Page 1

2 Hello guys!

We are ready to take your English to the next level! Our journey is halfway, and we have a brand new material to start improving your knowledge by adding new discoveries to all the things you have learned so far. Let's keep on studying together and following the path that will lead us to our main goal: Being English Speakers!

Our Inter level begins right now!

Friendly, Castilla Idiomas


Organizadores: Prof. Dr. Félix Gerardo Ibarra Prieto Mestre e Doutor em Relações Internacionais (UAA) e professor titular da Universidade da Amazônia (UNAMA); MBA em Comércio e Exterior e negócios internacionais (FGV); Professor de língua espanhola moderna do colégio Marista « Nossa Senhora de Nazaré » e Diretor de ensino do curso de idiomas Castilla.

2 ge langua g learnin

h s i l g n E ediate

Interm

Prof. Msc. João Claudio Klautau Guimarães Professor da Universidade da Amazônia; MBA em Marketing (FGV); MBA Administração Financeira (PUC-RJ); Mestre em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente Urbano (UNAMA) e diretor administrativo e financeiro do curso de idiomas Castilla. Elaboração, correção e revisão: Caroline Mesquita Pina Licenciada e Pós-graduada pelo Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará (IFPA). Coordenadora Pedagógica do Curso de Idiomas Castilla. Projeto gráfico: Luz Comunicação Visual Ltda Capa: Clis Cardoso Diagramação: Silvana Luz Ilustrações: Roberto Mendes Correção: Bruna Pantoja Miranda Raissa Araújo de Vilhena Desenhos Vetoriais: Google Impressão e acabamento: Aquarela Gráfica e Editora Ltda.

Nenhuma parte desta publicação poderá ser reproduzida ou transmitida sejam quais forem os meios empregados: eletrônicos, mecânicos, fotográficos, gravações ou quaisquer outros. Todos os direitos reservados ao CURSO DE IDIOMAS CASTILLA LEI 9.610/98 e atualizações Edição 2017 - Belém/PA


language learning

UNITS FUTURE WILL X

READING|LISTENING ● I'LL SHOW UP ● MY BOSS WILL COME BACK

English Intermediate

LIGHTS UP ● The use of Future Will. ● The use of Future To be Going to. ● Present Continuous as Future tense

● ● ● ● ● ●

Reading and gaps Tenses transformation Making Questions Giving Answers Choosing the Future form Filling the blanks

● ● ● ● ● ●

The use of Can and Could The use of May and Might The use of Should and Had better The use of Have to and Must The use of Would What's “Be Able to”?

● ● ● ●

Filling the Blanks Creating Sentences Completing the dialogue Giving answers

● ● ● ● ●

Comparative of Equality Comparative of Inferiority Comparative of Superiority Superlative of Inferiority Superlative of Superiority

● Completing Sentences ● Correcting the mistakes ● Choosing the correct option

GOING TO Pages 01-08 ● I MIGHT GET IN

MODAL VERBS

● I COULDN'T JOIN

Pages 09-16

COMPARATIVE X

● THE BEST SUPERHERO ● A BETTER MOVIE

SUPERLATIVE

JOIN IN

Pages 17-24

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

● DO YOU THINK…? ● DO YOU BELIEVE…?

● The Use of Indirect Questions ● How to make a Subject Questions

● Completing Sentences ● Correcting the mistakes ● Choosing the correct option

● Used to ● To be used to ● Would Always

● Completing Sentences ● Giving Answers

● The Use of Some, Any and No ● Slangs ● Phrasal Verbs

● ● ● ●

● The Use of Simple Past ● The Use of Present Perfect ● Far | Since | So far | Until now

● Matching words ● Creating Sentences ● Unscrambling the Sentences

Pages 25-32

USED TO X

● WE USED TO ● I AM USED TO COMING HERE

WOULD ALWAYS Pages 33-40

SOME, ANY, NO

● I'M DOING NOTHING ● HEY BRO

Filling the Blanks Choosing the correct option Completing the chart Completing the sentences

Pages 41-48

SIMPLE PAST X

● WHERE HAVE YOU BEEN ● HAVE YOU ALREADY MET…?

PRESENT PERFECT Pages 49-56

PRESENT PERFECT

● I'VE JUST TAKEN A BREAK ● I'VE NEVER HAD THE CHANCE

ADVERBS Pages 57-64

VERB TENSES

●DOES IT HURT? ●I'M DONE WITH CLIMBING

Pages 65-72 ● I LIKE BOTH… AND…

QUESTION TAGS

● THAT'S NOT GOOD, ISN'T?

Pages 73-80 ● GO BACK BEFORE DARK

ADVERBS

Pages 81-88

● THE FOOL STILLS EATING

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

The The The The The The The

Use Use Use Use Use Use Use

of Lately of Recently of Already of Yet of Ever of Never of Just

● ● ● ● ● ●

The The The The The The

Use Use Use Use Use Use

of of of of of of

● ● ● ● ● ●

Question Tags How to make tags Special cases The Use of Either, Neither and Both Agreements; Also, too, So Negatives; Either, Neither

● Creating Sentences ● Completing with Tags ● Creating agreements

● ● ● ● ● ●

Regular and Irregular Adverbs Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Time The function of an Adverb

● ● ● ●

Simple Present Present Continuous Simple Past Present Perfect Future Will Future To be Going to

● ● ● ●

Giving answers Transforming sentences Arranging the Adverbs Completing Sentences

● ● ● ● ●

Filling the Blanks Makings Questions Giving Answers Matching Words Creating Sentences

Filling the Blanks Transforming Sentences Choosing Words Organizing the Adverbs


language learning

English Intermediate

UNITS PAST

READING|LISTENING ● I WAS GOING HOME WHEN… ● I WAS STUDYING…

LIGHTS UP

JOIN IN

● The use of Past Continuous ● When | While

● ● ● ● ●

Giving Answers Connecting Sentences Changing Sentences Matching Columns Creating Sentences

● ● ● ●

● ● ● ● ●

Transforming the Speeches Reporting the Speech Rewriting the Sentences Filling the blanks Rewriting the Speech

● ● ● ●

Changing Sentences Correcting Mistakes Unscrambling Words Transforming the Speech

● ● ● ●

Filling the Blanks Completing the Conversation Joining Sentences Matching Boxes

CONTINUOUS Pages 89-96

INDIRECT SPEECH

● BE READY ● MR. ALBERT SAID…

Indirect Speech Tenses Transformation The use of Tell and Say Expressions of time

Pages 97-104

REPORTED

● THE CAPITAL OF BRAZIL IS… ● HE ASKED…

QUESTIONS

● Reported Questions ● The Use of Ask and Request ● Tenses transformation

Pages 105-112

RELATIVE CLAUSE

● THE REASON WHY ● THIS IS MIKE WHO…

Pages 113-120

PRESENT

● I'VE BEEN WAITING…

PERFECT

● I'VE BEEN DREAMING…

CONTINUOUS

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

The The The The The The The

Use Use Use Use Use Use Use

of of of of of of of

Where When Who Whom Whose That and Which Why

● The use of Present Perfect Continuous ● Contrasting Present Perfect Simple to Present Perfect Continuous

● ● ● ●

Transforming Verbs Giving Answers Unscrambling Words Creating Sentences

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

The The The The The The The

● ● ● ● ● ●

Filling the Blanks Correcting the Mistakes Creating Sentences Completing the dialogue Correct or Incorrect Creating a To do List

● ● ● ●

“-ed” Adjectives “-ing” Adjectives Idioms Proverbs

● ● ● ●

Choosing the correct option Filling the Chart Matching Searching the meanings

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Future will x going to Modal verbs Comparative x superlative Indirect questions Used to x would always Some, any, no | phrasal verbs | slangs Simple past x present perfect Present perfect adverbs Verb tenses

-

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Question tags Adverbs Past continuous Indirect speech Indirect speech questions Relative clauses Present Perfect Continuous Collocation Adjective| Idioms| Proverbs

-

Pages 121-128 ● I'M HAVING DINNER

COLLOCATIONS

● I'LL TAKE THE CHANCE

Pages 129-136

ADJECTIVE,

● SO FAR SO GOOD

IDIOMS, END

● YOU LOOK PRETTY

PROVERBS

EXHAUSTED

Use Use Use Use Use Use Use

of of of of of of of

Make Have Do Go Take Give Get

Pages 137-144 FROM THE 1st Dialogue TO THE 18th

REVIEW 1

Pages 146-152 FROM THE 19th Dialogue TO THE 36th

REVIEW 2

Pages 154-160

ANSWER

ANSWER

SLANGS

PHRASAL

BOOK UNITS

BOOK REVIEWS

CHART

VERBS

Pages 162-170

Pages 172-175

Page 176

Pages 177-180

-


UNIT

FUTURE WILL X GOING TO

Check it out

SHOW UP – arrive, appear. SET – to fix firmly, make immobile. PUB – an establishment where alcoholic beverages are sold and consumed. OPENING – the first time that something happens BET – a choice made by thinking about what will probably happen. DEAL – an arrangement for mutual advantage. BARELY – hardly.

01


I'll show up

Joseph: Hey Louise, what are you going to do next weekend? Louise: Actually, I have no plans! Maybe, I will go to the movies with my sister, but that's not set yet! David:

How about going to a nice Pub? Jose and I are trying the new one just around the corner. I'm sure you're gonna love it!

Louise: Well, I don't know‌ When are you guys going to go? David:

On Saturday. It's going to be the opening.

Louise: Perhaps I'll show up! Joseph: 'Come on! Invite your sis. We're going to arrive at 10 p.m. I promise I'll save a seat for you just in case it is too crowded. Louise: Alright then! But you guys will owe me a drink! David:

You bet!

Joseph: Deal!

02


My boss will come back

Albert:

Hello Emma. It's me Albert! Can we talk?

Emma:

Hello Albert! Of course! How are you?

Albert:

I'm okay…So Emma, I really miss you! Let's do something on Friday!

Emma:

I'm sorry Al. I can't! I'm working This weekend!

Albert:

You're going to work the whole weekend?!

Emma:

I'm afraid so. My boss will probably come back next Monday, and we are going to organize everything before he returns!

Albert:

Now I'm sad! I really wanted to see you this weekend…

Emma:

That's so sweet! But don't worry. We're going to do something on the next one!

Albert:

I can barely wait…

03


LIGHTS UP FUTURE WILL We use this type of future to talk about: 1 Uncertain Future Maybe, I will travel this weekend.

|

Will you marry me?

2 Promises I promise I will study more!

|

I will stick to my diet!

3 Spontaneous Decisions I will go to the movies with you.

|

I'll answer the phone.

4 Subject cannot make a decision (cannot interfere in the verb) Castilla will close at 9.pm | My son will go to the doctor. 5 Prediction based on life experience If you get into the pool right after lunch, you will have a stomachache! Auxiliary Verb: WILL Affirmative:

I will travel next month

Negative:

I won't travel next month

Interrogative:

Will I travel next month?

The sentences can be shortened by contracting the subject and Will. I'll You'll

he'll she'll

ATTENTION!! To their new pronunciation.

04

It'll we'll

you'll they'll


LIGHTS UP FUTURE TO BE GOING TO We use this type of future to talk about: 1 Certain Future Certainly, we are going to travel on Christmas time. 2 Planned Decisions Sara and I are going to save some money for our trip. 3 Prediction based on Facts If we raise the temperature, It's going to be hot! Auxiliary Verb: verb to be + going to Affirmative:

I am going to travel next month

Negative:

I am not going to travel next month

Interrogative:

Am I going to travel next month?

Ps: “Gonna” is the informal way of saying “Going to” PRESENT CONTINUOUS Can also be used as a Future Sentence if it refers to a CLOSE FUTURE: We are travelling tomorrow.

|

They are eating out this evening.

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

05


JOIN IN 1

Complete the text with the missing future.

Dear Gramma, Maybe, I _______________ visit you next Holiday. Mom and I ________________ travel to L.A. As your house is on Melrose, we ________________ try to pass by. I ________________ save some money so we can spend the days shopping. I hope I see you soon. With love, Ariana.

2

Transform the sentences into affirmative, negative or interrogative.

a. I will buy her a present.

b. Are we going to watch that new reality show?

- ____________________________

+ ______________________________________

? _____________________________

- _______________________________________

c. The party is going to be at Liam's house.

d. She won't travel with you.

- _______________________________

+ ______________________________

? _______________________________

? _______________________________

e. Will you answer the phone?

f. She'll open the door.

- ____________________________

- _______________________________

+ ____________________________

? _______________________________

3

Make questions to the answers.

a. __________________________________ b. __________________________________ They are going to eat out on Sunday c. __________________________________ d. __________________________________ He will travel with his brother

06

It's going to be at 2 p.m.

Maybe, they will watch a movie.


