Page 1

Consulting

SINO Forum 赛诺论坛

Pushing the Elephant Up the Stairs

Training

Role Playing in Learning

Coaching

Success Through NLP

Facilitation

What do Facilitators do

December 2012 Vol.1


Editor's letter Dear readers Welcome to Sino Forum, this is our inaugural issue and I believe it is a fine introduction to some of the great talent I have seen hard at work in China in the fields of Consulting, Training, Coaching, and Facilitation. The ideas presented within this issue make a strong argument that China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan are seeing exciting growth in original ideas in our fields and that growth is matching business growth in Greater China. HR practitioners will find plenty to think about and some new ideas to explore within these pages. I look forward to hearing your feedback on the ideas shared within these pages, whether through e-mail, LinkedIn, or Weibo.

欢迎来到赛诺论坛,这是我们的创刊号。 我希望籍此能让更多的人认识到那些我在中 国所遇到的致力于咨询、培训、教练、辅导 领域的有才之士。这一期所探讨的话题让我 们发现这些领域的基本概念在中国大陆、香 港和台湾都获得了令人振奋的发展,并且这 些发展能为大中华地区企业的成长带来更好 的帮助。 人力资源从业人士也能从这数十页中发 现许多值得思考的地方和一些值得探索的新 思想。我期待与您通过邮件、LinkedIn 或微 博来交流关于您对这期内容的想法。

John Dorris 陶宏梦 December,2012

Copyright © 2012 - 2022 Sino Associates Global Limited. All rights reserved.

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Table of Content Page 1

Current HR Challenges HR 的现代挑战

Consulting 咨询 2

Pushing the Elephant up the stairs The role of psychology in occupational safety

把大象推到梯子上

心理学在职业安全中的角色

Training 培训 9

Role Playing in Learning 从角色扮演中学习

Coaching 教练 15 Success Through NLP Coaching Insights for Performance Breakthroughs

以 NLP 取胜

online community

如何更上一层楼

Facilitation 辅导 23 What do Facilitators do

辅导师都做些什么

31 References and Photo Credits

参考文献和图像来源


Current HR Challenges HR 的现代挑战

1

Tell us

让我们知道您最关心的话题

your most concerned topics surveys@sino-associates.com


Pushing the Elephant up the stairs The role of psychology in occupational safety Henry Chamberlain Henry is an internationally experienced Industrial & Organisational Psychologist with more than 15 years experience in the field of assessment, talent management and organisation development. He is the President of the Hong Kong Psychological Society and the Chair Elect of the Division of I/O Psychology (DIOP). Additionally he serves as a member of the Departmental Advisory Committee of the Department of Managing and Marketing of the Poly University of Hong Kong. His career included roles as combat officer, Head of Organisation Development for the South African Army and Consulting Director for SHL Greater China.

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把大象推到梯子上 心理学在职业安全中的角色


Hong Kong’s construction industry is experiencing a

香港的建筑行业正处于繁荣阶段。无论你望向

boom phase. Wherever you look there are new buildings

哪里,总是能看到正在施工中的新建筑、新道路或

going up, new roads being built and new tunnels being

新隧道。本地的和海外的建筑公司都在争相抢占这

constructed. Local and overseas construction companies

块“蛋糕”,越来越多的项目,带来越来越多工人……

are all vying for a piece of the construction pie and

同时还带来越来越多的意外事故。

with more projects there are more workers…and more accidents.

香港政府已经大幅地提高了安全标准,在过去 20 年来,事故发生率已显著下降,在 1992 年,1000

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The Hong Kong Government has raised safety standards

名工人中有高达 302 名会涉及意外事故,而到 2011

significantly and over the past 20 years the accident

年,这个数字下降至 49.7 名。同一时期内,平均遇

frequency rate has dropped from a whopping 302 per 1000

险死亡人数从平均每年大约 58 名下降到平均每年大

workers in 1992 to 49.7 in 2011. Over the same period the

约 18 名(HK Housing Authority, 2012)。尽管已经有

average number of fatalities has dropped from an average

了这些明显的改善,香港的安全标准仍然被很多人

of around 58 per year to an average of around 18 per year

认为落后于美国、欧洲和英国。

(HK Housing Authority, 2012). Despite these remarkable improvements, safety standards in HK are still regarded by many as lagging behind the United States, Europe and the United Kingdom.

The good news is that many construction companies are taking safety more seriously and a good number of them have implemented occupational safety campaigns to

the accident frequency rate “ has dropped from a whopping

302 per 1000 workers in 1992 to 49.7 in 2011 事故发生率已显著下降,在 1992 年, 1000 名工人中有高达 302 名会涉及 意外事故,而到 2011 年,这个数字 下降至 49.7 名

drive safety awareness and lower the number of serious

好消息是许多建筑公司对安全越来越重视,并

incidents, accidents and fatalities. This is evidenced by

且很多公司已经开展职业安全活动来提高员工安全

slogans and banners like “Mission Zero (Laing O’Rourke)”,

意识和减少严重事件、意外和死亡的发生次数。这

“Don’t walk by (Kier)”, “Zero Harm (Gammon)” and “Strive

些都可以从建筑工地里的标语和横幅中略见一斑,

for L-I-F-E” (Leightons) that are visible at construction sites

比如像 Laing O’Rourke 的“零意外”、Kier 的“请绕

across Hong Kong.

道”、Gammon 的“零伤害”,还有 Leightons 的“为 生而奋斗”。

At this point you may think that the statistics above are impressive, but what does occupational safety have to do

此时你可能觉得以上的数据让人印象深刻,但

with I/O Psychology? And where is the elephant and the

职业安全和工业与组织心理学究竟有什么关系?还

staircase in this story?

有这个故事里的大象和梯子究竟在哪里呢?


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 While the implementation of training programmes,

在过去十年里,为了提高安全,香港在开展培

monitoring processes and policies have done a lot over

训活动、监测过程和政策制定上做了很多功夫,但

the past decades to improve safety, it was not enough

这些还不足以把意外事故的发生率降低到大多数西

to drive down accidents and incidents to the levels seen

方国家的水平。很多措施是不能长期适用的,它们

in many western countries. These practices don’t seem

就像是在推一只不情愿的大象去爬梯子。这需要大

to be sustainable and they end up being like pushing an

量的付出和资源,然而一旦停止了这些努力,大象

unwilling elephant up a flight of stairs. It requires massive

立刻就会从梯子上滑落下来。这也许是因为大多数

effort and resources and the moment the pressure is

的安全项目都是通过矫正行为来达到员工对安全

released, the elephant will slip back down the stairs. This

规则的服从,而不是让员工自身对安全做出承诺

may be because the most common safety programmes are

(Mullen & Kelloway, 2009)。

based on behaviour modification that aims to create safety compliance rather than commitment from the work force (Mullen & Kelloway, 2009).

所谓的基于行为的安全方法,也被称为 ABC 方 法( 事 前 预 计, 行 为, 结 果), 根 据 数 据 显 示, 这 种 方 法 可 有 效 降 低 意 外 发 生 率(Mullen et al,

The so-called behaviour based safety approach, also

2009),但为了从根本上杜绝意外的发生,仅仅服

known as the ABC approach (Antecedent, Behaviour,

从规则是不够的。我们要求的是一种能够让人们自

Consequence), has been instrumental in driving accident

愿采取并支持安全工作措施,让组织内每一个人不

statistics down (Mullen et al, 2009), but in order to

需要总是靠制度、外部奖赏或惩罚就能自觉承担安

finally drive out accidents, we need to go beyond

全责任的方法。换句话说,要在行为习惯上有非常

compliance. What is required is an approach where

大的变化。所以提高安全就是改变行为习惯,而工

people will voluntarily engage in and support safe work

业与组织心理学在帮助组织理解和改变人类行为习

practices, where everybody in the organisation will accept

惯上有着重要的作用。

responsibility for safety and not require constant policing, external rewards or punishment. In other words, a radical change in behaviour is required. So, improving safety is all about changing behaviour and I/O psychologists have a significant role to play in helping organisations understand and change human behaviour.

