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Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelines July 2017

Supported by the Jeffrey Cook Charitable Trust

Michael Singer Studio


Introduction This document summarizes a Jeffrey Cook Charitable Trust funded collaboration between Michael Singer Studio, Connecticut Sea Grant , engineering partners, and other stakeholders. Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) was instrumental in securing funding for this effort by providing a letter of support, and is seen as a key ally by the project team. This project’s goal is to support the Jeffrey Cook Charitable Trust mission of advancing environmentally responsible design at the intersection of the built and natural environments. It does so by exploring a design that contributes to an on ongoing dialogue about living shorelines in Connecticut, specifically by increasing the ecological potential at built structures that interface with tidal ecosystems. This project builds upon prior Michael Singer Studio projects in other (albeit very different) locations such as the Living Shoreline Seawall in the Lake Worth Lagoon in South Florida, and the Living Dock in downtown West Palm Beach, Florida. The intent of this project is to work with a specific site along the Connecticut shoreline that would be indicative of other similar sites, such that the project outcomes may potentially be replicable in other locations.

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


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@

If reviewing a digital version of this document, underlined terms in blue font may be clicked on to open a relevant website

Left: living shoreline seawall renewal in the Lake Worth Lagoon in south Florida, supported by the National Endowment for the Arts. Above: living docks in downtown West Palm Beach, Florida

Connecticut does not have a legal definition to living shoreline. However, DEEP has adopted a working definition: “Living shorelines: A shoreline erosion control management practice which also restores, enhances, maintains or creates natural coastal or riparian habitat, functions and processes, and also functions to mitigate flooding or shoreline erosion through a continuous land-water interface. Coastal and riparian habitats include but are not limited to intertidal flats, tidal marsh, beach/dune systems, and bluffs. Living shorelines may include structural features that are combined with natural components to attenuate wave energy and currents.� Living shorelines may contribute to attenuating water energy and increase ecological health and diversity. While not intended to provide flood protection on their own, they may be combined with flood protection interventions to positive effect.

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Project Site The project site is Bridge 02677 on Connecticut’s Route 146 in Guilford, CT. The “bridge” is only that in name; it is actually a bermed causeway with a small culvert underneath. The roadway is regularly overtaken and often rendered impassable due to flooding at extreme high tide and storm events. Expected increases to sea level will further exacerbate the frequency, length, and severity of flooding and associated damage. Partly as a result of this, Connecticut Department of Transportation (DOT) has indicated its interest in elevating the roadway (this future effort is a listed project in DOT documents but is not yet fully funded. See DOT project # 0059-0157 / SCRCOG # 2011-A21-2). A train track serving the Northeast Corridor is located directly north of and relatively parallel to the roadway. In addition to the flooding concerns at the roadway, the culvert itself constrains flow between Beatie Pond (also known as Lost Lake) to the north and a salt marsh to the south. Therefore Beatie Pond does not benefit from

Guilford Center Beatie Pond

Long Island Sound Approx 1 Mile Area map showing the site relative to Guiford Center and Long Island Sound

Approx 1,500 Ft

Extended site including salt marsh to t is Beatie Pond / Lost Lake

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


full tide cycles. As a result, it no longer fully drains at low tide to expose intertidal flats, allowing them to reestablish marshland. It furthermore suffers from reduced nutrient flow and increased sedimentation, both of which are exacerbated by and contribute to the reduced upstream salt marsh habitat. All this prevents the area from contributing more effectively to the filtration of stormwater from the roadway, and reduces wildlife populations including oysters, mussels, fish, and crab which are regularly harvested at this location. In part due to these environmental concerns, DOT has commissioned a study on the viability of increasing flow at the roadway culvert as part of its future roadway elevation effort. This study concludes that “… the potential for restoration of a high value and productive intertidal flat and expanding salt marsh is reasonably high”. Beatie Pond itself is severed by the railroad causeway located north of the road. However, a stone bridge at the railroad can provide sufficient flow under it and is not expected to constrain tidal flow when flow at the roadway increases.