JOIN IN 4

Answer the following questions completely.

a. What are you going to do on Christmas? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Will Tom travel next vacation? ______________________________________________________________________ c. What will they have for breakfast? ______________________________________________________________________ d. Where are they going to go after School? ______________________________________________________________________ e. When are you going to start studying for your test? ______________________________________________________________________

5

Put the verbs in the future form.

a. Probably, My husband and I ___________________you at the bar. (meet) b. Certainly, David ___________________ late. (arrive) c. I promise I ___________________more. (study) d. She ___________________ a cup of coffee. (make) e. The sky is dark! It ___________________ rain for sure!

Done!

unit one

07


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

08


UNIT

MODAL VERBS

Check it out

KICK – touch the ball with your foot with certain strength. SPOT – place or a position in a particular situation. APPLY - to make an application or request. CHOIR – a group of singers. TOUGH – strong, difficult. GRADE – score in a test. MISUNDERSTOOD – improperly understood or interpreted. AUDITION – a trial hearing given to a singer. CHAMPIONSHIP – series of competitions or contests to determine a champion. PITY – sympathetic or kindly sorrow. POSTPONED – put off to a later time. VACANCY – unoccupied place.

09


I might get in

Louise: I was checking some old photos on instaface, and I saw a picture of a presentation I did when I was around 15, Man, I could sing back then! Ariana: That reminds me of the time when I was able to play soccer. Gosh, I miss it! Nowadays, I can't even kick a ball on the right direction! Louise: That's not true! I've seen you playing before! You can play very well. You should try out for the College Soccer team! You might get a spot there! Ariana: And you have to audition for the College Choir, you can sing better than everybody else there! Louise: You know what?! I have to practice, that's for sure! Perhaps, I might get in. Ariana: And I must start practicing right now or I’ll have little chance to become part of the team! The girls there are tough! Louise: We had better go back to the dorm and start practicing before it's too late! Ariana: We ought to go right now!

10


I couldn’t join‌

Ariana: I can't believe I couldn't join the team just because of a bad grade! Louise: Don't worry Ariana! It must be a misunderstood! Ariana: No, it wasn't! Mr. Albert has just told me I got a D! That's why coach Emma didn't let me play the finale. Louise: But you shouldn't be so sad! They have selections every semester. You can apply again in a few months! Ariana: You're right! I must stop crying. I have to keep on practicing and I'll be better prepared whenever I have a chance. Louise: Both of us will! Ariana: What? You were not selected? What happened? Louise: Actually, they had to cancel the auditions. It seems that the national championship will be postponed. So they'll open a vacancy only next semester. Ariana: What a pity!

11


LIGHTS UP MODAL VERBS A modal is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb used to express: 1 CAN Ability: She can speak English very well Permission: Mom, can we play video game? Request: Can you open the door? Possibility: You can take the train in the evening. 2 COULD Ability in the past: I could dance perfectly! Formal request: Could you bring the Menu please? Suggestion: You could wear the black dress. Possibility: They could get married in July. 3 MAY Formal permission | prohibition: You may enter in the room. | You may not enter in the room. Polite request: May you help me? Strong possibility: It may rain tomorrow. 4 MIGHT Weak possibility: It might rain tomorrow morning. 5 MAY | MIGHT Suggestion: to make suggestion with May and Might: It + modal verb + be + good idea It might be a good idea to close the window now. It's too windy!

12


LIGHTS UP MODAL VERBS A modal is a type of auxiliary (helping) verb used to express: 1 SHOULD Advice: You should go to the doctor. You ought to go to the doctor. Future expectation: He has already left. He should arrive soon. 2 HAD BETTER Advice with a bad consequence if you don't follow it: You had better stop smoking or you'll die sooner! 3 HAVE TO Necessity: I have to study hard! 4 MUST Obligation: I must study! Prohibition: You mustn't take a bad grade Strong belief: She is so intelligent! She must be a good student! 5 WOULD Offers: Would you like some water? Request: Would you open the door? Invitation: Would you like to go to the cinema? Hypothetical situation: I would move to other country if I had the chance. TO BE ABLE TO is used to express ability as CAN, COULD, but their mainly difference is that “Be able to� can be transformed in all verb tenses: I I I I

am able to speak English. was able to speak English when I was a child. will be able to speak English when I finish the course. have been able to speak English since High School.

13


JOIN IN 1

Use modal verbs to complete the sentences CAN

COULD

MAY

WOULD

SHOULD MUST

a. Ariana is a good soccer player. She ___________________ play it very well. b. He is feeling extremely sick. He_________________ see a doctor! c. When I was a kid I ___________________play with my friends all day long. d. The street is wet. It___________________ have rained. e. ___________________you like a cup of coffee?

2

Complete with Can, Could or be able to.

a. When I finish my course I________________speak English fluently. b. ___________________ I go to the restroom? c. She ___________________ dance the ballet. d. I___________________ to speak English for many years. e. Louise___________________ sing.

3

Create sentences using the following modals: MODAL CAN COULD SHOULD WOULD MUST MAY

14

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I can dance

I can’ t dance

Can I dance?


JOIN IN 4

Complete the conversation between Louise and her mother.

Louise: Mom, ____________ I go to the cinema with David? Katherine: No, you ____________. You ____________ study for tomorrow's test. You ____________ be more responsible. Louise: But, mom, you____________ at least let me rent a movie to see later? Mother: OK, you____________ do that. But you ____________ start studying right now. Louise: I ____________ like to, but I don't know if I ____________.

5

Answer the questions:

a. Can you play any sport? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Could you ride a bike when you were a child? ______________________________________________________________________ c. Do you think it may rain tomorrow? ______________________________________________________________________ d. What do you have to do every day? ______________________________________________________________________ e. What would you like to do?

Done!

______________________________________________________________________

15


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

16


UNIT

COMPARATIVE X SUPERLATIVE

Check it out COOL – slang; excellent, very good; fashionable. RICH – having a lot of money and possessions. UNSHAKABLE - unable to be disputed or questioned. HANDSOME | PRETTY – pleasing to look at; a person that causes romantic feelings. INTERESTING – attracting your attention and make you want to learn more about it. SMART – very good at learning or thinking about things. MARATHON – an event or activity, that lasts an extremely long time. MUST – used to express obligation, prohibition. MAKE UP YOUR MIND – make a decision. CAN'T HELP – not be able to control or stop something. MOOD – a temporary state of mind; humor. BOWLING – a game in which a player throws a ball toward a target. SEEM – give the impression.

17


The best superhero

Batman is the best.

Wonder Woman is the most powerful!

Captain America is prettier!

David: Mike: Joseph: Ariana: Louise: David: Mike: Ariana: Louise:

18

The avengers are the greatest. Tony Stark is better.

Come on! The Avengers are better than The Justice League! No way! Batman is the coolest super hero ever. Bruce Wayne is more intelligent than Tony Stark and also richer. Are you kidding?? Tony is the best of all. And Bruce is less rich than him. Guys, everybody knows that Wonder Woman is more powerful than all of them together! She's unshakable! For me, Captain America is the most handsome, and I only watch the movies if he’s in them! Now seriously, do you really think that Aquaman is more interesting than Thor or Hulk? No doubt! Thor is the least interesting, and Hulk is the biggest but the least smart! You know what? Why don't we do a marathon with all these movies so we can check the best and also the worst one? Great idea Ariana! But we must start with Captain America‌


A better movie

Ariana: You have to make up your mind Jose! The movie is almost starting! Are we watching the Comedy or the Thriller? Joseph: I can't help! When is about movies I'm the most indecisive guy on earth! Ariana: You just have to go with your mood! Do you wanna have fun or feel a little bit intrigued? Joseph: hmm. Definitely comedies are funnier than thrillers, and thrillers are more intriguing than comedies but I don't feel like watching either. Ariana: Well, my sister told me about this Action-Comedy that will be in theaters next week, maybe we should wait‌ Joseph: Yeah! You're right! Let's go bowling and wait for a better movie. Ariana: Sounds good! These two movies really seemed to be the least interesting movies ever! Joseph: So go bowling will be for sure the best option!

19


LIGHTS UP COMPARATIVE Compare 2 elements: SPIDER MAN IS FASTER THAN HULK 1 ELEMENT +

ADJECTIVE +

2 ELEMENT

1 Comparative of EQUALITY Ariana is AS beautiful AS Emma 2 Comparative of INFERIORITY David is LESS tall THAN Joseph 3 Comparative of SUPERIORITY Long adjective: Ariana is MORE intelligent THAN Emma Short adjective: David is shorter THAN Joseph

In short adjectives we have to add a termination: 90% add ER or R small: smaller | long: longer | cute: cuter

Consonant + Y add IER Healthy: Healthier | pretty: prettier Consonant + vowel + consonant Big: Bigger Short adjectives exceptions: GOOD- BETTER

20

BAD- WORSE

FAR- FARTHER| FURTHER


LIGHTS UP SUPERLATIVE Compare 1 element to a Group of elements: FLASH IS THE FASTEST SUPERHERO 1 ELEMENT + ADJECTIVE + GROUP

1 Superlative of INFERIORITY David is THE LEAST tall boy in the soccer team. 2 Superlative of SUPERIORITY Long adjective: Ariana is THE MOST intelligent girl in class. Short adjective: David is THE shortest boy. In short adjectives we have to add a termination: 90% add EST or ST small: smallest | long: longest | cute: cutest Consonant + Y add IEST Healthy: Healthiest | pretty: prettiest Consonant + vowel + consonant Big: Biggest Short adjectives exceptions: GOOD- THE BEST BAD- THE WORST FAR- THE FARTHEST | THE FURTHEST IT'S possible to make a comparative or superlative sentence using an ADVERB instead of an ADJECTIVE: Flash runs MORE QUICKLY THAN Hulk Use the structure made for LONG ADJECTIVES if the adverb has more than ONE syllable. TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

21


JOIN IN 1

Complete the sentences with comparatives or superlatives of SUPERIORITY using the following adjectives:

a. He really loves comedies. For him, a Comedy is _______________ a Thriller. (good) b. In my opinion, that Drama was _____________ movie I've seen recently (interesting) c. Hulk is way ___________________ Thor (big) d. Batman fights___________________ Iron man (bad) e. That's for sure! Flash is___________________superhero (fast)

2

Complete the sentences with comparatives or superlatives of INFERIORITY using the following adjectives:

a. Ariana thinks she knows how to play, but she is_____________ bowling player (good) b. Joseph plays ___________________ Ariana (badly) c. The Adventure Movie was _______________ that Sci-fi we watched last week. (long) d. Spider man doesn't have much money. He is___________________ of them (rich) e. Ant man is___________________superhero (intelligent)

3

Complete the sentences with comparatives of EQUALITY:

a. I like both! So for me, Captain America is___________________ Thor (handsome) b. Certainly, Batman is___________________ Iron man (rich) c. Joseph plays ___________________ Ariana (bad) d. Ant man is ___________________ Iron man (annoying) e. Hulk is ___________________Captain America (Romantic)

22


JOIN IN 4

Correct the mistakes:

a. My grandmother is more old in my family ______________________________________________________________________ b. Last week I was more busy than this week. ______________________________________________________________________ c. Among all my brothers, I am shorter. ______________________________________________________________________ d. He is a bad player. I believe he is the less good in College. ______________________________________________________________________ e. In relation to Brazil, China is far than Canada. ______________________________________________________________________

5

Circle the best option and complete the sentences:

a. That is ________________________ house in my city. (the bigger – the biggest – bigger than) b. My neighbors are _________________________ me. (older than – less older – the least old) c. Who is _______________________ person in your house? (the shorter – the tallest – as tall as) d. Is your dog______________mine? (bigger than – small than – as cuter as)

Done!

e. Ariana bought __________________ she needed. (as food as – better food than – less food than)

23


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

24


UNIT

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

Check it out SORE THROAT – pain in the throat due to inflammation. HEADACHE – pain in the head. GET A COLD - have a flu; a disease caused by virus. UMBRELLA – device used to protect from the rain. PEPPER – condiment from the fruit of an Indian plant. SOUR - having an acid taste. COMPLAINT FORM – a paper you write about your unhappiness with something. ISSUE – problem. PRIVATE – belong to or concern an individual person or company.

25


Do you think…

Dr. Ray: Ariana: Dr. Ray: Ariana: Dr. Ray: Ariana: Dr. Ray: Ariana: Dr. Ray:

Ariana:

26

Good evening! You must be Ms. Thompson. I'm doctor Ray. Hello doctor! I'm not feeling well. Can you tell me what the symptoms are? I'm with a terrible sore throat and a horrible headache. Do you think I've got a cold? Well, let me check... Open your mouth! We must check a little more so we can have a clearer answer. But why? Do you believe it is something serious? Not at all. Why don't you lay down on bed so you can answer other few questions? Alright. I'd like to know if you have drunk much cold liquids recently… Also, Is there any chance you have slept with your window opened? Would it be possible that you walked out on a rainy day without an umbrella? I was wondering if you ate pepper or something sour the last few days… Uhh… I'm sorry. I forgot the first question. There were so many! Would you mind asking them again?