Systems theory teaches us that people are not mechanistic, rational beings. In fact, they can be quite unpredictable and irrational at the best of times. Systems theory further dictates that nothing operates in isolation; all things are

Improving safety is all “ about changing behaviour

and I/O psychologists have a significant role to play in helping organisations understand and change human behaviour 提高安全就是改变行为习惯,而 工业与组织心理学在帮助组织理 解和改变人类行为习惯上有着重 要的作用 ”

4


interconnected. Thirdly it urges us to look beyond the

系统理论告诉我们,人类不是机械般、理性的

presenting symptoms in order to identify and address the

存在。事实上,人类的行为往往是难以预计和不理

root causes of problems. (Senge, 1993)

性的。系统理论更进一步指出没有东西可以独立 运行;所有事物都是互相关联的。另外它呼吁我们

In practice this means that we have to recognise that

要跳出表面现象从而识别和找出问题的根本原因

changing human behaviour is a complex undertaking and

(Senge, 1993)。

that true change cannot be achieved through simplistic,

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mechanistic “carrot and stick” approaches. The whole

在实践中,这意味着我们必须认同改变人类行

system needs to be aligned to support safety and we

为是一个复杂的过程,真正的改变是没办法通过简

cannot expect people to work safely if the organisation’s

单的、机械的“胡萝卜加大棒”的方法而达到的。

strategy, leadership style, culture, processes and systems

整个系统需要保持均衡一致来支持安全的目标。假

are not all aligned to support this goal. We also have to

如组织的战略、领导风格、文化、程序和系统不能

look at the dynamics of human behaviour and the factors

与这个目标保持一致,那我们不可能期望组织里每

that enable or obstruct people’s commitment to safety.

一个员工都能安全地工作。所以与常见的观点相反, 提高安全的方法并不是制定更多的安全规则、委任

So contrary to common belief the way to improve safety is

更多的安全官员或是有效监管员工对规则的服从。

not to make more safety rules, appoint more safety officers and to police compliance more effectively.

最终的解决方法是创造一种安全文化使员工们 自愿地培养安全的行为习惯,因为他们明白并相信

The ultimate solution is to create a culture of safety where

它的重要性,而且整个组织系统也能支持他们这么

workers voluntarily participate in safe behaviours because

去做。

they know and believe in its value and where the whole organisational system supports them in doing this.

It all starts with a compelling vision and a clear strategy on

这一切由一个充满说服力的愿景和一个清晰的

safety. This vision and strategy has to be translated into

安全战略开始。这个愿景和战略必须转化为与各层

specific behaviours that have to be cascaded to all levels.

级相联的具体行为。所有层级的领导都应该支持相

Leaders at all levels should support the strategy and model

关的战略和成为行为的模范,方针与程序(如奖励)

behaviours, policies and processes (like reward) should be

与所期望的行为会得到奖励应保持一致。最后,工

aligned to reward the desired behaviours and last, but not

人们需要参与并投入到执行的过程当中。如果人们

the least, workers need to be engaged and involved in the

体验到参与是有意义的,并且他们感觉被授予对自

implementation process. If people experience meaningful

身直接利益相关的决策的权力,他们会更可能投入

involvement and they feel empowered to make decisions

到组织的愿景、战略和价值观(Viljoen, 2008)。


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 about things that affect them directly, they are more likely to be engaged with the vision, strategy and values (Viljoen, 2008).

In order to create engagement and commitment around safety, we require a strong leadership commitment to worker safety, engaging and empowering leaders at all levels, and clear, frequent and consistent communication

In order to create “ engagement and commitment

around safety, we require a strong leadership commitment to worker safety 为了创造员工对安全的参与和承 诺,我们要求领导层对于员工的 安全做出承诺 ”

of the safety vision and values. If these elements are not in place, safety becomes a non-sustainable, compliance-

为了创造员工对安全的参与和承诺,我们要求

based approach; more carrot, more stick, more policing

领导层对于员工的安全做出承诺,确保让各级领导

and more effort to push the elephant up the stairs en keep

参与进来并给他们授权,同时保证提供清晰惯常且

it from sliding back.

持续的有关安全愿景和价值观的沟通。如果这些要 素不能到位,它则变成一个不可持续的、基于服从

Some observers may have doubts about the above,

的方法,变得像是在用更多的萝卜、更多的棍棒、

correctly thinking that most of the concepts described

更多的监管和更多的努力去推大象和防止大象从梯

above are “western ideas” that may not work in an Asian

子上滑落下来。

environment. So, let me share a few recent experiences in HK. Over the past year I’ve been involved in a number

一些观察者可能会怀疑以上描述的大多数的概

of construction safety projects in HK, supporting and

念只是“西方理念”,并不适用于亚洲的环境。所以,

advising management on actions to improve safety on

让我来分享一些最近在香港发生的经历。过去几年

their projects. In all of these projects managers seemed

我一直在参与几个在香港的建筑安全计划,支持并

to struggle to “push the elephant up the stairs”. They

提供关于提高项目安全的管理建议。在这些项目里,

perceived the problem to be with workers who did not

所有项目主管都像在努力地“把大象推上梯子上”。

seem to value safety, appeared lazy and obstructive and

他们认为问题是出自于那些不重视安全、表现懒惰

contractors who are not used to working to modern safety

的工人和那些不习惯于在现代安全标准下工作的承

standards.

包商。

However the results of an in-depth diagnosis told

然而深度诊断的结果讲的却是另一个故事。来

a different story. Data from three different projects

自三个不同项目的数据显示,事实上工人们是有安

indicated that workers were in fact safety conscious,

全意识的,他们是想安全地工作的,他们想运用额

that they actually wanted to work safely and that they

外的努力来为工作作出更多的贡献。然而,他们发

wanted to contribute more and exert extra effort at work.

现很难去做“正确的事情”,而且责备和惩罚的文

6


However, they found it hard to do “the right thing” and

化让他们对主动做事保持谨慎的态度。关键的阻碍

were cautious to take initiative because of a blaming

并不在于工人层级,而在于领导层。这包括领导团

and punitive culture. The key blockages were not at the

队关于安全战略和安全优先级的理解不一致,不统

worker level, but in the leadership domain. These included

一的指挥导致一时提倡安全,一时提倡成果,不充

a lack of alignment of the leadership team on the safety

分和不一致的安全信息,还有基于服从的“胡萝卜

strategy and the priority of safety, inconsistent leadership

加大棒”方法。难怪工人们会对管理层的意向产生

practices promoting safety one day and production the

疑惑,以为管理层只关心工作产量。

next, insufficient and inconsistent messages on safety and compliance based “carrot and stick” approaches. Is it any wonder that workers were confused about management’s intentions and that they concluded that management only really cared about production?

So, while management professed that safety was their

7

main priority, their actions contradicted this. They failed to create a clear case for change, systems and strategies were

Is it any wonder that “ workers were confused about

management’s intentions and that they concluded that management only really cared about production? 难怪工人们会对管理层的意向产 生疑惑,以为管理层只关心工作 产量 ”

not aligned and most of all, people were not empowered

所以,管理层自称安全是他们的首要考虑的同

and engaged in the implementation of the safety vision

时,他们的行动却与之矛盾。他们未能创造一个关

and strategy. This is nothing new, in fact, it sounds very

于改变现状的清晰计划,系统和战略并不一致,最

much like the eight reasons why change fail, described by

重要的是,员工并没有获得授权和参与到安全愿景

change guru, Kotter, almost 20 years ago (Kotter, 1995).

和战略的实施当中。这并不新鲜,事实上,这听起 来跟大概 20 年前由科特提出的 8 个改革失败的原因

There is, of course, no doubt that workers are not

(Kotter, 1995)并没有什么差别。

blameless. The average worker in HK is much older than in the rest of the world and they are often reluctant to

当然,工人们也并非完全没有责任。香港工人

change their ways. A high power distance culture (Hofstede,

与其他地方的工人相比,年纪要更大,他们往往不

1984) means that the hierarchy is respected and that

愿意改变他们以往的工作方式。一个高的权力距离

workers are less likely to voice safety ideas and concerns.

文化(Hofstede, 1984)意味着阶级是受到尊敬的,

Furthermore a culture of taking shortcuts when no one is

工人们不太可能反映他们对安全的想法和担忧。而

looking is deeply entrenched and wide-spread in the local

且一个当无人监管时就走捷径的文化已经广泛地深

construction industry. However, these were not the causes

深植入当地的建筑行业。但是,这些并不是问题的

of the problem, they were at best, contributing factors.

本质,它们最多只是促进因素而已。


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 These results described above are similar to results found

以上描述的结果与我同事在全球范围研究的结

by my colleagues around the world and it supports the

果相似,它证明了“软的东西实际上是最硬(困难)

notion that “the soft stuff actually is the hard stuff”

的东西”这个想法——无论在哪都一样。它特别强

– wherever you are. It specifically emphasises the

调了组织的领导力、系统思考的方法和理解人类行

importance of organisational leadership, a systems thinking

为对于创造可持续改变和成果的重要性。变革管理

approach and the importance of understanding of human

和人类动态变化将会在未来几年变得越来越重要,

behaviour in creating sustainable change and results.