Salt Marsh

the south. Body of water to the north

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Route 146 Bridge 02677

Approx 200 Ft Aerial of site showing the causeway cutting through wetlands. To the north and parallel to the causeway, one can see the northeast corridor train tack Page 5


Site and Project Replicability: GIS Study

Above: area map of Guilford and Madison, Connecticut highlighting roadways within 100ft of a wetland that are prone to flooding; a detail from the GIS study Right: view of Guilford project site causeway from the southeast. At the far right one may see the higher elevation train track causeway, marking the southern end of Beatie Pond

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The project team conducted a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of roadways in Connecticut coastal communities to determine whether key site conditions are indeed frequent and lend themselves to replicable design responses. The 2 most important quantifiable site features are (a) susceptibility to flooding and (b) adjacency to wetlands. The study tests the frequency of roadway flooding within 100 ft of Connecticut wetlands and found that: ■■Over 28 miles of roadway within 100 ft of a wetland (constituting 0.5% of Connecticut’s coastal communities’ total roadway length) routinely flood during extreme high tide; ■■Over 94 miles of roadway within 100 ft of a wetland will be lost under water in the event of a 5 ft sea level rise. In East Haven, Madison, and Westbrook over 3% of the roadways are within 100 ft of a wetland and will be overtaken by water. In Old Saybrook that figure is over 6%; ■■At present (assuming no sea level rise) a category 1 hurricane will flood 72 miles of road within 100 ft of a wetland while a category 4 hurricane will flood 153 miles of Connecticut’s coastal communities’ roadways within 100 ft of a wetland; and ■■Critically necessary access provided by many of the wetland-adjacent roadways impacted by flooding cannot be provided by other nearby roadways as there is little redundancy in the roadway system. The GIS study demonstrates that key site conditions are indeed prevalent in Connecticut. This means that design responses to the site conditions are likely to be relevant elsewhere and that project outcomes are likely to be replicable.

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Project Focus In response to the most pressing site condition of frequent flooding at Route 146, the project team identified several approaches to elevating the roadway while minimizing the causeway base width, thus reducing impacts to this fragile marsh area. As the project team advanced the project, it learned of DOT’s revised plan to completely remove the causeway and replace it with a bridge on pilings. This change in plans by DOT renders the roadway elevation studies immaterial to this specific site. These initial studies are available in an appendix and may be relevant for other similar causeways that are not planned by DOT for conversion into a bridge. Additionally, the team identified the possibility of promoting the establishment of a more vibrant marsh ecology by introducing gapped sills on the Long Island Sound side (south) of the causeway (see sidebar for “gapped sills”). While DOT’s shift away from the causeway and culvert impacts the relevance of the roadway studies, it does not detract from the validity and replicability of a gapped sill system at this location and the multitude of other similar sites in Connecticut’s coastal communities. Quite on the contrary: with increased tidal flows, gapped sills may prove to be extremely helpful in promoting and protecting a productive marsh ecology on site. The project is therefore focused on a gapped sill system, exploring innovative ways these structures can be deployed to both enhance ecosystems and support the longevity of future infrastructure projects.

Gapped Sills “A sill is a trapezoidal coastal marsh. Sills vary ture, but porous enoug or sandy shorelines be become established. T shorelines from low to intertidal habitats.” (see s

Gapped sills have spac

Gapped sills can serve ■■ Attenuating and dis ■■ Promoting sediment ■■ Providing habitat wi

Source: Living Shorelines A

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


A gapped sill in Maryland from The Nature Conservancy website article about expanding tax credit benefits to private land owners that invest in living shorelines

shaped, shore-parallel structure built waterward of the existing or eroded y in size... are built to break down wave energy as it passes over the strucgh to allow water to pass through them. Sills stabilize beach fill and marshes ehind them, allowing the replanted or existing coastal marsh vegetation to The combination of sills and coastal vegetation function together to stabilize high energy environments, and preserve the natural function of important

source below)

ces between them, permitting animal movement across the sill line.

e multiple functions: ssipating water energy during extreme high tides and storms; tation and the establishment of marsh ecology; and ithin the sills themselves.

