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STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, ISABELLE JOOSTE SIMONE ROLLASON 23368


Table of Contents 5 INTRODUCTION 6  PART A : CONCEPTUALIZATION 9  DESIGN FUTURING 15  COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN 21  COMPOSITION versus GENERATION 26 CONCLUSION 27  LEARNING OUTCOMES 28  PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN 31  BIOMIMICRY AND THE DESIGN PROJECT 43  CASE STUDY 1: VORONOI 51  CASE STUDY 2: WEAVERBIRD 59  TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 75 PROTOTYPES 91  TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL 103  LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 105  ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES 129 REFERENCES


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CONCEPTUALISATION


INTRODUCTION

Simone Rollason From: Sent: To:

Simone Rollason [sro Monday, 6 August 20 simonerollason@opt

SIMONE ROLLASON I am a third year bachelor of environments student (majoring in Architecture). I have been studying at the University of Melbourne part time for the last four years. I am also a wife and mother to three growing children. I have returned back to study due to my love of architecture and its ability to transform people, spaces and the environment. I am an environmental engineer/ environmental scientist in a prior life. I have always look to the environment as a source of inspiration. I also have deep concern and frustration about the lack of action on climate change. I have just started work at an architectural practise. I am finding the work really challenging and inspiring. I know this is the career I want to pursue. Over the last four years my knowledge of digital design has been transformed. I initially lacked confidence, unsure of my digital capabilities and the ability to design. However through practice, patience and determination I am learning from my mistakes and gaining more enjoyment from the digital world.

 Simone Rollason 1 Nicholson Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 Australia T +61 3 8664 6200 D +613 9999 4451

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PART A : CONCEPTUALIZATION

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CONCEPTUALISATION


The initial design process, determining WHAT is to be built and HOW it will be built.

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A1

DESIGN FUTURING

Design Futuring is securing the future through design. The future, however, cannot always be secured by current approaches to design. It requires problem solving beyond the current trajectory of thinking. Fry (2009) is concerned with the state of the environment, and the worlds unsustainable consumption of resources. Humans are failing to find a adequate solution to the problem. One of the reasons, Fry believes, is because humans can be influenced by their political, financial and ecological environment, consciously and sub consciously1. . Fry refers to this concept as the “baggage of modernity”2. Using “design intelligence” is a way to challenge the obstacles relating to Design Futuring. This requires critical examination and reflection of the current world and human behaviours3. Computers for example, are a useful tool in assisting with this critical thinking process. The precedences presented in this Section, demonstrate how designers used design intelligence, critiquing the current state of the world, to secure a better or alternative future. Although they are both concept designs, they can act as a source of inspiration for designers to build upon.

1.Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Oxford: Berg, 2008, pp 9 1.Fry, Design Futuring, pp 9 3 Fry, Design Futuring, pp 13

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ARCHIGRAM: THE PLUG IN CITY Archigram was a publication issued in the early 1960s by a group of architects from the UK who had a vision to break away from the ideals of modernism and corresponding conformist design4. They developed a number of visionary concepts in their publication, one concept being the Plug In City (1965). Plug in City is an imaginary city based on movable parts, where buildings can be moved or adjusted according to the changing needs and desires of society over time, for example, transforming a city into a pedestrianised city in the event that cars are no longer used5. These designs were never built, but were intended to inspire and construct ideals that were beyond the mainstream. They looked to new technologies and ideologies for inspiration, such as low cost materials, emerging technology and pop culture. The concepts developed from Archigram generated a progressive shift in modernist architectural design moving forward. Built examples were established at the time of Archigram’s prominence, utilising their theories and ideals. The Metabolists movement, in Japan6, .is one such example. One of the architects of this movement, Kisho Kurokawa designed the Nakagin Capsule Tower, which contains adjustable pre-fabricated capsules for residential and commercial spaces Archigram and The Plug In City still influence architectural design and urban planning today. We currently live in a society where resources are increasingly becoming limited and there is a greater need to recycle and reuse. At the same time, technology is becoming more and more advanced. As Dunne and Dune and Raby (2013) state, the younger generation are hoping for solutions instead of dreaming7, Exploring alternative visions for the future and embracing new technology and systems, may give society a better chance to solve challenging issues in today’s society such as climate change, which at this point in time seem hopeless and impossible.

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FIG.1: PLUG IN CITY CONCEPT BY PETER COOK AND DENNIS COMPTON (1965) FOR ARCHIGRAM

FIG.2: PLUG IN CITY DETAILED CONCEPT BY PETER COOK AND DENNIS COMPTON (1965) FOR ARCHIGRAM 9


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FIG.3: NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER CONCEPT DRAWINGS, TOKYO, BY KISHO KUROKAWA, 1972 10

FIG.4: NAKAGIN CAPSULE TOWER, TOKYO, BY KISHO KUROKAWA, 1972 11

4. Paul B, Joskot. “Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 102 5. Priscilla Champan. “THE PLUG - IN CITY.” Ekistics, vol. 20, no. 120, 1965, pp. 279 6 Ken Tadashi Oshima. “Metabolist Trajectories.” Log, no. 24, 2012, pp. 28–32 7. Antony Dune & Fiona Raby (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press), pp9 8. Gili Merin, AD Classics: The Plug In City/ Peter Cook, Archigram, Arch Daily, 10 July 2013 < https://www.archdaily. com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-peter-cook-archigram> [7 August 2018] 9. Gili Merin, AD Classics 10. Archeyes, Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo / Kisho Kurokawa,” ArchEyes, 3 March 2016 <http://archeyes.com/nakagin-capsule-tower-kisho-kurokawa>. [7 August 2018] 11. Rory Scott, Spotlight: Kisho Kurokawa, Arch Daily 8 April 2018, <https://www.archdaily.com/616907/spotlight-kisho-kurokawa> [7 August 2018]

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NASA: MARS DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST Since 2014, NASA as been promoting a competition (released in three parts) to design shelters that enable humans to inhabit Mars on a permanent or temporary basis. They must be practical from a constructibility and functional perspective, and be self sustaining. Designers were given the opportunity to submit proposals at each stage. Stage I required designers to submit concept ideas using rendered designs, Stage II of the competition required designers to include submissions describing the structural and material components of the design, and for Stage III of the competition (in 2017), designers were required to fabricate scaled models of their project and demonstrate the capability of incorporating Business Information Modelling (BIM) systems into the design12. Over the last four years there has been hundreds of entries. For example, one of the finalists in 2017, Team Lava, developed a Hive Design Proposal. The Hive Design Proposal comprised connectible dome pods, constructed from recycled spacecraft parts and molten soil and rock (regolith), sourced from the site. The material was then sealed with an adhesive to resist the harsh environmental conditions. These forms would have the capability to be positioned above and below ground13

FIG.5: TEAM LAVA HIVEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR NASAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST ON MARS14

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The competition is heavily geared toward the promotion of US Government, in particular NASA, and also provides strong commercial interests for the designers. It does however promote a strong collaborative relationship between scientists and designers to explore a future on another planet, required either by necessity or in response to humans’ advancement in technology. The constraints and opportunities encountered in the design process are in stark contrast to those required for Earth. It enables designers to explore a different future from the normal; freedom in the exploration of form, but with strict, complex constraints surrounding technology, transportation and constructibility, the environment, resources and sustainability. These designs provide an opportunity for further development, should humans be in the unfortunate situation of being unable to reduce the impeding consequences of climate change.