而且工业与组织心理学一定将会为促进香港和亚洲

Change management and the human dynamics of change

地区可持续改革做出重要的贡献。

will become more and more important in the coming years and industrial/organisational psychologists must be ready to make a more significant contribution in enabling sustainable change in HK and Asia.

8


Role Playing in Learning Jesse Covner Jesse has had a life long passion for role-playing and has served as the CEO for international gaming company EOS-SAMA since 2010. EOS-SAMA makes roll-playing games, board-games, and training simulation games. Before founding and leading EOS-SAMA Jesse worked in the booming tech industry in Silicon Valley and later the management consulting field in China.

从角色扮演中学习 9


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 This article explores some of the issues with using role-

这篇文章将探索一些关于在中国使用角色扮演

playing and role-playing games as learning tools in China,

游戏作为学习工具的问题,同时还会提供一些让角

as well as provide some useful techniques to make role-

色扮演更有成效的实用技巧。

playing more effective. 什么是角色扮演?它是在培训、辅导练习或休 What is Role-Playing? It is the practice of assuming an

闲游戏的情境中,呈现的一种非自我身份的实践,

identity, which is not your own, like in improvisational

像是在即兴表演。

acting, within the context of a training exercise, coaching session, or recreational game.

我们什么时候进行角色扮演?从小你可能就已 经试过扮演某些角色,用想象力玩过警察抓小偷的

When do we role-play? You’ve probably been role-playing

游戏。当某些成年人在玩角色扮演游戏的时候,扮

since you were a child and you first played a game of

演角色是为了享受乐趣。

cops and robbers using your imagination. As adults some people Role-play for enjoyment, as when they play “Role Playing Games” (RPG).

在工作环境中,角色扮演可被用作为特定任务 的事前准备练习,例如销售人员会让同事扮演顾客, 从而练习如何与顾客沟通交流。角色扮演还可以作

In the work environment, role-playing can be used as

为一种促进学习和提高多种技能的非常有效的工具。

practice in preparing for specific tasks, such as a when

简而言之,角色扮演是一种有效的、互动的、社会

a sales-woman role-plays possible client interactions

性的学习技巧。

with a colleague who plays the part of a customer. Role-

role-playing can be an “ impactful, interactive, social

playing can also be used as a very effective tool to facilitate learning and development in a variety of skill categories.

learning technique

In brief, role-playing can be an impactful, interactive, social

角色扮演是一种有效的、互动的、 社会性的学习技巧 ”

learning technique.

How do we use role-playing in learning? As a learning

我们怎么把角色扮演运用到学习中?作为一项

tool, it requires participants to “learn by doing;” it is an

学习工具,它要求参与者“从操作中学习”,让参

experiential technique that puts participants within an

与者在一个互动的环境里体验角色。这种体验型技

interactive role and has several advantages:

巧具有若干优势:

Fun

趣味性

Role-playing produces interesting and exciting interactions

角色扮演能让参与者之间产生有趣且兴奋的互

between participants, thus increasing the energy level of

动,从而提高参与者的活力。

10


the participants

Experiential

体验性

Often role-playing requires the participants to put

角色扮演往往要求参与者把自己放进一个真实

themselves within a real-world “frame” or story-setting in

世界的“框架”或设定的故事情境中,通过利用自

which they must use there knowledge, skills, and critical

身的知识、技能和批判性思考能力来解决问题,因

thinking abilities to solve problems, thus making the results

此能让结果与参与者更相关。

more relevant to the participants.

Social

大多数角色扮演需要多个扮演者的互动。这些

Most role-playing involves interactions between multiple

互动能让参与者亲身体会相关情感,进而增强关联

players. These interactions provide opportunities for

性和记忆。

emotional involvement within the training, which increases relevance and memory retention.

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社交性

Empathy

移情性 角色扮演需要学员担任一个角色。这意味着承 担和“演绎”一个不一样的身份。这能帮助参与者

Role-playing requires learners to take on a role... that

学习如何从不同的角度看待问题,从而促进他对其

means take on and “play” a different identity. This can help

他人的感受、信念和逻辑结构的理解和认知。

participants learn how to see issues from different angles, thus encouraging understanding and awareness of the feelings, beliefs, and logic structures of others.

Role-playing can be used for many different types of learning points. High school teachers have used it to explain the effects of slavery in the United States before the Civil War. History teachers have used role-playing to simulate the challenges faced by historical figures. Sales managers in much of the world use role-playing to teach awareness of the customer’s needs. English-as-Second-

take on and ‘play’ a different “ identity. This can help participants learn how to see issues from different angles, thus encouraging understanding and awareness of the feelings, beliefs, and logic structures of others

承担和‘演绎’一个不一样的身份。这 能帮助参与者学习如何从不同的角度看 待问题,从而促进他对其他人的感受、 信念和逻辑结构的理解和认知

Language teachers often use role-playing to give students

角色扮演可以用来学习许多不同类型的知识。

practice at real-life application of language studies.

高中老师可以用它来解释在南北战争前,农奴制对

Coaches and Managers use role-playing to better prepare

美国的影响。历史老师可以用它来模拟历史人物所

their coachee to handle difficult interactions.

面对的挑战。大多数销售经理会用它来传授对顾客


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 Although role-playing is often used within learning events

需求的理解。教英语的外语老师经常用角色扮演来

and programs throughout China, many role-playing

让学生在模拟真实生活的情境下练习使用英语。教

facilitators encounter several implementation problems, of

练和管理人员会用角色扮演这种方式来帮助他们的

which some are specific to Chinese culture. Problems may

学员或下属学习如何处理人际互动方面的挑战。

include the following:

Fear of acting/public performance Role-playing requires participants attempt to see things from another person›s point of view, which is difficult for some people.  This kind of “acting” does not come

在中国,虽然角色扮演被广泛地使用在学习活 动和培训项目当中,但许多角色扮演引导师经常会 在执行时遇到难题,以下是一些常见的问题:

对公开表演的恐惧

naturally to many people perhaps even most people. To

角色扮演要求参与者尝试用他人的身份看待事

risk a generalization, many Chinese employees have little

情,但对某些人来说,这是比较困难的。因为,对

experience with acting as a part of their formal education

于许多人,甚至可能是大多数人来说,难以自然地

background.

进行这种“表演”。冒着以偏概全的风险来说,许 多员工所经历的中国正式教育里并不包含表演。

Getting participants to role-play involves encouraging the participants to expand beyond their comfort zones - to

为了让参与者扮演角色,培训师需要鼓励他们

“break the box”, which is challenging for both participant

勇敢闯出他们的舒适区,甚至要让他们打破陈规,

and facilitator.

这对参与者和培训师都是一项挑战。

Disassociation and narration

脱离角色与表述

We often find Chinese role-play participants who do

我们经常发现那些没有角色扮演经验的中国参

not have experience with role-playing will disassociate

与者往往是在表述其行为,而不是扮演其角色,这

themselves from the role they play, often by narrating

样常让他们无法进入角色。

actions rather than playing the role. 比如说,在一个模拟的辅导过程中,扮演管理 For example, during a simulated coaching session with an

者的人本可以这样说:“王先生你好……现在我们

employee, the role-playing manager should say something

来谈谈你的工作表现吧。自上一个季度结束以来,

like; “Hi Mr. Wang.... let’s talk about your performance. 有没有哪些地方你觉得你做得特别好?”然而,该 What accomplishment do you feel most proud of from last

名扮演者却这么说:“我会叫那个员工坐下,然后

quarter?”. But instead, the manager will say; “I will ask the

我会让他谈谈上一年他做了些什么。”脱离角色虽

employee to sit down. Then I will ask him to talk about

然并不会减少扮演者对角色的计划和思考,但却会

what he did last year”. Disassociation does not diminish

减少表演中的体验和情感的效益。

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the planning and thought that went into the role-play, but

不充分的推敲

it does diminish the experiential and emotional benefits of the exercise.

Inadequate inference and extrapolation

当扮演着现实生活中的情景,参与者经常无法 深思他们角色行为的结果。因为他们觉得这个模拟 表演是“不真实的”,所以他们无法应用合适的常

When role-playing real-life situations, participants often

识或逻辑能力,进而无法运用真实生活中的勤奋和

fail to contemplate the results of their role-played actions.

