SINO Forum 赛诺论坛
Pushing the Elephant Up the Stairs
Role Playing in Learning
Success Through NLP
What do Facilitators do
December 2012 Vol.1
Editor's letter Dear readers Welcome to Sino Forum, this is our inaugural issue and I believe it is a fine introduction to some of the great talent I have seen hard at work in China in the fields of Consulting, Training, Coaching, and Facilitation. The ideas presented within this issue make a strong argument that China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan are seeing exciting growth in original ideas in our fields and that growth is matching business growth in Greater China. HR practitioners will find plenty to think about and some new ideas to explore within these pages. I look forward to hearing your feedback on the ideas shared within these pages, whether through e-mail, LinkedIn, or Weibo.
欢迎来到赛诺论坛，这是我们的创刊号。 我希望籍此能让更多的人认识到那些我在中 国所遇到的致力于咨询、培训、教练、辅导 领域的有才之士。这一期所探讨的话题让我 们发现这些领域的基本概念在中国大陆、香 港和台湾都获得了令人振奋的发展，并且这 些发展能为大中华地区企业的成长带来更好 的帮助。 人力资源从业人士也能从这数十页中发 现许多值得思考的地方和一些值得探索的新 思想。我期待与您通过邮件、LinkedIn 或微 博来交流关于您对这期内容的想法。
John Dorris 陶宏梦 December,2012
Copyright © 2012 - 2022 Sino Associates Global Limited. All rights reserved.
Table of Content Page 1
Current HR Challenges HR 的现代挑战
Consulting 咨询 2
Pushing the Elephant up the stairs The role of psychology in occupational safety
Training 培训 9
Role Playing in Learning 从角色扮演中学习
Coaching 教练 15 Success Through NLP Coaching Insights for Performance Breakthroughs
以 NLP 取胜
Facilitation 辅导 23 What do Facilitators do
31 References and Photo Credits
Current HR Challenges HR 的现代挑战
your most concerned topics email@example.com
Pushing the Elephant up the stairs The role of psychology in occupational safety Henry Chamberlain Henry is an internationally experienced Industrial & Organisational Psychologist with more than 15 years experience in the field of assessment, talent management and organisation development. He is the President of the Hong Kong Psychological Society and the Chair Elect of the Division of I/O Psychology (DIOP). Additionally he serves as a member of the Departmental Advisory Committee of the Department of Managing and Marketing of the Poly University of Hong Kong. His career included roles as combat officer, Head of Organisation Development for the South African Army and Consulting Director for SHL Greater China.
Hong Kong’s construction industry is experiencing a
boom phase. Wherever you look there are new buildings
going up, new roads being built and new tunnels being
constructed. Local and overseas construction companies
are all vying for a piece of the construction pie and
with more projects there are more workers…and more accidents.
香港政府已经大幅地提高了安全标准，在过去 20 年来，事故发生率已显著下降，在 1992 年，1000
The Hong Kong Government has raised safety standards
名工人中有高达 302 名会涉及意外事故，而到 2011
significantly and over the past 20 years the accident
年，这个数字下降至 49.7 名。同一时期内，平均遇
frequency rate has dropped from a whopping 302 per 1000
险死亡人数从平均每年大约 58 名下降到平均每年大
workers in 1992 to 49.7 in 2011. Over the same period the
约 18 名（HK Housing Authority, 2012）。尽管已经有
average number of fatalities has dropped from an average
of around 58 per year to an average of around 18 per year
(HK Housing Authority, 2012). Despite these remarkable improvements, safety standards in HK are still regarded by many as lagging behind the United States, Europe and the United Kingdom.
The good news is that many construction companies are taking safety more seriously and a good number of them have implemented occupational safety campaigns to
the accident frequency rate “ has dropped from a whopping
302 per 1000 workers in 1992 to 49.7 in 2011 事故发生率已显著下降，在 1992 年， 1000 名工人中有高达 302 名会涉及 意外事故，而到 2011 年，这个数字 下降至 49.7 名
drive safety awareness and lower the number of serious
incidents, accidents and fatalities. This is evidenced by
slogans and banners like “Mission Zero (Laing O’Rourke)”,
“Don’t walk by (Kier)”, “Zero Harm (Gammon)” and “Strive
for L-I-F-E” (Leightons) that are visible at construction sites
比如像 Laing O’Rourke 的“零意外”、Kier 的“请绕
across Hong Kong.
道”、Gammon 的“零伤害”，还有 Leightons 的“为 生而奋斗”。
At this point you may think that the statistics above are impressive, but what does occupational safety have to do
with I/O Psychology? And where is the elephant and the
staircase in this story?
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 While the implementation of training programmes,
monitoring processes and policies have done a lot over
the past decades to improve safety, it was not enough
to drive down accidents and incidents to the levels seen
in many western countries. These practices don’t seem
to be sustainable and they end up being like pushing an
unwilling elephant up a flight of stairs. It requires massive
effort and resources and the moment the pressure is
released, the elephant will slip back down the stairs. This
may be because the most common safety programmes are
（Mullen & Kelloway, 2009）。
based on behaviour modification that aims to create safety compliance rather than commitment from the work force (Mullen & Kelloway, 2009).
