STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, ISABELLE JOOSTE SIMONE ROLLASON 23368
Table of Contents 5 INTRODUCTION 6 PART A - CONCEPTUALISATION 8 A.1 DESIGN FUTURING 14 A.2 COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN 20 A.3 COMPOSITION versus GENERATION 26 A.4 CONCLUSION 27 A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES 28 A.6 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES 43 A.7 REFERENCES
Simone Rollason From: Sent: To:
Simone Rollason [sro Monday, 6 August 20 simonerollason@opt
SIMONE ROLLASON I am a third year bachelor of environments student (majoring in Architecture). I have been studying at the University of Melbourne part time for the last four years. I am also a wife and mother to three growing children. I have returned back to study due to my love of architecture and its ability to transform people, spaces and the environment. I am an environmental engineer/ environmental scientist in a prior life. I have always look to the environment as a source of inspiration. I also have deep concern and frustration about the lack of action on climate change. I have just started work at an architectural practise. I am finding the work really challenging and inspiring. I know this is the career I want to pursue. Over the last four years my knowledge of digital design has been transformed. I initially lacked confidence, unsure of my digital capabilities and the ability to design. However through practice, patience and determination I am learning from my mistakes and gaining more enjoyment from the digital world.
Â Simone Rollason 1 Nicholson Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia T +61 3 8664 6200 D +613 9999 4451
PART A - CONCEPTUALISATION
The initial design process, determining WHAT is to be built and HOW it will be built.
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING
Design Futuring is securing the future through design. The future, however, cannot always be secured by current approaches to design. It requires problem solving beyond the current trajectory of thinking. Fry (2009) is concerned with the state of the environment, and the worlds unsustainable consumption of resources. Humans are failing to find a adequate solution to the problem. One of the reasons, Fry believes, is because humans can be influenced by their political, financial and ecological environment, consciously and sub consciously1.. Fry refers to this concept as the “baggage of modernity”2. Using “design intelligence” is a way to challenge the obstacles relating to Design Futuring. This requires critical examination and reflection of the current world and human behaviours3. Computers for example, are a useful tool in assisting with this critical thinking process. The precedences presented in this Section, demonstrate how designers used design intelligence, critiquing the current state of the world, to secure a better or alternative future. Although they are both concept designs, they can act as a source of inspiration for designers to build upon.
1.Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Oxford: Berg, 2008, pp 9 1.Fry, Design Futuring, pp 9 3 Fry, Design Futuring, pp 13
ARCHIGRAM: THE PLUG IN CITY Archigram was a publication issued in the early 1960s by a group of architects from the UK who had a vision to break away from the ideals of modernism and corresponding conformist design4. They developed a number of visionary concepts in their publication, one concept being the Plug In City (1965). Plug in City is an imaginary city based on movable parts, where buildings can be moved or adjusted according to the changing needs and desires of society over time, for example, transforming a city into a pedestrianised city in the event that cars are no longer used5. These designs were never built, but were intended to inspire and construct ideals that were beyond the mainstream. They looked to new technologies and ideologies for inspiration, such as low cost materials, emerging technology and pop culture. The concepts developed from Archigram generated a progressive shift in modernist architectural design moving forward. Built examples were established at the time of Archigramâ€™s prominence, utilising their theories and ideals. The Metabolists movement, in Japan6, .is one such example. One of the architects of this movement, Kisho Kurokawa designed the Nakagin Capsule Tower, which contains adjustable pre-fabricated capsules for residential and commercial spaces Archigram and The Plug In City still influence architectural design and urban planning today. We currently live in a society where resources are increasingly becoming limited and there is a greater need to recycle and reuse. At the same time, technology is becoming more and more advanced. As Dunne and Dune and Raby (2013) state, the younger generation are hoping for solutions instead of dreaming7, Exploring alternative visions for the future and embracing new technology and systems, may give society a better chance to solve challenging issues in todayâ€™s society such as climate change, which at this point in time seem hopeless and impossible.