期待。

They fail to apply appropriate common sense and/or logic skills because they regard the role-play simulation as “not

以下是一些处理和改善以上问题的方法:

real”, and hence, fail to apply real-world diligence and/or

富有色彩的和详细准备的角色

expectations.

有 越 多 的 画 面 和 框 架, 参 与 者 越 容 易 把 所 要

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There are many ways to deal-with and ameliorate these

演的角色形象化。给参与者提供详细的角色动机

problems. Below are some suggestions:

描述——即使很多动机与游戏或学习目标并不相

Colorful and detailed prepared roles

关——这将帮助参与者把角色展现出来。此外,创 造一些华丽的或突出的角色性格能为如何演好这个

The more “frame” the participant has, the easier it is to

角色提供明显的提示。这将会给参与者带来更多的

visualize the role he/she should play. Giving a detailed

乐趣。

description of a character’s motivations - even if many of the motivations are not relevant to the game-play or learning points - helps the participants act-out the part. Furthermore, creating flamboyant or outstanding character traits gives obvious clues as to how the character should be played.  This will make role-playing more fun for the participants.

The more ‘frame’ the “ participant has, the easier it

is to visualize the role he/she should play 有越多的 ‘ 画面和框架 ’,参与者 越容易把所要演的角色形象化 ”

Performance management techniques Most participants already work in an environment where their work output is measured and evaluated.  Hence, by

表现管理技巧

incorporating performance measurement systems, such as

大多数参与者的工作就是要被测量和评估的。

competitive game elements and point-systems, the role-

因此,通过引入表现评价系统,例如竞争比赛的元

play facilitator can focus the participants’ attention on the

素和计分机制,角色扮演引导师能让参与者集中精

quality of their role play.   Role-play acting judging (and

力关注他们角色扮演的质量。角色扮演评价(和奖励)


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 rewards) can be used to increase the quality of acting,

可以用来提高表演的质量,从而提高参与者的投入

and thus increase the quality of participant involvement. 程度。让参与者知道在角色扮演的结束部分,他们 Let participants know their logic and reasoning will be

的逻辑推理将需要被评估和汇报。

assessed and debriefed at the end of the role-play session.

“Adversaries” and “Non-Player Character”

“对手”和“非玩家角色”

When possible, give some participants “adversary” roles.

当有机会,让部分参与者扮演“敌对”的角色。

The non-player character (NPC) - is a participant who

而非玩家角色是一种专门为阻碍其他玩家进度而设

plays a role designed to impede the progress of the other

计的角色,它能引发一些创造性的压力并增加参与

players, which causes creative tension and increasing

者的情感投入。

player emotional involvement.

Mid-activity debriefs

活动中期回顾

Often it is helpful to conduct activity debriefs several times

在模拟角色扮演结束之前,进行几次活动回顾

before the entire role-play simulation is completed. These

往往是有帮助的。这些回顾反思的中期休息机会能

debrief “breaks” can be used to re-focus the participants

帮助参与者重新关注他们的目标和所扮演的角色。

on their goals and the roles they play. 对于高冲击力的学习活动和日常辅导,角色扮 Role-playing can be a great experiential tool for high-

演是一种很好的体验型工具。但是为了让角色扮演

impact learning activities as well as everyday coaching. 学习活动的效益最大化,尤其在中国,辅导员必须 But in order to get the most out of a role-playing learning

明白使用这些技巧可能带来的困难。通过使用竞争

activity, the facilitator must understand the potential

比赛元素、鲜明有趣的角色,模拟对手和多次回顾

difficulties in using these techniques, especially in China. 的组合方法,培训师能通过这些工具为中国学员创 By using a combination of competitive game elements, vivid fun roles, in-simulation adversaries, and frequent debriefs, a facilitator can use role playing techniques to create high-impact learning experiences for the Chinese participants.

造一个高效的学习体验。

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Success Through NLP Coaching Insights for Performance Breakthroughs Daniel Smith Daniel Smith is the Chairman of The China NLP Society. He is a multi-Certified Trainer of NLP, Certified Trainer of New Code NLP, and experienced coach beyond NLP. Mr. Smith completed five university degrees, including psychology, law and an MBA. He is currently a Doctoral Candidate, whose thesis has the working title, “Transferring Expertise”

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以 NLP 取胜 如何更上一层楼


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 Around the world, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

放眼全球,神经语言程序学(后文简称为 NLP)

is mainly used by elite performers. Like giving you an

还是主要在精英圈子中得到运用。就像是给你的大

instruction manual for your brain, NLP is a set of practical

脑提供一个指导手册,NLP 是让你在私人生活和职业

techniques, pragmatic strategies and powerful principles

生涯中变得更有效率的实操技术、实用策略和强大

that you can use to be more effective in your personal and

原理。它由三个最重要的元素所组成:神经学、语

professional life. It encompasses the three most important

言和程序。神经系统调节人体功能的运作,并对内

components of human experience: neurology, language

在的情感感官和外在行为都有所影响。语言是沟通

and programming. The neurology regulates the functioning

的主要方式,而程序决定了自我构建的世界。简单

of the human body and affects both internal sensations

来说,NLP 探索了精神和身体之间的动态关系(神经)、

and emotions and external behaviours. While the language

语言(语言学)以及它们之间的相互作用(程序)

is the main form of communication, the programming

是如何影响人类的行为。此外,它还是一种让我们

determines the world one has created for oneself. In a nut-

与自己或身边的人更好地沟通思考从而取得更好成

shell, NLP explores the dynamics between mind and body

果的方法。世界各地致力于解决问题的培训师和顾

(neuro), the language (linguistic) and how their interplay

问都开始用 NLP 装备自己,从而实现目标和提高效率。

(programming) affects human behaviour. Furthermore,

关键是从各个领域出色人士的模型中提炼出其独特

it is an approach to communication and thinking aimed

的特征和规律,从而让这些方法也适用于其他人。

at get-ting better results from ourselves and the people

NLP 能提供一系列的技巧、方法和规律,让你降低压

around us. Solution-focused coaches and consultants

力、改善关系、提升个人领导魅力、提高学习效率

around the world deploy NLP in order to achieve set goals

和变得头脑清晰、注意力集中从而做出更高质量的

and more effectiveness. Based on modeling outstanding

决定。NLP 能让优质的隐性知识更清晰、易理解和可

performers from a diverse array of domains, distilling

传达。

those patterns is key so that they can be applied by others. NLP offers techniques, approaches and patterns that are used to reduce stress, improve relationships, enhance your personal charisma, learn faster and have the clarity, focus and awareness to make higher quality decisions. NLP makes high quality, tacit knowledge explicit, accessible and transferable.

In the years that I’ve been involved with NeuroLinguistic Programming, I’ve encountered many powerful experiences. And you might have heard about how NLP can be used to cure phobias, increase sales conversion

NLP offers techniques, “ approaches and patterns that

are used to reduce stress, improve relationships, enhance your personal charisma, learn faster and have the clarity, focus and awareness to make higher quality decisions NLP 能提供一系列的技巧、方法 和规律,让你降低压力、改善关系、 提升个人领导魅力、提高学习效 率和变得头脑清晰、注意力集中 从而做出更高质量的决定

16


rates and upgrade leadership skills; how someone trained

在我研究神经语言程序学的这些年里,我有许

in NLP can be a more charismatic speaker, a more effective

多神奇强大的体验。你可能有听说过怎么用 NLP 来

negotiator, and enjoy better relationships at work and

克服恐惧、提高销售转化率、提升领导技能;听说

at home. Since the 1970s, NLP has helped make the

过一些人经过 NLP 的训练后,变成一个有超凡魅力

skills, talents and even genius of outstanding individuals

的演讲者、有说服力的谈判家,或无论在家还是在

accessible to the rest of us. I have been studying and

工作都有着融洽关系的人。自从 20 世纪 70 年代,

working with NLP since 1996, applying it extensively in my

NLP 让普罗大众有机会获得那些杰出人才的技能、才

business and personal life, and in training and coaching.

能,甚至是天赋。我从 1996 年开始学习和投身工作

I’d like to share with you some of my experiences that you

于 NLP,无论是职业或私人生活,还是在培训或辅导

might be able to use yourself.