FIG.6: TEAM LAVA HIVE’S DESIGN PROPOSAL FOR NASA’S DESIGN HABITAT CONTEST ON MARS (GROUND LEVEL)15

12. Chelsea Gohd, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs for Our Future Martian Homes’, Futurism, 10 January 2017, <https:// futurism.com/nasa-just-released-the-top-designs-for-our-future-martian-homes/> [7 August 2018] 13. Jennifer Harbaugh, ‘Top Five Teams Win a Share of $100,000 in Virtual Modeling Stage of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Competition’ NASA, 24 July 2018 <https:// www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/3DPHab/five-teams-win-a-share-of-100000-in-virtual-modeling-stage> [7 August 2018] 14. Gohd, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs’

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A1

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN

Computational design is using computational tools, such as parametric algorithmic models to generate designs which are unable to be created using solely human capabilities. As technology is becoming more advanced, the adoption of such design methods are becoming increasingly more integrated into architectural design practices, it is important to understand how computational design is impacting the architectural industry and more broadly speaking, the design industry, and also distinguish this method of design from the more mainstream process of computer generated design. Computer generated design are designs that have been conceived by humans and then configured into a digital platform. It can be at times challenging to distinguish the difference between computational design and computer generated design as some architectural practices, like Zaha Hadid Architects, like to promote that they are an innovated design practice by utilising “digital practices’, whereas in reality lot of their designs are computer generated15.

The forms that are generated from computational design systems, in general, are significantly more complex, and as consequence, they have several advantages. The designs are able to respond more accurately to environmental factors, such as climate and topographics; they improve synthesis with other professions such as structural and mechanical industries16; and they also broaden the materiality scope as these tools are be able to test the material performance of new material technologies. Computational design facilitates Design Futuring. This technology is able to formulate innovative designs, beyond the realm of human capability, to generate alternative practical solutions. The built environment generates numerous inefficiencies which are currently contributing to the problems arising from climate change. Precedents such as the “Living Bridge” and the “Blob Work Pavilion” are demonstrating that the collaboration between humans (input) and computers (output) is developing solutions that have the ability to reduce the need for wasteful and resource intensive practices.

15. Kirsty Sier, “Zaha Hadid Principal, Patrik Schumacher, On How Parametric Design Can Bring Architecture Back to Nature”, Architecture and Design, 20 September 2017, < HTTPS://WWW.ARCHITECTUREANDDESIGN.COM.AU/FEATURES/COMMENT/ZAHA-HADID-PRINCIPAL-PATRIK-SCHUMACHER-ON-HOW-PARA> [7 AUGUST 2018] 16. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp5

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LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA The Living Bridge is a concept design developed in 2012 by students at the University of Pennsylvania David Eaton, Geoffrey Klein and Michael Wetmore. The design is a bridge that connects two suburbs in Tokyo, Ginza and Tsukishima, which are separated by the Sumida River. The form was purely designed using parametric modelling. The first step was to collate, model and combine the pedestrian and vehicular movements patterns of people across the two neighbourhoods, generating a single non-linear pattern. The entangled movement patterns were computationally reinterpreted as agent based systems, which were then modelled as a vector field. Decking agents generated paths for walking, cycling and vehicles, through analysis of the vector field. Finally self-organising paths were computationally introduced to change their shape and connectivity, which was determined by the degree of turbulence of the field17. This project demonstrates that the human input in design is reducing. In this case study, numerical data and computational algorithms generated the form, it was human intervention that determined the inputs. Computational modelling and its subsequent fabrication of this project demonstrates that it is feasible for such a design to be built in the future. There are practical and safety limitations to the design being fully utilised, for example pedestrians walking across the tendons, however if the model could be integrated with other modelling systems, for example structural modelling and fabrication systems, then this project could be further reconfigured and refined to become a reality.

FIG.7: RENDERED CONCEPT IMAGE OF LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 18

FIG.8: MOVEMENT PATTERNS OF THE TWO NEIGHBOURHOODS IN TOKYO, GINZA AND TSUKISHIMA (LEFT) AND THE PATTERNS COMBINED (RIGHT) 19

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FIG.9 AERIAL RENDERED IMAGE OF LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 20

FIG.10 FABRICATED MODEL OF THE LIVING BRIDGE, TOKYO 21

17. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, SuckerPUNCH, 16 February 2012, (Hume Cover Studio), <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/02/16/living-bridge/#more-16573< [7 August 2018] 18. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 19. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 20. SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia 21 SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia

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GREG LYNN, SCI-ARC BLOB WALL PAVILLION The Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-ARC) displayed Greg Lynnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pavilion in 2008. The pavilion was made from a low density, recyclable, impact resistant polymer. Using parametric computer systems, each module was moulded and robotically cut according to the corresponding parametric modelling design. The fabricated pieces were then positioned in place with precision22. The Blob Wall was intended to de-construct a traditional rusticated wall, but also create a new construction system that would be an improvement on conventional masonry construction and associated materials. This system reduces labour, waste and cost; the fabricated modules are light weight and have a greater resistance to water penetration23. This project demonstrates that the utilisation of parametric modelling systems is able to compute the integration of complex geometries but also test the performance of a new material. Designing this system and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s materials is well beyond the capabilities of a human. In comparison to the previous precedence, the Blob Wall does require more input from humans, particularly in relation to assembly of the wall, which was done by hand. However it is envisaged with further research, robots would have the capability to perform such actions in the future.

FIG.11: SCI-ARC BLOB WALL PAVILION 24

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FIG.12: CONSTRUCTION OF THE SCI-ARC WALL PAVILION 25-

FIG.13: THE COMPONENTS OF THE SCI-ARC WALL PAVILION26 22. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion, Arc Space, 29 August 2012, (Danish Architecture Centre), <https://arcspace.com/exhibition/blobwall-pavilion/> [7 August 2012] 23. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 24. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 25. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion 26. Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion

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A3

COMPOSITION versus GENERATION

Human design has historically considered “Composition” to be one of the important criteria for design. For example, for classical architecture, the success of a Composition is dependent on a number of factors including, hierarchy, symmetry, unity, techtonicity, and co-ordination 27. Generation on the other hand, is the creation of a design that is generated purely on data that has been reinterpreted algorithmically to produce a form. Similar to Composition, iterations can be generated to determine the final form. However in contrast, there are no formal rules to the Composition of the final form. The form is unexpected. For example for L system programs, there is a recursive process, where the form builds upon itself and a series of iterations are produced. Humans or the computer model can determine the final form based on a set of criteria. For our studio project, we will be selecting the final design.