Do you believe‌

HEALTHCARE

COMPLAINT FORM We would like to know how you felt under our cares. Please, sign beside how you evaluate our services: Who examined you?

( ) Excellent ( ) Good (

x

) improvements needed

Dr. Ray did

What happened?

Hello, I feel really angry and extremely disappointed! I came here to solve my health issues and instead of getting better, now I am leaving the place feeling worse. The doctor asked me so many questions, and didn't even tell me what I have! He left the room after I answered thousands of questions and sent me home with only a pill to be taken. I was wondering how many people come here and go to their houses without being well treated for that same person? Do you believe it is fair to pay monthly to have a private healthcare and find a I doctor like that when you arrive? I hope something is done‌

27


LIGHTS UP INDIRECT QUESTIONS They are more polite than Direct Questions and we generally use them in formal occasions:

1 WHEN WE MAKE INDIRECT QUESTION, WE DON'T USE “DO, DOES, DID”. THE SENTENCE BECOMES AFFIRMATIVE: Direct: When does Ariana go to the doctor? Indirect: Could you tell me when Ariana goes to the doctor? Direct: What did the doctor talk to you? Indirect: Would you mind telling me what the doctor talked to you? 2 IF THERE IS NO QUESTION WORD (WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHY, HOW) IN A DIRECT QUESTION, WE NEED TO USE IF: Direct: Did she make it on time? Indirect: Can you tell me if she made it on time? Direct: Is this the right bus for the Hospital? Indirect: Do you have any idea if this is the right bus for the Hospital?

Starting Phrases for Indirect Questions: Could you tell me…

Do you know…

I was wondering…

Would you mind…

Do you have any idea…

I'd like to know…

Would it be possible…

Can you tell me…

Is there any chance…

Do you believe…

Do you think…

28


LIGHTS UP SUBJECT QUESTIONS Use them when: 1 THE SUBJECT IS THE QUESTION WORD Who works here?

Who traveled to Canada?

What happened?

Who does Romeo love? Romeo loves Juliet. Who loves Romeo? Juliet loves Romeo.

In the first question, Romeo is the subject of the verb. In the second question 'who' is the subject and Romeo is the object *Subjects – perform the action Objects- receive the action

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

unit one

29


JOIN IN 1

Transform the Direct Questions into Indirect ones:

a. Does Joseph like Italian food? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Has David ever studied abroad? ______________________________________________________________________ c. Do you have plans to travel this summer? ______________________________________________________________________ d. Are your parents joining us for dinner? ______________________________________________________________________ e. What time does the bank open? ______________________________________________________________________ f. Why did you move to Europe? ______________________________________________________________________ g. Is it a good idea? ______________________________________________________________________ h. What is the time? ______________________________________________________________________ i. What time is it? ______________________________________________________________________

30


JOIN IN 2

Make Subject Questions to the following answers:

a. _________________________________________________________ David broke the window. b. __________________________________________________________ Mike told me that. c. __________________________________________________________ He lost his keys. d. __________________________________________________________ Joseph made a sandwich. e. __________________________________________________________ Ariana answered the questions.

3

Create a COMPLAINT FORM, explain why you liked or why you didn't like the hospital's service: (5 lines minimum)

HEALTHCARE

COMPLAINT FORM We would like to know how you felt under our cares. Please, sign beside how you evaluate our services:

( ) Excellent ( ) Good ( ) improvements needed

Who examined you? What happened?

Done!

31


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

32


UNIT

USED TO X WOULD ALWAYS

Check it out

WHOLE – entire. AWESOME – great; excellent. IMPROVEMENT - when something gets better. HUGE – enormous. TREND – popular; fashion; tendency. FREE-PASS – a document given in certain places that allows someone get in without paying. MANAGER – the person responsible for a place. PAY – give money for something in return.

33


We used to…

Gramma online today

Hello Granny! How's everything? I've just seen your profile photo. Isn't it from when we used to spend the weekends together? Hello my darling. Yes! That's it! When you're a child, we would always cook together. I used to prepare the weekend's meals with you! Ow! I remember that! I would always wait the whole week so I could go to your house to be with you. Our weekends were the best! You used to play with your cousin and also used to run around the neighborhood with the good and old Rex! Rex!! I miss him so much! He would always run after me whenever I arrived LOL . And this old Gramma misses you… We used to be closer in the past… College is hard Granny! But sooner I’ll spend a weekend with you so we can do the things we used to… The doors are always open. Granny loves you too.

34


I am used to coming here

David: Joseph: Louise: Ariana: David: Louise: Ariana: Joseph: Ariana:

Hey man this place is awesome! Full of interesting pieces of history! I’m used to coming here at least once a month. They always have new exposition themes. I'm not used to visiting this kind of place. I'm not a big fan of art, but this Jurassic Expo is fantastic! I’d always come here when I was a child. They've made great improvements! The place is huge now! The thing is that we are used to going only to trend places and we forget that museums can also be entertaining. And also educational! That's true. I'll get some free-passes for us, my uncle is the manager here. Oh! Here's why you're used to coming here: you don't have to pay…

35


LIGHTS UP USED TO It refers to: I USED TO RIDE BIKES SUBJ + USED TO + VERB

1 SOMETHING THAT REAGULARLY HAPPENED IN THE PAST BUT NO LONGER HAPPENS I used to play with barbies 2 A STATE, CONDITION IN THE PAST I used to be less independent Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

I used to believe in Santa Claus I didn't use to believe in Santa Claus Did I use to believe in Santa Claus?

Ps: used to do not refer to an action that happens with regular frequency, or that was a routine. *Get + used to shows that something is in the process of becoming normal. He doesn't like that small town, but he'll get used to it.

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

36


LIGHTS UP TO BE USED TO It refers to: I AM USED TO WORKING UNTIL 10 PM SUBJ + TO BE + USED TO + VERB + ING

1 SOMETHING IN THE PRESENT IS NOT UNUSUAL I am used to waking up early on saturdays Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

I am used to sleeping early I am not used to sleeping early Am I used to sleeping early?

WOULD ALWAYS It refers to: I WOULD ALWAYS GO TO SCHOOL SUBJ + WOULD ALWAYS + VERB

1 HABITS IN THE PAST I would always drink a cup of milk before go to bed

Affirmative: I would always walk to school Negative: I would never walk to school Interrogative: Would I always walk to school? Ps: would always cannot describe states or conditions for this, use “Used to” I would always be independent I used to be independent

37


JOIN IN 1

Complete with used to, be used to or get used to. Attention to the verb tense.

a. I ________________drinking a lot of water every day. b. She has ___________________ live in a small city. c. I ___________________ eat a lot of junk food a couple of years ago. d. They___________________ cooking for themselves. e. He___________________drive a car when he was younger.

2

Complete with used to or would always:

a. Joseph________________be part of a History group. b. Ariana ___________________ go to the mall in the afternoon. c. My grandmother ___________________wake up very early. d. I___________________ love our weekends. . e. He___________________wear his uniform to school.

3

Transform the sentences into negative and interrogative form:

a. I am used to cleaning my bedroom every week. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ b. I used to play on the streets. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

38


JOIN IN 4

Continue to do the previous exercise.

c. She would always take her sister to school. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ d. They are used to going to trend places. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ e. We used to take good grades at school. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

5

Answer the questions:

a. What did you use to do when you were a child? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Where would you always go? ______________________________________________________________________ c. Did you get used to study before class? ______________________________________________________________________ d. Would you always go to school by bus? ______________________________________________________________________ e. Did you use to play on the street?

Done!

______________________________________________________________________ f. What are you used to doing? ______________________________________________________________________

39


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

40


UNIT

SOME, ANY, NO

Check it out STARVING – suffering because of a lack of food; extremely hungry. SNACK BAR – public place where small meals and snacks are served. ANY PARTICULAR - a specific thing. FLAVOR – the sensory impression of food or other substance. MIND – the part of a person that thinks. ORDER - a specific request at an establishment. EACH – every one of two or more people or things considered separately. SPILL THE BEANS – to let secret information become known. GOT SCORE THIS ONE – get what the person wants. SET UP – make concrete plans.

41


I'm doing nothing

David:

Hey Louise! Are you doing anything?

Louise: Not really. Actually, I'm doing nothing right now! David:

Great! Let's go somewhere, shall we?

Louise: Good Idea. I ate nothing before coming to college I'm starving! David:

So, how about going to the snack bar? We could have some chocolate cake.

Louise: No-no! I wanna eat no cake‌ How about some sandwiches? David:

Sounds fine! Anything to drink?

Louise: Yeah! Their delicious milk-shake would be awesome! David:

Any particular flavor?

David:

I don't have any in mind! We could order some of each. At least three small ones.

Louise: Wow! You really like their milkshakes‌

42


Hey bro,

x

SkypTM - David

Skyp Contacts Conversation Call Wiew Tools Help

David

Trevor

Online

Online

Search Home

Hey bro. What's up? I Heard about Melissa.

10:48

Man.. You such a looser! You know we're pals but she was absolutely right! She had to dump you! I really sorry that you guys broke up but it was an epic fail! Dunno why you did this! I hope we're good, I had to tell you that! You'll get over it soon.

10:56

Anyway, let me talk about my problem now. There is this friend of mine, Ariana, and dude‌ she is such a babe! I have a crush on her. She doesn't know yet. I don't wanna screw up things! All of our friends ship us. But I dunno if she takes it seriously. I have to chill, I know. I got score this one! The moment is coming. I'll spill the beans and wait for the best.

11:02

Can I crash at your house this holiday? I know you need someone to cheer you up‌ Let's keep on chatting and set up things geek.

11:07

Call phones CONTACTS Today

Trevor

Type a message here

43


LIGHTS UP SOME, ANY, NO The indefinite pronouns have some differences among them: 1 SOME AND ITS COMPOUNDS – SOMEBODY, SOMEONE, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE… ARE NORMALLY USED IN AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES: There is some water in the jar. We have some cake left from last night. There is someone at the door. They can also be used in interrogative sentences for request, offers, and when you expect “YES” as an answer: Do you want some chocolate? 2 ANY AND ITS COMPOUNDS – ANYBODY, ANYONE, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE… ARE USED IN INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES: Has anyone seen Mike around? Do we have any food in the fridge? I don't have anything to do. I am not going anywhere! 3 NO AND ITS COMPOUNDS – NOBODY, NO ONE, NOTHING, NOWHERE… CAN BE USED INSTEAD OF NOT ANY IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES: He didn't do anything. He did nothing.

I know nobody in this room. No one speaks Spanish here.

Attention! “NO” sentences MUST be in affirmative structure.

You don't know nothing, Jon Snow! You know nothing, Jon Snow!

44


LIGHTS UP SLANGS x PHRASAL VERBS 1 SLANGS: Use them in informal speeches. They are informal expressions used in daily conversations generally between friends What's up? Hang out geek epic fail

babe have a crush dunno screw up

dump someone ship ‌

CHECK PAGE 176 FORMORE!

2 PHRASAL VERBS: Phrasal verb is a combination of words (a verb + a preposition or verb or adverb) that when used together, usually take on a different meaning to that of the original verb -Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object David suddenly showed up. "show up" cannot take an object -Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object. David made up the story. "story" is the object of "make up" -Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. I ran into an old friend yesterday.

They are looking for a nice pub.

- Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition. David turned on the lights.

David turned the lights on.

WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun. He turns the lights off. He turned it off.

He turned off the lights . He turned on it .

unit one

45


JOIN IN 1

Complete with SOME, ANY OR NO:

a. He has _____________ friends at all. b. Would you like _____________ more orange juice? c. I never have _______________ luck with the lottery. d. Yes, I've got _______________. e. I want to find ______________ one to love. f. No, I've not got _____________.

2

Complete with SOMETHING, ANYTHING OR NOTHING:

a. David is hungry, but there's ________________ to eat in the fridge! b. I don't want to eat ____________________. c. I can see ________________ under the table. What is it? d. " What did you say?" - "____________________" e. Is there ___________________ interesting to watch on TV tonight?

3

Choose the correct Phrasal Verb:

a. Stop complaining and ____________________ the situation! (get on / get over) b. We're going to have to __________________ our trip to Spain until September. (put up/ put off) c. I'm so tired of Mike________________________ his new girlfriend all the time. (showing off, showing up) d. It's important to__________________________ on time. (show up / show off) e. Ariana had to ______________ her sister. (look after | look up)

46


JOIN IN 4

Complete the chart:

COME OVER

TURN ON

GIVE UP

LOOK AFTER

SIT DOWN

SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

5

PICK UP

BRAKE UP

FILL OUT

PULLED DOWN

UNSEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS

Complete with the correct Slang: Hang out

|

Have a crush

|

Pals

|

Geek

a. You really like this girl. You definitely _________________________ on her. b. David and Ariana are friends. They are good _________________________. c. He is so into computers! What a ___________________________________! d. Hey man. We should ___________________________________ some time.