FIG.1: PLUG IN CITY CONCEPT BY PETER COOK AND DENNIS COMPTON (1965) FOR ARCHIGRAM 8
FIG.3: NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER CONCEPT DRAWINGS, TOKYO, BY KISHO KUROKAWA, 1972 10
FIG.2: PLUG IN CITY DETAILED CONCEPT BY PETER COOK AND DENNIS COMPTON (1965) FOR ARCHIGRAM 9
FIG.4: NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER, TOKYO, BY KISHO KUROKAWA, 1972 11 4. Paul B, Joskot. “Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 102 5. Priscilla Champan. “THE PLUG - IN CITY.” Ekistics, vol. 20, no. 120, 1965, pp. 279 6 Ken Tadashi Oshima. “Metabolist Trajectories.” Log, no. 24, 2012, pp. 28–32 7. Antony Dune & Fiona Raby (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press), pp9 8. Gili Merin, AD Classics: The Plug In City/ Peter Cook, Archigram, Arch Daily, 10 July 2013 < https://www.archdaily. com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-peter-cook-archigram> [7 August 2018] 9. Gili Merin, AD Classics 10. Archeyes, Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo / Kisho Kurokawa,” ArchEyes, 3 March 2016 <http://archeyes.com/nakagin-capsule-tower-kisho-kurokawa>. [7 August 2018] 11. Rory Scott, Spotlight: Kisho Kurokawa, Arch Daily 8 April 2018, <https://www.archdaily.com/616907/spotlight-kisho-kurokawa> [7 August 2018]
NASA: MARS DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST Since 2014, NASA as been promoting a competition (released in three parts) to design shelters that enable humans to inhabit Mars on a permanent or temporary basis. They must be practical from a constructibility and functional perspective, and be self sustaining. Designers were given the opportunity to submit proposals at each stage. Stage I required designers to submit concept ideas using rendered designs, Stage II of the competition required designers to include submissions describing the structural and material components of the design, and for Stage III of the competition (in 2017), designers were required to fabricate scaled models of their project and demonstrate the capability of incorporating Business Information Modelling (BIM) systems into the design12. Over the last four years there has been hundreds of entries. For example, one of the finalists in 2017, Team Lava, developed a Hive Design Proposal. The Hive Design Proposal comprised connectible dome pods, constructed from recycled spacecraft parts and molten soil and rock (regolith), sourced from the site. The material was then sealed with an adhesive to resist the harsh environmental conditions. These forms would have the capability to be positioned above and below ground13 The competition is heavily geared toward the promotion of US Government, in particular NASA, and also provides strong commercial interests for the designers. It does however promote a strong collaborative relationship between scientists and designers to explore a future on another planet, required either by necessity or in response to humansâ€™ advancement in technology. The constraints and opportunities encountered in the design process are in stark contrast to those required for Earth. It enables designers to explore a different future from the normal; freedom in the exploration of form, but with strict, complex constraints surrounding technology, transportation and constructibility, the environment, resources and sustainability. These designs provide an opportunity for further development, should humans be in the unfortunate situation of being unable to reduce the impeding consequences of climate change.