Academy website, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded collaboration between Restore America’s Estuaries and the North Carolina Coastal Federation

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The Potential for Innovation in Gapped Sill Design A gapped sill’s purpose, function, and configuration will vary per location and specific site conditions, and therefore suggests a system that is modular and efficient while also flexible and adaptive. The design of a gapped sill system (simplified as “sills” hereafter) that can be easily adjusted to address particular site requirements and conditions can have wide applicability in many different locations. In addition to the descriptions on the prior page, sills can provide services in several important ways: ■■ While sills dissipate wave energy, they are sufficiently porous as a structure to permit water to flow through them. This level of porosity needs to change in response to conditions at a particular site. A system that offers adjustability in sill structure porosity can be deployed in great many locations and respond more accurately to particular site needs. ■■ A sill system that provides designed surfaces targeting organisms can support the for greater ecosystem and  abundance.

uniquely specific potential diversity

■■ Sills operate at various water depths ranging from below mean low water elevation to above mean high water. Depending on site conditions, different elevations within the tidal range require different porosity levels and different surfaces in support of different organisms. A sill system that offers variety in porosity and surface characteristics depending on elevation within the sill itself can offer more targeted ecological (habitat) and structural (wave energy attenuation) services.

A modular sill system can ules or smaller ones. La themselves towards dep energy locations and requ their placement, while s adequate only at low-to-m but require no specialty e If modules are sufficient the modular system is d stallation in mind, one c community volunteers in unteer labor may indeed costs but more importan in implementation can ha positive environmental p Providing the possibility o tion outcomes is of grea project that aims to be re ficiently small and light mo larger modules that requi associated contractors.

These desired characte towards the design of a s concrete modules. This is ules can be designed as d its own features related to discussed above, while r to create a whole system following page).

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


n be made of larger modarge modules may lend ployment in higher wave uire heavy equipment for smaller modules may be medium energy locations equipment for installation. tly small and light and if designed with ease of incould potentially engage n their installation. Vold help reduce installation ntly, engaging volunteers ave significant and lasting public education impacts. of important public educaat value, especially for a eplicable. Therefore, sufodules are preferred over ire heavy equipment and

eristics lend themselves sill system constructed of s because concrete moddistinct objects each with o porosity and surface as relating to each other as (more on concrete in the

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Above: volunteers at a community mangrove planting day as part of the implementation of Michael Singer Studio’s South Cove Regeneration project in West Palm Beach, Florida. Below: volunteer high school student at a community implementation day of a large bioswale at Central High School in Bridgeport, Connecticut as part of Michael Singer Studio’s SURDNA Foundation supported collaboration with the University of Connecticut. Such community activities, especially those involving youth, are critically important in the fostering of a new generation of leaders and activists that place value on environmental concerns.

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Precedents and Design Goals There are several types of commercially available precast concrete products that are relevant precedents for a modular sill system: ■■Wave Attenuation Devices: These are large monolithic components typically dedicated to performing only structural functions, and require heavy equipment for installation. ■■Reef Balls: These serve both structural and ecological functions, and some varieties are made of a specialty concrete mix that promotes habitat colonization. The Reef Ball units typically require heavy equipment for installation. While Reef Balls may be installed within the tidal range, there is no accommodation for changing habitat needs within that range. Additionally, structure porosity for water flow is controlled only by their spacing. ■■Oyster Castles: These are small modules designed to promote oyster colonization, and capable of stacking atop each other with no use of heavy equipment. However, they are limited to low energy locations and cannot accommodate different porosity levels for varying water flow needs. These units offer limited accommodation for changing habitat needs within the tidal range, likely given their single purpose function.