别人,都能广泛地运用到 NLP。我很乐意向你们分享

Public Speaking Earlier this year, I was working with a young management

17

一些我的经历,希望你们也能学以致用。

公开演讲

consultant who struggled with his presentation skills. He

今年初,我和一个努力想改善自己演讲技巧的

was very smart and successful, but was so terrified of

年轻管理顾问一起工作。他十分聪明和成功,但特

public speaking that one time he had gone to the bathroom

别害怕公开演讲,有一次他在一个重要的演讲前去

before an important presentation – and not come out

了洗手间,直到演讲结束后才出来!他是一个有想

until after the presentation was finished! This was a man

法、意见常常得到重视而且时间宝贵的人,但同时

who had something important to say, whose opinions

他也是一个有技能漏洞的人。然而,只是经过几小

were valued and time precious, yet someone who had a

时的合作之后,他变得能在上海各大企业前做出自

gaping hole in his skillset. Within just a few hours working

信的展示,蜕变成既拥有能临场展现自身能力的自

together, he was routinely making confident presentations

信,又有改善未来的技能的新型亚太地区人才。我

to groups around Shanghai and launched into a new APAC

们是怎么做到的呢?

role with both the confidence to perform with his existing abilities immediately and the skills to continue to improve into the future. How did we do it?

Being at Your Best

处于你最佳的状态 首先,我们先聊了一下他最佳状态的时候。他 有许多这样的例子。所以我们首先做的事中有一件 就是让他学会更好地进入那些他曾经经历过的最佳

To start with, we spoke about some of the times that he

状态;假如他能用他在打高手水平的网球赛的状态

was at his best. And he had many of them. So one of the

来做下一次的展示,他一定能战无不胜。我们还设

first things that we did was to start building better access

计了一些特定的习惯、日常行为和动作,从而他能

to those states when he was at his best; if he could be in

在压力之下触发更好的自我感觉。最佳的表现大部

the state he had been while he played elite-level tennis

分取决于内心,能够很好运用现有的技能比起拥有


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 when he next made a presentation, he would be hitting

厉害的技能更重要。正如 Sian Beilock 所观察到的:

clean winners all the way home. We also setup some “如果你能正面地解读你身体对情景的(恐惧)反应, specific habits, routines and gestures so that he could

那你很可能会胜利。但如果你把身体反应解读成你

trigger himself into feeling more resourceful when under

无路可逃的信号,所产生的忧虑和焦虑可能会让你

pressure. A huge part of top performance is the inner game

‘窒息’。”但是在分享一个能找到更多有用资源

– that it’s not as much about having better skills as it is

和更好解读身体压力反应的策略之前,我想先分享

about being able to better use the skills you already have.

一个他能用来长期持续改善自身表现的方法。

As Sian Beilock observes: “If you can manage to interpret your body’s [fear] response to the situation as positive, as a call to action, you are likely to thrive. But if you interpret your body’s response as a sign that you are in a bad place with no way out, the worries and ruminations that result may send you into a ‘choke’.” But beyond the powerful but basic strategy of triggering more useful resources and better interpreting the stress response of his body, I wanted to share a strategy that he could use to continue to

If you can manage to “ interpret your body’s [fear] response to the situation as positive, as a call to action, you are likely to thrive

如果你能正面地解读你身体对 情景的(恐惧)反应,那你很 可能会胜利 ”

raise the bar of his performance in the years ahead.

Points of View

观点与角度

When we are children, we think the world revolves

当我们还是儿童的时候,我们认为世界围绕着

around us. And, if we are lucky, for a period of time it

我们来转。而且,假如我们够幸运的话,它在一段

really does! As we get older, we start to realize that other

时间内还真的是这样。随着我们长大,我们开始意

people have feelings too – we develop empathy and come

识到其他人也有感受——我们学会换位思考和明白

to understand how others think and feel. You might be

别人是怎么想和感觉的。你或许记得那句要求我们

familiar with the aphorism that challenges us to “walk a

“穿着别人的鞋走一英里再来评论他”的格言。这

mile in another man’s shoes before judging him”; this is

其实是换句话来说看待事物是有多个角度的。你可

another expression of the concept that there are a number

能把这些称为“看法”、“观点”或者“角度”。

of different ways to look at things. You might call these

当我高中的时候,我父亲曾跟我说:“有时你需要

“points of view” or “perspectives” or “angles”. My father

站在桌子上面来看到事物的另一面。”观点存在于

said to me when I was in high school, “Sometimes you

我们的日常对话,但它们大部分是含蓄的。这正是

need to stand on the table to get a different perspective on

NLP 该出场的时候:通过把一些通常是隐藏的含蓄的

things.” Points of view are part of our ordinary language,

东西变得明确清晰,从而使得事情更利于自己。如

yet for most of them are left implicit. That’s where NLP

果我们正在交谈,你或许觉得当中存在着“我的观

18


comes in: By turning something that is generally tacit into

点”和“你的观点”。而且事物在我眼中和在你眼

something that is explicit, we make it far more useful. If

中是不一样的。站在我的立场,我将基于我的经历、

we are having a conversation, you might think of there

偏好和倾向用我的眼睛看待这个世界。而你也同样

as being “my perspective” and “your perspective”. And

基于你的经历、偏好和倾向,站在你的立场上用你

things will look different from my position than they will

的眼睛看待这个世界。这些不同的角度能得出很不

from your position. From my position, I will see the world

一样的意见。

through my eyes, based on my experiences and biases and preferences. From your position, you will see the world through your eyes, based on your experiences and biases and preferences. These different perspectives could have vastly different opinions.

I’m going to label these two perspectives as “1st Position” and “2 nd Position”. Having strong access to 1 st Position

19

ensures that we can have a sense of purpose, direction, and goals. Spending a lot of time in 1st Position can be emotionally engaging – if things are good, being in 1

If we are having a “ conversation, you might think of there as being ‘my perspective’ and ‘your perspective’. And things will look different from my position than they will from your position

如果我们正在交谈,你或许觉得当 中存在着 ‘ 我的观点 ’ 和 ‘ 你的观 点 ’。而且事物在我眼中和在你眼 中是不一样的

st

Position is the place to experience the highest highs,

现在我要把这两个角度标记为“立场 1”和“立

though if things are bad this is also where you feel the

场 2”。站在“立场 1”,我们能够有动机、方向、

lowest lows. 2nd Position allows us to understand those

目标的意识。花大量时间在“立场 1”上会让我们投

around us, to have sensitivity, empathy and understanding

入感情——如果事情是好的,用“立场 1”来看可以

so we can keep our stakeholders satisfied. Spending a lot

让我们情绪达到高峰,然而如果事情是不好的,那“立

of time in 2nd Position can be great for those around you,

场 1”则让我们情绪跌到低谷。而“立场 2“是能让

though leaves some people feeling like they have “lost their

我们理解身边的人,学会敏感、换位思考和谅解从

sense of self”. Yet something is missing here: Some people

而我们能让相关的人感到满意。我们花大量时间在

use a different perspective from either of these, don’t “立场 2”对其他人来说很好,但是会让某些人觉得“失 they? Have you ever met somebody who could understand

去了自我”。这里还缺了一种情况:部分人用的是

what was going on, without getting emotionally involved?

与这两个都不一样的角度来看的,难道不是吗?你

They might seem like a computer at times, the way they

曾经有遇到过一些能不带任何感情而能理解周围发

can be so objective, so rational, so cool, calm and collected.

生的事情的人吗?他们或许有时看起来像是机器人,

This is also an important perspective that I’m going to label

他们的做事方式是那么的客观、理性、冷静、沉稳

the 3rd Position. Being so objective is immensely valuable

和镇定。这就是我将要标记的而且很重要的“立场 3”。

since you can see things fairly and with proper perspective,

变得如此客观是有极大好处的,因为你能用合理的


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 so you can make sound decisions. Yet being stuck there is a

角度公平看待事物,故你能做出很好的决定。然而

problem too. What we need is to find a balance.

