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What Do Facilitators Do? Dr. Roger Greenaway Dr. Roger Greenaway trains facilitators, educators, trainers and consultants to bring out the full benefits of active and experiential learning. He works with training organisations, training departments and educational institutions - worldwide. His Train-the-Trainer workshop was widely successful in Shenzhen in 2011 and he will be presenting another TTT in Shanghai in May of 2013.

辅导师都做些什么?

Copyright © Sino Associates & Roger Greenaway 2012-2022. All Rights Reserved.


“How do you do facilitation?” is a bit “你怎样做辅导?”这个问题可 of a conversation stopper. Ask this to a 能会让对话戛然而止。向辅导师提出 facilitator and I guarantee that you will get 这个问题,我保证你得到的是犹豫和 hesitation and evasiveness. 含糊其辞。 I (too) have spent many years being 很多年来,我也对这个话题含糊 evasive on this point – and for a very good 其辞——但我有一个很好的理由:我 reason: which is that I like to be ‘learner- 想以学员为中心,并注意着这个学员 centred’ and pay attention to what 所做的事情(而非以辅导师为中心)。 the learner is doing (rather than being 在《领导之道》中,约翰·海德 facilitator-centred). 推崇那种能让团队说“这是我们主动 In the Tao of Leadership, John Heider 做的” 的团队领导者。这样的领导者 admires the kind of group leadership, 用的是近乎不被察觉的行为进行来工 which might result in the group saying ‘We 作和领导(如果有做的话),组员们 did it ourselves’. Such a leader is working 甚至都意识不到这些领导行为。 in such subtle ways that the group does 那么,在这种领导者近乎无形的 not notice what the leader is doing (if 领导风格中,你该怎么塑造自己呢? anything). 我希望下面的文章能对大家有 So how can you model yourself on a style 用,其内容是关于辅导者可以如何在 of leadership in which the leader is almost 辅导时不破坏团队学习中的自主性、 entirely invisible? 灵活性和多变的本质。 I hope the article below brings some useful clarity to what facilitators do “So how can you model without destroying the spontaneity, yourself on a style of flexibility, and ever-changing nature of leadership in which the what it is like to facilitate learning in leader is almost entirely invisible? groups.

REVIEWING THE SITUATION What it is best to do as a facilitator

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在这种领导者近乎无形的领 导风格中,你该怎么塑造自 己呢”


depends very much on the situation. Being tuned in to the ‘situation’ will help you make good choices about what to do. And the more you review in ways that encourage people to express themselves, the more you will be in tune with the ‘situation’. So it is very useful (and rewarding) if you can get this virtuous cycle going in which everyone, including yourself, gets tuned in to what people are experiencing.

回顾情景 作为辅导员,最该做的事很大程 度上取决于具体情况。投入“情景” 当中将会帮助你更好地选择该做什 么。在回顾过程中,你越多地使用鼓 励人们去表达他们想法的方法,你越 能与“情景”保持协调一致。所以如 果你创造一个让每一个人,包括你自 己与所发生经历的保持协调一致的良 性循环,这将是非常有用(和有回馈 的)。

7 SITUATIONS YOU CAN ANTICIPATE (You can plan for these)

7 种你能提前准备的情况

Some situations are quite predictable and can be anticipated. For example:

(你可对此作出计划)

一些情境是可预料和提前准备的 . 比 1. You can anticipate the priorities for 如说 : what you need to do at the beginning, 1、你能预测项目在开始、中间和结 middle and end of a programme - which 束阶段,需要做的事情的优先次序。 is why I advocate designing reviews into a 这是为什么我主张在项目设计前要先 programme before you put the activities 设计回顾反思这部份的原因。 in place 2、你能预料某些活动将如何生成特 2. You can anticipate how certain activities 定类型的事件、经历和问题。 will generate particular kinds of incidents, experiences and issues 3、在成功或失败的经验的基础上, 你能预料你需要怎样引导不同类型的 3. You can anticipate how you might need 回顾 to facilitate a different kind of review following an experience of success or 4、你能预测你怎样能最好地促进一 failure 个活跃的团队,一个沉默的团队或一

