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The Art of Reviewing Dr. Roger Greenaway Dr. Roger Greenaway trains facilitators, educators, trainers and consultants to bring out the full benefits of active and experiential learning. He works with training organisations, training departments and educational institutions - worldwide. His Train-the-Trainer workshop was widely successful in Shenzhen in 2011 and he will be presenting another TTT in Shanghai in May of 2013.

回顾反思的艺术

Copyright © Sino Associates & Roger Greenaway 2013-2023. All Rights Reserved.


Introduction

简介

Learning is a creative process. Facilitating learning is at

学习是一个需要有创意的过程。辅导学习则不

least as creative. It is an art. When reviewing experience

仅仅是有创意,它更像是一门艺术。在我们回顾自

it sometimes pays to follow clearly sequenced models,

己的经历时,有时候完全按照事情发生的顺序去回

but the best reviews often flow from intuitive judgements

顾经历可能就会有学习效果。但我们也会发现,最

about what will work best. This paper aims to help you

好的带领回顾的办法往往是当时培训师用直觉判断

develop the quality of your intuitive judgement without

出来的。本文旨在帮助您进一步提高直觉判断的质

abandoning your favourite model for reviewing.

量,并且不必丢掉您原来习惯的回顾反思办法。

What is reviewing?

什么是回顾?

Purpose or effect is to enhance the value of a recent

做“回顾”是为了增强你最近一次经历带给你

experience. This includes reflection, communication,

的价值。这其中包括了反思、沟通、分析、反馈和

analysis, feedback and any looking ahead that arises

任何由此衍生出来的行为。“回顾”又可被称为“加

from such processes. Alternative terms for ‘reviewing’

工”,“引导学习”和“反思”。这个概念可能会

are ‘processing’, ‘debriefing’ and ‘reflection’. A little

让一些人有点模糊,回顾不仅可以用来描述学习者

confusingly, the term ‘reviewing’ applies both to what the

的行为(例如解释自身的经历),也可以描述辅导

learner does (e.g. when interpreting experience) as well

者的行为(例如帮助学员解释其经历)。

as to what the facilitator does (e.g. when facilitating the interpretation of learners’ experiences).

在团队培训中有很多回顾的机会,本文讨论的 是团队中的回顾行为,但这些内容当然也与一对一

In a group setting there are many extra opportunities for

的回顾行为有关。我首先会介绍我自己在成为一个

reviewing. This paper is about reviewing in groups, but

辅导师路上的几个关键转折点。

much of what follows is also relevant to reviewing one-toone. I will first describe some key turning points in my own development as a facilitator of learning.

Knowing what not to do When I changed career from a teacher to a trainer, I was introduced to the world of ‘non-directive facilitation’. My initial understanding of this principle was that I should never give away any answers, any opinions, any advice, any anything... until one day, one particular group of learners

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“This paper aims to help you develop the quality of your intuitive judgement without abandoning your favourite model for reviewing 本文旨在帮助您进一步提高直觉判断 的质量,并且不必丢掉您原来习惯的 回顾反思办法。” 知道不该做什么 当我放弃教师的职业成为培训师时,我了解到


dragged me out from my ‘non-directive’ shell and insisted

了这种“非指导型的辅导方式”。我最初对这条原

on getting to know more about this mysterious facilitator

则的理解是,我不应该给任何答案、意见、建议、

who gave so little away. So I had succeeded in learning how

哪怕是一丁点的信息……直到有一天,一组学员把

to be ‘non-directive’, but I now needed to learn how to be

我拖出了这个“非指导”的壳,并坚持一定要了解

so in a more friendly, open and facilitative way.