■■Can be designed to h porosity to accommo flow rates ■■Varying components each other to provide different locations with ■■Made of environmen (see sidebar)

Above: Reef Ball ins Oyster Castles at G (pho

Given the discussion on the previous page and precedents above, design goals for a new sill system are: ■■Ability to function in low as well as moderate water energy locations ■■Ability to serve both structural and ecological functions concurrently ■■Does not require heavy equipment for installation

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


have varying structure odate different water

can be stacked atop e targeted habitat at hin the tidal range ntally sound concrete

stallation at Stratford Point, CT. Below: Gandy’s Beach in Downe Township, NJ oto from US Fish and Wildlife website).

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Environmentally Responsible Concrete Concrete is a common and durable building material that is also energy and resource intensive; as a consequence there are many ongoing efforts to reduce its environmental footprint. These include developing concrete mixes that: ■■ Require less Portland cement, which is responsible for 50% of the CO2 emissions associated with concrete (see 1 below); ■■ Include recycled content (see 1 below); and ■■ Soak CO2 emissions during their curing process (see 2 below). Many of these emerging innovations for environmentally responsible concrete are not yet commercially available in most markets. In the interim, Michael Singer Studio has been focused on designing and overseeing the fabrication of custom precast concrete components made with 100% recycled aggregate made from reused crushed concrete from demolition sites. Recycled concrete aggregate qualifies the precast components as having 40% post consumer recycled content; the Studio is exploring the use of recycled glass to further increase this content. Additionally, acidity/alkalinity levels in recently cast concrete are not consistent with most organisms’ preference. Only several months after casting will concrete typically become sufficiently pH neutral to promote colonization. However, pH neutral concrete mixes do exist and can promote earlier colonization thus increasing potential ecological function. Sources: 1. R.K. Dhir, M.J. McCarthy, and K.A. Paine, Engineering property and structural design relationships for new and developing concretes, Materials and Structures 38 (275) (2005) 1-9 2. I. Yoshiokaa, D. Obataa, H. Nanjoa, K. Yokozekib, T. Torichigaib, M. Moriokac, and T. Higuchic, New ecological concrete that reduces CO2 emissions below zero level, Energy Procedia 37 (2013) 6018– 6025

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Concept Design The conceptual design for this new modular concrete gapped sill system uses the existing Oyster Castle module as a starting point. The project team created a variant of the Oyster Castle that would be manageable manually and have a concrete wall thickness of 2”. By limiting the weights of a single module to 65 lbs one can avoid the use of heavy equipment for the assembly of the elements. By maintaining a wall thickness of 2”, elements can be pinned together if necessary at moderate water energy locations. ■■ The resulting module is a rectangular element 12” x 12” x 10” high weighing 64 lbs. ■■ As a point of comparison the team created a triangular based module of similar size and weight (maintaining the 2” wall thickness). The result is a 10” high rotated triangular extrusion with a triangle edge length of 15”, weighing 65 lbs. Initially both elements have a very similar total surface area and horizontal surface area. However, given that the triangular based module geometry features angled walls, these can be stepped (as shown right) to increase total surface area and horizontal surface area by 10% and 100% respectively. These are important parameters given the intent of serving ecological function as well as by way of providing surfaces for colonization. Greater and more varied surfaces within the module can provide enhanced potential for ecological function and diversity. Additional advantages to the triangular system become apparent when comparing assemblages the two modular systems can create. In order to create a 28” high sill with a 5’ long crest (a very small sill indeed, for comparison purposes only): ■■ The triangular system required the deployment of only 28 units compared to the 38 required of the rectangular system, and ■■ The triangular system required under 1,700 lbs of concrete vs nearly 2,500 lbs of concrete required by the rectangular system. The triangular based system offers advantages from multiple perspectives: ecological habitat surface area , installation labor , material cost, ecological footprint , and transportation. Therefore, the triangular based system is further advanced.