As stated by McMurrough (2008): “Attention to date has been to which [enabling technologies] generate unexpected result, though its possibilities are perhaps less significant for the generation of novel form and much more useful for questioning inherited conceptual strictures. These are questions not about the limits of architectural styles but that of one discipline, and perhaps the beginning of another. What is necessary is a re-articulating of the capabilities of architecture, in order to retest the historical legacies of the architectural and to re-engage an understanding of these once again as a means, not ends”28. Generation design takes design power further away from the human and more towards the computer. It is up to us designers to accept the relationship and seek new opportunities, as the increasing power of the computer is inevitable.

27. Raúl Arnaldo Gómez Crespo, and Alfonso Corona Martinez. “Principles of Classical Composition in Architecture and Urban Design.” JAE, vol. 36, no. 1, 1982, pp. 25 28. McMorrough, John. “Ru(m)Inations: The Haunts of Contemporary Architecture.” Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 169

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LIFE AQUATECH, ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, LONDON (THINKTANK) The designers of this project were students from the Architectural Association School of Architecture, who wanted to capture the movement of water in a building, so that it could provide improved thermal comfort. The form of the Life Aquatech structure was created by collecting data and transferring this data into a parametric model. The output of the model was optimised using a Generation process, to create a form that has the greatest ability to promote the collection, storage and movement of water, whilst being structurally capable and also take advantage of the good thermal properties of water. This model was fabricated and tested, which helped the designers deduce that the building could be constructed in light weight rigid fibreglass and the water could to be distributed through the structure using a soft expandable silicone membrane29.

FIG.14: LIFE AQUATECH PROJECT, AERIAL VIEW 30

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CONCEPTUALISATION

This is an example of a project where the computer model largely determines the design of the structure. Data was collected relating to water flow and thermal resistance as well as the performance properties of the proposed materials. The model utilised this data to computationally determine the best structure for the objectives proposed. Humans formulated the tests and assessed the suitability of the system outputs


FIG.15: GENERATION MATRIX, GROUPING DESGNS ACCORDING TO DATA OUTPUTS

FIG.16: FABRICATION OF MODEL - 1:1 PROTOTYPE 32

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FIG.17: COLLECTION OF DATA FOR THE MODEL 33

30. ThinkTANK, TinkTANK, Architectural Association School of Architecture, (AADRL, revised 2014) < http://drl.aaschool.ac.uk/portfolio/think-tank/>[7 August 2018] 31. ThinkTANK, TinkTANK 32. Maggie Wang, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech: Water Generative Design, 10 September 2013, (Design Bloom revised 2018) < https:// www.designboom.com/architecture/thinktank-and-the-life-aquatech-water-generative-design/>[7 August 2018] 33. Maggie Wang, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech

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FIG.18: RENDERED AERIAL VIEW OF THE PAVILION 37

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PS1 Pavilion, MOMA PS1, New York, Xefiroarch This pavilion was constructed as part of the 2005 MoMA PS1 Young Architects Program. The design was formulated entirely by digital computational methods. The computational model started with a single defined cell that was programmed to multiply; replicating behaviour of organisms and how these cells relate to each other. The incremental growth of the form was observed and a final design was selected. There was no intentional narrative for the design, the computer generated the form via active rules and emergent behaviour. Prototypes were developed using fibreglass fabrication and moulding and the final installation was built in fibreglass, rubber and aluminium covered in latex and polyurethane sprayed spandex34,35.

FIG.19: RENDERED PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE PAVILION 38

The director of Xerfiroarch, Hernan Diaz Alonso, described his design as being the “moment where the grotesque and the horrific, things that are a little bit unknown, become codified and known”36. Alonso is exploring forms that do not conform to the contemporary view of beauty and resultant value. He considers that history will change over time, and so will our perception of beauty and worth. Emergent architecture needs to be encouraged and supported, technology is ever changing. If we chose to retain opinions that will be redundant in the future, opportunities for innovation and improvement will be lost.

FIG.20: CONSTRUCTED PAVILLION 39

34. Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso: winner of this year’s MoMA/PS1 Young Architects Program, 11 April 2005, (Archinet) < https://archinect. com/features/article/17584/hernan-diaz-alonso-winner-of-this-year-s-moma-ps1-young-architects-program> [7 August 2018] 35. Archinet, SUR at MoMA PS1, 7 February 2014, (Archinet) <https://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/sur-at-moma-ps1-3671> [7 August 2018] 36.

Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso

37.

Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso

38. Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso 39. Archinet, SUR at MoMA

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A4

CONCLUSION The precedents discussed in this Chapter demonstrate that parametric algorithmic modelling gives architects and designers the ability to design and create well beyond human capability. Computers are able to calculate algorithms that produce complex forms. Integrating strict parameters in these parametric software models, in particular relating to mechanical and structural systems, results in more effective outcomes and also promotes better dialogue between the different building professions. In comparison, humans have less computational power and have the predisposition to be influenced by range of factors relating to their environment. These include cultural, political, environmental and financial factors. These factors can stifle creative design and more importantly problem solving. The theory to develop new alternative ideas has been around for a long time, as demonstrated with the visions of Archigram, and so has the technology to implement such ideas. In recent years however, the development of such technology is growing at a rapid pace, to the extent that humans may be removed from the architectural design process in the future. As architects, it is important that we find ways to embrace this technology, whilst still being present in the industry. Currently most of the examples discussed in this journal are concept or pavilions, largely because of the unfortunate constraints in planning laws, societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception of aesthetics and cost. Architects, the financial sector and government need to become more educated in the world of parametric modelling and have trust in the ability to achieve better outcomes for the future. The downward trajectory of the health of the environment suggests that such action is required urgently.

ASSIGNMENT Experimentation and generation of form through algorithmic modelling will be an ideal method for developing a structure for our groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Client, the Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Possum. Meeting the needs of the Client will be based on scientific data and rules, which can be transposed into algorithmic models. Computationally designing such a space that scientifically and accurately meets the needs of the client will produce a better outcome compared to an analogue generated design, which has greater uncertainty and therefore greater risk of failure.