我这个什么都不愿意说的神秘辅导师。看来,当时 我确实成功掌握了“非指导型”的技巧,只是我需

Through non-directive facilitation I had learned to step

要去学习如何表现得更友善、开放,及更具辅导性了。

back and vacate the space traditionally reserved for teaching. But I was forgetting about other important

通过我这段提供“非指导型辅导”的经历,我

principles. One was about setting an example (serving as a

学会了退出传统教育者的位置。但我却忘记了其他

role model of an effective learner).Retreating into my own

的重要原则:要树立榜样(起到有效学习者的模范

shell did not necessarily make others want to come out of

作用)。缩进我自己的壳里并不能帮助别人愿意从

their own shells. I now felt that I needed to come out of

他们自己的壳里出来。我现在明白我需要从自己的

my own shell to demonstrate that it was safe, enjoyable

安全区中出来,并证明这样做是安全的、愉快的和

and beneficial to do so. If I expected participants to take

大有稗益的。如果我希望其他参与者也愿意冒这个

risks and learn from their risks, perhaps it would be helpful

险并能从中学到些什么,那可能最好的方法就是我

if I could show the way, or at least join in as a learner. So I

以身作则,或者至少陪他们一起冒险。因此我一般

would say something like this: ‘’I am here to learn as well.

会这样跟他们说:“和你们一样,我也是来学习的。

Some of my learning goals are similar to yours, some are

我的学习目标和你们中的一些学习目标相同,与一

different. I would like us to work in a way that allows us all

些目标不同。我希望我们能够找到办法一起互相学

to learn from each other. The more we each learn (including

习。只要在这的每个人(包括我)都能多学一点,

me), the more we all learn.’’

那么我们所有人总共学的就更多了。”

I was much more comfortable with the idea that I was a

我觉得我更愿意作为一个学习者而不是一个“非

learner rather than being a ‘non-’something. I now found

什么什么型”的人出现,我现在觉得知道该做什么

it more helpful knowing what to do, rather than knowing

比知道不该做什么更有用。

what not to do.

Making learning difficult

学习就应该迎难而上

I settled for some time with the idea that I was a ‘facilitator

有段时间我对自己的定义是一名 “学习辅导

of learning’ - someone who makes it easy for others to

师——一个让学习变得简单的人”。我就这么舒适

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learn. But I was then awoken from this very comfortable

地定义着自己,直到有一天,我被一位同事的一番

idea by a colleague who insisted that his job was to make

话惊醒了。他认为我们的工作应该是让学习更难。

learning difficult for others! His argument went something

他大概是这么说的:“是疑问和好奇心驱使着我们

like this: ‘’It is questions and curiosity that drive learning.

去学习,当人们以为自己无所不知,他们就不会再

Once learners think they have the answers, they stop

去问问题,接着很快就不会再学习了。身为辅导师

asking questions and soon stop learning. As facilitators of

的我们不应该让自以为是和自满扼杀了好奇心。我

learning we shouldn’t let certainty or complacency stifle

们不应该让学习者饭来张口,衣来伸手。我们的任

curiosity. We shouldn’t provide ready-meals of learning

务是让参与者完全沉浸于学习的过程中。学习者花

in easily digestible chunks. Our job is to ensure that

更多精力在学习上,他们的收获则会更多。没有付

participants are fully engaged in the process of learning.

出就没有收获。我们的任务是让学习者尽其所能地

The more that participants work at their learning, the more

学习,而不是让学习过程变得轻松容易。”

they will learn ... the more they put in, the more they get out ... no pain, no gain. Our job is to maximise learning, not to make learning easy.’’

以下不是教您如何让回顾变得简单。它更像是 一组指示牌,告诉你哪个方向值得试试(或经常去 试试),值得去探寻灵感或问题。

What follows is not a step by step guide to make reviewing easy. It is more of a collection of signposts indicating ideas and issues worth visiting (or re-visiting).

Sequencing

“It is questions and curiosity that drive learning. Once learners think they have the answers, they stop asking questions and soon stop learning 是疑问和好奇心驱使着我们去学习, 当人们以为自己无所不知,他们就不 会再去问问题,接着很快就不会再学 习了 ” 定序

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There could be as many good reviewing sequences as there

好的回顾顺序就像好的对话方式一样多。不幸

are ways of having good conversations. Unfortunately, many

的是,很多人只会用一到两种方法和模型。无论您

people stick to one or two favourite methods or models.

