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Using Movement to Improve Engagement in the Training Room 利用有效的肢体移动提高学员在培训课 程中的参与度 Author Introduction: John Dorris has over 12 years of training and facilitation experience in Asia. He is a certified NLP practitioner, a certified Leadership Development Framework coach and assessor. He is a certified experiential educator and certified in facilitating learning through experience. He is a certified cross-cultural trainer who specializes crosscultural training for individuals, teams, and leaders. He has provided train-the-trainer programs across Greater China since 2005 targeting experiential learning techniques to improve technical and soft skills training. Past clients include Oxylane, Areva, Pepsi, Siemens, TDK and many more company’s training and HR teams. 作者简介: 在亚洲,John Dorris 拥有超过 12 年的培训与辅导经验。他是一名 NLP 执行师、领导力发展框架 评估师及教练,他拥有体验式教育和引导式经验学习的培训资质。他同时是一名跨文化培训师, 专门为跨文化团队提供相应的跨文化个人、团队和领导力服务 。 从 2005 开始,他开始为大中华区的客户提供培训师培训,通过体验式学习方法推动技术性能力 的和软技能发展。他的一些客户包括:迪卡侬,阿海珐,百事,西门子,TDK 等大量的内训师 和人力资源团队。

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n 2013 I had the interesting experience of speaking as part of a panel presentation at the Asia Pacific Economic Conference on the topic of Globalization and the Impact on Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises. After an hour of interesting sharing from executives of top brands in China, I could sense the crowd was starting drift so I decided to try one simple technique to bring attention back from the hundreds of people in the room, I asked them to reflect on a question and raise their hand if it applied to them. Just like that the audience’s attention on the topic snapped back into place. A well-timed question with a request for movement, a technique that can separate a forgettable experience from an experience an audience won’t forget.

年的亚太经济会议上,我作为专家之一参 在2013 与了“全球化对中国中小企业影响”论题的讨

In addition to acting as an intercultural facilitator and coach, I serve as the head of Associate Services for my firm, with the responsibility for connecting and working with outstanding talents from around the world. One of the best parts of my jobs is organizing and joining roundtables, conferences, and meetings with other trainers across Asia, through our network, to share expertise and support each other. This kind of professional collaborative learning is some of the most exciting and fulfilling learning that I am privileged to be a part of.

除了是一个跨文化的辅导员和教练,我还是我们公 司的培训师发展项目的负责人,这部分工作要求我 与来自世界各地的优秀培训师进行互动。我很喜欢 组织和参加圆桌会议,常与在亚洲工作的培训师一 起讨论和分享大家在培训方面的技术和知识,以相 互帮助,共同成长。我很有幸能常参与这类型的合 作互动,这样的一种平台让我们常常充满正能量。

Questions often came up in our trainer meetings. Some common technical questions usually include “How do I get trainees energized and engaged throughout a two day training? I can’t have ice-breakers each time they lose focus because there is not enough time”, “Are there ways to get trainees to share their learning other than discussion-presentation”, “How do I keep trainees awake after lunch?”, and “How do I get the quiet trainees to have an opportunity to express their ideas without putting them in front of a group so I can better engage them?”

在我们的讨论当中,有些问题经常被聊起。一些跟 培训技术相关的问题包括 “如果我上的课是两天的 课程,怎么才能让学员有充分的精力,全程高度参 与呢?时间那么紧,我不能总是在大家注意力不能 集中的时候就做一个小热身活动吧”“有没有别的 办法让学员积极分享他们学习的心得体会,作为培 训师,我不能每次总是让大家都是先小组讨论然后 再站起来给大家做演示介绍吧?”“我怎么样才能 让学员再午饭后不犯困呢?”“我怎么才能让那些 比较安静不说话的学员有机会提出他们的想法,帮 助他们更参与到培训中来,但又不至于让他们在众 人面前做,以防他们太紧张呢?”