所谓的基于行为的安全方法，也被称为 ABC 方 法（ 事 前 预 计， 行 为， 结 果）， 根 据 数 据 显 示， 这 种 方 法 可 有 效 降 低 意 外 发 生 率（Mullen et al,
The so-called behaviour based safety approach, also
known as the ABC approach (Antecedent, Behaviour,
Consequence), has been instrumental in driving accident
statistics down (Mullen et al, 2009), but in order to
finally drive out accidents, we need to go beyond
compliance. What is required is an approach where
people will voluntarily engage in and support safe work
practices, where everybody in the organisation will accept
responsibility for safety and not require constant policing, external rewards or punishment. In other words, a radical change in behaviour is required. So, improving safety is all about changing behaviour and I/O psychologists have a significant role to play in helping organisations understand and change human behaviour.
Systems theory teaches us that people are not mechanistic, rational beings. In fact, they can be quite unpredictable and irrational at the best of times. Systems theory further dictates that nothing operates in isolation; all things are
Improving safety is all “ about changing behaviour
and I/O psychologists have a significant role to play in helping organisations understand and change human behaviour 提高安全就是改变行为习惯，而 工业与组织心理学在帮助组织理 解和改变人类行为习惯上有着重 要的作用 ”
interconnected. Thirdly it urges us to look beyond the
presenting symptoms in order to identify and address the
root causes of problems. (Senge, 1993)
In practice this means that we have to recognise that
changing human behaviour is a complex undertaking and
that true change cannot be achieved through simplistic,
mechanistic “carrot and stick” approaches. The whole
system needs to be aligned to support safety and we
cannot expect people to work safely if the organisation’s
strategy, leadership style, culture, processes and systems
are not all aligned to support this goal. We also have to
look at the dynamics of human behaviour and the factors
that enable or obstruct people’s commitment to safety.
So contrary to common belief the way to improve safety is
not to make more safety rules, appoint more safety officers and to police compliance more effectively.
The ultimate solution is to create a culture of safety where
workers voluntarily participate in safe behaviours because
they know and believe in its value and where the whole organisational system supports them in doing this.
It all starts with a compelling vision and a clear strategy on
safety. This vision and strategy has to be translated into
specific behaviours that have to be cascaded to all levels.
Leaders at all levels should support the strategy and model
behaviours, policies and processes (like reward) should be
aligned to reward the desired behaviours and last, but not
the least, workers need to be engaged and involved in the
implementation process. If people experience meaningful
involvement and they feel empowered to make decisions
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 about things that affect them directly, they are more likely to be engaged with the vision, strategy and values (Viljoen, 2008).
In order to create engagement and commitment around safety, we require a strong leadership commitment to worker safety, engaging and empowering leaders at all levels, and clear, frequent and consistent communication
In order to create “ engagement and commitment
around safety, we require a strong leadership commitment to worker safety 为了创造员工对安全的参与和承 诺，我们要求领导层对于员工的 安全做出承诺 ”
of the safety vision and values. If these elements are not in place, safety becomes a non-sustainable, compliance-
based approach; more carrot, more stick, more policing
and more effort to push the elephant up the stairs en keep
it from sliding back.
Some observers may have doubts about the above,
correctly thinking that most of the concepts described
above are “western ideas” that may not work in an Asian
environment. So, let me share a few recent experiences in HK. Over the past year I’ve been involved in a number
of construction safety projects in HK, supporting and
advising management on actions to improve safety on
their projects. In all of these projects managers seemed
to struggle to “push the elephant up the stairs”. They
perceived the problem to be with workers who did not
seem to value safety, appeared lazy and obstructive and
contractors who are not used to working to modern safety
However the results of an in-depth diagnosis told
a different story. Data from three different projects
indicated that workers were in fact safety conscious,
that they actually wanted to work safely and that they
wanted to contribute more and exert extra effort at work.
However, they found it hard to do “the right thing” and
were cautious to take initiative because of a blaming
and punitive culture. The key blockages were not at the
worker level, but in the leadership domain. These included
a lack of alignment of the leadership team on the safety
strategy and the priority of safety, inconsistent leadership
practices promoting safety one day and production the
next, insufficient and inconsistent messages on safety and compliance based “carrot and stick” approaches. Is it any wonder that workers were confused about management’s intentions and that they concluded that management only really cared about production?
So, while management professed that safety was their
main priority, their actions contradicted this. They failed to create a clear case for change, systems and strategies were
Is it any wonder that “ workers were confused about
management’s intentions and that they concluded that management only really cared about production? 难怪工人们会对管理层的意向产 生疑惑，以为管理层只关心工作 产量 ”
not aligned and most of all, people were not empowered
and engaged in the implementation of the safety vision
and strategy. This is nothing new, in fact, it sounds very
much like the eight reasons why change fail, described by
change guru, Kotter, almost 20 years ago (Kotter, 1995).
和战略的实施当中。这并不新鲜，事实上，这听起 来跟大概 20 年前由科特提出的 8 个改革失败的原因
There is, of course, no doubt that workers are not
blameless. The average worker in HK is much older than in the rest of the world and they are often reluctant to
change their ways. A high power distance culture (Hofstede,
1984) means that the hierarchy is respected and that
workers are less likely to voice safety ideas and concerns.