最喜欢的方式有多好,好的谈话艺术和好的回顾艺

However good these favourites are, the art of good

术一样,如果只建立于一或两种固定模式或所谓的

conversation and the art of good reviewing are unlikely

公式上,都难以被发现或发展。有时候,培训师随

to be discovered or developed if they are based around

意开始一个回顾过程,不需要什么特定的回顾顺序

only one or two patterns or ‘proven formulae’. Sometimes

设计,学员就能获得感悟。而更多时候,学员要在


it pays to start a review and see where it goes. At other

小心计划好的回顾顺序下才能有所得。两种方式都

times participants will benefit from a carefully sequenced

有自己的特点,两种方式也可以很好地结合在一

review. Both strategies have their place. Both strategies

起——比如从松散无序的讨论中引导出有序的结论。

can also work well in combination - for example by having

但是假如在整个回顾中完全没有任何定序,哪怕是

a sequenced conclusion to a free-flowing discussion. But

最厉害的学员组也很容易跌入阻碍学习的陷阱中去。

without any sequencing at all, even the most able groups and individuals will readily fall into traps that get in the way of learning.

以下是当回顾过程没有被合理定序后会出现的 一些常见陷阱 :

Here are some of the common traps that appear when reviews are poorly sequenced:

• 草率决定—和错误的假设 • 徒劳无功——无意义地打转

◆ jumping to conclusions - and making false assumptions

• 陈腔滥调——肤浅,重复

◆ not getting anywhere – unproductive meandering

• 事后诸葛亮——在负能量中打转忽略了所得

◆ clichéd conversations - superficial, repetitive

成就

◆ post mortems - spiralling down into negativity and

• 分析不足——一叶障目,不见泰山

ignoring achievements

• 急于求成——只向前看却忘了向过去学习

◆ paralysis by analysis - and perhaps also not seeing the

• 目光狭隘——只关注最后发生的事,或盲目

wood for the trees ◆ jumping ahead - moving into the future before learning from the past

跟从有影响力的几个学员的想法 • 分散注意——不同的人处于不同的回顾阶 段,从而产生不必要的矛盾和纷争

◆ limited focus - typically on the last thing that happened, or following the interest of the most dominant participants ◆ scattered focus - with different people at different stages of reviewing - causing needless confusion and conflict 为回顾定序并不是解决以上问题的唯一办法, Sequencing is not the only answer to all of the above

但对定序有所了解至少一定能帮您发现并找到解决

problems, but having an understanding of sequencing can

这些问题的值得尝试的方法。

certainly help you identify the problem and find a solution

worth trying.

要合理定序需要先决定两类事情:一是要决定 在回顾序列里做什么,二是要决定按什么顺序做这

Sequencing requires two kinds of decision. One decision

些事情。其实还有第三个决定:可以决定序列中的

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is about what to include in the sequence. The other

内容是“仅供讨论”还是能通过其他的回顾方法进

decision is about the order in which these items are

行更有效的使用(详情请见本文末的引用网页资源)。

considered. There is also a third kind of decision which is about whether the items in the sequence are simply ‘for discussion’ or could be tackled more productively using other reviewing methods (see the website reference at the end of this paper).

What to include It may not be realistic to include all of the features listed below on every occasion (especially when there is not much time for a review) but over a series of reviews it would usually be important to include all of these aspects:

“Sequencing is not the only answer to all of the above problems, but hav ing an understanding of sequencing can certainly help you identify the problem and find a solution worth trying. 为回顾定序并不是解决以上问题的唯 一办法,但对定序有所了解至少一定 能帮您发现并找到解决这些问题的值 得尝试的方法 ”

◆ past and future - and also the experience of the review

回顾包括什么?

itself

有时候可能难以在回顾中包括以下所有列出的

◆ positive, negative and interesting aspects - suitably balanced

内容(特别是当时间紧迫时),但在同期进行的一

◆ individual and group perspectives - both ‘I’ and ‘we’

系列回顾中,这些方面都是值得被涵括的:

statements ◆ feedback to everyone or to selected individuals - ‘you’

• 包括过去和将来——甚至包括回顾过程本身

statements

• 包括正面的,负面的和有意思的关注点——

◆ something for all learning styles - however these are

保持适当的平衡 • 从个人和团体视角进行回顾——需要既有

defined ◆ some negotiation about the process and purpose of the

“我”,又有“我们”

review

• 对每个人或是部份人的反馈——“你” “你们”

◆ a sense of importance and a sense of humour

• 照顾到所有的学习方式——无论这些学习方

◆ support and challenge in a spirit of inquiry and a review

式是如何定义的 • 协商回顾过程的和指出进行回顾的目的

of the review!