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4. You can anticipate how you can best 个积极者和沉默者并存的团队。 facilitate a loud group, a quiet group, a 5、你能预测当时间很短或者有多余 group with a mix of loud and quiet people 的时候,你能怎样进行最好的回顾。 5. You can anticipate how you can best 6、同时,团队的规模将决定何种类 facilitate a review when time is short and 型的辅导策略将会最可行。 when there is more time available 7、无论是一般的目标,或者由个人 6. And the group size will determine 的需求或目标,特定的学习目标会有 which kinds of facilitation strategy will 助于当前的学习。 work best 7. The current situation may lend itself to working with particular learning objectives 所以,作为一个辅导者,在决定 - whether from the general programme 你要做什么前,你可能需要考虑上面 objectives or arising from individual needs 7 个点。这里以问题的形式展示: or goals 1. 课程处于哪个阶段? So, before deciding what you are going 2. 这个活动将会提供何种回顾与引导 to do as a facilitator you may want to 机会? consider the above 7 points. Here they are again presented as questions: 3. 团队处于何种气氛? 1. What stage of the programme is it? 2. What reviewing opportunities will the activity provide? 3. What is the mood of the group? 4. How can I engage all participants (quiet or loud)? 5. How much time is available? 6. What works best with this size of group? 7. What opportunities are there for

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4. 我怎样吸引所有参与者(活跃或沉 默的人) 5.共有多长时间? 6. 什么最适合这样的团队规模? 7. 有什么样的机会能实现关键目标?


working on key objectives? And when you have thought this through and have come up with ‘Plan A’ you will be well advised to have a ‘Plan B’ (because things change and facilitation is mostly a responsive role). And a ‘Plan Z’ will be handy too: an emergency plan that will work in almost any situation.

3 SITUATIONS THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO ANTICIPATE (You can even plan for these too!) 1. YOU ARE IN THE DARK You know very little about the event you are about to review. You are reviewing an event at which you were not present. (You may have less information than usual, but you can still prepare a review for these situations.) 2. THE UNEXPECTED U n ex p e c t e d e v e n t s o f t e n c a p t u re people’s interest and can become a more significant source of learning than the events you had planned or predicted. (You need to judge whether the surprise is a distraction or a welcome opportunity for learning.)

当你已经详细考虑上面的问题, 并想出了一个 A 计划,你最好还要有 一个 B 计划,因为事情会变化,而且 辅导一般是反映式的。而 Z 计划也可 能会派上用途:找一个能在大多数情 况下都可以用的办法。

3 种难以预料的情况 (你也可以对此作出计划!) 1. 你在信息不明处 你对你将要回顾的事件所知甚 少。你进行回顾反思的活动是一个你 没有在现场的活动。(你可能拥有比 平时更少的信息,但你仍然能为这些 状况准备一些回顾)。

“Unexpected events often capture people's interest and can become a more significant source of learning than the events you had planned or predicted 意外事项经常能捕捉人们 的兴趣,而且有可能成为 一个比你准备或预测的材 料更有意义的资源”

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3. YOU ARE STUCK

2. 意外事项

All your options seem to run out. Or none of your options feel right. Or it feels like a brand new situation that you have never encountered before. You want to dial the facilitation hot line (or try strategy 5 described below).

意外事项经常能捕捉人们的兴 趣,而且有可能成为一个比你准备或 预测的材料更有意义的资源。(你需 要判断这个惊奇是让人在学习中分散 注意力还是让人受益的机会。) 3. 你感觉思路堵塞时 你没有什么选择了。或者没一个

6 WAYS OF FACILITATING ACTIVE LEARNING

选择让你感觉是对的。或者它看起来 似乎是一个你以前没遇到的局面。你 甚至都希望能有个“辅导技能热线” 1. BE A ROLE MODEL 了,(也许,你不妨尝试下面第 5 种 Remember that groups will tend to copy 策略)。 how you behave. So think about what you want learners to do and set a good 6 种促进积极学习的方法 example of what it is like to be an active 1. 成为一个行为模范 learner. Some examples: 记得,团队会倾向于模仿你的行 • If you are asking participants to set 为。所以考虑下你希望学员做什么, learning goals, you can declare your own 和建立一个积极学习的榜样。以下是 learning goals. 一些例子: • You can join in active reviewing exercises • 如果你计划让学员建立自己的学习 as a participant (tasting your own 目标,你可以表明你自己的学习目标。 medicine may not always be a good move, but it often is). • 你能作为一个参与者,加入回顾练 习(“尝尝自己那套”未必总是一个 • Try to use demonstration rather than 好的举动,但它很多时候是真的)。 a pure verbal briefing. For example, with Action Replay you can demonstrate how • 尝试使用示范而不是一个纯粹的口 to use the remote control and conduct 头总结。比如说,通过“行为复现”