Furthermore a culture of taking shortcuts when no one is
looking is deeply entrenched and wide-spread in the local
construction industry. However, these were not the causes
of the problem, they were at best, contributing factors.
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 These results described above are similar to results found
by my colleagues around the world and it supports the
notion that “the soft stuff actually is the hard stuff”
– wherever you are. It specifically emphasises the
importance of organisational leadership, a systems thinking
approach and the importance of understanding of human
behaviour in creating sustainable change and results.
Change management and the human dynamics of change
will become more and more important in the coming years and industrial/organisational psychologists must be ready to make a more significant contribution in enabling sustainable change in HK and Asia.
Role Playing in Learning Jesse Covner Jesse has had a life long passion for role-playing and has served as the CEO for international gaming company EOS-SAMA since 2010. EOS-SAMA makes roll-playing games, board-games, and training simulation games. Before founding and leading EOS-SAMA Jesse worked in the booming tech industry in Silicon Valley and later the management consulting field in China.
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 This article explores some of the issues with using role-
playing and role-playing games as learning tools in China,
as well as provide some useful techniques to make role-
playing more effective. 什么是角色扮演？它是在培训、辅导练习或休 What is Role-Playing? It is the practice of assuming an
identity, which is not your own, like in improvisational
acting, within the context of a training exercise, coaching session, or recreational game.
When do we role-play? You’ve probably been role-playing
since you were a child and you first played a game of
cops and robbers using your imagination. As adults some people Role-play for enjoyment, as when they play “Role Playing Games” (RPG).
在工作环境中，角色扮演可被用作为特定任务 的事前准备练习，例如销售人员会让同事扮演顾客， 从而练习如何与顾客沟通交流。角色扮演还可以作
In the work environment, role-playing can be used as
practice in preparing for specific tasks, such as a when
a sales-woman role-plays possible client interactions
with a colleague who plays the part of a customer. Role-
role-playing can be an “ impactful, interactive, social
playing can also be used as a very effective tool to facilitate learning and development in a variety of skill categories.
In brief, role-playing can be an impactful, interactive, social
角色扮演是一种有效的、互动的、 社会性的学习技巧 ”
How do we use role-playing in learning? As a learning
tool, it requires participants to “learn by doing;” it is an
experiential technique that puts participants within an
interactive role and has several advantages:
Role-playing produces interesting and exciting interactions
between participants, thus increasing the energy level of
Often role-playing requires the participants to put
themselves within a real-world “frame” or story-setting in
which they must use there knowledge, skills, and critical
thinking abilities to solve problems, thus making the results
more relevant to the participants.
Most role-playing involves interactions between multiple
players. These interactions provide opportunities for
emotional involvement within the training, which increases relevance and memory retention.
移情性 角色扮演需要学员担任一个角色。这意味着承 担和“演绎”一个不一样的身份。这能帮助参与者
Role-playing requires learners to take on a role... that
means take on and “play” a different identity. This can help
participants learn how to see issues from different angles, thus encouraging understanding and awareness of the feelings, beliefs, and logic structures of others.
Role-playing can be used for many different types of learning points. High school teachers have used it to explain the effects of slavery in the United States before the Civil War. History teachers have used role-playing to simulate the challenges faced by historical figures. Sales managers in much of the world use role-playing to teach awareness of the customer’s needs. English-as-Second-
take on and ‘play’ a different “ identity. This can help participants learn how to see issues from different angles, thus encouraging understanding and awareness of the feelings, beliefs, and logic structures of others
承担和‘演绎’一个不一样的身份。这 能帮助参与者学习如何从不同的角度看 待问题，从而促进他对其他人的感受、 信念和逻辑结构的理解和认知
Language teachers often use role-playing to give students
practice at real-life application of language studies.
Coaches and Managers use role-playing to better prepare
their coachee to handle difficult interactions.
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 Although role-playing is often used within learning events
and programs throughout China, many role-playing
facilitators encounter several implementation problems, of
which some are specific to Chinese culture. Problems may
include the following:
Fear of acting/public performance Role-playing requires participants attempt to see things from another person›s point of view, which is difficult for some people. This kind of “acting” does not come
在中国，虽然角色扮演被广泛地使用在学习活 动和培训项目当中，但许多角色扮演引导师经常会 在执行时遇到难题，以下是一些常见的问题：
naturally to many people perhaps even most people. To
risk a generalization, many Chinese employees have little
experience with acting as a part of their formal education
Getting participants to role-play involves encouraging the participants to expand beyond their comfort zones - to
“break the box”, which is challenging for both participant
Disassociation and narration
We often find Chinese role-play participants who do
not have experience with role-playing will disassociate
themselves from the role they play, often by narrating
actions rather than playing the role. 比如说，在一个模拟的辅导过程中，扮演管理 For example, during a simulated coaching session with an
employee, the role-playing manager should say something
like; “Hi Mr. Wang.... let’s talk about your performance. 有没有哪些地方你觉得你做得特别好？”然而，该 What accomplishment do you feel most proud of from last
quarter?”. But instead, the manager will say; “I will ask the
employee to sit down. Then I will ask him to talk about
what he did last year”. Disassociation does not diminish
the planning and thought that went into the role-play, but
it does diminish the experiential and emotional benefits of the exercise.