• 既让大家感觉到事情的重要性和又不失幽默 No list can be complete and comprehensive. Other writers on the subject of reviewing (or ‘processing’ or ‘debriefing’ or ‘reflection’) emphasise different aspects.

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感 • 通过不断提问甚至对回顾本身的回顾来支持 和挑战回顾过程


For example, Thiagi (http://www.thiagi.com) recommends

• 没有一个清单可以做到绝对完整和全面。其

drawing up seven lists as a starting point for reviews.

他作者在“回顾” (或“加工”或“引导学习”或“反思”)

Such thoroughness seems to require a particularly high

这个话题上都有不同的侧重点。例如,Thiagi (http://

commitment to reviewing.

www.thiagi.com) 建议列出七个列表作为回顾的起点。 这般透彻的回顾对大家的精力投入有很高的要求。

The collection and displaying of such information clearly makes it easier to recall key moments or key aspects during

这种收集和展示相关信息的方法无疑能帮助大

subsequent discussion. Such lists can also be particularly

家在随后的讨论中回忆起经历中的关键时刻或者关

useful, according to Thiagi, in helping learners to make

键方面。Thiagi 认为,这种方式可以帮助学员把所学

connections to the workplace.

知识应用到工作上。

If I use lists, it is usually when I ask participants to create

在我用清单的时候,通常是我要求参与者列出

a list of all the topics or questions they are interested in

所有他们希望在随后的活动和练习中进行体会的感

exploring after an event or exercise. This is the first part

兴趣的方面和问题。这只是议程设定活动中的第一

of an agenda setting exercise. But what next? In what

部分。然后呢?这些问题和话题应该按照什么顺序

order should these topics or questions be tackled and how

被解决,应该如何解决?

should they be tackled?

Order! Order!! Here are five general principles about sequencing in reviewing, whatever particular sequence you happen to be following.

顺序!顺序!! 以下是五个回顾过程中定序的基本原则,无论 您是用哪种方法定序都需要注意。

VARIATIONS Don’t spoil a stimulating training event with a predictable and one-dimensional approach to reviewing. There is no

保持变化性 不要用一种单一的,可预测的回顾方式来毁了

single ‘best’ or ‘correct’ sequence for reviewing. There are

一场能带来很多感悟的培训。定序并没有一个“最好”

an infinite number of sequences that will work well.There

或是“正确”的方式,有效的定序方式有无数种。

are also common traps awaiting poorly sequenced reviews (see above). It is therefore useful to use a sequence that

定序不好的回顾方式会带来很多学习陷阱(见

avoids common traps, while being open to variations and

上文),所以我们应该用好的定序来避开陷阱,同

adaptations.

时也要做到多变性和适应性。

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ASSUMPTIONS

注意假设

Be careful not to assume that a review begins at the start

注意,不要想当然地假设回顾有一个“正式”

of the ‘official’ reviewing session.

的开始。

Some important informal or independent reviewing may

有些重要的非正式的或是独立的回顾可能已经

have already taken place. For example, if participants have

开始了。例如,如果学员已经各自在你设定顺序里

already spent time independently on stage 1 and stage 2

的第一和第二阶段中花了一些时间,他们可能在正

(of your particular sequence), they may be ready to dive

式开始回顾时就已准备好进入第三阶段的回顾了。

into stage 3 at the start of your review session. Also, the

另外,学员对回顾过程越熟悉,那么他们越有可能

more that participants get into the habit of reviewing,

在活动当中时就已经在进行正式或非正式的回顾了。

the greater the chances that they will be doing reviewing

所以即使你在培训环节结束后立刻开始回顾,你会

(formally or informally) during the training exercises. So

发现回顾行为其实早已发生了。最好的起点并不总

even if you start your review immediately after a training

是第一阶段。

exercise, you may still find that plenty of reviewing has already taken place. The best starting point is not always stage 1.