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A5

LEARNING OUTCOMES During this subject, our group will be venturing into new programs and fabrication systems. They are very powerful tools, with immense capability. I have to put my hand up and admit that I was a luddite before I started this degree, largely because of my lack of confidence and knowledge. Since commencing this degree and in particular this subject, I now appreciate the opportunities that computational modelling can provide. I cannot ignore the role computational modelling plays in the design process. I have just started work in an architectural practise and I beginning to observe and appreciate the work done by others in grasshopper. My challenge for this assignment will be to ensure that the algorithms and variables developed in our models adequately correspond to the environmental conditions of the site and the micro-habitat requirements of the Client. This will require extensive time experimenting with the models and form finding. My algorithmic sketchbook will hopefully reflect my journey.

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PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN

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CRITERIA DESIGN


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Representation, Measurement, Evaluation And Modification 40â&#x20AC;?

40. Branko Kolarevic, and Malkawi, Ali, Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality, (Spon Press, 2005), pp. 107

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B1

BIOMIMICRY AND THE DESIGN PROJECT Biomimicry is the simulation and imitation of systems and elements that occur in nature in order to generate design solutions.

Biomimicry design has significantly evolved over time. As a result, its application as a research field is very broad. For example, in the 15th century, the light weight dome-like structure of an egg shell was used as a source of inspiration for Filippo Brunelleschi’s design of Florence Cathedral41. Whereas in recent times, designers like Neri Oxman are exploring new materials and technology to generate designs that simulate natural processes. For example, she has recently designed and fabricated a chair, referred to as Gemini, which is made from synthetic materials that are fabricated into a form that is intended to sensorally stimulate, thereby replicating the experience of being within a women’s womb42.

Our client is the Leadbeater’s possum, is currently classified as endangered, which is largely as a result of dramatically depleting habitats. Habitats lost due to logging, fires and roads (causing breaks in ecosystems). Creating a habitat that promotes population growth will be our main objective of our design. This can be achieved through the adoption of biomimicry design techniques in order to create a familiar and desirable environment. It will also be beneficial to understand the physical and structural attributes of their habitat and incorporate these concepts into our design.

This shift in the concept of Biomimicry can be largely attributed to rapid advances in science and technology. It results in designs which are not only technically more complex but also enable us to generate improved solutions to problems, such as the challenges arising from climate change and sustainability.

41 Palwyn, Michael, How Biomimicry Can Be Applied to Architecture, Financial Times, (The Financial Times Limited, 6 May 2016) < “https://www.ft.com/content/e2041a1e-0d32-11e6-b41f-0beb7e589515> [12 September 1019] 42. MIT Media Lab, Project Gemini, MIT School of Architecture and Planning (MIT, 2019) <https://www.media.mit.edu/projects/gemini/overview/> [12 Spetember 2019]

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SOURCED FROM NWAYE ZAW

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Th


Breeding Season: April-June; October - December Number of off spring: 1-2 Gestation period: 15 to 20 days Weaning age 10 to 15 months Average age of sexual reproductive maturity (female and male): 2 years

he Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Possum - Gymnobelideus leadbeateri CRITERIA DESIGN

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Biomi

Limitations

Opportunities

Cond

Leadbeater’s Possum

Leadbe Possum’

Mapping out the project scope and the design methodology:

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imicry

Environment

ditions

Function

Location

eater ‘s ’s Habitat

Project Scope CRITERIA DESIGN

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+

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n da

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d e r e

500mm

300mm

shredded bark 2-12 possums 75% captivity

Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Possum

Up to 1m

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CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF VICTORIA

Location

The Client CRITERIA DESIGN

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Critically Endangered

Limitations

Opportunities

D = 300mm internally

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Condit

D = 30

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tions

150+ years old or dead stumps (stags)

Environment

Function

Connectivity

0-50mm

ntrance

1-2 hectares of territory

The Brief CRITERIA DESIGN

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Constr

Material

Ornament

Biomim

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ruction

Process

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FIGURE 21: VOLTA DOM BY SKYLAR TIBBITS 45

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B2

CASE STUDY 1: VORONOI VoltaDom, Skylar Tibbits

This installation was constructed in 2011 within the confines of a concrete and glass hallway, located in between campuses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. It was fabricated using flat trips of material that were bent to form a series of doubly curved vaulted surfaces with oculis. They were then assembled with relative ease, particularly given their complexity 43. The design of the form was developed using parametric modelling, whereby the computations were intended to simulate a biological cell and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cell growth, such that the cell size is interdependent on the cells that surround them44. This simulation processes is achieved through the incorporation of vornoi curves in the design. For our design we will be exploring the possibilities of Voronoi curves in order to achieve a structure that promotes nesting and connectivity, in particular apertures that allow the possum to navigate through.

43. Skylar Tibbits, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits, (Arch20.com, 2018)< https://www.arch2o.com/voltadom-by-skylar-tibbits-skylar-tibbits/>[12th September 2018] 44. Skylar Tibbits, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits. 45. Skylar Tibbits, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits.

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EXPLORING THE FORM USING GRASSHOPPER

MESH SPLIT

VORONOI CONES AND AND CULLING

BAKING MESH SPLIT COMPONENT

DECREASE IN RADIUS OF MESH SPLIT

BAKING FINAL OUTPUT

CHANGING THE SEED

CHANGING THE SEED AND REDUCING HEIGHT

INCREASING DOMAIN OF CUTTING PLANE

DECREASING DOMAIN OF CUTTING PLANE

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CRITERIA DESIGN

BAKING VORONOI MESH

INCREASING CULLING RANGE VIA EXPRESSION COMPONENT

DECREASING CULLING RANGE VIA DOMAIN

INCREASING HEIGHT RATIO

INCREASING THE SEED

INCREASING THE SEED AGAIN

CURVE INPUTS


SPHERE INPUTS

ADOPTING CIRCLE CURVE INPUT

ADOPTING HEXAGONAL CURVE INPUT

APLLYING SMOOTH MESH

CHANGING CONE HEIGHT EXPRESSION

CYLINDERS AS CUTTING OBJECTS

ADOPTING SEVERAL JOINING SPHERES AS INPUT

INCREASING DOMAIN AND RETAINING SPHERE MESH

CHANGING EXPRESSIONS

DELETING MESHES VIA EXPRESSION

CHANGING EXPRESSIONS

DELETING MORE MESHES

DELETING MORE MESHES

DELETING MORE MESHES NEGATIVE CONE HEIGHT EXPRESSION

CYLINDERS AS CUTTING OBJECTS

SPHERE AS CUTTING OBJECT

REDUCTION IN THE NUMBER OF SPHERES

CHANGING EXPRESSIONS

CHANGING EXPRESSIONS

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SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

Selection criteria: Has the potential for a Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possu

BAKING MESH SPLIT COMPONENT This iteration comes from the original grasshopper definition for the VoltaDom installation. Here the mesh split component was baked. The reason why this iteration is selected to meet the criteria is because it provides multiple apertures of varying size. It also provides small crevices which enable the possum to seek retreat and comfort.