论演讲。到我演讲之前,我发现席下的观众已经开 始有点注意力分散了。也难怪,虽说台上的都是全 球优秀企业的中华区领袖们,大家的分享内容也都 很有意思,但毕竟已经过了一个小时了。到我发言时, 我决定用一个简单的技巧,希望能尽量拉回在座几 百人的注意力——“如果我接下来问的问题跟你有 关,请举手表示”。就这样,观众开始举手,他们 的注意力一下子都放在了我的讨论主题上了。一个 及时出现的问题,配以对观众提出了肢体运动的需 要,就这样的一个小技巧,让我这个本来可能被遗 忘掉的演讲给观众留下了印象。

The trainers who ask the above questions are either corporate internal trainers or external trainers from training firms. They have great expertise, can design great materials and are very experienced in training. It can be a shame when their knowledge and skills may not be fully transferred to trainees simply because the traditional training set ups, routines and techniques cannot keep participants energized and moving around.

提出这些问题的培训师都是来自企业的内训师,以 及来自培训机构的培训师,大家都有很好的专业能 力,能设计出非常优秀的课程,而且都有很好的经验。 我觉得,如果仅仅因为大家的培训设置、培训基本 做法、培训技术不能让学员保持高体力,或者是不 能到处动动,而导致培训师知识不能被更好地传递, 这样着实可惜。

Many training environments are static and require trainees to remain seated and listen to an expert provide information paired to training slides all while taking notes. The brief period when trainees could stand up talk to each other and stretch their legs suddenly sounds very appealing. Alternatively some trainers create icebreakers and action simply to get

我发现,很多培训环境都是静态的,学员们坐在那里, 听培训师的讲课,看投影仪上的内容,再记着笔记。 对于很多学员来说,那些短暂的与别的学员进行沟 通或站起来活动身体的时间都变成了难能宝贵得机 会。有些培训师,为了让学员有机会活动一下,会 穿插一些热身活动和肢体运动,但这些活动的目的 却是跟培训目的脱节,仅仅是为了做个活动而做活

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people moving; these temporary “fun breaks” feel disconnected from the learning experience.

动。

I’d like to ask you to imagine what the following emotions look like when put into action in the real world.

我希望请你想象一下,在现实环境中,下列情绪是 如何体现的 :

Urgency

Persistence

紧迫感

毅力

Intensity

专注力

热情

Focus Adaptability

Personal Initiative

适应能力

个人主动性

我的同事们,一些专门研究职场敬业度的心理学家, 指出上述六种情绪状态可以作为衡量职场敬业度的 基础。那么,借用一下这个敬业度的概念,一个包 含了上述六种情绪的培训环境是什么样的呢?回想 一下,作为培训师或学员,您上一次所参加的培训中, 培训环境是什么样的 ? 在培训中,大家参与度最高 点与最低点是什么时候出现的?

If you answered “tea break” or “lunch” as high points, you would not be alone. And if I may make a bold guess, if you are a trainee you probably sat in your seats most of the time during the training. And my next guess is that you probably don't even remember the session’s low point because you were too busy fighting to stay focused to identify one or two specific points.

如果你的答案是 “茶点时间”或“中午聚餐”时大 家的参与度最高,不用担心,你不是唯一一个有这 样经历的人。如果你是学员,请允许我再大胆猜测 一下,你可能全程更多是坐在你的位置上。如果再 往下猜,你可能都不记得你参与度的最低点是什么 了,因为你在培训时很多精力都用在强迫自己要专 心上,而难以具体定义一两个最低点了。

To be fair, to some people “Intensity” and “Focus” may include being seated and listening with rapt attention to the learning session leader. H o w e v e r, m o re a n d m o re trainers and trainees have grown to understand these aspects are not the that important in most situations for many reasons, with the following being just a few examples: 1) Such motionless focus denies our physical need to move around in order to stay energized. 2) It does not provide a time or place for trainees to think and feel.