TRANSPARENCY There may be occasions where you want to take full responsibility for the sequencing of a review (and keep your cards close to your chest). But it is usually helpful if participants are aware of the general principles that you are using for sequencing reviews, as well as knowing the

“But it is usually helpful if participants are aware of the general principles that you are using for sequencing reviews, as well as knowing the particular sequence for the current review - if you have one in mind. 但是通常来讲,让学员了解到您 对这个回顾设定的基本顺序以及 当下的所处阶段会更好。”

particular sequence for the current review - if you have one in mind. This is partly to avoid chaotic situations such

提供透明性

as when: 有时候您可能希望自己一个人控制回顾的顺序 ◆ one person is talking about the future ◆ another is still preoccupied with what happened ◆ two others are engaged in giving and receiving feedback ◆ someone else is really excited about a personal insight that has popped up

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(并且守口如瓶)。但是通常来讲,让学员了解到 您对这个回顾设定的基本顺序以及当下的所处阶段 会更好。这可以在某种程度上避免以下几种混乱的 状况:


◆ another is trying to steer things back to the original

• 某人在讨论未来

purpose of the review.

• 另一个人还在思考当下发生的事 • 另外两人还在相互给反馈 • 有个人在为自己的灵光一闪感到兴奋 • 还有一个人在试图将话题拉回到回顾本身上

TRANSFER 学习转移性 There is another important reason why you should generally try to be transparent about the sequence, and

让整个回顾的顺序保持透明还有另外一个重要

this applies especially if you are asking participants to

的原因,尤其是当你希望学员为自己的学习负责任

take responsibility for their own learning. The point is

时。这个原因就是,无论培训的目的是什么,当人

this: whatever the overall purpose of the training, the

们能注意到自己是怎样学习时,学习的可转移性也

transferability of what people learn will be enhanced if

会提高。

they are also learning about how they are learning. 如果您能让学习过程更加透明,那么学员在培 Participants will be more effective learners during and

训中和培训后的学习效率都会提高。学习过程的透

after the course if you can make the learning processes

明性有助于学习的转移——特别是当学员在经验中

transparent. Transparency about learning processes assists

学习,并希望能将学习点和体会带到工作环境中时。

transfer - especially if further learning from experience will be necessary when participants are trying to implement changes back in the workplace.

PACE

注意节奏 回顾顺序有时候会以列表的形式呈现 – 就如 作为一个设定好的议程时 , 有时又会以循环的形式

Sequences are sometimes presented in the form of a list

呈现。所以您应当想好 , 是把回顾反思过程构架成

- as for an agenda. Sequences can also be represented in

一个大循环或是列表模式,还是需要多次循环的回

the form of a cycle. So one decision you need to make is

顾以达到更好的学习效果。这引出了一个问题:对

whether the whole review is to be structured as one giant

于辅导师来说,一个回顾循环是否就是一个“学习

cycle (or list), or whether the goal(s) of the review would

计划”,还是说,其实每个学员都有自己独特的学

be better achieved by making several journeys round a

习流程?如果是后者,那他们是按各自的节奏还是

cycle. This raises the issue of whether a learning cycle is the

一起有个整体的节奏呢?

equivalent of a ‘lesson plan’ for the facilitator, or whether each participant is travelling around their own unique learning cycle - and if so, do they do so each at their own

无论你定的是什么样的学习计划,你一定要注 意每位学员的学习进度。例如:

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pace or in unison with others? Whatever your plan, you certainly need to pay attention to the stage at which each

• 有没有人太沉溺于活动中的感受因而难以退 一步去客观地看待事实?

individual actually is in the learning process. For example:

• 有没有人太急于将学习点联系到工作上而难 以注重此时此刻的经历?

◆ Is anyone so immersed in feelings that they are not ready to stand back and take a more objective view? ◆ Is anyone so anxious about relevance to work that they are not paying attention to the here and now?

• 有没有人太在意理性思维而忽视了情绪感 受? • 有没有人因为心不在焉而根本没注意到本应 该体会到的经历?

◆ Is anyone so committed to thinking that they overlook feeling?