Inadequate inference and extrapolation
当扮演着现实生活中的情景，参与者经常无法 深思他们角色行为的结果。因为他们觉得这个模拟 表演是“不真实的”，所以他们无法应用合适的常
When role-playing real-life situations, participants often
fail to contemplate the results of their role-played actions.
They fail to apply appropriate common sense and/or logic skills because they regard the role-play simulation as “not
real”, and hence, fail to apply real-world diligence and/or
有 越 多 的 画 面 和 框 架， 参 与 者 越 容 易 把 所 要
There are many ways to deal-with and ameliorate these
problems. Below are some suggestions:
Colorful and detailed prepared roles
The more “frame” the participant has, the easier it is to
visualize the role he/she should play. Giving a detailed
description of a character’s motivations - even if many of the motivations are not relevant to the game-play or learning points - helps the participants act-out the part. Furthermore, creating flamboyant or outstanding character traits gives obvious clues as to how the character should be played. This will make role-playing more fun for the participants.
The more ‘frame’ the “ participant has, the easier it
is to visualize the role he/she should play 有越多的 ‘ 画面和框架 ’，参与者 越容易把所要演的角色形象化 ”
Performance management techniques Most participants already work in an environment where their work output is measured and evaluated. Hence, by
incorporating performance measurement systems, such as
competitive game elements and point-systems, the role-
play facilitator can focus the participants’ attention on the
quality of their role play. Role-play acting judging (and
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 rewards) can be used to increase the quality of acting,
and thus increase the quality of participant involvement. 程度。让参与者知道在角色扮演的结束部分，他们 Let participants know their logic and reasoning will be
assessed and debriefed at the end of the role-play session.
“Adversaries” and “Non-Player Character”
When possible, give some participants “adversary” roles.
The non-player character (NPC) - is a participant who
plays a role designed to impede the progress of the other
players, which causes creative tension and increasing
player emotional involvement.
Often it is helpful to conduct activity debriefs several times
before the entire role-play simulation is completed. These
debrief “breaks” can be used to re-focus the participants
on their goals and the roles they play. 对于高冲击力的学习活动和日常辅导，角色扮 Role-playing can be a great experiential tool for high-
impact learning activities as well as everyday coaching. 学习活动的效益最大化，尤其在中国，辅导员必须 But in order to get the most out of a role-playing learning
activity, the facilitator must understand the potential
difficulties in using these techniques, especially in China. 的组合方法，培训师能通过这些工具为中国学员创 By using a combination of competitive game elements, vivid fun roles, in-simulation adversaries, and frequent debriefs, a facilitator can use role playing techniques to create high-impact learning experiences for the Chinese participants.
Success Through NLP Coaching Insights for Performance Breakthroughs Daniel Smith Daniel Smith is the Chairman of The China NLP Society. He is a multi-Certified Trainer of NLP, Certified Trainer of New Code NLP, and experienced coach beyond NLP. Mr. Smith completed five university degrees, including psychology, law and an MBA. He is currently a Doctoral Candidate, whose thesis has the working title, “Transferring Expertise”
以 NLP 取胜 如何更上一层楼
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 Around the world, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)
is mainly used by elite performers. Like giving you an
instruction manual for your brain, NLP is a set of practical
techniques, pragmatic strategies and powerful principles
that you can use to be more effective in your personal and
professional life. It encompasses the three most important
components of human experience: neurology, language
and programming. The neurology regulates the functioning
of the human body and affects both internal sensations
and emotions and external behaviours. While the language
is the main form of communication, the programming
determines the world one has created for oneself. In a nut-
shell, NLP explores the dynamics between mind and body
(neuro), the language (linguistic) and how their interplay
问都开始用 NLP 装备自己，从而实现目标和提高效率。
(programming) affects human behaviour. Furthermore,
it is an approach to communication and thinking aimed
at get-ting better results from ourselves and the people
around us. Solution-focused coaches and consultants
around the world deploy NLP in order to achieve set goals
and more effectiveness. Based on modeling outstanding
performers from a diverse array of domains, distilling
those patterns is key so that they can be applied by others. NLP offers techniques, approaches and patterns that are used to reduce stress, improve relationships, enhance your personal charisma, learn faster and have the clarity, focus and awareness to make higher quality decisions. NLP makes high quality, tacit knowledge explicit, accessible and transferable.
In the years that I’ve been involved with NeuroLinguistic Programming, I’ve encountered many powerful experiences. And you might have heard about how NLP can be used to cure phobias, increase sales conversion
NLP offers techniques, “ approaches and patterns that
are used to reduce stress, improve relationships, enhance your personal charisma, learn faster and have the clarity, focus and awareness to make higher quality decisions NLP 能提供一系列的技巧、方法 和规律，让你降低压力、改善关系、 提升个人领导魅力、提高学习效 率和变得头脑清晰、注意力集中 从而做出更高质量的决定
rates and upgrade leadership skills; how someone trained
in NLP can be a more charismatic speaker, a more effective
多神奇强大的体验。你可能有听说过怎么用 NLP 来
negotiator, and enjoy better relationships at work and
at home. Since the 1970s, NLP has helped make the
过一些人经过 NLP 的训练后，变成一个有超凡魅力
skills, talents and even genius of outstanding individuals
accessible to the rest of us. I have been studying and
工作都有着融洽关系的人。自从 20 世纪 70 年代，
working with NLP since 1996, applying it extensively in my
business and personal life, and in training and coaching.