Done!

47


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

48


UNIT

SIMPLE PAST X PRESENT PERFECT

Check it out AS A MATTER OF A FACT – speaking truly. HOMETOWN – the city where you were born or grew up. HIGH SCHOOL – the last period in school. CHEERLEADER - a member of a group who shouts out special songs or chants to encourage team and entertain the crowd during a game. STUFF – materials, supplies; general things. FINALS – the last tests. NOTES – things written in a class or in a meeting. LAST YEAR – the year before now (specific time). IN THE LAST YEAR – from 365 days ago until now (no specific time). HAVE GONE – go to a place and continuous there; to move permanently. HAVE BEEN – to visit a place.

49


Where have you been? Hey Louise! Where have you been? I haven't seen you the last few days!

Louise: Oh, hey David! I traveled to my hometown last week. I've just came back! David: Really? So, tell me, what did you do there? Louise: I did many things! I visited my grandparents, I went out with some friends, I ate my mom's food, I walked on the park, bought some nice stuff‌ David: Have you studied recently? We are having a test on Friday! Louise: What?! I haven't studied lately! I thought our finals would begin only next week! David: Mr. Gomez decided to start them earlier. But don't worry. I've got some nice notes from Ariana, let's share them. Louise: Thank you so much David! What would I do without you?!

50


Have you already met…?

Louise: Hey guys! Have you already met Rebecca? David:

As a matter of a fact, no! But I have already seen you around Rebecca. I'm David!

Ariana: Hello Rebecca! I'm Ariana. Rebecca: I've never met you before, but your face is kind of familiar… David:

Maybe, you've taken some classes together in the last year.

Rebecca:That's it! I knew I've already met you. We did High School together! Ariana: No way!! You're Becca the Cheerleader! OMG! I can't believe I've just talked to you! I've been to all your presentations in Western School! Rebecca: That was a long time ago! I haven't done this for ages! But it's nice you recall a such great time! David:

I think you've just met a fan Rebecca…

51


LIGHTS UP SIMPLE PAST Use simple past to refer to: I WORKED SUBJ + PAST FORM OF THE VERB

1 Finished actions I studied English at Castilla 2 Definite time in the Past I studied hard yesterday night 3 Isolated action in the Past I traveled to the U.S.A last year

Auxiliary verb: DID

Affirmative:

I worked last night

Negative:

I didn't work last night

Interrogative:

Did I work last night?

TEACHER'S NOTES

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

52


LIGHTS UP PRESENT PERFECT Use present perfect to refer to: I HAVE WORKED SUBJ + HAVE | HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE VERB

1 No finished actions that began in the past I have studied English at castilla for 3 months 2 No definite time in the past I have studied a lot recently 3 Repeated actions in the past I have been to the U.S.A twice. AUXILIARY VERB: HAVE | HAS Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

I have worked recently I haven't worked recently Have I worked recently?

We may use FOR and SINCE in Present Perfect sentences when it means that something started in the PAST and has continued until NOW: FOR – duration of an action I have worked at Castilla FOR 3 years SINCE – the starting point of an action I have worked at Castilla SINCE 2015 SO FAR| UNTIL NOW - from before up to this point Ariana has been responsible UNTIL NOW | She has taken good grades SO FAR TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

53


JOIN IN 1

Match the verb tenses to their expressions and formulate sentences using all of them:

SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT

FOR TWO WEEKS AGO RECENTLY YESTERDAY LAST MONTH SINCE

a. FOR ______________________________________________________________________ b. TWO WEEKS AGO ______________________________________________________________________ c. RECENTLY ______________________________________________________________________ d. YESTERDAY ______________________________________________________________________ e. LAST MONTH ______________________________________________________________________ f. SINCE ______________________________________________________________________

2

Complete with the verb in parenthesis:

a. David ___________ to Cancun last month. (go) b. Louise _________to her mother last night. (speak) c. My students ___________________many things during this year. (learn) d. I _______________to Australia many times. (be) e. They _______________from their cities since 2009. (move)

54


JOIN IN 3

Create sentences using SO FAR, UNTIL NOW, FOR and SINCE.

a. Rebecca didn't know them. Now she knows. _______________________________________________________________ b. They live in a big city. They moved 10 years ago. _______________________________________________________________ c. Joseph and David are friends. They met when they were children. _______________________________________________________________ d. I always got good grades. I never got anything less than B+. _______________________________________________________________ e. Louise lives in university. She started college in 2016. _______________________________________________________________

4

Unscramble the words:

a. has David played the for last five years soccer _______________________________________________________________ b. bought I shoes have nice _______________________________________________________________ c. until now they not have their finished homework _______________________________________________________________ d. town Louise and Ariana 2 hours driven around have the for

Done! _______________________________________________________________ e. U.S.A have they gone to the ________________________________________________________________

55


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

56


UNIT

PRESENT PERFECT ADVERBS

Check it out

BREAK – a pause for a short period of time. GIVE UP – to abandon a particular feeling or activity. HARD - physically or mentally difficult. AWAKE – not sleeping. COLLEGE – university. MISS – young unmarried woman or girl. SOON – in a short time after something happens. ABROAD – other country. BE IN SOMEONE ELSE'S SHOES – imagine yourself in the other person's point of view.

57


Louise@mail.com

louisewood@mail.com

@ @@

@

@

@ @@

@ @ Form @ @ Email @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @

@

@

@

@

@

To:

@

@

Subject

@

@

@

@

@

@

Dear Mom, I have been so busy lately. I have never studied so hard in my entire life! I've just taken a break from studying. I haven't finished everything yet. But I really needed a break! David has just told me that we're having this test on Friday and as I have been all those days at home with you, I don't know if I will finish all the studying on time! Have you ever faced a situation like that? Have you ever thought of given up on college? Anyway, I got go back to the books. I just wanted to let you know how hard life has been around here‌

@

@

@

@

@

Kisses,

@

@

Your sweet potato.

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

58


Katherine@mail.com

katherinewood@mail.com

@ @@

@

@

@ @@

@ @ Form @ @ Email @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @ @

@

@

@

@

@

To:

louisewood@mail.com @

@

Subject

@FWD: HOW BUSY I'VE BEEN...

@

@

LOUISE,

@

@

I have been in your shoes! I've spent so many nights awake. I've lost so many parties so I

@

could get some A+ in my tests.

In my days, it was even harder! There was no Google to help us out! I have been to the

@

@

library almost all exams to study! I have never had the chance to study in my room 'cause

@

there was no computer!

@

Given up on college?! No way little miss! I have never considered such thing! Neither should you!

@

@

Go back to your books, mommy will be waiting for your visit as soon as your finals are over.

@

With all my love, Mommy.

@

@

@

@

@

@

@

59


LIGHTS UP PRESENT PERFECT AND ADVERBS We use the expressions below with present perfect sentences to: LATELY – express repeated action or a recent routine started in the past that continuous now and can continue in the future She has worked a lot LATELY present

?

future

RECENTLY – a recent action in the past, no specific time They have watched a good movie RECENTLY present

action

ALREADY – an action concluded before present I have ALREADY done my exercises present

action

YET – an action that was not concluded before present but will probably be in a short future I have not done my exercises YET present

? no action

60

future


LIGHTS UP PRESENT PERFECT AND ADVERBS We use the expressions below with present perfect sentences to: EVER – one day in your life before present Have you EVER traveled to another country? present

Past

? NEVER – lack of experience I have NEVER traveled abroad present

Past

JUST – an action occurred a very short time ago I have JUST studied the Present Perfect tense present action

HOW TO USE THE ADVERBS IN PRESENT PERFECT SENTENCES? ALREADY. JUST and RECENTLY are often used in Affirmative, Negative and Interrogative forms. YET is often used in Negative structure NEVER must be in Affirmative structure as it has a negative idea EVER is often used in interrogative sentences

61


JOIN IN 1

Answer the following questions:

a. What have you done lately? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Have you watched any good movie or TV series recently? ______________________________________________________________________ c. Have you ever been in another city? ______________________________________________________________________ d. What has your teacher just done? ______________________________________________________________________ e. Have you Already completed all your English exercises? ______________________________________________________________________

2

Transform the sentences to the given form:

a. I have already been to the gym -

__________________________________

? ______________________________

b. She hasn't traveled to Canada yet. -

__________________________________

? ______________________________

c. Have they worked hard? -

__________________________________

? ______________________________

d. The man has already walked on the moon -

__________________________________

? ______________________________

e. We have never seen a better movie! -

__________________________________

62

? ______________________________


JOIN IN 3

Arrange the expressions in the chart according to the tense form they may be used in:

ALREADY

|

JUST

|

NEVER

AFFIRMATIVE

4

YET

|

LATELY

NEGATIVE

|

RECENTLY

|

EVER

INTERROGATIVE

Arrange the expressions above according to their position in a structural sentence: END OF THE SENTENCE

5

|

BEFORE VERB

Complete the sentences with PRESENT PERFECT. Don't forget to put the verbs in the past participle form:

a. You____________already____________ in college (graduate) b. My sister____________never____________ my boyfriend (meet) c. They________________many clothes at the store. (buy)

Done! d. I____________________for the last few years. (drive) e. My kids ___________________a lot of junk food lately (eat)

63


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

64


UNIT

VERB TENSES

Check it out ACT STRANGE – have an unusual behavior. SPRAIN – violent twist of a joint with stretching or tearing of ligaments. HURT – to cause pain. BOTHER – feel concerned; worried; annoyed. PAINKILLER – a drug that decreases or removes the pain. MATTER OF – a question of. QUICK – fast. CLIMB – to move or go up. AWFUL – extremely bad. SAFE- not dangerous. DONE WITH – finished with something. IF YOU SAY SO – to politely disagree or imply that someone is lying.

65


Does it hurt?

Louise: What're you doing Mike? Why are you acting strange right now? Mike:

I've just sprained my shoulder!

Louise: Oh my Gosh! Does it hurt? Mike:

It is bothering me more than hurting.

Louise: I'll go to the Health Center to check if they have some painkillers for you. Mike:

I've already been there. They've already given me some.

Louise: So now it's just a matter of time! You'll get better soon! Mike:

I hope so! I am playing tomorrow. I won't play if I don't get better!

Louise: Don't worry! Everything is gonna be just fine‌

66


I'm done with climbing

Ariana: Does your shoulder still bother you? I see you are better now. Mike:

Actually, it doesn't. I'm way better.

Ariana: That's great! It was a quick recovering. Have you ever sprained anything else? Mike:

To be honest, I have! I broke my foot last summer. I was climbing when I fell from the Mountains! It was awful!

Ariana: Gee! I'm sorry to hear that! I cannot imagine the pain! Mike:

The pain was not the worst. It ruined my whole summer. I had to stay in bed. I could barely move! Surely, I'm not going to climb anymore.

Ariana: But if you do, remember to check the equipment to be sure it's going to be safe! Mike:

I won't need. I'm done with climbing.

Ariana: If you say so‌

67


LIGHTS UP VERB TENSES The main differences among them are: SIMPLE PRESENT 1 Facts 2 Routines

I study everyday

Auxiliary verb: DO | DOES Expressions of time: in the morning, in the afternoon, at night, usually, generally, every week, on the weekends… PRESENT CONTINUOUS 1 Action at the moment 2 Close future 3 Action in progress

I am studying now

Auxiliary verb: AM | IS | ARE Expressions of time: now, right now, at the moment, tomorrow, next week, tonight, this year, this month… SIMPLE PAST 1 Finished action 2 Past action specific time 3 Isolated actions

I studied yesterday

Auxiliary verb: DID Expressions of time: yesterday, last week, last month, last year, 2 months ago, a year ago, last night…

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LIGHTS UP VERB TENSES The main differences among them are: PRESENT PERFECT 1 No finished action 2 No specific time 3 Repeated actions in the past

I have studied lately

Auxiliary verb: : HAVE | HAS Expressions of time: lately, already, yet, just, since, for, so far… FUTURE WILL 1 Uncertain Future Maybe, I'll study 2 Spontaneous Decision 3 Prediction based on life experiences Auxiliary verb: WILL Expressions of time: maybe, perhaps, I think …

FUTURE GOING TO 1 Certain Future 2 Planned Decision 3 Prediction based on facts

Certainly, I am going to study

Auxiliary verb: TO BE + GOING TO Expressions of time: for sure, certainly, surely…

69


JOIN IN 1

Complete the text with the missing tense:

MOMMY, I ___________ (be) so busy lately. I _________ (not-call) you yesterday because I _________(be) so tired. I __________ (go) to college now. I always__________(go) to College in the afternoons. Maybe, I _____________(have) time to call you today. For sure, I ____________ (call) you on the weekend. Talk to you soon, Louise.

2

Make questions to the answers:

a. _______________________________

b. ________________________________

No, I won't c. ________________________________

No, I don't. d. _______________________________

No, I haven't.