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Rectangular element: 12”x12”x10” high 64 lbs 6.5 sq ft surface area 0.5 sq ft horizontal surface area

Triangular element: 15” triangle face x 10” high 65 lbs 6.4 sq ft surface area 0.5 sq ft horizontal surface area

Stepped triangular element: 15” triangle face x 10” high 65 lbs 7 sq ft surface area 1 sq ft horizontal surface area

60” long crest

28” high sill made of 38 rectangular units totaling 2,449 lbs of concrete

28” high sill made of 28 triangular units totaling 1,683 lbs of concrete

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Above left to right: extruded triangle, twisted, with notches for key-in, and bottom view. Left: three modules placed together with a forth “locking” them in above by use of the key-in notches.

Four module sub-types with stepped walls (left to right): twisted, open top and bottom, module with holes at side walls, and basin module with closed bottom. All modules have identical notch key-ins and can perform as part of a single assemblage.

Four sub-types with varying “mid-drift” widths. Slighter widths provide for greater water flow through an assemblage of modules. All modules have identical notch key-ins and can perform as part of a single assemblage.

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Triangular Module and Stacking The triangular module’s geometry and stacking are best explained through images as described on this page (start at top left and move counter clockwise).

Above and below: top and perspectival front view of a 4-course high assemblage of varying element sub-types. Front view shows slighter width elements at lower courses for increased water flow.

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Five Foot High Sill: side view

SILL SIDE VIEW Diagram only - water elevations approximate

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


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Mean High Water Mean Low Water Rock mattress if necessary at moderate energy locations Emergent low marsh and/or mud flats establishing 'behind' gapped sills

Long Section

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Five Foot High Sill: long section - structural features

LONG SECTION - STRUCTURE Diagram only - water elevations approximate

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Mean High Water Mean Low Water Basin Module Module with openings Rock mattress if necessary at moderate energy locations

Pending site specific requirements and function, modules that create larger gaps between them at the lower elevations to provide greater volume/area for flow Gaps shrink progressively at higher courses pending site requirements System allows for modules to simply stack and interlock at low energy locations, and interlock and be pinned together at moderate energy locations

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Five Foot High Sill: long section - ecological feature

Minnows may be supported below Mean Low Water, along with eastern oysters which also may flourish for a single colonization season also above Mean Low Water (and then freeze in the winter). Shells from dead oysters increase colonization the following season and this buildup can occur also above Mean Low Water Submerged aquatic vegetation may be supported below Mean Low Water at the edges of the sill (species will depend on depth, salinity, wave energy and substrate)

LONG SECTION - ECOLOGY Diagram only - water elevations approximate

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Basin modules above Mean High Water may hold soil and be flooded at times, supporting components of a high salt marsh: salt meadow cordgrass (also called salt meadow hay), saltgrass, salt marsh asters, and orach Basin modules within the tidal rage and at the sill's edge (exposed to light) may hold soil and be regularly flooded, supporting components of a low salt marsh: saltwater cordgrass, sea lavender, and glasswort

Mean High Water Mean Low Water

Mud flats (behind) created/supported by the Sills may host: bivalve mollusks, moon snails, channeled whelk, grass shrimp, and various clams and crabs Ribbed mussles may be supported in associated high salt marsh areas

Perhaps in more saline and higher energy locations, modules below Mean High Water can support (from high to low elevations): barnacles, periwinkle snails, blue mussels, rockweeds and other seaweeds