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interviews before handing over the 方法,你可以在把遥控器麦克风递给 remote and the microphone. 学员时示范怎样使用麦克风进行访 问。 Watch out. While joining in as a learner can be an influential facilitation strategy, Joining in as a learner it can be too influential if there are not can be an influential also times when you let go, step back and facilitation strategy, leave space for others. 2. DESCRIBE YOUR CHANGING ROLE

(but) it can be too influential if there are not also times when you let go… 当你以一个学习者的身份 加入,是一个有影响力的 辅导策略。但如果不懂得 什么时候放手、退一步, 并给予学员学习的空间, 那这些影响力就可能过犹 不及了。

The more different kinds of facilitation roles you take on (joining in, standing back, helping, not helping) the more confusing it can be for learners. The answer is not to cramp your style and limit yourself to one role. Quite the opposite: whenever it seems necessary, explain what your preferred role will be in the next learning process - and why. (This point is expanded later in ‘The Role 注意,当你以一个学习者的身份 of the Facilitator’ where I summarize John 加入,是一个有影响力的辅导策略。 Heron’s model) 但如果不懂得什么时候放手、退一步, The more successful you are in helping 并给予学员学习的空间,那这些影响 groups grow and develop, the more 力就可能过犹不及了。 you will want to adjust your role and relationship to best serve the group and 2. 描述你改变的角色 their learning objectives. Spell out how 你担任不同的辅导角色的种类越多 your role can change at different stages (加入,在后观望,帮助和不帮助), of group development and at different 学习者就越容易感到困惑。解决办法 stages of learning new skills. 并不是束缚你的风格和限制你只能扮

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3. LEAVE SPACE FOR LEARNING : Don’t be a space invader!)

演一种角色。相反,无论什么时候, 一旦觉得有必要,解释在下一个学习 阶段你将要扮演的角色以及原因。 (这 What is NOT facilitative: 点在我总结了 John Heron 模式的《辅 • Stepping into a problem-solving 导者角色》中将被扩展) exercise with the solution. 你越能成功地帮助团体成长和发 • Being the main source of wisdom 展,你就会越想调整你的角色和关系, rather than letting participants look 从而能最好地帮助团队实现他们的学 to their own source of wisdom – their 习目标。直接告诉大家你的角色将会 experiences. 在不同的团队发展时期和学习新技能 的不同阶段进行转变。 • Filling in the silence while people are thinking about the question you have just 3、留下学习的空间:不要成为一个 asked. 空间侵略者 • Asking all the questions and not 什么并不属于辅导的范围: drawing out questions from learners. 带着解决方案介入一个问题解决 • Telling participants what they should 能力的练习 have done and should have learned. • 成为智慧的主要来源,而不是让参 • Generally being too busy, too helpful 与者参考他们自己的智慧来源——他 and too interfering. 们的经验。 Tell the teacher inside you to take a rest • 当人们考虑你刚刚提问的问题时, when you want participants to learn by 不给予让他们思考的时间 reflecting on their experiences. • 把所有的问题都问了,而没有让学 4. SHARE OUT OPPORTUNITIES AND 习者提出问题。 INVOLVE EVERYONE • 告诉参加者他们应该做什么和应该 Although a discussion circle looks very 学到了什么 democratic, a closer look usually finds • 过于繁忙,过于助人和过于干涉。 that the discussion is being dominated by

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a few: it is effectively becomes ‘theatre in 在你想引导学生通过实践学习 the round’ with a few people performing 时,就请让你心中的为师欲望休息一 while the rest spectate. Of course you 下吧。 can try making it more participative by 4、分享机会和让每个人参加 persuading ‘spectators’ to get up ‘on 尽管讨论的过程看起来象是非常民 stage’, but it is smarter (and more 主,但是当你仔细地观察时,通常就 effective) to find ‘stages’ on which 会发现讨论是被少数人控制的:他有 everyone is happy to perform. See ‘Turn 效地成为“中心式舞台”,仅有少数 taking in Group Reviews’ for better ways 人表演,而其他人在一旁观看。当然, of sharing out opportunities and involving 你能通过劝导“观察者”兴奋起来“走 everyone. 上舞台”使得活动更多人参与。但是, 5. USE TRANSPARENT FACILITATION 更聪明(或者说更有效)的方法是, 发现每个人都乐意展示的舞台。“轮 If you face a facilitation problem and you 流进行小组回顾”这篇文章里面有更 feel a bit stuck and are wondering what 好的办法分享机会和使得每个人都能 will be the best course of action ... you are 参与。 not alone. For a start there are probably “If you face a facilitation different voices in your head - and you can problem and you feel a bit choose to tell the group about (some of) stuck and are wondering these voices.