3

No, I din't.

Answer the following questions completely:

a. What do you do every day? ______________________________________________________________________ b. What did you do yesterday? ______________________________________________________________________ c. What have you done lately? ______________________________________________________________________ d. What are you doing at the moment? ______________________________________________________________________ e. What will you probably do next weekend? ______________________________________________________________________

70


JOIN IN 4

Match the tenses to the word that represents them:

1. SIMPLE PRESENT

(

) In Occurrence

2. SIMPLE PAST

(

) Possible

3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

(

) Certain

4. PRESENT PERFECT

(

) Concluded

5. WILL

(

) Daily

6. GOING TO

(

) Not Concluded

5

Create sentences with the given expressions:

a. ON THE WEEKENDS ____________________________________________________________________

b. THIS YEAR ____________________________________________________________________

c. SURELY ____________________________________________________________________

d. I THINK ____________________________________________________________________

e. SINCE

Done!

____________________________________________________________________

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NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

72


UNIT

QUESTION TAGS

Check it out

APPOINTMENT – an agreement to meet someone at a particular time. SHALL – something is expected; used to ask someone's opinion. LADY – a woman who behaves in a polite way: of a high social position. LOOK – appearance. WONDERFUL – extremely good. SHINING - producing or reflecting a bright. SOFT – easy to press. PLATINUM – silver-colored. BEAUTY SALON - a hair salon. MATURE – having or showing qualities of an adult.

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I like both‌and‌

Katty: You haven't told him yet, have you? Ariana: No, I haven't. I know how to keep secrets! But you are going to talk to Mike before doing it, aren't you? Katty: Well, I am not so sure. I can either tell him or make a surprise. So I think I'll wait. Ariana: He doesn't expect such a change, does he? Katty: I think he has an idea! He has mentioned that he would like to see me either red or black-haired, So, probably, he is waiting for this transformation. Ariana: I am sure he feels this way! Well, I like both red and black. You would be beautiful in both ways! Katty: I am also thinking of getting a haircut. But I want my hair neither too long nor too short! Ariana: You know what?! I want to make a change too. Let's make an appointment at the same time, shall we? Katty: Sounds perfect! Call the Beauty Salon and let me know the time, will you? Ariana: Certainly!

74


That's not good, is it?

Ariana:

This platinum hair is wonderful, isn't it?

Hair Stylist:

Amazing! I really loved the change!

Ariana:

I loved this change too!

Hair Stylist:

Your hair is both shining and softer!

Ariana:

I enjoyed the fact that it's neither blond nor grey! It's the perfect color! Just the way I like!

Hair Stylist:

So do I! Now, you are with a serious look. Like a real lady!

Ariana:

hmm. I look older, don't I?

Hair Stylist:

I don't think so. I would say you look more mature!

Ariana:

Oh no! That's not good, is it? I don't wanna look older! Please, let's go back to the old look.

Hair Stylist:

What? Are you sure?!

Ariana:

Definitely! I want my old look back right now!!

75


LIGHTS UP QUESTION TAGS Use Tags to confirm information: YOU WORK AT CASTILLA, DON'T YOU? 1 IF SENTENCE IS AFIRMATIVE, YOUR TAG WILL BE NEGATIVE They were friends, weren't they?

2 IF SENTENCE IS NEGATIVE, YOUR TAG WILL BE AFIRMATIVE You are not going to travel this weekend, are you? USE THE AUXILIARY VERB TO MAKE TAGS: Simple present: DO|DOES

She works in the morning, DOESN'T SHE?

Simple past: DID Present perfect: HAVE|HAS

You went to the park, DIDN'T YOU? They have been to the U.S.A, HAVEN'T THEY?

Future: WILL

We will study more, WON'T WE?

IF THE SENTENCE HAS THE VERB TO BE AS AN AUXILIARY VERB OR THE MAIN VERB, USE TO BE TO MAKE A TAG: He is watching TV, ISN'T HE? You are a teacher, AREN'T YOU? It is going to be cold, ISN'T IT? She was your friend, WASN'T SHE? NEGATIVE TAGS ARE ALWAYS CONTRACTED!

SPECIAL CASES: I am your daughter, AREN'T I? (as “am” and “not” can't be contracted, we use AREN'T to make the tag) Let's go to the movies, SHALL WE? (with Let's go use SHALL to make the tag) Study more, WILL YOU? (with imperative use “Will you” as a tag) Everybody hates Cris, DON'T THEY? (with everybody, everyone… use always “THEY”)

76


LIGHTS UP EITHER, NEITHER, BOTH Use them as a conjunction to express: 1 YOU LIKE BOTH THINGS OR YOU PERFORM THE TWO OPTIONS WITH NO DISTINCTION. MEANING BOTH OF THEM: I like both pizza and hamburguer 2 YOU HAVE NO PREFERENCE. MEANING ONE OF THEM: I can eat either pizza or hamburguer 3 YOU DISLIKE BOTH THINGS OR YOU DON'T PERFORM THE TWO OPTIONS. MEANING NONE OF THEM: I eat neither pizza nor hamburguer Attention! As the idea is negative, use affirmative structure with NEITHER, *Use singular verb if both subjects are singular: Neither Ariana nor David has a car *Use plural verb if one of the subjects is plural: Neither Ariana nor her friends have a car ALSO, TOO, EITHER, NEITHER, SO Use them to express agreement: 1 LONG AGREEMENT: I also like pizza! I am also a teacher.

| I like pizza too. | I can also play the guitar.

2 SHORT AGREEMENT: So do I. | So does she.

| So were they.

|

So will he. | So am I.

3 LONG AGREEMENT (NEGATIVE): I don't like pizza either. 4 SHORT AGREEMENT (NEGATIVE): Neither do I. | Neither does she. | Neither were they. | Neither will he. *use ALSO before verbs or after verb to be and modal verbs *use TOO and EITHER in the end of sentences *use So or Neither + auxiliary verb or verb to be + subject

77


JOIN IN 1

Formulate sentences using EITHER OR, NEITHER NOR, BOTH AND:

a. Ariana likes red hair. Ariana likes black hair. ______________________________________________________________________ b. I don't like to eat vegetables. I don't like to eat fruits. ______________________________________________________________________ c. I can speak to him on the phone or in person. ______________________________________________________________________ d. She travels by boat. She travels by plane. ______________________________________________________________________ e. They don't want to study, They don't want to get bad grades. ______________________________________________________________________

2

Complete with the correct negative TAG:

a. Katty will make a change, _____________________? b. Ariana asked to redo her hair, _________________? c. I am your teacher, ___________________________? d. Stop smoking, _______________________________? e. Let's check your exercise, _____________________?

78


JOIN IN 3

Complete with the correct negative TAG:

a. I haven't met them yet, __________________? b. I don't know you, _______________________? c. It isn't going to be easy, _________________? d. She wasn't sleeping, _____________________? e. They can't drive, ________________________?

4

Create short and long negative or positive agreements:

a. Ariana likes to go to the Hair Salon. Short: _______________. Long: _________________________________________________. b. David isn't a good soccer player. Short: _______________. Long: _________________________________________________. c. You will go to the movies with him. Short: _______________. Long: _________________________________________________. d. They were at the pub last Friday night. Short: _______________. Long: _________________________________________________.

Done!

e. She can go to the movies with him. Short: _______________. Long: _________________________________________________.

79


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

80


UNIT

ADVERBS

Check it out HURRY UP – to go faster. SCHEDULED – designate for a fixed time. DARK – with little or no light. DANGEROUS – likely to cause problems or to have adverse consequences. AGREED - holding the same view or opinion on something. AFTER ALL – despite any indications or expectations to the contrary. SPEED UP – high the velocity. JOKE – a thing that someone says to cause amusement or laughter. JUST KIDDING – used to indicate that something is not to be taken seriously. POOL - a game played on a table using fifteen colored and numbered balls and a white cue ball. SINK - hit a ball into a hole in golf or billiards. ROW – forming a line; one after another. FOOL - a clown, especially one retained in a royal or noble household.

81


Go back before dark

Thirty minutes of road! Hurry up Jake!

Louise: No Jake! Drive carefully! You're driving too fast already! Ariana: Don't worry! He is a careful driver! He can't go slowly on a rode! Besides, we have to arrive soon or we'll miss all the fun! Louise: Don't be dramatic! We're on time! They always start later than scheduled! Ariana: I know! But remember we must go back before dark. The road is dangerous at night. Jake:

Absolutely agreed, girls!

Louise: He speaks after all! Why were you so quiet? Jake:

I like to drive quietly so I don't lose my concentration. This way I can speed up to arrive quickly!

Louise:

Now I got it! Look! We've just arrived! I can see Mike and Becca over there!

Ariana: Hey Jake! Help us jump out of the car! Jake:

82

Certainly, ladies! Let's party!


The fool is stills eating Hey Jake! Come play pool with us!

Jake:

No offense man, but you guys play too badly!

Joseph: What're you talking about?! We're not that bad! Jake:

No you're not bad‌ you just play horribly!

Joseph: Ha-ha! Stop joking and join us! Jake:

Just kidding! Where're you guys playing?

Joseph: We're playing there. On that blue table. Jake:

I'll eat quickly so I can join you next round!

Joseph: Don't take too long or you'll miss the king sinking the eight balls in a row! Jake:

The king or the fool?

Joseph: The fool is still eating! Jake:

Haha! You caught me! That was good man, that was good‌

83


LIGHTS UP ADVERBS They are words that modify: A VERB: He drives slowly.

AN ADJECTIVE: He is very tall.

SENTENCES: Unfortunately, I couldn't speed up.

You can form adverbs following these rules: Irregular adverbs ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

dangerous careful nice

dangerously carefully nicely

ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

late

late

wrong

wrong

good

well

fast

fast

hard

hard

90% of adjectives add ‘‘ly’’ horrible

horribly

If the adjective ends in “le” change it to “ly” easy

easily

If the adjective ends in “y” change it to “ily” electronic

electronically

If the adjetive ends in ‘‘ic’’ add ‘‘ally’’

ATTENTION! Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs:

Adjectives: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly Nouns: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy Verbs: apply, rely, supply ATTENTION! Don't make a mistake using adjectives when you should use an adverb:

He behaved very bad.

84

He behaved very badly.


LIGHTS UP TYPES OF ADVERBS

1 ADVERBS OF MANNER - Describe How something is done She moved slowly and spoke quietly. 2 ADVERBS OF PLACE - Tell Where the action happens She has lived somewhere in this island. She still lives there now. 3 ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY – Tell How often the action happens She takes the boat to the mainland every day. She always goes by herself. 4 ADVERBS OF TIME - Tell When the action happens She tries to get back before dark. It's starting to get dark now.

ADVERBS FUNCTIONS Adverbs often function as intensifiers. Check some types below: 1 EMPHASIZERS: I really don't believe him.

She simply ignored me.

2 AMPLIFIERS: The teacher completely rejected her proposal. I absolutely refuse to attend more meetings. 3 DOWNTONERS: I kind of like this college.

The boss almost quit after that.

85


JOIN IN 1

Fill the blanks with the correct adverbs: EVERYWHERE

-

NOW

-

USUALLY

-

ABRUPTLY

-

GRACEFULLY

a. The driver stopped the bus _________________. b. During autumn, colorful leaves can be seen fallen ________________. c. My grandmother always smiled _________________. d. It's time to go ______________. e. They_____________ go to the university.

2

Transform the sentences. Be careful, and use the correct verb tense:

a. He is a careful driver.

He drives carefully. ______________________________________________________________________ b. She has been a nice girl. ______________________________________________________________________ c. He used to be a good actor. ______________________________________________________________________ d. They were great singers. ______________________________________________________________________ e. Her voice is soft. ______________________________________________________________________

3

Transform the adjectives into adverbs:

a. Mike is careful. He drives ____________________________. b. Ariana is slow. She walks_____________________________. c. My neighbor is a loud speaker. He speaks _______________. d. This exercise is easy. You can do it_____________________. e. He is a bad painter. He paints _________________________.

86


JOIN IN 4

Complete with the most suitable adverbs. Choose from the given box. Almost

Very

There

Hardly

Sometimes

Badly

Perhaps

So

Always

Certainly

a. I have ______________________ finished. b. He is________________________ clever. c. There is_____________________ something wrong. d. ____________________________ I should take a long break. e. He is _______________________ late for work.

5

Fill the chart organizing the adverbs. After, create sentences using 2 of each:

EARLY

HERE

BRUTALLY

SELDOM

MANNER

THERE

MONTHLY

PLACE

UPSTAIRS QUIETLY

WEIRDLY

REGULARLY

DOWNSTARIS

FREQUENCY

TIME

a. Manner:_____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ b. Place: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ c. Frequency: __________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ d. Time: ______________________________________________________________

Done!