FIG.5: TEAM LAVA HIVE’S DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR NASA’S DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST ON MARS14
FIG.6: TEAM LAVA HIVE’S DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR NASA’S DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST ON MARS (GROUND LEVEL)15
12. Chelsea Gohd, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs for Our Future Martian Homes’, Futurism, 10 January 2017, <https:// futurism.com/nasa-just-released-the-top-designs-for-our-future-martian-homes/> [7 August 2018] 13. Jennifer Harbaugh, ‘Top Five Teams Win a Share of $100,000 in Virtual Modeling Stage of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Competition’ NASA, 24 July 2018 <https:// www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/3DPHab/five-teams-win-a-share-of-100000-in-virtual-modeling-stage> [7 August 2018] 14. Gohd, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs’
A.2 COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN
Computational design is using computational tools, such as parametric algorithmic models to generate designs which are unable to be created using solely human capabilities. As technology is becoming more advanced, the adoption of such design methods are becoming increasingly more integrated into architectural design practices, it is important to understand how computational design is impacting the architectural industry and more broadly speaking, the design industry, and also distinguish this method of design from the more mainstream process of computer generated design. Computer generated design are designs that have been conceived by humans and then configured into a digital platform. It can be at times challenging to distinguish the difference between computational design and computer generated design as some architectural practices, like Zaha Hadid Architects, like to promote that they are an innovated design practice by utilising “digital practices’, whereas in reality lot of their designs are computer generated15. The forms that are generated from computational design systems, in general, are significantly more complex, and as consequence, they have several advantages. The designs are able to respond more accurately to environmental factors, such as climate and topographics; they improve synthesis with other professions such as structural and mechanical industries16; and they also broaden the materiality scope as these tools are be able to test the material performance of new material technologies. Computational design facilitates Design Futuring. This technology is able to formulate innovative designs, beyond the realm of human capability, to generate alternative practical solutions. The built environment generates numerous inefficiencies which are currently contributing to the problems arising from climate change. Precedents such as the “Living Bridge” and the “Blob Work Pavilion” are demonstrating that the collaboration between humans (input) and computers (output) is developing solutions that have the ability to reduce the need for wasteful and resource intensive practices.
15. Kirsty Sier, “Zaha Hadid Principal, Patrik Schumacher, On How Parametric Design Can Bring Architecture Back to Nature”, Architecture and Design, 20 September 2017, < HTTPS://WWW.ARCHITECTUREANDDESIGN.COM.AU/FEATURES/COMMENT/ZAHA-HADID-PRINCIPAL-PATRIK-SCHUMACHER-ON-HOW-PARA> [7 AUGUST 2018] 16. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp5
LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA The Living Bridge is a concept design developed in 2012 by students at the University of Pennsylvania David Eaton, Geoffrey Klein and Michael Wetmore. The design is a bridge that connects two suburbs in Tokyo, Ginza and Tsukishima, which are separated by the Sumida River. The form was purely designed using parametric modelling. The first step was to collate, model and combine the pedestrian and vehicular movements patterns of people across the two neighbourhoods, generating a single non-linear pattern. The entangled movement patterns were computationally reinterpreted as agent based systems, which were then modelled as a vector field. Decking agents generated paths for walking, cycling and vehicles, through analysis of the vector field. Finally self-organising paths were computationally introduced to change their shape and connectivity, which was determined by the degree of turbulence of the field17. This project demonstrates that the human input in design is reducing. In this case study, numerical data and computational algorithms generated the form, it was human intervention that determined the inputs. Computational modelling and its subsequent fabrication of this project demonstrates that it is feasible for such a design to be built in the future. There are practical and safety limitations to the design being fully utilised, for example pedestrians walking across the tendons, however if the model could be integrated with other modelling systems, for example structural modelling and fabrication systems, then this project could be further reconfigured and refined to become a reality.
FIG.7: RENDERED CONCEPT IMAGE OF LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 18
FIG.8: MOVEMENT PATTERNS OF THE TWO NEIGHBOURHOODS IN TOKYO, GINZA AND TSUKISHIMA (LEFT) AND THE PATTERNS COMBINED (RIGHT) 19
FIG.9 AERIAL RENDERED IMAGE OF LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 20
FIG.10 FABRICATED MODEL OF THE LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 21
17. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, SuckerPUNCH, 16 February 2012, (Hume Cover Studio), <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/02/16/living-bridge/#more-16573< [7 August 2018] 18. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 19. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 20. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 21 SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia
GREG LYNN, SCI-ARC BLOB WALL PAVILLION The Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-ARC) displayed Greg Lynnâ€™s pavilion in 2008. The pavilion was made from a low density, recyclable, impact resistant polymer. Using parametric computer systems, each module was moulded and robotically cut according to the corresponding parametric modelling design. The fabricated pieces were then positioned in place with precision22. The Blob Wall was intended to de-construct a traditional rusticated wall, but also create a new construction system that would be an improvement on conventional masonry construction and associated materials. This system reduces labour, waste and cost; the fabricated modules are light weight and have a greater resistance to water penetration23. This project demonstrates that the utilisation of parametric modelling systems is able to compute the integration of complex geometries but also test the performance of a new material. Designing this system and itâ€™s materials is well beyond the capabilities of a human. In comparison to the previous precedence, the Blob Wall does require more input from humans, particularly in relation to assembly of the wall, which was done by hand. However it is envisaged with further research, robots would have the capability to perform such actions in the future.