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INCREASING THE SEED

CURVE INPUTS AND NEG CONE HEIGHT EXPRESSIO

This iteration is a design which is the most closest to the VoltaDom iteration. The seed was manipulated to generate this chosen form.

This iteration was generate altering the expression com to adjust the height of the f

The reason why this iteration is selected is because it provides big volumes for the Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possum to hide and nest behind whilst having small apertures for the possums to move in an out of, whilst being protected from large predators.

The reason why this iteratio is selected is because it provides an interesting inte perspective. Increasing the of the cone also allows for possums to live in the desig


um hide and crawl in and out of via one or multiple apertures

GATIVE ON

SPHERE INPUTS AND DELETING SELECTED MESHES

CYLINDERS AS CUTTING OBJECTS

ed by mponents form.

This input was generated by making the input geometry a sphere and altering the culling expressions.

This input was generated by making the input geometry a sphere, making the cutting object a cylinder and also altering the cutting domain.

on

ernal e height more ign.

The reason why this iteration is selected is because of its textural nature and also the creation an aperture for a possum to navigate through. This design is moving towards representing a tree hollow.

The reason why this iteration was selected is because it follows the concept of what a possum needs - an enclosed space for nesting and branches for connectivity.

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DESIGN POTENTIAL The voronoi component partitions a surface based on distances to points (commonly random points) that are located within the plane. Through this exploration exercise it was discovered that voronoi components have the ability to create a vast range of patterns and shapes, particularly when integrated with different objects and different shaped cutting planes. This theory can be extended further into other sectioning/ patterning programs such as Delauney triangulation and MetaBall. Voronoi architecture has a strong organic and cellular appearance; the resulting designs almost have a science fiction appearance. As shown with the VoltaDom installation, the structure appears to be continuously multiplying within the confines of the glass box. There are many examples across the world that have adopted this type of theory in their design. The designs appear to be very structural stable and have the ability to provide shading. As such, these design theories are often incorporated into cladding systems. For our design ,we propose to explore the potential of voronoi patterning, particularly in relation to generating tree branches for connectivity.

FIGURE 22: VOLTA DOM BY SKYLAR TIBBITS 45

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46. Skylar Tibbits, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits.

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FIGURE 22: AIRSPACE TOKYP BY FAULDERS STUDIO WITH RPOCES249

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B3

CASE STUDY 2: WEAVERBIRD Airspace Tokyo, Faulders Studio with Proces2 Airspace Tokyo is a cladding system that was designed by Faulders Studio and Proces2 in 2007. The cladding is designed to wrap around an existing four storey multi-residential apartment in Japan47. Prior to the building’s refurbishment, it was covered in dense vegetation. The designers chose biometric computational methods to create a design that replicated the physical attributes of the building’s previous vegetation screen. Three layers of mesh were constructed, each with their own unique patterns, having the benefit of acting as a visual screen, providing sun protection through reflection and enabling adequate drainage capabilities48.

47. Faulders Studio, Airspace Tokyo, Japan, Faulders Studio (USA, July 2013)< HTTPS:// WWW.FAULDERS-STUDIO.COM/AIRSPACE-TOKYO>[12 SEPTEMBER 2019] 48. Faulders Studio, Airspace Tokyo 49. Faulders Studio, Airspace Tokyo

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GENERATING GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION RECONCILING HOW TO “THICKEN THE MESH”

RECONCILING INPUTS FOR WEAVERBIRD

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FINDING BOUNDARY SURFACE

TRYING TO THICKEN THE JOINS BY CHANGING NURBS PARAMETERS

EXPERIMENTING WITH SEEDS

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COMPARING REVERSE ENGINEERING EXERCISE AND PRECEDENT

DIFFERENCES • bounding box edge • degree of variation between the three panels

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SIMILARITIES • • • •

pattern organic appearance curvature in voids number of panels

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RECTANGLE

POPULATE 2D

DELAUNAY MESH

EXPLODE AND DECONSTRUCT MESH

SCALE FOR MESH BANDING

BOUNDARY SURFACE

NURBS CURVE

WEAVERBIRD

CREATE POINTS FOR WEAVING USING EVALUATE CURVE COMPONENTS

OFFSET TWICE AND REPEAT SCRIPT TO CREATE THREE PLANES

The designer adopted a biometric methods to mimic the experience of vegetation. This Case Study uses three layers of different weaving/ mesh configurations to generate natural, random experience. The Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possum requires understory (vegetation) to survive, and is one of the main objectives of our brief. We intend to adopt the same approach for our design by exploring the components that have been adopted in this Case Study or at least components with similar behaviour, in order to achieve a similar experience/ level or ornamentation

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B4

TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

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THE HOLLOW

CANOPY AND UNDERSTORY

Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possums can leap up to 1m. They need branches to continually move through the forest in order to collect food and create nests.

Tree hollows generally have a singular, relatively round opening that is textural , yet uniform inside. the void is also dark and reasonably dry.

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REAL LIFE PROTOTYPES

THE POSSUM’S BEHAVIOUR

There are real life prototypes that are attempting to increase to population of Leadbeater ‘s Possums. Nest boxes are being installed across the region and studies show that they are having relative success, however not enough to vastly improve the population beyond critical endangered status50. Conservationists are also cutting through trees to create hollows. Whilst this is more closely akin to their preferred environment, it is intervening with the natural process of the tree and may also affect other species that may be dependent on these trees. Leadbeater’s possums are light and have the ability to clasp onto small branches by using their sharp claws and braod pads pn the ends of their digits

50. Lindenmayer, D.B, MacGregor, C.I., Cunningham, R.B, Incoll, R.D., et. al., The Use of Nest Boxes by Arboreal Marsupials in the Forest of the Central Highlands of Victoria, Wildlife Research, (Australian National University, 2003) pp263

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Reflecting on the requirements of the brief it is envisaged that the selection criteria will be as follows: 1. have a cavity to hold the possums and their nest 2. have extended long branches for connection to the broader environment 3. be made of timber 4. have the structural capabilities to support itself and the possum 5. can suitably be placed within the tree 6. appear natural 7. provide a leaping platform for movement across ecosystem (in lieu of absent understory)

CREATED BY NWAYE ZAW

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SKETCHING IDEAS RELATED TO THE CRITERIA

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR DESIGN CRITERIA DESIGN

63


EXPLORING BOX GEOMETRY

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EXPLORING RECTANGULAR GEOMETRY


EXPLORING DIFFERENT GEOMETRY

The forms generated from the voronoi patterns initially felt very structural and modular, however through the integration of different shapes and different components the form was able to be broken down. It was initially thought that two systems could be developed as one, however this didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t meet the criteria of appearing natural. and in terms of design, it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t push the barriers enough computationally.