_____________________________________________________________________

87


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

88


UNIT

PAST CONTINUOUS

Check it out

PUPPY – a young dog. STARING – to look at something a long time with eyes wide open. LONELY – sad from being apart from other people. BARK – the noise a dog produces. REALIZE – to understand or become aware of something. HOLD - to have or keep in your hands, arms. TILL – until; up to a particular time. FEED – give food. TOUCHING STORY – a story that causes emotional effects such as sympathy. BTW – by the way. GROW UP – Physical or mental development.

89


I was going home when‌

joseph_

1,876 likes Last year, I was going home from University when I saw this very sad lost puppy on the street. While I was walking, he was staring at me with his extremely lonely face. I was trying to ignore him but then, he started this crying barking and when I realized, I was at home, holding him in my arms. Now, one year later, I can't imagine my life without him! When I arrived home this afternoon, he was there, waiting at the door, as he's done since the first day. My friend, It's been a year you made my life better and now we're pals till the end‌ #friends4ever

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90


I was studying for the finals‌

joseph_

1,876 likes Mikee that's what I'm talking about! Real friendship! Becca_ So cute!! Louise_thomp Aww! I remember the day you brought him home. I was studying for the finals when the phone rang.. You had no idea how to feed him LOL! He was such a small puppy! Happy anniversary Jojo!! Puppylovers What a touching story! Can we REGRAM? ArianaKL

Love uuu JOJO!! You're the best puppy ever!

TheDavid heeey great jojo, HAPPY BIRTHDAY! I also remember that day. I was waiting for you at the gym and you never showed up! LOL but it was for a gr8 cause! TheDavid I wanna cake btw! Katherine_wood @louise_wood neither of you knew what to do. I was taking a nap when you called me. But nice to see the little dog is growing up quickly. @joseph_ you are a very nice daddy. Louise_wood Mom @katherine_wood Joseph_ LOL that's right Mrs. @Katherine_thomp we're lost that day!

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91


LIGHTS UP PAST CONTINUOUS We use this verb tense: 1 FOR SOMETHING THAT CONTINUED BEFORE AND AFTER ANOTHER ACTION: Jojo was waiting for Joseph when he got home. This use of the past continuous is very common at the beginning of a story: The other day I was waiting for a bus when … Last year, I was going home when… 2 FOR SOMETHING THAT HAPPENS AT THE SAME TIME AS ANOTHER ACTION: The children were doing their homework while I was washing the car. 3 TO SHOW THAT SOMETHING CONTINUED FOR SOME TIME: Jojo was barking.

Everyone was shouting.

4 FOR SOMETHING THAT WAS HAPPENNING AGAIN AND AGAIN: I was practicing every day, three times a day. They were meeting secretly after school. 5 WITH VERBS WHICH SHOW CHANGE OR GROWTH: The children were growing up quickly.

92

Her English was improving.


LIGHTS UP WHEN x WHILE They are used with Past Continuous sentences: WHEN – One action was in progress when other happened. I was walking home when I saw that beautiful puppy. Past continuous

Simple past

WHILE – Two actions were in progress at the same time I was walking while that beautiful puppy was barking. Past continuous

Simple past

It's possible to start the sentence with While. Just remember to separate the sentences with comas: While she was exercising at the gym, I was eating a lot of junk food.

PAST CONTINUOUS ATTENTION! To the use of to be and ing in the verb: Auxiliary Verb: TO BE Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative:

I was driving my car. I wasn't driving y car. Was I driving y car?

You were taking a shower. You weren't taking a shower. Were you taking a shower?

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

unit one

93


JOIN IN 1

Answer the questions. Give complete answer:

a. What were you doing yesterday morning? ______________________________________________________________________ b. Where were you going when the accident happened? ______________________________________________________________________ c. What was Joseph doing when he saw Jojo? ______________________________________________________________________ d. What were you doing when Leonardo Di Caprio won the Oscar? ______________________________________________________________________ e. What were they doing when the teacher arrived? ______________________________________________________________________ f. What was your teaching doing while you were answering the last question? ______________________________________________________________________

2

Use while or when to connect the sentences:

a. My mother was ironing the clothes. I was watching Nexflix ______________________________________________________________________ b. The cell-phone turned off. They were chatting. ______________________________________________________________________ c. He saw a spaceship. He was looking at the sky. ______________________________________________________________________ d. They were running on the streets. The drivers were discussing. ______________________________________________________________________ e. The sun was shining. It started raining, ______________________________________________________________________

94


JOIN IN 3

Change the sentences into negative and interrogative:

a. They were watching tv. __________________________________|___________________________________ b. The dogs were barking. __________________________________|___________________________________ c. My friend were having a party. __________________________________|___________________________________ d. She was complaining about her grades ___________________________________|__________________________________ e. I was taking a shower. ___________________________________|__________________________________

4

Match the columns:

a. I was driving my car

(

) while she was playing

b. They were preparing dinner

(

) when I heard a thunder

c. It was raining

(

) when it stopped.

d. The man was singing

(

) when she cut her hand

e. Jojo was barking

(

) while Joseph was walking

5

Create two sentences using while and when:

a. WHILE ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ b. WHEN ______________________________________________________________________

Done!

______________________________________________________________________

95


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

96


UNIT

INDIRECT SPEECH

Check it out ALLOW – give permission to do something. COLLEGE BATTLE – different challenges provided by institutions to stimulate students. BEFOREHAND – in advance; before and action or event. BATH – process of immersing one's body in a large container of water. FOLLOWING - that comes next or after in order or time. TRUST – reliance on the integrity.

97


Be ready

Mr. Albert: Be ready for the exams either this week or the following. I have been really worried about all of you. I haven't seen anyone studying these few weeks. I am not happy with the last grades. I probably won't be happy with the next ones if things go this way. I know you can do better! That's why I won't allow the ones with low grades take part in the College Battles. But before hearing any complaints, the test won't be difficult. It won't be difficult for the ones that take a time to dedicate themselves these days. There is no hard test for the ones that open the book beforehand‌ Go home, take a nice bath, and let's work! You guys have a long night of studying‌

98


Mr. Albert said…

David: Louise: Mike: Joseph: Ariana: David: Joseph: Louise: Mike: David:

I'm really confused! Will the test be next week? No David! Mr. Albert said that he wanted everybody to be ready to have tests either this week or the following. And he also said that he had been worried about our class. He told he hadn't seen anybody studying those days. 'Come on guys! We can't study all day! He said he wasn't happy with the last grades and that he wouldn't let the ones with low grades take part in the College Battles! I can't believe I won't go to the Competitions! Hey David, wait a second! He said people with low grades won't take part, but we still have time to study! Mr. Albert told the test would be easy! Let's trust him. As he always says: “There is no hard test for the ones that open the book beforehand”. So let me open mine…

99


LIGHTS UP INDIRECT SPEECH We must do some changes while reporting someone's speech: 1 Simple Present - Simple Past I study English.

|

You said that you studied English.

2 Simple Past - Past Perfect I worked a lot.

|

You said that you had worked a lot!

3 Present Perfect - Past Perfect I have been busy these days. You said that you had been busy these days. 4 Present Continuous - Past Continuous I am working now.

|

You said that you were working then.

|

You told me you had been at home.

|

You told me you would buy a present.

5 Was| Were – Had been I was at home. 6 Future Will - Would I will buy a present. 7 Can - Could I can play by myself. |

You told me you could play by yourself.

8 Imperative – use TO before verb Study! Don't Study!

100

| |

You told me TO study. You told me NOT TO study.


LIGHTS UP INDIRECT SPEECH There are verbs you generally use to report a speech: TELL – He told me he was fine (necessary show to whom) SAY – He said he was fine | He said that he was fine (“that” is optional) EXPRESSIONS OF TIME Attention to the expressions of time transformation when you report a speech:

SPEECH

REPORTING

TODAY

THAT DAY

THESE DAY

THOSE DAY

NOW

THEN

HERE

THERE

NEXT_______________

THE FOLLOWING____________

TOMORROW

THE NEXT| THE FOLLOWING DAY

LAST WEEKEND

THE WEEKEND BEFORE| THE PREVIOUS

YESTERDAY

THE DAY BEFORE| THE PREVIOUS DAY

_____________AGO

____________BEFORE

THIS _____________| IT

THAT ______________

Attention! Sometimes the transformation of sentences is not necessary, especially if you want to emphasize the action still true: David: “My friend works at Castilla”

/

David said that his friend works at Castilla.

Don't forget to also change the pronouns!

101


JOIN IN 1

Change the following into indirect speech.

a. The girl said, 'It gives me great pleasure to be here this evening.' ______________________________________________________________________ b. She said, 'I don't want to see any of you! Go away!' ______________________________________________________________________ c. The teacher says, 'If you work hard, you will pass.' ______________________________________________________________________ d. He said, ‘Let's wait for her return.' ______________________________________________________________________ e. 'Please wait here till I return,' she told him. ______________________________________________________________________

2

Report the following speeches:

David: I'm so sad! I won't take part in the Battles. Ariana: Don't be sad. David said he was so sad, and that he wouldn't take part in the Battles. Ariana told HIM not to be sad. a. Mr. Albert: You are not studying. The grades will be horrible. ______________________________________________________________________ b. Louise: David study! This way you will go to the Dance. ______________________________________________________________________ c. Joseph: We can't study all day! Ariana: You're right! We are not robots! ______________________________________________________________________ d. Mike: I study everyday. I have studied a lot recently. ______________________________________________________________________ e. Ariana: We were not preoccupied about the exams. But now Mr. albert scared us all. ______________________________________________________________________

102


JOIN IN 3

Rewrite the sentences with the appropriated time expression:

a. My mom told me I couldn't go to the party now and that I had to go tomorrow. ______________________________________________________________________ b. They said they've been busy recently so they could go out only next weekend. ______________________________________________________________________ c. He told me he didn't work here and that he worked at this store. ______________________________________________________________________ d. Katty said that she had been busy since last weekend. ______________________________________________________________________

4

Complete with the missing words:

I want my friends here.

She said________wanted________friends_________.

My children went to school yesterday.

He said______children had been to school________.

They are making dinner this evening.

She said ______ were making dinner______ evening.

Calm down!

My mom told_______to calm down.

I didn't have time to go to the grocery shop this morning.

My sister said _______hadn't had time to go to the grocery shop _______ morning.

5

Transform the paragraph into indirect speech:

I have studied a lot Recently. I don't have time to hang out with my friends anymore. The last time I saw my best friend was two months ago. I'm not happy at all. I want to have time for myself. I hope these busy days end up soon. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Done! ______________________________________________________________________

103


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

104


UNIT

REPORTED QUESTIONS

Check it out

HOST – a radio or TV master of ceremonies. BUTTON – a piece of electrical or electronic equipment that is pressed to operate it. HOW HIGH – used to know how tall something is. FEET – measure; 1 feet = 30,48 cm. SKIP – to pass over. REQUIRE - to make it necessary to someone to do something. ACE – awesome; excellent; marvelous. DUMB – lacking intelligence or good judgment. YOU GOTTA BE KIDDING ME – when the person doesn't believe in something; disbelief, annoyance. CAN'T STAND – Thoroughly dislike something. REHEARSE – a time taken to practice.

105


The capital of Brazil is…

We're here tonight with four nice competitors that will try to win 10.000 dollars to their Universities. They must answer questions and be faster than their opponents to press their buttons and answer the questions correctly. Enough with the talking! Let's start The GAME!

Host:

Here's the first: How high is the Empire State Building? Wow! That was fast! Ariana from U.C.A: Ariana: Well, the answer would be… 1,250 feet! Host: Thaaaaat's right! U.C.A scored 10 people! Now let's come with a second: What's the capital of Brazil?... U.A.S has the chance now: Competitor: The capital of Brazil is Rio de Janeiro. Host: and… No, no U.A.S. That was far! The capital of Brazil is Brasilia!! But no worries. It was just the second question. Let's skip to the third now. Just Yes or No will be required: Was the last Super Bowl won by New England American team? Joseph:

Yes!! I watched that epic game!!

Host:

Let's see Joseph if you really did…ACE!!! U.C.A is rocking the game!!...