FIG.11: SCI-ARC BLOB WALL PAVILION 24
FIG.12: CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCI-ARC WALL PAVILION 25-
FIG.13: THE COMPONENTS OF THE SCI-ARC WALL PAVILION26
22. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion, Arc Space, 29 August 2012, (Danish Architecture Centre), <https://arcspace.com/exhibition/blobwall-pavilion/> [7 August 2012] 23. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 24. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 25. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 26. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion
A.3 COMPOSITION versus GENERATION
Human design has historically considered “Composition” to be one of the important criteria for design. For example, for classical architecture, the success of a Composition is dependent on a number of factors including, hierarchy, symmetry, unity, techtonicity, and co-ordination 27. Generation on the other hand, is the creation of a design that is generated purely on data that has been reinterpreted algorithmically to produce a form. Similar to Composition, iterations can be generated to determine the final form. However in contrast, there are no formal rules to the Composition of the final form. The form is unexpected. For example for L system programs, there is a recursive process, where the form builds upon itself and a series of iterations are produced. Humans or the computer model can determine the final form based on a set of criteria. For our studio project, we will be selecting the final design. As stated by McMurrough (2008): “Attention to date has been to which [enabling technologies] generate unexpected result, though its possibilities are perhaps less significant for the generation of novel form and much more useful for questioning inherited conceptual strictures. These are questions not about the limits of architectural styles but that of one discipline, and perhaps the beginning of another. What is necessary is a re-articulating of the capabilities of architecture, in order to retest the historical legacies of the architectural and to re-engage an understanding of these once again as a means, not ends”28. Generation design takes design power further away from the human and more towards the computer. It is up to us designers to accept the relationship and seek new opportunities, as the increasing power of the computer is inevitable.
27. Raúl Arnaldo Gómez Crespo, and Alfonso Corona Martinez. “Principles of Classical Composition in Architecture and Urban Design.” JAE, vol. 36, no. 1, 1982, pp. 25 28. McMorrough, John. “Ru(m)Inations: The Haunts of Contemporary Architecture.” Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 169
LIFE AQUATECH, ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, LONDON (THINKTANK) The designers of this project were students from the Architectural Association School of Architecture, who wanted to capture the movement of water in a building, so that it could provide improved thermal comfort. The form of the Life Aquatech structure was created by collecting data and transferring this data into a parametric model. The output of the model was optimised using a Generation process, to create a form that has the greatest ability to promote the collection, storage and movement of water, whilst being structurally capable and also take advantage of the good thermal properties of water. This model was fabricated and tested, which helped the designers deduce that the building could be constructed in light weight rigid fibreglass and the water could to be distributed through the structure using a soft expandable silicone membrane29. This is an example of a project where the computer model largely determines the design of the structure. Data was collected relating to water flow and thermal resistance as well as the performance properties of the proposed materials. The model utilised this data to computationally determine the best structure for the objectives proposed. Humans formulated the tests and assessed the suitability of the system outputs
FIG.14: LIFE AQUATECH PROJECT, AERIAL VIEW 30
FIG.15: GENERATION MATRIX, GROUPING DESGNS ACCORDING TO DATA OUTPUTS
FIG.16: FABRICATION OF MODEL - 1:1 PROTOTYPE 32
FIG.17: COLLECTION OF DATA FOR THE MODEL 33
30. ThinkTANK, TinkTANK, Architectural Association School of Architecture, (AADRL, revised 2014) < http://drl.aaschool.ac.uk/portfolio/think-tank/>[7 August 2018] 31. ThinkTANK, TinkTANK 32. Maggie Wang, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech: Water Generative Design, 10 September 2013, (Design Bloom revised 2018) < https:// www.designboom.com/architecture/thinktank-and-the-life-aquatech-water-generative-design/>[7 August 2018] 33. Maggie Wang, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech
PS1 Pavilion, MOMA PS1, New York, Xefiroarch This pavilion was constructed as part of the 2005 MoMA PS1 Young Architects Program. The design was formulated entirely by digital computational methods. The computational model started with a single defined cell that was programmed to multiply; replicating behaviour of organisms and how these cells relate to each other. The incremental growth of the form was observed and a final design was selected. There was no intentional narrative for the design, the computer generated the form via active rules and emergent behaviour. Prototypes were developed using fibreglass fabrication and moulding and the final installation was built in fibreglass, rubber and aluminium covered in latex and polyurethane sprayed spandex34,35. The director of Xerfiroarch, Hernan Diaz Alonso, described his design as being the â€œmoment where the grotesque and the horrific, things that are a little bit unknown, become codified and knownâ€?36. Alonso is exploring forms that do not conform to the contemporary view of beauty and resultant value. He considers that history will change over time, and so will our perception of beauty and worth. Emergent architecture needs to be encouraged and supported, technology is ever changing. If we chose to retain opinions that will be redundant in the future, opportunities for innovation and improvement will be lost.
FIG.18: RENDERED AERIAL VIEW OF THE PAVILION 37
FIG.19: RENDERED PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE PAVILION 38
FIG.20: CONSTRUCTED PAVILLION 39 FIG.21: PAVILLION PROGRAM 40 34. Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso: Winner of this Yearâ€™s MoMA/PS1 Young Architects Program, 11 April 2005, (Archinet) < https://archinect. com/features/article/17584/hernan-diaz-alonso-winner-of-this-year-s-moma-ps1-young-architects-program> [7 August 2018] 35. Archinet, SUR at MoMA PS1, 7 February 2014, (Archinet) <https://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/sur-at-moma-ps1-3671> [7 August 2018] 36.
Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso
Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso
38. Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso 39. Archinet, SUR at MoMA 40. Archinet, SUR at MoMA
The precedents discussed in this Chapter demonstrate that parametric algorithmic modelling gives architects and designers the ability to design and create well beyond human capability. Computers are able to calculate algorithms that produce complex forms. Integrating strict parameters in these parametric software models, in particular relating to mechanical and structural systems, results in more effective outcomes and also promotes better dialogue between the different building professions. In comparison, humans have less computational power and have the predisposition to be influenced by range of factors relating to their environment. These include cultural, political, environmental and financial factors. These factors can stifle creative design and more importantly problem solving. The theory to develop new alternative ideas has been around for a long time, as demonstrated with the visions of Archigram, and so has the technology to implement such ideas. In recent years however, the development of such technology is growing at a rapid pace, to the extent that humans may be removed from the architectural design process in the future. As architects, it is important that we find ways to embrace this technology, whilst still being present in the industry. Currently most of the examples discussed in this journal are concept or pavilions, largely because of the unfortunate constraints in planning laws, societyâ€™s perception of aesthetics and cost. Architects, the financial sector and government need to become more educated in the world of parametric modelling and have trust in the ability to achieve better outcomes for the future. The downward trajectory of the health of the environment suggests that such action is required urgently.
ASSIGNMENT Experimentation and generation of form through algorithmic modelling will be an ideal method for developing a structure for our groupâ€™s Client, the Leadbeater Possum. Meeting the needs of the Client will be based on scientific data and rules, which can be transposed into algorithmic models. Computationally designing such a space that scientifically and accurately meets the needs of the client will produce a better outcome compared to an analogue generated design, which has greater uncertainty and therefore greater risk of failure.
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
During this subject, our group will be venturing into new programs and fabrication systems. They are very powerful tools, with immense capability. I have to put my hand up and admit that I was a luddite before I started this degree, largely because of my lack of confidence and knowledge. Since commencing this degree and in particular this subject, I now appreciate the opportunities that computational modelling can provide. I cannot ignore the role computational modelling plays in the design process. I have just started work in an architectural practise and I beginning to observe and appreciate the work done by others in grasshopper. My challenge for this assignment will be to ensure that the algorithms and variables developed in our models adequately correspond to the environmental conditions of the site and the micro-habitat requirements of the Client. This will require extensive time experimenting with the models and form finding. My algorithmic sketchbook will hopefully reflect my journey.