四种花色和一个小丑

◆ Was anyone so inattentive or so unmoved that the ‘experience’ has passed them by?

是时候看下我的底牌了。我经常使用一个四阶 段循环的回顾,它与上述所列的原则基本吻合。我 的灵感来自于很多地方——最初是来自我在 Brathay

Four suits and a joker

作为拓展培训师时私底下研究,同时也来自我近期 作为培训辅导师时的经历。这种方法的完整版可以

It is time I showed my cards. I often follow a four stage

在我的网站上 (http://reviewing.co.uk) 找到,以教程

reviewing sequence that is compatible with most of the

的形式来展示“回顾的循环”。我在此简单介绍一下,

principles outlined above. It has evolved from many

着重指出黑色与红色区的不同。这两个区域可以使

sources - originally from my own informal research while

用在所有的体验式学习中。

working at Brathay as a development trainer, and more recently as a training aid when training facilitators. The

在这个四阶段的回顾循环中,红色花色代表前

fullest account of this cycle is published on my website

两个阶段:方片和红心;黑色花色代表第三第四阶

(http://reviewing.co.uk) in the form of a tutorial about the

段:黑桃和梅花。小丑是一张万能牌,代表着允许

‘reviewing cycle’. I will give a brief account of it here - in a

回顾循环里出现的一切意外和变化。红色和黑色各

way that emphasises the differences between the red and

有自己的意义。红色代表已经发生的事情(方片—

the black zones. These two zones can be overlaid on any

有很多平面/角度的宝石)和体会到的感受(红心)。

model of experiential learning.

红色代表能让学习者吸取的经验,强调的是经验的 交流。黑色代表的是从经验中获得的体会和学习。

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The first two stages of this four stage reviewing sequence

黑桃像一个铲子,是挖掘工具——分析,调查,解

are represented by the red suits: diamonds and hearts.

释等等。梅花代表未来的成长——包括预测、选择、

Stages 3 and 4 are represented by the black suits: spades

计划、演练或者“守住梦想”。红色代表经验,黑

and clubs. The Joker is the wild card that allows exceptions

色代表学习。


and variations at any point on the cycle. The colours red and black have a special significance. Red represents what happened (DIAMONDS - a precious stone with many faces/ perspectives) and what was experienced (HEARTS). The red side represents the experiences from which the learning may be drawn. The red side emphasises communication of the experience. The black side represents what is learned or gained from the experience. The SPADE is a tool for digging - for analysis, investigation, interpretation, etc. The CLUB represents future growth - in many possible directions that may involve predictions, choices, plans, rehearsals or ‘keeping dreams alive’. Red represents experience; black represents learning.

Playing red cards

出红牌

Some facilitators are most at home in the red zone. There

有些辅导师在红色区域里感到最自在。偏好红

could be many reasons why they prefer red to black.

色而不是黑色的理由很多。

An important benefit arising from spending ‘quality time’

学员在红色区域里多花时间确实是有好处的,

in the red zone is that participants become more aware

能让他们多了解自己、其他人以及这个活动的本质。

of self and others and of the nature of the event. They

他们会对独自的和团体共同的经历更熟悉。在红色

become much better acquainted with personal and shared

区域中的多花些高质量的时间可以为后续的学习打

experiences from which their learning will be drawn.

好坚实的、基于当前这个经历的学习基础。也就是说,

Spending ‘quality time’ in the red zone increases the

确保学习来自于这次实际的经历,而不是来自其他

chances that any subsequent learning will be well grounded

的经历或空想的道理。在这个红色区域多花点高质

in a rich appreciation of the original experience. ‘Quality

量的时间也可以促进倾听技能,同理心和相互理解。

time’ in the red zone helps to ensure that subsequent

这些对学员来说,都是很有价值的成就。他们同时

learning is substantially based on what was actually

也可以积累很多数据,提高沟通的水平,有助于接

experienced. Time in the red zone also tends to develop

下来的回顾循环。

attentive listening, empathy and mutual understanding. These are valuable achievements in themselves. They also generate rich data and enhanced levels of communication to feed into the rest of the cycle.