VORONOI 3D CRITERIA DESIGN

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RANDOM WANDERER

PLANARIZATION

We explored the possibility of using Boid algorithms to see if we could achieve a more organic looking form, Whilst the results were moving closer, to what was envisaged for the final design, particularly in relation to the random wander and plaraization designs, the designs were not creating an effective void space for the nests

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REVOLVE

SLIDE

BOUNCE

BOID CRITERIA DESIGN

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EXPLORING TILTED SURFACES

We then decided to explore the spin and plane algorithms in the Anemone plugin series. The forms generated appeared random in nature like the Boid outputs, however we were able to achieve the void and connectivity programs that the brief required. Exploring different geometries helped us achieve a design that matched our criteria (see selected)

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EXPLORING DIFFERENT FORCE LOCATIONS


EXPLORING FLAT/ CURVED GEOMETRY

EXPLORING GEOMETRICAL SHAPES

INITIAL SELECTED DESIGN

ANEMONE: SPIN AND PLANE CRITERIA DESIGN

69


In this stage, we developed our chosen design, in conjun

FORM 1

FORM 2

Once we decided on the approach for our design we commenced developing the form. Initially we considered having a form that could rest over a tree branch , however these two designs would raise issues of counterbalancing. Twelve possums in the void would tip the structure over.

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nction with developing prototyping: VOID SPACE FOR NESTING

BRANCHES FOR LEAPING FORM 3

FORM 4

The form would be best placed in the nook of a tree and wrap around a trunk. The void space would be close to the vicinity of where a possum would expect a hollow to be placed, the structure can be supported by the tree nook and the extension part of the design creates a springboard for a leaping possum.

REFINING THE FORM CRITERIA DESIGN

71


Once we have formulated the basis of our design, and considered where t be located (ie. in the trees), we developed the following design constraint

• Must be posit than 300mm b • Wrap around a a radius no gr • Only to be use Possums - Mo • Design flexibi limbs protrud

SNOW GUM TREES, EUCALYPTUS PAUCIFLORA

MOUNTAIN ASH TREES, EUCALYPTUS REGNANS

NO HOLLOWS

FORM HOLLOWS

DEAD TREES

STAGES OF HOLLOW GENERATION IN MOUNTAIN ASH TREES51 51. Sam C Banks; Emma J Knight, Lachlan McBurnley; David Blair; David B Lindenmayer(2013): Stages of hollow formation, death and decay of mountain ash trees (Eucalyptus regnans).. PLOS ONE. Figure.,< https://figshare.com/articles/_Stages_of_hollow_ formation_death_and_decay_of_mountain_ash_trees_Eucalyptus_regnans_/419723/1>{12 September 2019]

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the design would ts:

tioned in a tree nook no less between limbs a tree trunk/ branch that has reater than 450 mm ed for species that attract Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ountain Ash, Snow Gum ility. Can be orientated around ding in different directions

DESIGN CONSTRAINTS CRITERIA DESIGN

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74

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B5

PROTOTYPES

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DEVELOPING A WIRE MESH MOULD

DEVELOPING A CLAY MOULD AND REFINING

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Initially we considered building a model that we could wrap the timber strips around. By building this “mould” it helped us to consider the functional elements of the design such: • proportion • scale • structural requirements • practical requirements (such as how the form will sit in the tree) We were then able to adjust our rhino model according to our findings

DEVELOPMENT OF FORM 2 FOR FABRICATION CRITERIA DESIGN

77


TREATMENT AND BEHAVIOUR OF BALSA WOOD

The Balsa tree, also referred to as Ochroma, is a hardwood tree that is native to Sou commonly used for hobby arts and crafts given its light weight nature and straight g and thin walled and therefore the ratio of solid matter to open space is uniquely sma manipulate the wood into curves, the wood is soaked in water or treated with chem 2mm thick strips Soak for 1 hour, cold water

Bend and dry

Greater bending arc than 5 requires strong fixing to ke Limited freedom for torsion when wet

5mm this strips

Soak for 24 hours, cold water

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Bend and dry

Reduced bending arc than 2m strong fixings to keep in place freedom for torsion. Works be Better as a structural material


uth and Central America. It is used most grain. This timber has cells that are very large all 52.It is recommended that when trying to micals such as ammonia 53.

5mm however eep in place. n. Works better

WET THEN BENT TO ITS CAPACITY

WET THEN BENT TILL BROKEN

WET THEN DRIED WHILST BENT

mm and requires e. Very limited etter when wet. l, not cladding WET THEN BENT TO ITS CAPACITY

WET THEN BENT TILL BROKEN

WET THEN DRIED WHILST BENT

52. SIG Manufacturing and Co, Interesting Facts About Balsa Wood, (East Coast Model Centre Inc, 1995)<HTTP:// WWW.MAT.UC.PT/~PEDRO/NCIENTIFICOS/ARTIGOS/TECHBAL.HTML>[12 SEPTEMBER 2018] 53. Paul L Daniels, Working with Balsawood, Paul L Daniels < HTTP://PLDANIELS.COM/ FLYING/BALSA/HOWTOS/BENDING-BALSA/>[12 SEPTEMBER 2018]

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PROTOTPYES DEVELOPED FROM BALSA WOOD

PROTOTYPE 1: JOINING INDIVIDUAL PIECES TOGETHER WITH PINS, WITH THE INTENTION OF CUTTING THEM ONCE STRUCTURE IS CONSTRUCTED

PROTOTYPE 3: CREATING AN INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND THEN USING THIS STRUCTURE TO WEAVE AND LAYER TIMBER PIECES AND THEN HOLD INTO PLACE WITH PINS. THE PINS EVENTUALLY REMOVED ONCE HOT GLUE HAS BEEN APPLIED AND DRIED

Challenges building the model: Behaviour of balsa • the material often split when bent into a curve • it was more malleable when wet • difficult to achieve torsion Connections • required wire or pins to be able to securely fix into place • could apply glue subsequently, once the wood was dry and then remove pins and/ or wire

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PROTOTYPE 2: JOINING 3 MEMBERS TOGETHER AT A TIME WITH WIRE AND THEN CONNECTING GROUP WITH A WEAVING PIECE OF WIRE

PROTOTYPE 4: CREATING A MORE METHODICAL JOINING TECHNIQUE USING WIRE AND STRING

Logistics of modelling • difficult to build around a mould that was solid in order to achieve adequate connection and bending Structure • need to consider how the model supports itself, holds members that are in torsion (unnatural position) and holds up to 12 possums Length of material available • we could only purchase 300mm strips of 2mm thick wood and 450mm strips of 5mm thick wood

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TREATMENT AND BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO CANE

Bamboo is a fast growing grass that has numerous applications, particularly in the it consists of cellulose fibres in a legnin matrix. The flexural strength and rigidity are direction of the bamboo. As a result it generally has greater bending capabilities co which makes it resistant to fungal and insect attack 55. Water and heat (including st

WET THEN BENT TO ITS CAPACITY

WET THEN BENT TILL BROKEN

WET THEN DRIED WHILST BENT

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e building industry. This grass is referred to as a composite material, e archived from the plant’s cellulose fibres which are linear in the ompared to wood54. Bamboo also has a unique chemical composition team boxes) permit greater bending movement of the bamboo56.