确实,也许有些人认为学员 “热情”与“专注力”的表 现 就 是 坐 在 那 里, 全 神 贯 注的听培训师的讲解。但, 这不是一定的。越来越多的 培训师和学员逐渐开始了解 到,学员也可以有其它体现 “热情”与“专注力”的方式。 而这种强迫大家坐着学习的 方法不一定好,以下是众多 原因中的几条: 1) 在生理上,我们需要调动身体以调动精力,如果 让大家保持不动而保持专注力,这忽略了我们生理 的需要;

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These six emotional states form the foundation for what my colleagues who are engagement research psychologists consider engagement in the workplace. So consider, what does a training environment look like that includes these emotions? Reflect on what the training environment looked like in the last training you joined as either a trainer or trainee. What were the engagement high points and the low points in the training?

2) 在环境上,学员需要提供一个好的思考和感受的 时间和地点,而这千篇一律地坐着学,难以提供合 适地时间和地点;

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3) It discourages trainees from sharing their thoughts, feelings, and learning with each other to create a chain reaction of impactful learning.

3) 这种做法削弱了学员之间分享想法、感受、学习 的机会,可能导致大家错失了引发连锁学习反应的 机会。

Experienced trainers have started to find ways to create engagement opportunities for trainees by providing more body movement activities and more frequent but shorter breaks.

有经验的培训师已经开始寻找能促进学员参与度的 培训方式,尤其是增加身体上的移动,以及提供量 更多但时间短些的休息机会。

In the last couple decades, experiential learning activities have grown more and more popular in China because both trainers and trainees know that well organized and designed activities and body movements can keep the trainees more engaged in learning.

在过去这二十多年里,体验式的学习方法已经获得 了越来越多的重视,因为培训师和学员都知道,好 的体验式学习活动和身体的移动能帮助学员在学习 的过程中更专注和更愿意参与其中。

Challenges experienced trainers face can include the following:

虽说大方向有了,但这些有经验的培训师还是遇到 不少的挑战,比如:

1) Find ways to link the reflection and learning to the activities and body movements;

1) 如何找到合适的方法将学员的学习和反思与体验 式活动和身体调动联系起来;

2) Make the thinking and reflection active and connected to body movements so the trainees are not just doing a presentation after their group discussion on learning and reflections;

2) 如何让学员的思考和反思过程也积极灵动起来, 让思考和身体的调动能相互利用起来,而不是总是 单一地进行小组讨论大家获得了什么心得体会,然 后又是千篇一律地进行小组展示;

3) Find the techniques that can be easily applied to many different situations and not just one particular situation.

3) 如何找到那些能应用到很多不同地方的做法,而 不是只能用在某一场景的身体调动做法。

If you happen to be one of the experienced trainers that are looking for new ideas, I would be glad to share the following tips:

如果你恰好也是一个有经验的培训师,你也希望能 找到一些克服这些挑战的点子,那以下的一些点子 可能会对你有帮助:

1. Give movement a purpose by attaching it to an aim or a time limit

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Think back to the last time you over slept on a day you had to be on time. Let’s say instead of waking up with an hour to get ready and out the door you only woke up with 27 minutes and 18 seconds to get ready. Suddenly the routine decisions you make to get ready are all evaluated in a matter of seconds. “Do I really need to have breakfast? Is this the right outfit if I don’t have time to press my shirt?” You begin to take stock of the quality of each decision you might normally take for granted. That morning you are more focused and intense in the process of getting ready than you would be on a day with plenty of time and no deadline hanging over your head.

回想一下,你还记得上一次你睡过头是什么时候吗? 平时,你可能有 1 个小时洗漱着装吃早餐,但这天 你醒来后发现只有 27 分钟零 18 秒的时间去准备出 门!瞬时,惯常的那些洗漱着装流程不再是随意的, 而是做了精确到秒数的决定。“我真的一定要吃早 餐吗?我穿哪件外套就可以不用花时间熨衬衣了?” 这个时候,你不再想当然地做决定,而是不断衡量 这些决定对结果的影响。在这个有时限要求的早上, 跟那种没要求,什么时候准备完什么时候算的某个 日子里,我保证你比平时都更专注和激动。