A.6 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
Further exploration of form
Selected on ability to hold water though hollow top
Further exploration of form
Selected due to its greater complexity
Further exploration of form
Selected due to its variability of pattern
1. Archeyes, Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo / Kisho Kurokawa,” ArchEyes, 3 March 2016 <http:// archeyes.com/nakagin-capsule-tower-kisho-kurokawa>. [7 August 2018] 2. Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso: winner of this year’s MoMA/PS1 Young Architects Program, 11 April 2005, (Archinet) < https://archinect.com/features/article/17584/hernan-diaz-alonsowinner-of-this-year-s-moma-ps1-young-architects-program> [7 August 2018] 3. Archinet, SUR at MoMA PS1, 7 February 2014, (Archinet) <https://www.architectmagazine. com/project-gallery/sur-at-moma-ps1-3671> [7 August 2018] 4. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion, Arc Space, 29 August 2012, (Danish Architecture Centre), <https://arcspace.com/exhibition/blobwall-pavilion/> [7 August 2012] 5. Arnaldo Gómez Crespo, Raúl, and Corona Martinez, Alfonso. “Principles of Classical Composition in Architecture and Urban Design.” JAE, vol. 36, no. 1, 1982, pp. 24-25 6. Chapman, Priscilla. “THE PLUG - IN CITY.” Ekistics, vol. 20, no. 120, 1965, pp. 279–280 7. Dune, Antony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) 8. Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Oxford: Berg, 2008 9. Gohd, Chelsea, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs for Our Future Martian Homes’, Futurism, 10 January 2017, <https://futurism.com/nasa-just-released-the-top-designs-for-our-future-martian-homes/> [7 August 2018] 10. Harbaugh, Jennifer, ‘Top Five Teams Win a Share of $100,000 in Virtual Modeling Stage of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Competition’ NASA, 24 July 2018 <https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_ challenges/3DPHab/five-teams-win-a-share-of-100000-in-virtual-modeling-stage> [7 August 2018] 11. McMorrough, John. “Ru(m)Inations: The Haunts of Contemporary Architecture.” Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 169 12. Merin, Gili , AD Classics: The Plug In City/ Peter Cook, Archigram, Arch Daily, 10 July 2013 < https://www. archdaily.com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-peter-cook-archigram> [7 August 2018] 13. Jaskot, Paul B. “Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 102–104 14. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge) 15. Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 164–169., www.jstor.org/stable/40482294 16. Scott, Rory, Spotlight: Kisho Kurokawa, Arch Daily 8 April 2018, <https://www. archdaily.com/616907/spotlight-kisho-kurokawa> [7 August 2018] 17. Sier, Kirsty, “Zaha Hadid Principal, Patrik Schumacher, On How Parametric Design Can Bring Architecture Back to Nature”, Architecture and Design, 20 September 2017, < HTTPS://WWW.ARCHITECTUREANDDESIGN.COM.AU/ FEATURES/COMMENT/ZAHA-HADID-PRINCIPAL-PATRIK-SCHUMACHER-ON-HOW-PARA> [7 AUGUST 2018] 18. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, SuckerPUNCH, 16 February 2012, (Hume Cover Studio), <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/02/16/living-bridge/#more-16573< [7 August 2018] 19. Tadashi Oshima, Ken. “Metabolist Trajectories.” Log, no. 24, 2012, pp. 28–32 20. ThinkTANK, TinkTANK, Architectural Association School of Architecture, (AADRL, revised 2014) < http://drl.aaschool.ac.uk/portfolio/think-tank/>[7 August 2018] 21. Wang, Maggie, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech: Water Generative Design, 10 September 2013, (Design Bloom revised 2018) < https://www.designboom.com/architecture/thinktank-and-the-life-aquatech-water-generative-design/>[7 August 2018]