As part of the material testing process, 1mm thick strands of bamboo were soaked for an hour. This material’s behviour differs significantly when it experiences bending and twisting when wet. A tight bending arc can form with little or no deformation at the stress points. By studying the behaviour of bamboo, it was envisaged that the next prototype will consist of the following: • bamboo soaked in water for an hour • handled wet • tied together with fishing wire or glued once dried • on some occasions weaved

54. Li Xiaobo, Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo and its Utilisation Potential for Fibreboard Manufacturing, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, (LSU, 2004), pp 1 55. Li Xiaobo, Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo..., pp 5 56. Hari Nugraha, Ismail Alif Siregar and Taufiq Panj Wisea, Steam Box System for Bamboo Bending Process, Pembanguanan Jaya University (Tangerang, 2015) pp 68

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STAGE B: FINAL PROTOTYPE

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Fabrication played a significant role in the design process. For our design it helped us to question the practicalities of our design, such as: • structure • buildability • connections These are all important factors, as ultimately the “final fabricated model” is the product that will be produced for our client.

Based on material testing, bamboo is the material we propose to use for the next phase. This is the only prototype developed with this material. In the next prototypes it will be useful to explore: • making the cavity darker/ more enclosed • making the cavity feel more like a tree hollow • providing a stronger structure internally • testing of leaping platform

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HOLOLENS

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This is an example of a series of woven bamboo prototypes using hololens technology 57. This provides inspiration for our project in terms of materiality, connections, structural performance and form.

57. Imgrum, Fologram, Imgrum Web, (7 March 2018)< https://www.imgrumweb.com/post/BgArpG4F3ED>[12 September 2018]

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ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM

1. CONNECT WITH

RHINO AND FOLOGRAM

2. CUT STRIPS

INTO 1M LENGTHS

3. BUNDLE BAMBOO INTO GROUPS OF

THREE OF FOUR AND TIE WITH FISHING WIRE AT MIDDLE AND ENDS

7. WEAVE BAMBOO AROUND THE BRANCH AREA INTO THE FISHING WIRE LOOPS

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4. START FORMING THE SHAPE OF

THE NEST WITH BUNDLES AND TIE IN PLACE

5. START

WEAVING MORE STRANDS INTO THE NEST AREA UNTIL SOLID

6 GATHER

LOOSE STRANDS FOR BRANCH AREA AND TIE AT MIDDLE AND END

8. CONTINUE UNTIL YOU ACHIEVE A SOLID FORM

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90

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B6

TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

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The Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s possum is critically endangered and the threat of extinction is looming. Their habitat is being destroyed as a result of logging, fire, predators and fragmented ecosystems. They need tree hollows for breeding, nesting, shelter and protection. They also need tree canopies and understory to permit them to leap; searching for food and infrastructure for their nests. There are numerous efforts to assist with the plight of the possums such as installing tree boxes and cutting into trees to make hollows. They have had some success, however these are not sustainable, holistic solutions. We propose a design that intends to fulfill all their needs, a cavity that simulates a tree hollow and an extension to replicate an understory. The extension also acts as a leaping platform to nearby vegetation, particularly beneficial in lieu of an insufficient density of vegetation nearby. Bamboo is proposed as the main material for fabrication, it is a flexible, textural and natural material that provides a familiar environment for the possum. It also has structural integrity.

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FIGURE 23: MAP OF CURRENT RECORDINGS OF THE LEADBEATERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S PO


OSSUM POST 199857

57. Department of Environment, Land, Planning and Water, Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Possum Interactive Map, State Government of Victoria (Victoria, 2018) < http://lbp.cerdi.edu.au/possum_map.php>[12 September 2018]

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94

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TO STR AROUN

NEST AREA WITHIN TREE NOOK

96

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TO CONNECT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND LEAP TO NEARBY TREES AND UNDERSTORY

RETCH ND LIMB

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DESIGN PERSPECTIVE

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INTERNAL EXPERIENCE, LOOKING TOWARDS LEAPING PLATFORM

INTERNAL EXPERIENCE, WITHIN NEST AREA LOOKING UPWARDS

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WHERE TO FROM HERE? • Making the cavity darker/ more enclosed • Providing a stronger structure internally experiment with weaving strands of bamboo • Testing of leaping platform • Improving the connection between parametric computational design and fabrication. The first step would be to consider creating a design that changes according to the width and depth of a tree nook of the possum’s preferred tree species

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EUCALYPTUS REGNANS

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B7

LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES This stage in the design process has been crucial to the development of the project. Studying a variety of precedents assisted with developing ideas for our client. Once we decided that biomimicry was the intended design approach, we were able to explore built designs that had the same overarching design objective; to mimic the natural environment to seek an effective solution. Whilst the Case Studies did not directly help to formulate our design, they did provide indirect benefit. They helped to question the requirements of the design, which in turn lead to other pathways for exploration.

On a personal level, there have been challenges learning the grasshopper plugins and their capabilities. This has restricted my design process initially, however through experimentation, the breadth and complexity of our design has slowly developed. There have also been challenges understanding the fabrication techniques. This is still in development stage, and the next phase I hope to develop a greater confidence in exploring the opportunities that fabrication can provide. I believe this will help to advance our design further, technically and programatically.

Studying the site and the requirements of the Leadbeaterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possum was crucial to determining the objectives of the project. This led to the development of our selection criteria. Fabrication is pivotal to the selection process of the design, This project must be able to be built for the client and it would be ideal if the design could be built efficiently and economically, allowing for greater scale of production and a reduced impact on the environment. Fabrication tests the model and helps determine whether these factors are achievable. Our design is currently not finalised, however through experimentation via fabrication it is anticipated that this will help generate an ideal solution.