If you are going to include movement as a part of the learning process consider is the purpose of the movement understandable and does the time limit

如果你要把肢体运动设计到你的培训里,你要考虑, 这个目的和时间设定是否能激励学员动起来,努力 思考和做决定。设计前增加了这些考虑,你能进一

给身体的调动设计好一个目标或时间限制

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步调动学员的紧迫感和激情,而他们也更容易专注 到任务上,并参与进来。同时你还能促进他们的团 队意识,你会发现,他们开始关注自己和团队成员 是否在这个时限里做到了高效运转。一个最简单的 办法,哪怕是告诉学员,他们只有 13 分 28 秒来完 成一个讨论,你都会发现,很多学员们会迅速采取 行动。

2. Allow for brief personal reflection

2. 给学员提供简短的个人反思机会

Trainees want to take Personal Initiative. They want to be able to apply themselves, hopefully to the learning, and to make learning connections personal. Finding a chance to allow for brief personal reflection before movement or activity begins allows a trainee to bring their self into the learning. Trainees will also feel better prepared when they share their reflection.

学员们希望能自主学习。他们希望能让学习点跟自 己相关,用自己的方法体现学习点,或是体现跟��� 习点相关的做法。如果培训师要让学员做些活动或 身体上的调动,需要在让他们动起来之前,给他们 提供一个简短的做自我总结和反思的机会,这样能 帮助他们把学习点内化成个人的方式,更好地投入 到调动身体的各类活动中去。这样,学员也更愿意 分享自己的心得体会。

This can be done by simply requiring trainees to all keep quiet for 3-5 minutes to write down key phrases of their thoughts on their work books or post-it notes.

要做到这点,一个简单的做法是让所有的学员先独 立思考 3-5 分钟,把他们的想法和体会先以词句的 方式写到笔记本/课本/便利贴上。

3. Use all possible places away from tables and the projector screen from time to time

3. 充分利用培训场地的可用空间,时不时地远离桌 子和投影仪

Many years ago I did a training workshop in Suzhou at a hotel meeting room. The tables in the meeting room had an uncomfortable height for people to put their workbooks on to write. We decided to remove all the tables from the room. Throughout the rest of the 2.5day training, we had a great time and we were all very energized. We used all parts of the room for activities and moved into many different groups for role-plays, coaching, and discussion. Having the freedom to work with new people and chose where we wanted to work helped keep us in a mood to explore and learn.

许多年前,我在苏州的一个酒店做培训。酒店会议 室的桌子高度有点不合适,学员们靠着写字时感觉 很别扭。我们决定把房间里的桌子都移了出去。在 剩下的 2 天半里,我们的培训特别欢乐,大家都充 满活力。我们把会议室里的各个角落、空间都用到了。 在进行角色扮演、辅导、讨论的分组后,大家欢乐 地找到各个据点,开始做小组任务。大家能自由地 跑来跑去,加入别的组,跟不同地人一起完成任务, 让大家感到很兴奋,因而更愿意去探索和学习。

I encourage many of the trainers I speak with to consider taking the tables out of the room from time to time. What would happen if you took out the tables? Would it create any new possibilities? What if

我经常向别的培训师建议,有时做培训可以把桌 子搬出培训室。也许这个想法有点吓人,可能让 一些培训师感觉自己像没穿外衣来上课一样。但 想 想, 没 了 桌 子, 你 可 能 给 学 员 们 带 来 的 感 觉

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encourage thinking and decision-making. By doing so, you tap into your trainees’ sense of Urgency and Intensity. They will be focused and engaged in the process of considering if they or their team are really working effectively. Even something as simple as a saying that this active discussion will only have 13 minutes and 28 seconds will spur trainees to take action.