106


He Asked…

2 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12 Louise: I can't believe you guys were on tv! Ariana: I can't believe we lost the game! When he asked How high the Empire State Building was, I thought the game was already ours. Louise: Gee! And about that turn, What was the question.. ah! He asked what the capital of Brazil was. And that dumb guy answered, “Rio de Janeiro”?! You gotta be kidding me! Ariana: Tell me about it! He asked if New England had won the Super Bowl, that was ridiculously easy! Louise: I don't know what happened then! You guys were not pressing your buttons anymore! Ariana: Of course, we were! I think something was wrong! We tried to press and we were faster but the lights never turned on! Totally suspicious! Louise: I can't stand that girl in that awful green dress receiving all the money for U.A.S! Arw! And the host, he clearly didn't agree with the result! Ariana: The dress was ugly! But she asked if I was okay when she saw me sad. She seemed a nice girl. Louise: It doesn't matter! You guys were way better. Something was really wrong about that button…

107


LIGHTS UP REPORTED QUESTIONS We must do some changes while reporting someone's questions: 1 Yes or no questions Did you like the result? | You asked if I liked the result. With yes or no questions you connect the reported question using “IF”. 2 WH questions Where do you live? | You asked where I lived With WH questions you connect the reported question using “the Wh” question.. BOTH BECAME AFFIRMATIVES. THERE IS NO QUESTION ANYMORE: Were you at home last night? You asked if I had been at home the night before. What have you done? | You asked me what I had done. INDIRECT SPEECH: QUESTIONS There are verbs you generally use to report a question: ASK – He asked if I was fine

|

He asked him if he was fine (show to whom is optional) REQUEST – He requested her if she could help him (show to whom is also optional)

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

108


LIGHTS UP REPORTED QUESTIONS The structural changing is the same as in affirmative sentences: 1 Simple present - Simple Past How high is the Empire State Building? You asked how high the Empire State Building was. 2 Simple Past - Past Perfect Did you work a lot last night? You asked if I had worked a lot the previous night. 3 Present Perfect - Past Perfect Have you been busy these days? You asked if I had been busy those days. 4 Present Continuous - Past Continuous What are you doing now? | You asked what I was doing then. 5 Was| Were – Had been Were you on vacation last month? You asked me if I had been on vacation the month before. 6 Future Will - Would How many potatoes will you buy? You asked how many potatoes I would buy. 7 Can - Could Can you help me?

|

You requested me if I could help you.

Attention! Don't forget to transform the pronouns and also the time expressions!

109


JOIN IN 1

Change the following questions into indirect speech.

a. The host asked, 'What is the capital of Brazil?' ______________________________________________________________________ b. She asked, 'Did you do your homework?' ______________________________________________________________________ c. Louise asked, 'Were you on a tv show last week?' ______________________________________________________________________ d. He asked, 'How are you?' ______________________________________________________________________ e. 'Can you open the door?' she asked him. ______________________________________________________________________

2

Correct the mistakes:

a. He asked do you play the piano. _____________________________________________________________________ b. David asked what was my favorite soccer player. ______________________________________________________________________ c. The man asked what time is it now? ______________________________________________________________________ d. She asked him if he had seen the beautiful moon last night. ______________________________________________________________________ e. Mike requested can you give me a hand? ______________________________________________________________________

110


JOIN IN 3

Unscramble the words:

a. day to the grocery store he asked had been she me if the previous. ______________________________________________________________________ b. asked if were doing they homework their she. ______________________________________________________________________ c. she the movie asked what was. ______________________________________________________________________ d. that morning asked went where he Louise. ______________________________________________________________________ e. you how asked the was weather ______________________________________________________________________

4

Transform the reported questions into normal questions:

a. He asked who had turned the lights off. “________________________________________________” he asked. b. My mom asked me where I was going. “________________________________________________” mom asked. c. They asked if we were getting married the following year. “________________________________________________” they asked. d. The teacher asked us if we could rehearse the following Sunday. “________________________________________________” the teacher asked us. e. His father asked him why he had taken the wrong bus. “________________________________________________” asked his father.

Done! 111


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

112


UNIT

RELATIVE CLAUSES

Check it out

RERUN – the motion picture or television program being shown again. I'M INTO – to be interested in or enthusiastic about something. RE-WATCH – watch again SUDDENLY – quickly and unexpectedly. UPSET – feel unhappy, worried, disappointed. CHILL OUT - to relax, to calm down. PRETTY SURE – a hundred percent certain. BRAND NEW – completely fresh. TASTE – a person's tendency to like or be interested in something. COUNT ON – rely on; trust. BENCH - a long seat generally made of wood. CAMPUS - the grounds and buildings of a university.

113


The Reason Why Look! CCB is rerunning the episode you guys were in!

Ariana: I pass! Let's watch Nexflix. There is a new show that I'm so into… Tiffany: No way! I wanna re-watch that moment when you and joseph got angry about the buttons. Ariana: Is there a place where we can go now? Suddenly, I felt like going out… Tifanny: Wait, wait. Now he'll make that question which the guy answered about Brazil... There it is! The time when he answers wrong… ahh ha ha! Ariana: ha ha! Now can we finally go? Tifanny: And miss the part that I like the most?! I'ts almost there! Joseph will answer about the New England now… Ariana: That's enough. I'm going. Enjoy the show! Tifanny: Chill out, Ariana! I don't know the reason why you're so upset… Ariana: No! I'm pretty sure you don't…

114


This is Mike who…

Louise ' scrap blog CATEGORY 1

Ariana

CATEGORY 2

CATEGORY 3 FOLLOW US

POST TITLE

rd

OCTOBER 23

09pm

Hello followers!

That's Ariana. She is an incredible girl THAT I can always count on!

Mike

This is Mike WHO is one of my best friends in the world!

Search the blog

OK

That's my brand-new scrap blog where you'll find a little bit about my tastes and also about my friends. WELCOME! May is the month WHEN I celebrate my birthday

Joseph

Meet Joseph WHOSE puppy is Jojo

My favorite place in the campus is this bench WHERE I always read my books.

CCB WHICH is the best channel, has my favorite TV shows.

FILL IN WITH MY PIECES OF INFORMATION ABOVE: The bench is the place where ___________________________________________. Jojo is a dog whose owner is _____________________________________________. Mike is a person who ___________________________________________________. Ariana is a girl that_____________________________________________________. The Scrap Blog is a place where__________________________________________.

115


LIGHTS UP RELATIVE CLAUSES We use the relative pronouns |adverbs below to build Relative Clauses of two different ways: 1 DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE TELLS WHICH NOUN WE ARE TALKING ABOUT: I like the boy who lives next door. (If I don't say “who lives next door”, then we don't know which boy I mean). 2 NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE GIVES US EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT SOMETHING. WE DON'T NEED THIS INFORMATION TO UNDERSTAND THE SENTENCE. I live in London, which has some fantastic parks. (Everybody knows where London is, so 'which has some fantastic parks' is extra information). WHERE - it refers to places New York is a city WHERE I always go on vacation WHEN - it refers to time 2014 was the year WHEN my twins were born. WHO – it is the Subject or Object David is my friend WHO plays the guitar

|

Mike is the friend WHO I love.

WHOM - it is the Object Mike is a friend WHOM I like very much.

116


LIGHTS UP RELATIVE PRONOUNS

WHOSE – it refers to possession That man, WHOSE car is in front of our garage, is the new teacher THAT - it refers to things, animals or people This is the book THAT I spoke about it. WHICH - it refers to things or animals The dog WHICH is barking is not ours. WHY – it refers to a reason The good weather is the reason WHY I moved here ATTENTION!

The relative pronoun is the subject OR object of the clause. Don't repeat them: Ariana who [she] is my friend… The puppy which [it] was barking all night … Have you seen Mike who I called [him] on the phone? The channel that I like [it] has the best TV shows.

TEACHER'S NOTES _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

117


JOIN IN 1

Write who, why or that in the blanks.

a. I met a woman ________________ can speak six languages. b. I know the reason ________________ he moved out. c. What's the name of the river ________________ goes through the town? d. Everybody ________________ went to the party enjoyed it very much. e. Do you know anybody ________________ wants to buy a car? f. Where is the picture ________________ was on the wall?

2

Complete the conversation by putting who, that or which into the gaps.

Ariana: Did you watch that show last night? David: Which one? Ariana: The show__________I mentioned a couple of days ago. It's a new TV series __________ started last night. David: No, I didn't see it. Was it good? Ariana: Yes. It was about a group of friends __________ were at school together. Well, that boy Jason ... David: Who is Jason? Ariana: He is an old student of the school __________ had become a doctor. He went to a party __________ his old teachers organized. He met a lot of people __________ had been at school with him many years before. They talked about the things __________ they did when they were at school. Then suddenly, Jason saw an old girlfriend __________ was dancing with John ... David: Don't tell me any more. It's getting too complicated!

118


JOIN IN 3

Join these sentences using which, who, where or when, as in the example.

a. She chose the books. She wanted to buy them. ______________________________________________________________________ She chose the books that she wanted to buy. b. Australia is a very beautiful country. We can go scuba diving there, ______________________________________________________________________ c. Winter is a cold season. It's my favorite season ______________________________________________________________________ d. She's an old woman. I often see her when I go to the library. ______________________________________________________________________ e. He's an actor. A lot of people like him. ______________________________________________________________________

4

Write sentences to describe people in box A using the information in box B. A a a a a a

thief butcher musician patient photographer

a a a a

dentist fool genius liar

takes photographs sells meat is ill in hospital steal things is very stupid

B is very intelligent plays a musical instrument doesn’t tell the truth looks after your teeth

a. A thief is a person who steals things. b. A butcher is a person who_____________________________________________ c. A musician is a person_________________________________________________ d. A patient ___________________________________________________________ e. ___________________________________________________________________ f. ___________________________________________________________________ g. ___________________________________________________________________

Done!

h. ___________________________________________________________________

119


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

120


UNIT

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Check it out

WONDERING – thinking about something. HANG OUT – spending time with someone in the context of friendship. DATE – two people getting together for an activity when the possibility of romance between them has been broached. PICK UP – stop for someone and take them into one's vehicle. POWDER – a soft dry substance that is spread over the skin. SHARE - to have or use something at the same time as other person. FALL IN LOVE – to like another person very much and be romantically involved. LUCKY GUY – a person who has good things happening in his life. FIND OUT - to discover something.

121


I've been waiting…

David:

Ari, can I talk to you?

Ariana: Yeah, Dave. What's up? David:

Well.. I… I've been waiting for the right moment, I don't know if there is one, but… I've been wondering if…

Ariana: Actually, you've been acting strange. I knew something was wrong! I'm listening… David:

I've been thinking if you...me.. we could go out sometime.

Ariana: But we always hang out together! David:

No, I mean, you and me… just the two of us.

Ariana: Awn. You mean on a date?! David:

Well, not a date, date. But… yes! On a date.

Ariana: That's so sweet! I'd love to! Where are we going? David:

Yes?! Okay then! How about a movie, tomorrow evening? I can pick you up around 7.

Ariana: Perfect! I can't wait!

122


I've been dreaming…

Ariana: I've been looking for my powder the last fifteen minutes! Have you taken it? Louise: I'm sorry Ari. It's on the bed. I've been using it 'cause mine is over and I haven't had the chance to buy a new one. Ariana: No problem. We can share it. There is no need for you to buy another. Louise: Thanks! So, are you coming to the club with us? Ariana: Not really. Actually, I have a date. Louise: No way! Why didn't you tell me? That's why you've been acting mysteriously these days! You’ve got boyfriend! How long have you been seeing this guy? Ariana: He is not my boyfriend. It's just our first date! And I've been acting normally. Louise: You've been taking longer to get dressed in the morning, you've been eating less… Oh my gosh! Someone’s fallen in love! Ariana: I've been nervous I admit! I've been dreaming about this date the last few days! Louise: Who is the lucky guy? Ariana: I guess you guys will find out soon…

123


LIGHTS UP PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS We use the Present Perfect Progressive to PRESENT RESULT FINISHED

I've been running that's why I'm so thirsty

PRESENT PERFECT

DURATION

CONTINUOUS

I've been running for 30 minutes

UNFINISHED

TEMPORARY I've been running

1 ACTION WITH EMPHASIS ON THE RESULT (Present Result) David is tired because he has been writing. 2 HOW LONG THE ACTION LASTS (Duration) David has been waiting for this moment for a long time. 3 EMPHASIZE THE CONTINUOUS COURSE OF AN ACTION (Temporary) Ariana has been dreaming about that date. Have| Has + verb + ING

Auxiliary verb: HAVE | HAS + BEEN

124

Affirmative:

He has been playing since 2 p.m.

Negative:

He hasn't been playing since 2 p.m.

Interrogative:

Has he been playing since 2 p.m?


LIGHTS UP PRESENT PERFECT Use the tense instead of the Progressive when: 1 GIVING EMPHASIS ON COMPLETION I have done my homework. I've worked hard the last few weeks. (my homework and my hard work is completed now.) 2 ACHIVING DESIRED RESULT I have washed the car. (Result: The car is clean now.) 3 MEANING SINCE THE LAST TIME I haven't played that game for years. (It's years ago that I last played that game.)

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Use the tense instead of the Present Perfect Simple when: 1 GIVING EMPHASIS ON DURATION I've been doing my homework. I've been working hard the last few weeks. (That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework or the hard work is completed now.) 2 HAVING UNWANTED SIDE EFFECT Why are you so wet? I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.) 3 MEANING SINCE THE BEGINNING I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10 minutes. (It's not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.) ATTENTION! Generally, “FOR” with Present Perfect Continuous, is used to express the duration of an action that is still happening. While “For”, with Present Perfect, is often used to give emphasis in the duration of an action that not necessarily goes on.