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About the Project Team Project team and contributors include: ■■ Juliana Barrett, Ph.D., CT Sea Grant, Associate Extension Educator ■■ Jason Bregman, Michael Singer Studio, Environmental Planning and Design Associate ■■ Jonathan Fogelson, Michael Singer Studio, Design and Planning Associate ■■ Tessa Getchis, CT Sea Grant, Extension Educator ■■ Varoujan Hagopian, GEI Consultants, Senior Consultant & Coastal Engineer ■■ Jennifer E.D. O’Donnell, Ph.D., Coastal Ocean Analytics, CEO/Principal Engineer ■■ Michael Singer, Michael Singer Studio, Founder and Lead Artist/Designer ■■ Alison Varian, Chair of the Town of Guilford Shellfish Commission ■■ Jason Zylberman, UConn - M.S., Natural Resources, GIS Analyst

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


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About Michael Singer Studio Michael Singer Studio is a multifaceted art, design, and planning studio focused on understanding and expressing each project’s environmental systems and interactions as well as exploring its social and educational potential. Michael Singer Studio projects are noted for specificity to the site, aesthetic beauty, functionality, and artful details in design and fabrication. The studio offers in-house architectural and landscape architectural design, planning, interpretive design, fabrication, and construction, and is experienced in working with teams that include a variety of other professionals from engineers to botanists and policy makers. Michael Singer’s philosophy toward sculpture, architectural and landscape design, and the environmental design of spaces focuses on 4 core principles that are embodied in the Studio’s work: Site Specificity: Each project is considered individually and crafted to address and interact with the site’s specific program, environmental systems and social context. Michael Singer, along with the Studio’s planners and designers, study each site and explore specific opportunities to reveal a site’s full potential. Every project is designed and built for a specific place ensuring a unique outcome that responds to its context. Ecological Regeneration: For over 25 years Michael Singer has been a leading voice in the creation of spaces that actively regenerate the built environment. From water cleansing gardens to large scale infrastructure projects the Studio has always sought to shape environmental systems to improve ecological health, filter air and water, and create places for people to witness growth and change over time. Craft and Detail: For projects that involve the Studio in the fabrication of site specific elements each piece is hand crafted in Vermont with expert craftsmanship and detailing. Singer’s team of craftsmen has been working with the Studio for decades. The Studio engages a select group of stone, metal and wood suppliers who know Michael Singer’s fabrication processes and expectations intimately. Interdisciplinary Approach: Singer’s approach to projects often includes a wide range of professionals to engage in a collaborative design process. The creation of sculptural gardens calls for biologists, masons, structural engineers, water quality specialists, and landscape architects. Larger planning projects often take in anthropologists, urban designers, whole systems engineers, philosophers, and economists. The goal is to obtain a range of ideas and points of view that then become Singer’s foundation for integrating systems and programs, creating new and refreshing spaces that are unique to their environment.

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Appendix: Roadway Elevation Studies As noted in the Project Focus section of this report, several roadway elevation studies were done as part of early conceptual and planning level work for this project. Due to DOT changes these studies are no longer material to the core of the project report. Concept level drawings representing these studies are provided on this and the several following pages as an appendix to the report.

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Michael Singer Studio and CT Seagrant for JCook Trust, 2017-01-18

Existing Parking Area

EXISTING CONDITIONS PLAN

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


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45'-8" Causeway Structure See Existing Section Existing Culvert

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3'-4"

Water elevation known to overtake roadway at extreme high tide

11' Eastbound

Riprap edge Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD Mean Low Tide south of Causeway -1.6' NGVD

9'

28'

45'-8" overall Ripr

EXISTING SECTION at CAUSEWAY Dimensions Approximate

Water elevation known to overtake roadway at extreme high tide

3'-4"

11' Eastbound

Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD Mean Low Tide south of Causeway -1.6' NGVD

EXISTING SECTION at CULVERT Dimensions Approximate

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


11' Westbound

3'-4" Mean Low Tide north of Causeway +1.8' NGVD Mean High Tide north of Causeway +2.8' NGVD

'-8"

8'

rap base width

11' Westbound

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3'-4" Mean Low Tide north of Causeway +1.8' NGVD Mean High Tide north of Causeway +2.8' NGVD

