the way give a real sense of the modern miracle that is Singapore. For the truly adventurous, visit Kenko Fish Spa in the mall beneath the flyer. Plunge your feet and lowerlegs into tubs of water and watch small fish nibble the dead skin away. It might sound gross, but is a completely unique sensory sensation (a cross between massage, static-shock and tickling), and your feet will be smoother than a baby’s bottom when you are done. You can also get an excellent reflexology foot-massage or shoulder rub as well. Singapore’s latest gob-stopping attraction – the Gardens by the Bay - is a short cab ride from the Flyer, and is absolutely worth the hype. Here you will see flowers and plants galore, spectacularly displayed in giant greenhouses, complete with indoor mountains and waterfalls. Don’t miss the Supertrees, a grove of massive treelike structures covered in flora of the world. Once you’re all flowered out, cross the bridge and head to the Marina Bay Sands Hotel. Its tri-towers are an architectural marvel. Buy a ticket and ride the elevator up to the Skypark. Views are sublime, and the world’s most spectacular infinity swimming pool, 58 floors up, is something to behold. A cocktail up in the sky, or a meal at the ultra trendy Ku De Ta restaurant, will be the perfect way to end your day.


Your thoughts

In the run up to the launch of this publication we conducted an online survey to check your opinions on issues facing the bunkering industry. Just over 300 of you responded Will mass flow metering during bunker delivery be the end of bunker quantity disputes?

Is customer service from bunker suppliers improving?

Yes 39.29%

Yes 57.14%

No 60.71%

No 42.86%

Just how ready is shipping for ECAs?

Will Marpol Annex VI regulations from 2015 mean a further squeeze on fuel quality/price/availability?

Ready 7.14% Struggling 92.86% Yes 75% No 25%

Will quality of fuel deteriorate in the next few years as a result of more stringent environmental statutory controls?

How soon until LNG becomes the dominant fuel for ships?



Yes 60.71%

Five years


No 39.29%

10 years


> 15 years

Do you believe availability of compliant fuel will be a concern for the industry moving forwards?

Is there a strong future for methanol as a ship fuel?

Yes 17.86% Yes 82.14% No 17.86%


No 82.14%

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