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you turned off the projector? What would happen if learners didn’t necessarily have to keep their eyes to the front of the classroom and your power points? The thoughts might be a little scary, almost like arriving to the training room in your underwear, however the possibilities that you created are also boundless. If the tables cannot be taken out easily, then we can take the people away from tables. How about an open space next to the window that helps people to look far when they make their future planning charts? How about standing on a U shape rope to show your score and discuss instead of writing down a number on the box in your workbook? 4. Use Post-its We have a favorite training supply vendor at our company, the 3M post-it shop on taobao.com. If you check our desks and cabinets you’ll find a very colorful supply of post-its. Post-its give you a chance to move ideas and bodies around the room during discussions and break group discussions and presentations away from one table or one flip chart. One simple technique is to ask your learners to put each idea they have, one per post-it, up on a wall or flip chart. As teams share their results they can move similar ideas (post-its) around the room or flip charts to group them together creating movement of ideas (post-its).

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I also encourage a 1-2-Many technique of brain storming with post-its. This is a simple method of having a group start with an individual brainstorm on post-its, then have the group move to partners who share and synergize ideas on post-its before ending up in small discussion groups to sort and organize their ideas on post-its. This opportunity to reflect individually and in pairs with physical (post-its) outcomes gets all voices involved in a discussion.

5. Bring in unusual training materials When I come to a training sharing or TTT program I

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是,互动学习的机会是没有界限的。 如果桌子搬不出培训室,那么我们可以把学员带离 桌子。想想看,在讨论未来发展规划时,我们能不 能让各小组站在一面面能远眺窗外景色的落地窗前 进行讨论,而不是在桌边?再想想,如果要让大家 给一个任务打个分,能不能不让大家把数字写在课 本上,而是都站起来,站到一条摆放成 U 型的绳子 旁边,以自己站的位置表示打出的分值,同时还可 以一边讨论? 4. 运用便利贴 我们公司最喜爱的一个培训材料供应商是淘宝上的 一家提供 3M 便利贴的店。在我们公司的办公桌和书 柜内,你总会看到五颜六色的便利贴。在讨论中, 便利贴能给大家一个调动身体以及想法的机会,使 小组讨论与展示不仅仅局限于一张桌子或是一张白 板纸里。其中一个很简单的方法就是邀请学员们把 他们每一个想法都写在一张便利贴上,然后贴在墙 上或活动白板上。在团队讨论的时候,大家可以将 相似的想法从各个墙上或者活动挂图上移走,与其 他想法(便利贴)合并或重组,可以促进所有人想 法的整合。

另一个使用便利贴进行头脑风暴的技巧,就是运用“1 人- 2 人-多人法”。这个方法也很简单,先让大 家在头脑风暴前把自己的想法写在便利贴上,然后 找另一个人组成伙伴,进行 2 人分享。之后形成小组, 把经过双人讨论的载有想法的便利贴组织成小组的 想法图。这样的一个互动模式可以让每个人有机会 阐释自己的想法,经过与另一人的讨论后进行加工, 再继续经过便利贴组织出小组讨论的最终想法。这 种利用个人及团队身体运动进行想法整合的机会便 于收集到所有人的声音。

5. 引进不寻常的培训教材 当我参加培训分享会或者培训培训师课程的时候,

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我通常都会带一包粗绳索。差不多十年前,在一次 体验式培训的认证课程中,Roger Greenaway 博士向 我介绍了绳索作为培训及总结反思工具的优势。在 培训时,每当我取出那一袋子绳索,我总能从一些 培训师的脸上看到惊讶的表情。他们也许在想,“这 是要干什么,难不成要登山?”

By providing an unexpected prop I help engage curiosity from people in the classroom. One of my favorite activities with ropes comes from Dr. Greenaway and is known as the “Storyline.” During story line learners create an active line about a recent experience including ups and downs at key events. At a recent TTT event some of the learners took the activity to apply to their project management course to have their internal trainees walk through a recent project and the ups and downs they experienced.