能，甚至是天赋。我从 1996 年开始学习和投身工作
I’d like to share with you some of my experiences that you
might be able to use yourself.
Public Speaking Earlier this year, I was working with a young management
consultant who struggled with his presentation skills. He
was very smart and successful, but was so terrified of
public speaking that one time he had gone to the bathroom
before an important presentation – and not come out
until after the presentation was finished! This was a man
who had something important to say, whose opinions
were valued and time precious, yet someone who had a
gaping hole in his skillset. Within just a few hours working
together, he was routinely making confident presentations
to groups around Shanghai and launched into a new APAC
role with both the confidence to perform with his existing abilities immediately and the skills to continue to improve into the future. How did we do it?
Being at Your Best
处于你最佳的状态 首先，我们先聊了一下他最佳状态的时候。他 有许多这样的例子。所以我们首先做的事中有一件 就是让他学会更好地进入那些他曾经经历过的最佳
To start with, we spoke about some of the times that he
was at his best. And he had many of them. So one of the
first things that we did was to start building better access
to those states when he was at his best; if he could be in
the state he had been while he played elite-level tennis
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 when he next made a presentation, he would be hitting
厉害的技能更重要。正如 Sian Beilock 所观察到的：
clean winners all the way home. We also setup some “如果你能正面地解读你身体对情景的（恐惧）反应， specific habits, routines and gestures so that he could
trigger himself into feeling more resourceful when under
pressure. A huge part of top performance is the inner game
– that it’s not as much about having better skills as it is
about being able to better use the skills you already have.
As Sian Beilock observes: “If you can manage to interpret your body’s [fear] response to the situation as positive, as a call to action, you are likely to thrive. But if you interpret your body’s response as a sign that you are in a bad place with no way out, the worries and ruminations that result may send you into a ‘choke’.” But beyond the powerful but basic strategy of triggering more useful resources and better interpreting the stress response of his body, I wanted to share a strategy that he could use to continue to
If you can manage to “ interpret your body’s [fear] response to the situation as positive, as a call to action, you are likely to thrive
如果你能正面地解读你身体对 情景的（恐惧）反应，那你很 可能会胜利 ”
raise the bar of his performance in the years ahead.
Points of View
When we are children, we think the world revolves
around us. And, if we are lucky, for a period of time it
really does! As we get older, we start to realize that other
people have feelings too – we develop empathy and come
to understand how others think and feel. You might be
familiar with the aphorism that challenges us to “walk a
mile in another man’s shoes before judging him”; this is
another expression of the concept that there are a number
of different ways to look at things. You might call these
“points of view” or “perspectives” or “angles”. My father
said to me when I was in high school, “Sometimes you
need to stand on the table to get a different perspective on
things.” Points of view are part of our ordinary language,
yet for most of them are left implicit. That’s where NLP
comes in: By turning something that is generally tacit into
something that is explicit, we make it far more useful. If
we are having a conversation, you might think of there
as being “my perspective” and “your perspective”. And
things will look different from my position than they will
from your position. From my position, I will see the world
through my eyes, based on my experiences and biases and preferences. From your position, you will see the world through your eyes, based on your experiences and biases and preferences. These different perspectives could have vastly different opinions.
I’m going to label these two perspectives as “1st Position” and “2 nd Position”. Having strong access to 1 st Position
ensures that we can have a sense of purpose, direction, and goals. Spending a lot of time in 1st Position can be emotionally engaging – if things are good, being in 1
If we are having a “ conversation, you might think of there as being ‘my perspective’ and ‘your perspective’. And things will look different from my position than they will from your position
如果我们正在交谈，你或许觉得当 中存在着 ‘ 我的观点 ’ 和 ‘ 你的观 点 ’。而且事物在我眼中和在你眼 中是不一样的
Position is the place to experience the highest highs,
though if things are bad this is also where you feel the
场 2”。站在“立场 1”，我们能够有动机、方向、
lowest lows. 2nd Position allows us to understand those
around us, to have sensitivity, empathy and understanding
so we can keep our stakeholders satisfied. Spending a lot
of time in 2nd Position can be great for those around you,
场 1”则让我们情绪跌到低谷。而“立场 2“是能让
though leaves some people feeling like they have “lost their
sense of self”. Yet something is missing here: Some people
use a different perspective from either of these, don’t “立场 2”对其他人来说很好，但是会让某些人觉得“失 they? Have you ever met somebody who could understand
what was going on, without getting emotionally involved?
They might seem like a computer at times, the way they
can be so objective, so rational, so cool, calm and collected.
This is also an important perspective that I’m going to label
the 3rd Position. Being so objective is immensely valuable
since you can see things fairly and with proper perspective,
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 so you can make sound decisions. Yet being stuck there is a
problem too. What we need is to find a balance.