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104

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B8

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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WEEK 1: TRIANGULATION ALGORITHMS AND LOFTING

Triangulation Algorithms

Lofting


Further exploration of form


Selected on ability to hold water though hollow top


WEEK 2: CRUVES, PLANAR JOINTS, CONTROURS, SECTION AND DRIFTWOOD

Curves

Planar Joints

Further exploration of form

Contours


D SURFACES

Driftwood Surfaces Sectioning


Selected due to its greater complexity


WEEK 3: GRIDSHELLS AND PATTERNING

Gridshell

Patterning


Further exploration of form


Selected due to its variability of pattern


WEEK 4: TETRAHEDRA, FIELDS AND SURFACES


WEEK 5: EVALUATING FIELDS , GRAPH CONTROLLING AND IMAGE SAMPLING


WEEK 6: DRIFTWOOD AND TETRAHEDRONS (CONTINUOUS PATTERNING)


WEEK 7: CLUSTERS AND PYTHON


WEEK 8: KANGAROO


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REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Archeyes, Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo / Kisho Kurokawa,” ArchEyes, 3 March 2016 <http:// archeyes.com/nakagin-capsule-tower-kisho-kurokawa>. [7 August 2018] Archinet, Hernan Diaz Alonso: winner of this year’s MoMA/PS1 Young Architects Program, 11 April 2005, (Archinet) < https://archinect.com/features/article/17584/hernan-diaz-alonsowinner-of-this-year-s-moma-ps1-young-architects-program> [7 August 2018] Archinet, SUR at MoMA PS1, 7 February 2014, (Archinet) <https://www.architectmagazine. com/project-gallery/sur-at-moma-ps1-3671> [7 August 2018] Arc Space, Blob Wall Pavilion, Arc Space, 29 August 2012, (Danish Architecture Centre), <https://arcspace.com/exhibition/blobwall-pavilion/> [7 August 2012] Arnaldo Gómez Crespo, Raúl, and Corona Martinez, Alfonso. “Principles of Classical Composition in Architecture and Urban Design.” JAE, vol. 36, no. 1, 1982, pp. 24-25 Banks, Sam C; Knight, Emma J; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; B. Lindenmayer, David (2013): Stages of hollow formation, death and decay of mountain ash trees (Eucalyptus regnans).. PLOS ONE. Figure.,< https://figshare.com/articles/_Stages_ of_hollow_formation_death_and_decay_of_mountain_ash_trees_Eucalyptus_regnans_/419723/1>{12 September 2019] Branko Kolarevic, Malkawi ‘Performative Architecturre, Beyond Instrumentality’, (Spon Press, 2005) Chapman, Priscilla. “THE PLUG - IN CITY.” Ekistics, vol. 20, no. 120, 1965, pp. 279–280 Daniels, Paul L, Working with Balsawood, Paul L Daniels < http://pldaniels.com/ flying/balsa/howtos/bending-balsa/>[12 September 2018] Department of Environment, Land, Planning and Water, Leadbeater’s Possum Interactive Map, State Government of Victoria, (Victoria, 2018) < http://lbp.cerdi.edu.au/possum_map.php>[12 September 2018] Dune, Antony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) Faulders Studio, Airspace Tokyo, Japan, Faulders Studio (USA, July 2013)< https:// www.faulders-studio.com/AIRSPACE-TOKYO>[12 September 2019] Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Oxford: Berg, 2008 Gohd, Chelsea, ‘NASA just released the Top Designs for Our Future Martian Homes’, Futurism, 10 January 2017, <https://futurism.com/nasa-just-released-the-top-designs-for-our-future-martian-homes/> [7 August 2018] Harbaugh, Jennifer, ‘Top Five Teams Win a Share of $100,000 in Virtual Modeling Stage of NASA’s 3D-Printed Habitat Competition’ NASA, 24 July 2018 <https://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_ challenges/3DPHab/five-teams-win-a-share-of-100000-in-virtual-modeling-stage> [7 August 2018] Imgrum, Fologram, Imgrum Web, (7 March 2018)< https://www.imgrumweb.com/post/BgArpG4F3ED>[12 September 2018] Jaskot, Paul B. “Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 63, no. 1, 2004, pp. 102–104 Lindenmayer, D.B, MacGregor, C.I., Cunningham, R.B, Incoll, R.D., et. al., The Use of Nest Boxes by Arboreal Marsupials in the Forest of the Central Highlands of Victoria, Wildlife Research, (Australian National University, 2003) pp259-264 McMorrough, John. “Ru(m)Inations: The Haunts of Contemporary Architecture.” Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 169 Merin, Gili , AD Classics: The Plug In City/ Peter Cook, Archigram, Arch Daily, 10 July 2013 < https://www. archdaily.com/399329/ad-classics-the-plug-in-city-peter-cook-archigram> [7 August 2018] MIT Media Lab, Project Gemini, MIT School of Architecture and Planning (MIT, 2019) <https:// www.media.mit.edu/projects/gemini/overview/> [12 Spetember 2019] Nugraha, Hari, Ismail Alif Siregar and Taufiq Panj Wisea, Steam Box System for Bamboo Bending Process, Pembanguanan Jaya University (Tangerang, 2015) pp 68 Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge) Palwyn, Michael, How Biomimicry Can Be Applied to Architecture, Financial Times, (The Financial Times Limited, 6 May 2016) < “https://www.ft.com/content/e2041a1e-0d32-11e6-b41f-0beb7e589515> [12 September 1019] Perspecta, vol. 40, 2008, pp. 164–169., www.jstor.org/stable/40482294 Scott, Rory, Spotlight: Kisho Kurokawa, Arch Daily 8 April 2018, <https://www. archdaily.com/616907/spotlight-kisho-kurokawa> [7 August 2018] Sier, Kirsty, “Zaha Hadid Principal, Patrik Schumacher, On How Parametric Design Can Bring Architecture Back to Nature”, Architecture and Design, 20 September 2017, < https://www.architectureanddesign.com. au/features/comment/zaha-hadid-principal-patrik-schumacher-on-how-para> [7 AUGUST 2018] SIG Manufacturing and Co, Interesting Facts About Balsa Wood, (East Coast Model Centre Inc, 1995)<HTTP://www.mat.uc.pt/~pedro/ncientificos/artigos/techbal.html>[12 September 2018] SuckerPUNCH, Living Bridge, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, SuckerPUNCH, 16 February 2012, (Hume Cover Studio), <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/02/16/living-bridge/#more-16573< [7 August 2018] Tadashi Oshima, Ken. “Metabolist Trajectories.” Log, no. 24, 2012, pp. 28–32 ThinkTANK, TinkTANK, Architectural Association School of Architecture, (AADRL, revised 2014) < http://drl.aaschool.ac.uk/portfolio/think-tank/>[7 August 2018] Tibbits, Skylar, Voltadom by Skylar Tibbits, (Arch20.com, 2018)< https://www.arch2o. com/voltadom-by-skylar-tibbits-skylar-tibbits/>[12th September 2018] Wang, Maggie, Thinktank and the Life Aquatech: Water Generative Design, 10 September 2013, (Design Bloom revised 2018) < https://www.designboom.com/architecture/thinktank-and-the-life-aquatech-water-generative-design/>[7 August 2018] Xiaobo, Li, Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo and its Utilisation Potential for Fibreboard Manufacturing, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, (LSU, 2004), pp 1-68

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Studio Air_Assignment B_ Sem_2_2018  
Studio Air_Assignment B_ Sem_2_2018  
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