一个不寻常的道具,能帮助我轻松地激发参与者 的好奇心。我最喜欢的一个关于绳索的活动是由 Greenaway 博士介绍的“故事线”活动。在“故事 线”活动中,学员们根据他们最近的亲身经历,比如, 一个特殊事件的曲折沉浮,创建一个事态发展线。 在最近一期培训师培训活动后,一些内训师将“故 事线”活动应用到他们公司内的项目管理课程中。 在这个内训课里,学员们通过沿着自己铺在地上绳 索(故事线)的高低设置,一边走,一边向其他同 事讲述一个项目管理经历发展的高潮与低谷。

6. Set up learning partnership through active movements

6. 安排学习伙伴,促进大家的肢体调动

Most of us don’t work in a bubble so why should we learn in a bubble? Creating a learning partnership through active movements can be very effective in engaging trainees. One of my favorite techniques in training to leverage the partner learning style is called “Goal Keepers” – which is also a term given by Dr. Greenaway.

我们大部分人都不是在真空泡泡里独自工作,那为 什么要独自学习?如果能给学员们安排学习伙伴, 能让他们在互动中提高学习的参与度。我特别喜欢 的一个活动之一是“守门员”设计 - 这个设计来 自 Greenaway 博士。

In this partnership, one learning partner will take the active role (participant) while the other partner will serve as a non-participative coach (Goal Keeper). The participant sets the goals for his/her development and shares them with the coach. During any of the activity period the participant will be moving to accomplish the activity while the “Goal Keeper” partner also has important movements. Under the rules of the activity, the goal keeper cannot talk but must move by giving a thumbs-up and thumbs down indicating a good display of the identified trait or a poor showing according to the development goals set up by the participant. After the activity participants move to one side of the activity zone and get one on one coaching from a “goal keeper” who is now free to talk and share.

在这个学习伙伴机制中,一个学员作为被辅导者要 专注参与活动,而他/她的学习伙伴不参与活动, 而是扮演辅导员(守门员)的角色。被辅导者要先 为自己的发展制定提高的目标,比如改善一些行为, 然后将自己的目标和想法深入地跟辅导员解释好。 之后,这个学员可以开始参与一些活动,而他/她 的学习伙伴/辅导员则充当守门员,积极地观察与 其目标相符或不相符的行为。根据这个伙伴机制的 设计,这个守门员在活动中不能说话,但可以随时 向被辅导者做出一些手势,如大拇指朝上表示“好, 有表现出期望的行为”,或大拇指朝下表示“你没 有表现出你期望做改变的行为”。在活动结束后, 这两个学习伙伴可以走到一边去,让守门员和被辅 导者做一对一的辅导以更深入的了解和发展自己的 行为。

This process of goal-focused and partner-supported action creates an intensity and focus from both parties as they focus on the development opportunity. The next time you take on the role of learning session

这个以目标导向和伙伴支 持为根基的身体调动设计 能同时帮助伙伴双方提高 学习的激情和专注力。

Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨询 培训 教练 辅导

usually bring a bag of ropes. I was introduced to ropes as a training and reviewing tool by Dr. Roger Greenaway nearly 10 years ago during an experiential learning certification program. When I bring out my bag of ropes in training I can get some surprised looks from other trainers, after all, we aren’t going mountain climbing.

下一次在你担任学习活动 带头人或者培训师时,记 得随时注意自己是否为学

Copyright © 2014 John Dorris & Sino-associates. All rights reserved.

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leader or trainer, check to see if trainees have a chance to be engaged in the process of learning. Movement is one tool, though not the only one, to improve engagement. Hopefully the tips above will help guide your consideration to make a more successful learning session.

员提供参与学习的机会。调动身体是一种帮助提高 培训参与度的工具,虽然不是唯一的工具。希望我 这里介绍的技巧能在一定程度上帮助你们更成功地 组织下一场学习活动。

Author Contact Information John Dorris E-mail: john.dorris@sino-associates.com Sino Associates Address Reith Center 1903-04, 9030 Shennan Ave. Nanshan District, Shenzhen

Consulting | Training | Coaching | Facilitation 咨询 培训 教练 辅导

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Phone number (86) 755 86621995 Hong Kong | Shenzhen | Guangzhou

Copyright © 2014 John Dorris & Sino-associates. All rights reserved.


Using Movement to Improve Engagement in the Training Room - Sino Associates John Dorris