Using Points of View with Public Speaking
My client who was afraid of public speaking was feeling pretty good by now. He could feel confident, charismatic,
persuasive, able to bring his very best states to the
presentation stage. So I had him imagine making a short
presentation to the audience (of empty chairs in the
boardroom). We started out with him watching himself
make that presentation – such that he could see himself
standing in front of the group of people, and could
recognize the postures that the members of the audience
were using. It was like he was watching it on a security
camera – a clean 3rd Position. Once he could see himself
out there, presenting to this audience, he stepped into “安全区”，从而他能再次看到自己和观众。站在“立 1st Position. He was speaking, and could see the audience
responding to what he said. Then he stepped back out to
the security box off to the side – so he could see himself
and the audience again. It was important that out in 3rd
Position, he saw himself as a non-involved observer of
someone who looked like “him” rather than personally
identifying with the person on the stage. He then sat
down into one of the seats that he had positioned to be
a member of the audience. As he was imagining making
an introduction of himself at his new company, he could imagine some of the specific members of the audience;
sitting in their seat, he took on what he thought would be
their posture and their gestures in response to what he
was saying. When he stepped back into 3rd Position, he
recognized that there were some things that he was doing
that worked really well.
Some key phrases that had made a powerful impact, while
he noticed that there were some gestures that he had used
that were unnecessary and even got in the way. I didn’t
have to tell him what he should do or say – he could see it
himself – and armed with that new information, he quickly
generated new ways to use his body and get his message
across more effectively. All of this took just a few minutes.
To recap, first he identified the situation (in this case
making a presentation). Then he accessed 1st Position (being
the presenter), noticing what he could see, hear and feel in
being there. Next, he came back to 3rd Position, like being
the director or a neutral onlooker, before moving to 2nd
Position (being the audience). From the perspective of the
audience, he watched a mental movie of his performance
as a presenter, as if he was a member of the audience.
Then he returned to 3rd Position and asked himself what
he could to do enhance the quality of the performance. Improving your presentation skills can be immensely valuable.
Becoming a better speaker can increase your impact as a leader, your confidence with your peers, and your value as a member of the community. This simple process can help. Though a mental review is itself incredibly useful, if you are really brave, you might try doing this process with a video recording of yourself, so you can actually see precisely
Becoming a better “ speaker can increase your
impact as a leader, your confidence with your peers, and your value as a member of the community 成为一个好的演讲者能提升你 作为领导的影响力，增强你在 同事面前的自信，还有提高你 作为团队成员的价值 ”
what the audience is seeing. You might even get a second camera to record the audience responses so you can see precisely and specifically what a director would be able to see.
Improving Sales and Negotiation Skills You can use the same process to enhance your sales and
不过“立场 2”则变成你潜在顾客或谈判对象的角度， 而不再是观众的角度。我曾帮助一个客户，他的谈 判对象——关键供应商总是同时有两个谈判代表而
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 negotiation skills. Instead of having 2nd Position represent
不是一个代表。 所以他加了另外一个“立场 2”，
the “audience” you could have 2 nd Position as your
potential client or negotiation partner. I did this process
with one of my clients who regularly negotiated with a key supplier who would be represented by two people on the
other side of the table rather than just one. So he added an
extra 2nd Position chair and noticed that he found himself
better understanding the relationship between those two
people and used that understanding to his advantage.
Working with Demanding Colleagues
Working with other people can be very challenging. Have
you ever had a relationship that wasn’t working the way
you wished that it would? One way to generate more options and the ability to respond better is to go through
this same process, this time placing the other person in 2nd
Position. Whether a superior, a direct report or a colleague,
this process can help you better understand how the other
person thinks and feels, to put you back in the driver’s seat. We often think we understand others: This process gives you access to even more precise information so that you can get even better results.
This simple process is a taste of what Neuro-Linguistic Programming can offer. With a wide array of applications to leadership, negotiation and personal management, NLP can help you as it helps individuals around the world increase their personal performance and enjoy a greater quality of life.
What Do Facilitators Do? Dr. Roger Greenaway Dr. Roger Greenaway trains facilitators, educators, trainers and consultants to bring out the full benefits of active and experiential learning. He works with training organisations, training departments and educational institutions - worldwide. His Train-the-Trainer workshop was widely successful in Shenzhen in 2011 and he will be presenting another TTT in Shanghai in April of 2013.
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 “How do you do facilitation?” is a bit of a conversation
stopper. Ask this to a facilitator and I guarantee that you
will get hesitation and evasiveness.
I (too) have spent many years being evasive on this point
– and for a very good reason: which is that I like to be
‘learner-centred’ and pay attention to what the learner is
doing (rather than being facilitator-centred). 在领导之道中，约翰·海德推崇那种能让团队 In the Tao of Leadership, John Heider admires the kind of
group leadership, which might result in the group saying
‘We did it ourselves’. Such a leader is working in such
subtle ways that the group does not notice what the leader
is doing (if anything). 那么，在这种领导者近乎无形的领导风格中， So how can you model yourself on a style of leadership in
which the leader is almost entirely invisible? 我希望下面的文章能对大家有用，其内容是关 I hope the article below brings some useful clarity to
what facilitators do without destroying the spontaneity,
flexibility, and ever-changing nature of what it is like to facilitate learning in groups.
REVIEWING THE SITUATION
What it is best to do as a facilitator depends very much
on the situation. Being tuned in to the ‘situation’ will
help you make good choices about what to do. And
the more you review in ways that encourage people to
express themselves, the more you will be in tune with the
‘situation’. So it is very useful (and rewarding) if you can
get this virtuous cycle going in which everyone, including
yourself, gets tuned in to what people are experiencing.