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Playing black cards

出黑牌

Some facilitators are most at home in the black zones. This

有些辅导师在黑色区域感到比较自在。这是大

is what facilitators are (generally) paid to produce: the

部分辅导师被雇用的原因:学习的成果和因此引起

learning outcomes and the changed behaviour back in the

的工作行为的变化。

workplace. 但是黑色区域受到重视还有其他原因。黑色区 But there can be many other reasons why black gets most

域的好处是不言而喻的。这里产生大部分切实的效

attention. The benefits of the black zone tend to be more

果。注意不要过快进入黑色区域,如果过快进入这

self evident. This is where the more tangible results are

个区域,其产生的负面效果可以从之前提到的,在

generally found. The consequences of moving into the

红色区域多花时间的好处中推算出来。根基不坚实

black zone too soon can readily be worked out by referring

会使学习变得不太可靠,不那么有价值也更难让人

back to the benefits of spending ‘quality time’ in the red

记住。仓促结束黑色区域的话,学到的实质东西很少。

zone. Learning that is poorly grounded in experience tends

经验虽然印象深刻,但是学习的收获则很有可能不

to be less dependable, less valued and less memorable.

被学员记住。

Rushing through the black zone would mean learning very little of substance. The experience might have been highly memorable, but any learning would be easily forgettable.

The joker The joker is the wild card that you can play at any time.

小丑牌

The joker does not take this (or any other) model too seriously.

小丑牌是你随时可以打出的万能牌。

The joker gives the system a human face.

小丑牌不需要严格遵循任何回顾模型。

The joker keeps you alert to contradictions.

小丑牌能保持整个回顾系统人性化的一面。

The joker challenges procedures.

小丑牌能让你注意到回顾系统中可能出现的各

The joker is sharp, quick and perceptive.

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种相对的事物。

The joker brings fresh perspectives.

小丑牌能挑战所有既定的流程。

The joker is alive and dynamic.

小丑牌尖锐灵敏而富有洞察力。

Above all, the joker lets you trust your judgement and play

小丑牌带来新的观点。


your own game.

小丑牌是鲜活而又精力充沛的。

Every game needs a joker.

最重要的是,小丑能让你相信自己的判断并且

Every model has exceptions.

让你按自己想法出牌。 每场牌局都需要小丑。

Playing the joker

每个模型总有例外。

Some facilitators are most at home playing the joker. Again,

出小丑牌

there may be a whole host of reasons why this is so. In the context of this paper, let us see the joker as a reminder that

有些辅导师打小丑牌时最自在。同样,这样做

reviewing is an art. Whatever model or theory you use to

也是能找到很多原因支持的。在本文中,姑且认为,

guide your facilitation of reviewing, remember to balance

小丑的存在就是提醒着我们回顾反思是一门艺术吧。

RED and BLACK, and remember the JOKER - for any or all

无论你使用什么样的模型或者理论来指导你的回顾

of the reasons listed above. Learning is a creative process.

环节,记得要平衡红黑两色并且记得小丑牌——因

Facilitating learning is also a creative process - an intuitive

为前文所述的理由。学习是一个需要有创意的过程。

balancing act between models and jokers

辅导学习同样也是如此——需要凭借直觉来平衡模 型和小丑牌。

The author

有关作者

Roger Greenaway provides trainer-training in reviewing

Roger Greenaw 博士在英国及其他许多国家提供

skills in the UK and in many countries around the world.

培训培训师回顾技巧课程。这些培训的内容来自于

These events draw on Roger’s extensive background in

Roger Greenaway 博士大量的体验式培训的经验,培

experience-based training, trainer-training and research

训培训师的经验和包括他管理培训博士学位在内的

- which includes his doctorate in management learning.

研究。Roger 已经出版了有关回顾的几本书籍和众多

Roger is the author of several articles and books about

文章,他还针对“积极回顾小提示”向有兴趣的培

reviewing. He also publishes the email newsletter ‘Active

训师提供邮件简报——内容来自他的综合性网站,

Reviewing Tips’ - part of a comprehensive website which is

其网站现已成为现有的“回顾技巧”的百科全书。

becoming an encyclopaedia of reviewing methods.

Find out more about reviewing 点击了解更多回顾反思技巧

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