停滞在那里也会有问题,所以我们需要的是找到一

Using Points of View with Public Speaking

个平衡。

使用观点角度来公开演讲

My client who was afraid of public speaking was feeling pretty good by now. He could feel confident, charismatic,

我那个从前害怕公开演讲的客户现在好多了。

persuasive, able to bring his very best states to the

在演讲时,他能感到自信、充满魅力、充满说服力

presentation stage. So I had him imagine making a short

而且能用他最佳状态来示人。所以我让他对着(会

presentation to the audience (of empty chairs in the

议室的空座位)想象自己在向观众做一个简短的展

boardroom). We started out with him watching himself

示。我们首先让他想象看着自己在做这个展示——

make that presentation – such that he could see himself

从而他能看见自己站在人群面前的样子,能发现观

standing in front of the group of people, and could

众的姿态。那就像是他在一个安全的镜头前,一个

recognize the postures that the members of the audience

纯净的“立场 3”,看着这一切。一旦他能看到自己

were using. It was like he was watching it on a security

在那里向观众展示,他进入了“立场 1”。他在说话,

camera – a clean 3rd Position. Once he could see himself

并能看到观众对他所说的是如何反应。然后他回到

out there, presenting to this audience, he stepped into “安全区”,从而他能再次看到自己和观众。站在“立 1st Position. He was speaking, and could see the audience

场 3”来看是重要的,这样他能以一个无关的旁观者

responding to what he said. Then he stepped back out to

的角度来审视一个长得像“他”的人,而不是带着

the security box off to the side – so he could see himself

个人感情来看待舞台上的自己。之后再让他坐到台

and the audience again. It was important that out in 3rd

下其中一个座位,从而他能想象自己是一名观众。

Position, he saw himself as a non-involved observer of

当他在想象自己向新公司做自我介绍的时候,他能

someone who looked like “him” rather than personally

想象自己是某个特定的观众,坐在他们的位置想想

identifying with the person on the stage. He then sat

他们对自己所说的会做出怎样的姿势或手势。当他

down into one of the seats that he had positioned to be

回到“立场 3”,他会发现有些他刚在做的事情是很

a member of the audience. As he was imagining making

有用的。

an introduction of himself at his new company, he could imagine some of the specific members of the audience;

当他发现他所做的一些动作是多余的甚至是有

sitting in their seat, he took on what he thought would be

碍的,此时一些核心的措辞能产生强大的影响力。

their posture and their gestures in response to what he

我不需要告诉他应该做什么或说什么——他能自己

was saying. When he stepped back into 3rd Position, he

发现——并且当他用这些新信息装备自己之后,他

recognized that there were some things that he was doing

能迅速地找到更有效利用自己肢体传达信息的新方

that worked really well.

法。这一切只需几分钟。让我们回顾一遍,首先他 识别情景(在这里是公开演讲),然后他进入“立

20


Some key phrases that had made a powerful impact, while

场 1”(成为演讲者),感受到他所能看见、听见、

he noticed that there were some gestures that he had used

感觉的东西。下一步他回到“立场 3”,就像变成一

that were unnecessary and even got in the way. I didn’t

个导演或中立的旁观者,然后去到“立场 2”(成为

have to tell him what he should do or say – he could see it

观众)。通过观众的角度,他在脑海里看了一场他

himself – and armed with that new information, he quickly

扮演展示者的电影。最后他再次回到“立场 3”,去

generated new ways to use his body and get his message

自省他能做些什么来提高演出的质量。提高你展示

across more effectively. All of this took just a few minutes.

的技巧能带来极大的好处。

To recap, first he identified the situation (in this case

21

making a presentation). Then he accessed 1st Position (being

成为一个好的演讲者能提升你作为领导的影响

the presenter), noticing what he could see, hear and feel in

力,增强你在同事面前的自信,还有提高你作为团

being there. Next, he came back to 3rd Position, like being

队成员的价值。前文那个简单的过程能帮你实现这

the director or a neutral onlooker, before moving to 2nd

个目标。虽然在脑海里回想已经很有帮助,但假如

Position (being the audience). From the perspective of the

你够勇敢的话,你还可以用录像帮你完成这个过程,

audience, he watched a mental movie of his performance

那样你就可以真实地看到观众所看到的情景。你甚

as a presenter, as if he was a member of the audience.

至可以用另一部录像机拍下观众的反应,那样你就

Then he returned to 3rd Position and asked himself what

可以准确地看到导演所看到的景象了。

he could to do enhance the quality of the performance. Improving your presentation skills can be immensely valuable.

Becoming a better speaker can increase your impact as a leader, your confidence with your peers, and your value as a member of the community. This simple process can help. Though a mental review is itself incredibly useful, if you are really brave, you might try doing this process with a video recording of yourself, so you can actually see precisely

Becoming a better “ speaker can increase your

impact as a leader, your confidence with your peers, and your value as a member of the community 成为一个好的演讲者能提升你 作为领导的影响力,增强你在 同事面前的自信,还有提高你 作为团队成员的价值 ”

what the audience is seeing. You might even get a second camera to record the audience responses so you can see precisely and specifically what a director would be able to see.

改善销售和谈判技巧 你可以用同样的方法来改善你销售和谈判技巧。

Improving Sales and Negotiation Skills You can use the same process to enhance your sales and

不过“立场 2”则变成你潜在顾客或谈判对象的角度, 而不再是观众的角度。我曾帮助一个客户,他的谈 判对象——关键供应商总是同时有两个谈判代表而


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 negotiation skills. Instead of having 2nd Position represent

不是一个代表。 所以他加了另外一个“立场 2”,

the “audience” you could have 2 nd Position as your

由此更好地理解这两人之间的关系,并给他的谈判

potential client or negotiation partner. I did this process

带来帮助。

with one of my clients who regularly negotiated with a key supplier who would be represented by two people on the

与高要求的同事工作

other side of the table rather than just one. So he added an

和别人共事可以有很大的挑战性。你有试过一

extra 2nd Position chair and noticed that he found himself

段并不是按你希望的方向所发展的关系吗?进行一

better understanding the relationship between those two

次前文的过程是一个发现更多选择和更好地反应的

people and used that understanding to his advantage.

一个方法,而这次是把别人放到“立场 2”。无论是

Working with Demanding Colleagues

上级、直接上司或是同事,这方法都能帮你更好地 理解对方是怎么想和感觉的,从而让你处于主动的

Working with other people can be very challenging. Have

位置。我们常常以为自己明白别人的想法:这过程

you ever had a relationship that wasn’t working the way

能让你获得更准确的理解,从而得到更好的成果。

you wished that it would? One way to generate more options and the ability to respond better is to go through

这个简单的过程能让你体验到神经语言程序学

this same process, this time placing the other person in 2nd

所能带来的帮助。通过对领导力、谈判和自我管理

Position. Whether a superior, a direct report or a colleague,

的广泛应用,NLP 能帮助你,帮助每一个人改善自己

this process can help you better understand how the other

的表现,让生活有更高的质量。

person thinks and feels, to put you back in the driver’s seat. We often think we understand others: This process gives you access to even more precise information so that you can get even better results.

This simple process is a taste of what Neuro-Linguistic Programming can offer. With a wide array of applications to leadership, negotiation and personal management, NLP can help you as it helps individuals around the world increase their personal performance and enjoy a greater quality of life.

22


What Do Facilitators Do? Dr. Roger Greenaway Dr. Roger Greenaway trains facilitators, educators, trainers and consultants to bring out the full benefits of active and experiential learning. He works with training organisations, training departments and educational institutions - worldwide. His Train-the-Trainer workshop was widely successful in Shenzhen in 2011 and he will be presenting another TTT in Shanghai in April of 2013.

23

辅导师都做些什么?


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 “How do you do facilitation?” is a bit of a conversation

“你怎样做辅导”这个问题可能会让对话戛然

stopper. Ask this to a facilitator and I guarantee that you

而止。向辅导者提出这个问题,我保证你得到的是

will get hesitation and evasiveness.

犹豫和含糊其辞。

I (too) have spent many years being evasive on this point

很多年来,我也对这个话题含糊其辞——但我

– and for a very good reason: which is that I like to be

有一个很好的理由:我想以学员为中心,并注意着

‘learner-centred’ and pay attention to what the learner is

这个学员所做的事情(而非以辅导员为中心)。

doing (rather than being facilitator-centred). 在领导之道中,约翰·海德推崇那种能让团队 In the Tao of Leadership, John Heider admires the kind of

说“这是我们主动做的” 的团队领导者。这样的领

group leadership, which might result in the group saying

导者用的是近乎不被察觉的行为进行来工作和领导

‘We did it ourselves’. Such a leader is working in such

(如果有做的话),组员们甚至都意识不到这些领

subtle ways that the group does not notice what the leader

导行为。

is doing (if anything). 那么,在这种领导者近乎无形的领导风格中, So how can you model yourself on a style of leadership in

你该怎么塑造自己呢?

which the leader is almost entirely invisible? 我希望下面的文章能对大家有用,其内容是关 I hope the article below brings some useful clarity to

于辅导者可以如何在辅导时不破坏团队学习中的自

what facilitators do without destroying the spontaneity,

主性、灵活性和多变的本质。

flexibility, and ever-changing nature of what it is like to facilitate learning in groups.