3' MIN

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3'-4"

11' Eastbound

Roadway elevated by 5'. Road alignment per existing conditions Existing roadway and riprap edge Riprap edge at no more than 1:1 slope Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD Mean Low Tide south of Causeway -1.6' NGVD

9'

28'-

45'-8" overall Ripr

BASIC ELEVATED ROADWAY SECTION at CAUSEWAY Dimensions Approximate

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


11' Westbound

-8"

3'-4"

Mean Low Tide north of Causeway +1.8' NGVD Mean High Tide north of Causeway +2.8' NGVD

8'

rap base width

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Existing Parking Area

Walkway begins to rise at less than 5% incline and embankment widens

See ENHANCED 1 and ENHANCED 2 Sections

ENHANCED ELEVATED ROADWAY PLAN

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Widened Culvert (see culvert section drawings)

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2' Roadway elevated by 5'

4' Bike

12' Eastbound

Existing roadway and riprap edge Concrete Retaining Wall (possibly textured) Vegetated Coir Logs slope at 1:1 Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD Mean Low Tide south of Causeway -1.6' NGVD

2'

38'-0"

ENHANCED 1: ALTERNATIVE SECTION at CAUSEWAY Dimensions Approximate

5' Bike

Roadway elevated by 5'

45'-8" overall base width widened further with add

11' Eastbound

1

Existing roadway and riprap edge Concrete Retaining Wall (possibly textured) Vegetated Coir Logs slope at 1:1 Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD Mean Low Tide south of Causeway -1.6' NGVD

4'

ENHANCED 2: ALTERNATIVE SECTION at CAUSEWAY Dimensions Approximate

34'-0"

MAX 45'-8" overall base be widened further with a

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


12' Westbound

4' Bike

12' travel lane, 4' bicycle lane, 2' bicycle horizontal clearance per DOT Draft Bicycle Planning and Design Guidelines Manual 2'

Vegetated Coir Logs slope at 1:1

5' Walk

h per existing conditions. Could be ditional vegetated coir log slope

11' Westbound

11' travel lane per existing conditions, 5' bicycle lane incl. horizontal clearance for a 45'8" causeway base to meet existing conditions

5' Bike

Vegetated Coir Logs slope at 1:1

5' Walk

width per existing conditions. Could additional vegetated coir log slope

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Michael Singer Studio and CT Seagrant for JCook Trust, 2017-01-18

Roadway alignment per selec East-West Sections: see below Existing roadway and culvert Mean High Tide south of Causeway +2.2' NGVD

ENHANCED 1 and 2: SECTION at CULVERT

Alternative Box Culvert

5'

6' Existing 15' Minimum

CULVERT EAST-WEST SECTIONS Box culvert alternative

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


cted alternative

Proposed Roadway Typical Existing Culvert Typical Rocks to match Bathymetry on either side Typical Existing Roadway Typical Alternative Elliptical Pipe Culvert

5'

6' Existing 15' Minimum

CULVERT EAST-WEST SECTIONS Elliptical pipe culvert alternative

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Michael Singer Studio and CT Seagrant for JCook Trust, 2017-01-18

Gapped Sills to promote the establishment of marsh and/or mud flats south of elevated roadway. To be designed given site specific considerations (placement, spacing, height, etc)

ENHANCED ELEVATED ROADWAY PLAN with SILLS

Michael Singer Studio in collaboration with Connecticut Sea Grant - Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelin


Elevated Roadway and Widened Culvert

Sill Section

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Profile for Michael Singer

Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelines  

This document summarizes a Jeffrey Cook Charitable Trust funded collaboration between Michael Singer Studio and Connecticut Sea Grant. This...

Innovating Gapped Sill Living Shorelines  

This document summarizes a Jeffrey Cook Charitable Trust funded collaboration between Michael Singer Studio and Connecticut Sea Grant. This...

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