what will be the best course of action ... you are not alone 如果你面对辅导难题,感觉 思路堵塞,并疑惑于什么才 是这个课程最好的行动,别 担心,你并不孤独”

And if you have no voices in your head, you can tell the group about that too. And there are the voices of the participants too. You are not throwing yourself at the mercy of the group. You are using a very deliberate strategy of presenting a problem to the group (a problem that might affect them more than it does you). 5、使用简单易明的辅导方法 And you are consulting with them about 如果你面对辅导难题,感觉思路 the best course of action. You are inviting 堵塞,并疑惑于什么才是这个课程最

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them to be your facilitation advisory 好的行动,别担心,你并不孤独。 committee... 开始时,很可能有不同的声音在你的 脑子里,同时你能选择告诉学员这些 Mmmm - perhaps that one is a step (或部分)想法。 too far, but I think you can see that s u c h a st rate g y i s ve r y co n s i ste nt 如果你头脑中并没有想法,你也 w i t h e m p owe r i n g l e a r n e rs to ta ke 可以告诉你的团队。参加者自然会说 responsibility for their learning. It is a bit 一些想法。你并不是将自己放在一个 more facilitative than saying ‘I haven’t a 受团队控制的位置上,而是用一个影 clue’. 响他们更多于你的难题在咨询怎样能 If you want to dig deeper into this approach of ‘over to you’, ‘what do you think?’ or ‘let’s work this out together’ then you may find some useful insights f ro m J o h n H e ro n i n t h e C o m p l e te Facilitator’s Handbook where he describes the value of moving around between three basic facilitation modes: hierarchical, cooperative, and autonomous. 6. DELEGATE FACILITATION Question. When you work with groups how many facilitators are there? Answer. Everyone! All influence each other’s approach to learning through their motivation, curiosity, support, example etc.

使培训更顺利地进行。你在邀请他们 加入你的辅导建议委员会。 嗯,可能这步稍微超越了一点, 但我觉得你能看到,这样的策略能授 权予学习者,让他们自己对学习负责。 这比直接说“我没有想法”更有辅导 效果。

Praise facilitative behaviour and give opportunities for participants to praise each other's facilitative behaviour 鼓励促进(学员的)辅导行为 并给予机会让参加者能称赞 其他人所表现出辅导行为 6、分配辅导任务

问题:当你跟一组人在学习时, So? Bring this to participants’ attention. 那里有多少位辅导员? Praise facilitative behaviour and give opportunities for participants to praise 答案:每一个都是辅导员!通过

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each other’s facilitative behaviour. Assign 积极性、好奇心、支持、举例等, responsibilities for facilitating eg using 所有人都影响着其他人的学习方法。 learning buddies, coaching (in ‘Goal 所 以? 让 参 加 者 注 意 到 这 个 事 Keepers’), giving feedback or facilitating 情。鼓励促进辅导行为并给予机会让 reviewing (such as in Simultaneous 参加者能称赞其他人所表现出辅导行 Survey). 为。分配责任让学员互相辅导,比如 Facilitating Experiential Learning 说,采用学习伙伴、教练(例如“守 门员活动”)的形式,互相给予反馈 Most experiential learning theory is 或促进回顾。 clear about what learners do after their ‘’experience’’: they reflect, interpret, and 辅导经验学习 experiment. But experiential learning theory is less clear about what role 经验学习理论基本都很清楚学员 (if any) facilitators should play in this 们在“体验”之后该做些什么:他们 process. The principles, strategies, and 需要反思、理解和试验。但经验学习 tactics of facilitation cannot be deduced 理论却很少能把辅导师该在学习过程 from experiential learning theory alone: 中所扮演的角色说清楚。辅导的原理、 We also need a theory of facilitation. A 策略和技巧不能单从经验学习理论中 facilitator who makes deliberate moves 推断出来:我们需要一个属于辅导 among Heron’s three modes of decision 的 理 论。 辅 导 师 可 以 根 据 Heron 的 making (hierarchical, co-operative and 3 种决策模式(阶级、合作和自治) autonomous) also frees up learners to be 做出有意识的行动,从而让学员在练 more mobile and responsible in how they 习和分权当中更加有能动性和更负责 exercise and share power. Such mobility 任。这样的能动性有助于学员做汇报 helps to make debriefing and learning 和更灵活、多元、有效地学习。 more dynamic, versatile, and effective.

More details of Heron’s model 点击了解 Heron 模型的内容

To read the full Sino Forum 点击阅读完整版的赛诺论坛

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Roger Greenaway - What do Facilitators do