7 SITUATIONS YOU CAN ANTICIPATE
(You can plan for these)
Some situations are quite predictable and can be
anticipated.For example: 1. You can anticipate the priorities for what you need
to do at the beginning, middle and end of a programme
- which is why I advocate designing reviews into a
programme before you put the activities in place. 2. You can anticipate how certain activities will generate particular kinds of incidents, experiences and issues. 3. You can anticipate how you might need to facilitate a different kind of review following an experience of success or failure.
4. You can anticipate how you can best facilitate a loud group, a quiet group, a group with a mix of loud and quiet people. 5. You can anticipate how you can best facilitate a review when time is short and when there is more time available.
2、你能预料某些活动将如何生成特定类型的事件、 经历和问题。 3、在成功或失败的经验的基础上，你能预料你需 要怎样引导不同类型的回顾。 4、你能预测你怎样能最好地促进一个活跃的团队， 一个沉默的团队或一个积极者和沉默者并存的团队。 5、你能预测当时间很短或者有多余的时候，你能 怎样进行最好的回顾。 6、同时，团队的规模将决定何种类型的辅导策略 将会最可行。 7、无论是一般的目标，或者由个人的需求或目标， 特定的学习目标会有助于当前的学习。
6. And the group size will determine which kinds of facilitation strategy will work best 7. The current situation may lend itself to working with particular learning objectives - whether from the general
所以，作为一个辅导者，在决定你要做什么之前， 你可能需要考虑上面的 7 点。下面将以问题的形式 展示：
programme objectives or arising from individual needs or goals.
1. 课程处于哪个阶段？ 2. 这个活动将会提供何种回顾与引导机会？
So, before deciding what you are going to do as a facilitator
you may want to consider the above 7 points. Here they
are again presented as questions:
1. What stage of the programme is it?
2. What reviewing opportunities will the activity
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 3. What is the mood of the group?
4. How can I engage all participants (quiet or loud)?
A 计划，你最好还要有一个 B 计划，因为事情会变化，
5. How much time is available?
6. What works best with this size of group?
下都可以用的紧急 Z 计划也可能会派上用途。
7. What opportunities are there for working on key objectives?
And when you have thought this through and have come up with ‘Plan A’ you will be well advised to have a ‘Plan B’ (because things change and facilitation is mostly a responsive role). And a ‘Plan Z’ will be handy too: an emergency plan that will work in almost any situation.
a ‘Plan Z’ will be handy too: “ an emergency plan that will work in almost any situation
而一个能在大多数情况下都可以 用的紧急 Z 计划也可能会派上用 途”
3 SITUATIONS THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO ANTICIPATE
(You can even plan for these too!)
1. YOU ARE IN THE DARK
You know very little about the event you are about to
review. You are reviewing an event at which you were not
present. (You may have less information than usual, but
you can still prepare a review for these situations.)
2. THE UNEXPECTED
Unexpected events often capture people’s interest and
can become a more significant source of learning than
the events you had planned or predicted. (You need to
judge whether the surprise is a distraction or a welcome
opportunity for learning.)
3. YOU ARE STUCK
All your options seem to run out. Or none of your options
feel right. Or it feels like a brand new situation that you
have never encountered before. You want to dial the
facilitation hot line (or try strategy 5 described below).
许，你不妨尝试下面第 5 种策略）。
6 WAYS OF FACILITATING ACTIVE LEARNING 1. BE A ROLE MODEL
6 种促进积极学习的方法 1. 成为一个行为模范
Remember that groups will tend to copy how you behave.
So think about what you want learners to do and set a
good example of what it is like to be an active learner.
Some examples: •
If you are asking participants to set learning goals, you can declare your own learning goals.
You can join in active reviewing exercises as a
participant (tasting your own medicine may not
always be a good move, but it often is).
Try to use demonstration rather than a pure
verbal briefing. For example, with Action Replay
you can demonstrate how to use the remote
control and conduct interviews before handing
over the remote and the microphone.
Watch out. While joining in as a learner can be an
influential facilitation strategy, it can be too influential if
there are not also times when you let go, step back and
leave space for others.
2. DESCRIBE YOUR CHANGING ROLE
The more different kinds of facilitation roles you take
on (joining in, standing back, helping, not helping) the
more confusing it can be for learners. The answer is not
to cramp your style and limit yourself to one role. Quite
the opposite: whenever it seems necessary, explain what
your preferred role will be in the next learning process -
（这点稍后在总结了约翰 • 海尔的模式的“辅导者
and why. (This point is expanded later in ‘The Role of the
Facilitator’ where I summarize John Heron’s model.)
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 The more successful you are in helping groups grow and
develop, the more you will want to adjust your role and
relationship to best serve the group and their learning
objectives. Spell out how your role can change at different
stages of group development and at different stages of learning new skills.
3. LEAVE SPACE FOR LEARNING: Don’t be a space
invader! What is NOT facilitative: •
Stepping into a problem-solving exercise with the solution.
Being the main source of wisdom rather than letting participants look to their own source of
Filling in the silence while people are thinking
Asking all the questions and not drawing out
questions from learners. •
about the question you have just asked. •
wisdom – their experiences. •
Telling participants what they should have done
and should have learned.