REVIEWING THE SITUATION

回顾情景

What it is best to do as a facilitator depends very much

作为辅导员,最该做的事很大程度上取决于具

on the situation. Being tuned in to the ‘situation’ will

体情况。投入“情景”当中将会帮助你更好地选择

help you make good choices about what to do. And

该做什么。在回顾过程中,你越多地使用鼓励人们

the more you review in ways that encourage people to

去表达他们想法的方法,你越能与“情景”保持协

express themselves, the more you will be in tune with the

调一致。所以如果你创造一个让每一个人,包括你

‘situation’. So it is very useful (and rewarding) if you can

自己与所发生经历的保持协调一致的良性循环,这

get this virtuous cycle going in which everyone, including

将是非常有用(和有回馈的)。

yourself, gets tuned in to what people are experiencing.

24


7 SITUATIONS YOU CAN ANTICIPATE

7 种你能提前准备的情况

(You can plan for these)

(你可对此作出计划)

Some situations are quite predictable and can be

一些情境是可预料和提前准备的,比如说 :

anticipated.For example: 1. You can anticipate the priorities for what you need

1、你能预测项目在开始、中间和结束阶段,需要

to do at the beginning, middle and end of a programme

做的事情的优先次序。这是为什么我主张在项目设

- which is why I advocate designing reviews into a

计前要先设计回顾反思这部份的原因。

programme before you put the activities in place. 2. You can anticipate how certain activities will generate particular kinds of incidents, experiences and issues. 3. You can anticipate how you might need to facilitate a different kind of review following an experience of success or failure.

25

4. You can anticipate how you can best facilitate a loud group, a quiet group, a group with a mix of loud and quiet people. 5. You can anticipate how you can best facilitate a review when time is short and when there is more time available.

2、你能预料某些活动将如何生成特定类型的事件、 经历和问题。 3、在成功或失败的经验的基础上,你能预料你需 要怎样引导不同类型的回顾。 4、你能预测你怎样能最好地促进一个活跃的团队, 一个沉默的团队或一个积极者和沉默者并存的团队。 5、你能预测当时间很短或者有多余的时候,你能 怎样进行最好的回顾。 6、同时,团队的规模将决定何种类型的辅导策略 将会最可行。 7、无论是一般的目标,或者由个人的需求或目标, 特定的学习目标会有助于当前的学习。

6. And the group size will determine which kinds of facilitation strategy will work best 7. The current situation may lend itself to working with particular learning objectives - whether from the general

所以,作为一个辅导者,在决定你要做什么之前, 你可能需要考虑上面的 7 点。下面将以问题的形式 展示:

programme objectives or arising from individual needs or goals.

1. 课程处于哪个阶段? 2. 这个活动将会提供何种回顾与引导机会?

So, before deciding what you are going to do as a facilitator

3. 团队处于何种气氛?

you may want to consider the above 7 points. Here they

4. 我怎样吸引所有参与者(活跃或沉默的人)?

are again presented as questions:

5.共有多长时间?

1. What stage of the programme is it?

6. 什么最适合这样的团队规模?

2. What reviewing opportunities will the activity

7. 有什么样的机会能实现关键目标?

provide?


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 3. What is the mood of the group?

当你已经详细考虑上面的问题,并想出了一个

4. How can I engage all participants (quiet or loud)?

A 计划,你最好还要有一个 B 计划,因为事情会变化,

5. How much time is available?

而且辅导一般是反映式的。而一个能在大多数情况

6. What works best with this size of group?

下都可以用的紧急 Z 计划也可能会派上用途。

7. What opportunities are there for working on key objectives?

And when you have thought this through and have come up with ‘Plan A’ you will be well advised to have a ‘Plan B’ (because things change and facilitation is mostly a responsive role). And a ‘Plan Z’ will be handy too: an emergency plan that will work in almost any situation.

a ‘Plan Z’ will be handy too: “ an emergency plan that will work in almost any situation

而一个能在大多数情况下都可以 用的紧急 Z 计划也可能会派上用 途”

3 SITUATIONS THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO ANTICIPATE

3 种难以预料的情况

(You can even plan for these too!)

(你也可以对此作出计划!)

1. YOU ARE IN THE DARK

1. 你在信息不明处

You know very little about the event you are about to

你对你将要回顾的事件所知甚少。你进行回顾

review. You are reviewing an event at which you were not

反思的活动是一个你没有在现场的活动。(你可能

present. (You may have less information than usual, but

拥有比平时更少的信息,但你仍然能为这些状况准

you can still prepare a review for these situations.)

备一些回顾)。

2. THE UNEXPECTED

2. 意外事项

Unexpected events often capture people’s interest and

意外事项经常能捕捉人们的兴趣,而且有可能

can become a more significant source of learning than

成为一个比你准备或预测的材料更有意义的资源。

the events you had planned or predicted. (You need to

(你需要判断这个惊奇是让人在学习中分散注意力

judge whether the surprise is a distraction or a welcome

还是让人受益的机会。)

opportunity for learning.)

3. YOU ARE STUCK

3. 你感觉思路堵塞时

All your options seem to run out. Or none of your options

你没有什么选择了。或者没一个选择让你感觉

feel right. Or it feels like a brand new situation that you

是对的。或者它看起来似乎是一个你以前没遇到的

have never encountered before. You want to dial the

局面。你甚至都希望能有个“辅导技能热线”了,(也

26


facilitation hot line (or try strategy 5 described below).

许,你不妨尝试下面第 5 种策略)。

6 WAYS OF FACILITATING ACTIVE LEARNING 1. BE A ROLE MODEL

6 种促进积极学习的方法 1. 成为一个行为模范

Remember that groups will tend to copy how you behave.

记得,团队会倾向于模仿你的行为。所以考虑

So think about what you want learners to do and set a

下你希望学员做什么,和建立一个积极学习的榜样。

good example of what it is like to be an active learner.

以下是一些例子:

Some examples: •

If you are asking participants to set learning goals, you can declare your own learning goals.

27

You can join in active reviewing exercises as a

如果你计划让学员建立自己的学习目标,你

可以表明你自己的学习目标。 •

你能作为一个参与者,加入回顾练习(“尝

participant (tasting your own medicine may not

尝自己那套”未必总是一个好的举动,但它很多时

always be a good move, but it often is).

候是真的)。

Try to use demonstration rather than a pure

尝试使用示范而不是一个纯粹的口头总结。

verbal briefing. For example, with Action Replay

比如说,通过“行为复现”的方法,你可以在把遥

you can demonstrate how to use the remote

控器麦克风递给学员时示范怎样使用麦克风进行访

control and conduct interviews before handing

问。

over the remote and the microphone.

Watch out. While joining in as a learner can be an

注意,当你以一个学习者的身份加入,是一个

influential facilitation strategy, it can be too influential if

有影响力的辅导策略。但如果不懂得什么时候放手、

there are not also times when you let go, step back and

退一步,并给予学员学习的空间,那这些影响力就

leave space for others.

可能过犹不及了。

2. DESCRIBE YOUR CHANGING ROLE

2. 描述你改变的角色

The more different kinds of facilitation roles you take

你担任不同的辅导角色的种类越多(加入,在

on (joining in, standing back, helping, not helping) the

后观望,帮助和不帮助),学习者就越容易感到困惑。

more confusing it can be for learners. The answer is not

解决办法并不是束缚你的风格和限制你只能扮演一

to cramp your style and limit yourself to one role. Quite

种角色。相反,无论什么时候,一旦觉得有必要,

the opposite: whenever it seems necessary, explain what

解释在下一个学习阶段你将要扮演的角色以及原因。

your preferred role will be in the next learning process -

(这点稍后在总结了约翰 • 海尔的模式的“辅导者

and why. (This point is expanded later in ‘The Role of the

角色”中将被扩展)

Facilitator’ where I summarize John Heron’s model.)


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 The more successful you are in helping groups grow and

你越能成功地帮助团体成长和发展,你就会越想调

develop, the more you will want to adjust your role and

整你的角色和关系,从而能最好地帮助团队实他们

relationship to best serve the group and their learning

的学习目标。直接告诉大家你的角色将会在不同的

objectives. Spell out how your role can change at different

团队发展时期和学习新技能的不同阶段进行转变。

stages of group development and at different stages of learning new skills.