Generally being too busy, too helpful and too interfering.
Tell the teacher inside you to take a rest when you want participants to learn by reflecting on their experiences.
4、分享机会和让每个人参加 4. SHARE OUT OPPORTUNITIES AND INVOLVE
Although a discussion circle looks very democratic, a closer
look usually finds that the discussion is being dominated by
a few: it is effectively becomes ‘theatre in the round’ with
a few people performing while the rest spectate. Of course
you can try making it more participative by persuading
‘spectators’ to get up ‘on stage’, but it is smarter (and more
effective) to find ‘stages’ on which everyone is happy to
perform. See ‘Turn taking in Group Reviews’ for better ways of sharing out opportunities and involving everyone.
5. USE TRANSPARENT FACILITATION
If you face a facilitation problem and you feel a bit stuck
and are wondering what will be the best course of action ...
you are not alone. For a start there are probably different voices in your head - and you can choose to tell the group about (some of) these voices.
And if you have no voices in your head, you can tell the
group about that too. And there are the voices of the participants too. You are not throwing yourself at the mercy of the group. You are using a very deliberate strategy
If you face a facilitation “ problem and you feel a bit stuck and are wondering what will be the best course of action ...you are not alone
如果你面对辅导难题，感觉思路堵 塞，并疑惑于什么才是这个课程最 好的行动，别担心，你并不孤独
of presenting a problem to the group (a problem that might affect them more than it does you). And you are consulting
with them about the best course of action. You are inviting
them to be your facilitation advisory committee...
Mmmm - perhaps that one is a step too far, but I think
you can see that such a strategy is very consistent with empowering learners to take responsibility for their
learning. It is a bit more facilitative than saying ‘I haven’t a
If you want to dig deeper into this approach of ‘over to
you’, ‘what do you think?’ or ‘let’s work this out together’
then you may find some useful insights from John Heron in
你可能在《辅导员完整手册》能发现一些来自约翰 • 海尔有用的观点。手册描述了交换使用等级型、合 作型和自治型这三种辅导模式的好处。
Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨 询 培 训 教 练 辅 导 the Complete Facilitator’s Handbook where he describes the value of moving around between three basic facilitation modes: hierarchical, cooperative, and autonomous.
6. DELEGATE FACILITATION Question. When you work with groups how many
6、分配辅导任务 问题：当你跟一组人在学习时，那里有多少位 辅导员？
facilitators are there? 所以？让参加者注意到这个事情。鼓励促进辅 Answer. Everyone! All influence each other’s approach
to learning through their motivation, curiosity, support,
So? Bring this to participants’ attention. Praise facilitative behaviour and give opportunities for participants to praise each other’s facilitative behaviour. Assign responsibilities for facilitating eg using learning buddies, coaching (in ‘Goal Keepers’), giving feedback or facilitating reviewing (such as in Simultaneous Survey).
Facilitating Experiential Learning
Praise facilitative behaviour “ and give opportunities for participants to praise each other's facilitative behaviour
鼓励促进（学员的）辅导行为并 给予机会让参加者能称赞其他人 所表现出辅导行为 ”
Most experiential learning theory is clear about what learners do after their ‘’experience’’: they reflect, interpret,
and experiment. But experiential learning theory is less clear about what role (if any) facilitators should play in
this process. The principles, strategies, and tactics of
facilitation cannot be deduced from experiential learning
theory alone: We also need a theory of facilitation. A
facilitator who makes deliberate moves among Heron’s
three modes of decision making (hierarchical, co-operative
辅导的理论。辅导师可以根据 Heron 的 3 种决策模
and autonomous) also frees up learners to be more mobile
and responsible in how they exercise and share power.
Such mobility helps to make debriefing and learning more
dynamic, versatile, and effective.
References and Photo Credits 参考文献和图像来源 Conchie, S.M., Donald, I.J., Taylor, P.J. (2012). Promoting safety voice with safety-specific transformational leadership: the mediating role of two dimensions of trust. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(1), 105-115. Hofstede, Geert (1984). Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills CA: SAGE Publications. Hong Kong Housing Authority Site Safety Performance Statistics. http://sitesafety.housingauthority.gov.hk/ HKHASSW/Performance.aspx?p_id=6&m_parentid=1 Kotter, J.P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73, 59-67. Mullen, J.E., Kelloway, E, K. (2009). Safety leadership: A Longitudinal study of the effects of transformational leadership on safety outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 253-272. Senge PM.1993: The fifth discipline. UK: Random House. Viljoen, R.C. (2008). Sustainable organisational transformation through Inclusivity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
Picuture of the cover: Yuechao Lai Picture of the elephant on Page 2: Justyna Furmanczyk - www.janedoephoto.co.uk Picture of the ladder on Page 2: Svilen Milev - http://efffective.com Picture on Page 8: Sias van Schalkwyk - www.seepsteen.co.za Picture on Page 8: Marcelo Terraza Picture on Page 14: loco - http://www.flickr.com/photos/locosphotos/ Picture on Page 22: cantabrigensis - http://www.flickr.com/photos/cantabrigensis/ Picutre on Page 23: Photo Credit: <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/38869431@ N00/6371903059/">juhansonin</a> via <a href="http://compfight.com">Compfight</a> <a href="http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/">cc</a>
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