3. LEAVE SPACE FOR LEARNING: Don’t be a space

3、留下学习的空间:不要成为一个空间侵略者

invader! What is NOT facilitative: •

Stepping into a problem-solving exercise with the solution.

以下不属于辅导的范围:

练习

Being the main source of wisdom rather than letting participants look to their own source of

Filling in the silence while people are thinking

Asking all the questions and not drawing out

把所有的问题都问了,而没有让学习者提出 问题

questions from learners. •

当人们考虑你刚刚提问的问题时,不给予让 他们思考的时间

about the question you have just asked. •

成为智慧的主要来源,而不是让参与者参考 他们自己的智慧来源——他们的经验

wisdom – their experiences. •

带着解决方案地介入了一个问题解决能力的

Telling participants what they should have done

告诉参与者他们本应当做到和学到什么

and should have learned.

表现得过于忙碌,过于助人和过于干涉学员

Generally being too busy, too helpful and too interfering.

如果你想引导学生从实践中反思学习,那就请 让你心中的为师欲望休息一下吧。

Tell the teacher inside you to take a rest when you want participants to learn by reflecting on their experiences.

4、分享机会和让每个人参加 4. SHARE OUT OPPORTUNITIES AND INVOLVE

尽管讨论的过程看起来象是非常民主,但是当

EVERYONE

你仔细地观察时,通常就会发现讨论是被少数人控

Although a discussion circle looks very democratic, a closer

制的:他有效地成为“中心式舞台”,仅有少数人

look usually finds that the discussion is being dominated by

表演,而其他人在一旁观看。当然,你能通过劝导“观

a few: it is effectively becomes ‘theatre in the round’ with

察者”兴奋起来“走上舞台”使得活动更多人参与。

a few people performing while the rest spectate. Of course

但是,更聪明(或者说更有效)的方法是,发现每

28


you can try making it more participative by persuading

个人都乐意展示的舞台。“轮流进行小组回顾”这

‘spectators’ to get up ‘on stage’, but it is smarter (and more

篇文章里面有更好的办法分享机会和使得每个人都

effective) to find ‘stages’ on which everyone is happy to

能参与。

perform. See ‘Turn taking in Group Reviews’ for better ways of sharing out opportunities and involving everyone.

5、使用简单易明的辅导方法 如果你面对辅导难题,感觉思路堵塞,并疑惑

5. USE TRANSPARENT FACILITATION

于什么才是这个课程最好的行动,别担心,你并不

If you face a facilitation problem and you feel a bit stuck

孤独。开始时,很可能有不同的声音在你的脑子里,

and are wondering what will be the best course of action ...

同时你能选择告诉学员这些(或部分)想法。

you are not alone. For a start there are probably different voices in your head - and you can choose to tell the group about (some of) these voices.

And if you have no voices in your head, you can tell the

29

group about that too. And there are the voices of the participants too. You are not throwing yourself at the mercy of the group. You are using a very deliberate strategy

If you face a facilitation “ problem and you feel a bit stuck and are wondering what will be the best course of action ...you are not alone

如果你面对辅导难题,感觉思路堵 塞,并疑惑于什么才是这个课程最 好的行动,别担心,你并不孤独

of presenting a problem to the group (a problem that might affect them more than it does you). And you are consulting

如果你头脑中并没有想法,你也可以告诉你的

with them about the best course of action. You are inviting

团队。参加者自然会发表一些想法。你并不是将自

them to be your facilitation advisory committee...

己放在一个受团队控制的位置上,而是用一个影响 他们更多于你的难题在咨询怎样能使培训更顺利地

Mmmm - perhaps that one is a step too far, but I think

进行。你在邀请他们加入你的辅导建议委员会。

you can see that such a strategy is very consistent with empowering learners to take responsibility for their

嗯,可能这步稍微超越了一点,但我觉得你能

learning. It is a bit more facilitative than saying ‘I haven’t a

看到,这样的策略能授权予学习者,让他们自己对

clue’.

学习负责。这比直接说“我没有想法”更有辅导效果。

If you want to dig deeper into this approach of ‘over to

如果你想把“交给你” “你怎么想”或者“让

you’, ‘what do you think?’ or ‘let’s work this out together’

我们一起完成这个工作” 这种方法挖掘得更深,那

then you may find some useful insights from John Heron in

你可能在《辅导员完整手册》能发现一些来自约翰 • 海尔有用的观点。手册描述了交换使用等级型、合 作型和自治型这三种辅导模式的好处。


Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 the Complete Facilitator’s Handbook where he describes the value of moving around between three basic facilitation modes: hierarchical, cooperative, and autonomous.

6. DELEGATE FACILITATION Question. When you work with groups how many

6、分配辅导任务 问题:当你跟一组人在学习时,那里有多少位 辅导员?

答案:每一个都是辅导员!通过积极性、好奇心、 支持、举例等,所有人都影响着其他人的学习方法。

facilitators are there? 所以?让参加者注意到这个事情。鼓励促进辅 Answer. Everyone! All influence each other’s approach

导行为并给予机会让参加者能称赞其他人所表现出

to learning through their motivation, curiosity, support,

辅导行为。分配责任让学员互相辅导,比如说,采

example etc.

用学习伙伴、教练(例如“守门员活动”)的形式, 互相给予反馈或促进回顾。

So? Bring this to participants’ attention. Praise facilitative behaviour and give opportunities for participants to praise each other’s facilitative behaviour. Assign responsibilities for facilitating eg using learning buddies, coaching (in ‘Goal Keepers’), giving feedback or facilitating reviewing (such as in Simultaneous Survey).

Facilitating Experiential Learning

Praise facilitative behaviour “ and give opportunities for participants to praise each other's facilitative behaviour

鼓励促进(学员的)辅导行为并 给予机会让参加者能称赞其他人 所表现出辅导行为 ”

Most experiential learning theory is clear about what learners do after their ‘’experience’’: they reflect, interpret,

辅导经验学习

and experiment. But experiential learning theory is less clear about what role (if any) facilitators should play in

经验学习理论基本都很清楚学员们在“体验”

this process. The principles, strategies, and tactics of

之后该做些什么:他们需要反思、理解和试验。但

facilitation cannot be deduced from experiential learning

经验学习理论却很少能把辅导师该在学习过程中所

theory alone: We also need a theory of facilitation. A

扮演的角色说清楚。辅导的原理、策略和技巧不能

facilitator who makes deliberate moves among Heron’s

单从经验学习理论中推断出来:我们需要一个属于

three modes of decision making (hierarchical, co-operative

辅导的理论。辅导师可以根据 Heron 的 3 种决策模

and autonomous) also frees up learners to be more mobile

式(阶级、合作和自治)做出有意识的行动,从而

and responsible in how they exercise and share power.

让学员在练习和分权当中更加有能动性和更负责任。

Such mobility helps to make debriefing and learning more

这样的能动性有助于学员做汇报和更灵活、多元、

dynamic, versatile, and effective.

有效地学习。

30


References and Photo Credits 参考文献和图像来源 Conchie, S.M., Donald, I.J., Taylor, P.J. (2012). Promoting safety voice with safety-specific transformational leadership: the mediating role of two dimensions of trust. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(1), 105-115. Hofstede, Geert (1984). Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills CA: SAGE Publications. Hong Kong Housing Authority Site Safety Performance Statistics. http://sitesafety.housingauthority.gov.hk/ HKHASSW/Performance.aspx?p_id=6&m_parentid=1 Kotter, J.P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73, 59-67. Mullen, J.E., Kelloway, E, K. (2009). Safety leadership: A Longitudinal study of the effects of transformational leadership on safety outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 253-272. Senge PM.1993: The fifth discipline. UK: Random House. Viljoen, R.C. (2008). Sustainable organisational transformation through Inclusivity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

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Picuture of the cover: Yuechao Lai Picture of the elephant on Page 2: Justyna Furmanczyk - www.janedoephoto.co.uk Picture of the ladder on Page 2: Svilen Milev - http://efffective.com Picture on Page 8: Sias van Schalkwyk - www.seepsteen.co.za Picture on Page 8: Marcelo Terraza Picture on Page 14: loco - http://www.flickr.com/photos/locosphotos/ Picture on Page 22: cantabrigensis - http://www.flickr.com/photos/cantabrigensis/ Picutre on Page 23: Photo Credit: <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/38869431@ N00/6371903059/">juhansonin</a> via <a href="http://compfight.com">Compfight</a> <a href="http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/">cc</a>


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