I have lived in London FOR 3 years,

I have been living in London FOR 3 years.

125


JOIN IN 1

Put the verbs into present perfect or present perfect progressive:

a. I (play) ______________________ football for five years. I had to quit! b. Ariana's team (win) ______________________two matches so far. c. The game (start) _____________already_____________. d. David (work) ______________________ on this essay since two o'clock. e. How long (wait) __________he________________for us?

2

Answer the questions completely:

a. What have you been doing the last few minutes? ______________________________________________________________________ b. How long have you been studying English? ______________________________________________________________________ c. Why are you so tired? ______________________________________________________________________ d. How long has your mother been waiting for her driver? ______________________________________________________________________ e. Why has she been studying for so many hours? ______________________________________________________________________

3

Match the sentences to their representation:

a. (

1. PRESENT RESULT 2. TEMPORARY ACTION 3. DURATION ) David and Ariana have been waiting for hours

b. (

) David an Ariana have been waiting

c. (

) They are angry because they have been waiting for hours

d. (

) How long have they been waiting?

e. (

) Why are they angry?

126


JOIN IN 4

Unscramble the words and formulate sentences in present perfect continuous:

a. you | the homework | copy ___________________________________________________________ b. Louise | on the task | pay attention | not ___________________________________________________________ c. to pick her up| Her father | wait ___________________________________________________________ d. live | I | in the U.S.A ___________________________________________________________ e. they | How long | drive ____________________________________________________________

5

Formulate sentences with present perfect simple or continuous using the given ideas:

a. GIVING EMPHASIS ON THE RESULT ______________________________________________________________________ b. MEANING SINCE THE LAST TIME ______________________________________________________________________ c. HAVING UNWANTED SIDE EFFECT ______________________________________________________________________ d. GIVING EMPHASIS ON DURATION ______________________________________________________________________ e. ACHIVING DESIRED RESULT ______________________________________________________________________

Done!

127


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

128


UNIT

COLLOCATION

Check it out

MESS – a very dirty or untidy condition. LAUNDRY – clothes, towels, sheets… that need to be washed or that have been washed. ESSAY – a piece of writing that tells a person's thoughts or opinion about a subject. TO DO LIST – a list of things to be done. OTHERWISE – in all ways except the one mentioned. FULL - containing as much or as many as possible. BREATH – the air you take into your lungs and send out. PERHAPS – possibly but not certainly. RESCHEDULE - to schedule something for a different time. TAKE THE CHANCE – take a risk in hope of favorable result.

129


I'm having dinner…

What a busy day! There are so many things to be done! Where Should I start? Oh no! I should probably start with my bedroom!

My To-Do List Date

Item

What a mess!

MAKE THE BED

No, wait! I need to do the laundry first… but let

DO THE LAUNDRY MAKE AN APPOINTMENT with THE doctor

me make an appointment with Dr. Harris before I

DO A REPORT FOR LAB CLASS

forget!

TAKE A POLITICAL SCIENCE TEST DO MY HAIR

Where are my notes? I'm taking a test this

HAVE DINNER WITH DAVID

afternoon, I gotta find them!

GO BACK HOME TO FINISH MY ESSAY

Oh my! I totally forgot to call the hair Salon! I need to have my hair done! I'm having dinner with David this evening, after I have to go back home to finish my essay! You know what?! Let me write a to do List, otherwise I'll forget half of the things I must do!

130


I'll take the chance… Excuse-me, Susana! The receptionist told me you're having lunch here,and she let me in…

Susana: Oh! Hey Ariana! How are you doing? Ariana: I'm doing fine. How about you? Susana: Wonderful! How may I help you? Ariana: I was wondering if you could, maybe, find a little place for me in your agenda today… I know you guys are full, but It's an emergency! Susana: To be honest, today is that day we have no time to breath, you know?! I'm just taking a 5-minute break to feed myself, and I'll be with my next client in a few minutes. Ariana: Is there any chance of doing something with my hair? C'mon Susana, I cannot go on a date looking like this! Susana: humm.. perhaps if you go downstairs and ask the girls to call and reschedule a client to a later time… Ariana: You're my hero!! Thank you so much!! I'll take the chance and ask the girls!! Thank you, thank you, thank you…

131


LIGHTS UP COLLOCATION Collocations are words that go together or form fixed relationships. The most used ones are generally the followings: 1 MAKE NOUNS OF SPEAKING| PLANNING - make a promise, make a confession, an appointment… FOOD - make a cake, make dinner (prepare), make a reservation… MONEY - make profit, make a fortune… COMMUNICATION – make a phone call, make a joke… RELATIONSHIP - make friends… 2 HAVE TWO-WAY DISCUSSION - have a conversation, have meeting, have a chat… HAVE+A+VERB (WHEN VERBS AND NOUNS ARE THE SAME) - have a look, have a drink, have a walk… MEALS - have dinner (eat), have breakfast, have a delicious cake…. 3 DO HOUSEWORK – do the laundry, do the dishes… *exception: make the bed WORK|STUDY – do the homework, do a course, do a report… *exception: take a test TAKING CARE OF YOUR BODY - do exercise, do your hair… GOOD OR BAD ACTIONS - do well, do the right thing… INDIVIDUAL SPORTS | FIGHTS – do judo, do karate… 4 GO PREPOSITIONS – go ahead, go down, go back… RECREATION - go sailing, go fishing, go climbing… 5 TAKE WASHING - take bath, take a shower, take wash… RESTING - take a break, take a holiday, take a rest… OPORTUNITY - take a chance, take the risk… TIME | REST - take a break, take time… TRANSPORTATION - take the bus, take the train, take the cap…

132


LIGHTS UP COLLOCATION Collocations are words that go together or form fixed relationships. The most used ones are generally the followings: 6 GIVE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS - give a smile, give a laugh… MAKING NOISES - give a shout, give a cry, give a scream... HITTING - give a kick, give a punch, give a slap... ACTIONS LIKE - give a hug, give a kiss... COMMUNICATING - give some advice, give an answer, give a speech,

7 GET BECAME - get dressed, get washed, get married… MOOD CHANGES - get upset, get a shock, get angry…

Other uses: MAKE

DO

HAVE

TAKE

• a mistake • a profit/loss • money/millions • a fortune • friends • war • a noise • a mess • fun of someone • a phone call • progress • a difference

• the ironing • the housework • your homework • business • well/badly • something wrong/right • your best • damage/harm • somebody a favor

• a look • dinner • a headache • a party • a picnic • a barbecue • an appointment • fun • trouble • something in common

• a photo • advantage of somebody • care of somebody • place • something into account • your time • time • no notice of something • part in something • the opportunity

GIVE

GO

GET

• A hand • Birth • Support • Opinion • An example • Advice • A damn • Credit • Chance

• Cycling • Hiking • Shopping • Skiing • boxing

• Divorced • Angry • Drunk • Pregnant • A job • Married • Lost • Ready • Home

133


JOIN IN 1

Fill in with make, have, get, take, do, give:

a. If Ariana would like to ________ an appointment with the doctor, she should call the surgery. b. Joseph is not sure if the gallery is open today, but He's going to __________ a chance and walk there anyway. c. Please could you ________ me a favor and buy some milk on your way home? d. We ___________ business with companies all over the world e. Don't __________ me laugh! I can't breathe! f. He really needs to _____________ a haircut. g. Professor Albert will ____________ a speech this evening. h. Louise takes too long to ____________ dressed.

2

Correct the mistake

a. Ariana doesn't want to make the washing up again. ______________________________________________________________________ b. Could you make a picture of us? ______________________________________________________________________ c. I have to do new friends at school. ______________________________________________________________________ d. Mike takes climbing on the weekends. ______________________________________________________________________ e. My parents always tell me to make my best. ______________________________________________________________________

3

Make sentences with the following collocation: MAKE A FORTUNE DO A FAVOR HAVE FUN TAKE THE RISK GO FISHING GIVE BIRTH GET HOME

134


JOIN IN 4

Complete the dialogue properly. Attention to the correct form of the verb:

Louise: Hey, Ariana have you already ____________the bed? Ariana: Actually, I have! But I haven't _____________the laundry yet. Louise: I see‌ But will you ___________ your hair? Ariana: No, I won't. I couldn't ____________ an appointment. Louise: I’m really sorry! But you are still ____________dinner with David, right? Ariana: Of course I do. And We____________ sailing on Sunday. Would you join us? Louise: I'd love to! But I have to _________a report! ________David a kiss for me.

5

Decide if the sentences are correct or incorrect. Correct the incorrect ones.

a. Tomorrow, my class is making a test.

(

) correct

(

) incorrect

______________________________________________________________________ b. Excuse me for a moment, please. I need to make a phone call. ( ) correct ( ) incorrect ______________________________________________________________________ d. Michelle does aerobics twice a week.

(

) correct

(

) incorrect

______________________________________________________________________ d. Jian is making an English class.

(

) correct

(

) incorrect

______________________________________________________________________ g. I'm tired. I think I'll take a nap.

(

) correct

(

) incorrect

______________________________________________________________________

6

David is also having a busy day today. Create his version of a to do list: My To-Do List Date

Item

Done!

135


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

136


1

REVIEW


REVIEW

1

1

UNIT

Future will x Going to

COMPLETE WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF THE FUTURE:

a. Certainly, I __________________to visit my grandparents next holiday. b. I'm not sure if I_________________ go to the party on Friday. c. She promises she _______________ change her behavior. d. I ___________________ make some coffee. e. My granny always says I __________________ stop growing if I play under the table. f.

It ________________ rain! Look at the sky!

2

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:

a. What will you do after class? ____________________________________________________________________________ b. Where are you going to go on Christmas? ____________________________________________________________________________ c. Are you going to travel next vacation? _________________________________________________________________________ d. Will you study for the test? _________________________________________________________________________ e. What are you friends going to do on their free time? _________________________________________________________________________

3

CREATE NEGATIVE SENTENCES USING THE GIVEN EXPRESSIONS: PERHAPS

MAYBE

SURELY

CERTAINLY

a. _________________________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________________________________ d. _________________________________________________________________________

146


REVIEW

4

1

UNIT Modal Verbs

FILL THE BLANK WITH THE CORRECT MODAL VERB:

WOULD

CAN

COULD

HAVE TO

MAY

MUST

SHOULD

a. He __________________ listen to his mother! Mothers are always right! b. They ________________ study if they don't want to flunk. c. When she was a kid, she ____________________ dance perfectly! d. It ______________________ rain today. e. _____________________ I go to the restroom? f. We __________________ go to Hawaii if we had money. g. I ____________________ go now!

5

MATCH THE MODAL VERBS AND THEIR USES:

1. CAN

(

) Advice

(

) Prohibition

2. COULD

(

) Necessity

(

) Permission

3. MAY

(

) Past ability

(

) Offers

4. MIGHT

(

) Present ability

(

) Weak Possibility

5. MUST

(

) Obligation

(

) Belief

6. HAVE TO

(

) Strong Possibility

(

) Hypothesis

7. SHOULD 8. WOULD

REVIEW 6

1

UNIT Comparative x Superlative

COMPLETE THE DIALOGUE:

Ariana: Wow! This is ________________ incredible movie I've ever seen! Louise: Agreed! It's ________________ romantic than last week's movie. Ariana: Totally! Last week's movie was _______________ interesting movie ever! Louise: It was really boring! But this one was ________________ exciting than the other! Ariana: Do you think we can find a _________________ one? Louise: it's worth the try…

147


7

CREATE SENTENCES USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS:

a. THE LEAST _____________________________________________________________ A. THE MOST _____________________________________________________________ B. MORE ________THAN _____________________________________________________________ C. LESS ________THAN _____________________________________________________________ D. AS_________AS _____________________________________________________________

8

USE COMPARATIVE OR SUPERLATIVE TO FILL THE BLANKS:

a. My grandmother is ______________________ person in my family. (old) b. His brother ____________________ mine. (tall) c. Is there a _____________________ option? (good) d. This is ________________ destination we could choose! (far) e. Can we watch a ______________________ movie? (interesting)

REVIEW 9

1

UNIT Indirect Questions

TRANSFORM INTO INDIRECT QUESTIONS:

a. Can we dance this weekend? ____________________________________________________________________________ b. Where is the bank? ____________________________________________________________________________ c. How long are you going to stay there? ____________________________________________________________________________ d. Will the world end in 2020? ____________________________________________________________________________ e. Is there any other way? ____________________________________________________________________________

148


REVIEW

1

UNIT Used To x Would Always

10 COMPLETE WITH USED TO OR WOULD ALWAYS: a.

I __________________ go to school in the mornings.

b.

They _________________ to travel on vacations.

c.

She __________________ comb her hair before getting out.

d.

In the past, children _________________ play on the streets.

e.

Children ________________ be more independent.

f.

My mom _________________ prepare dinner during my childhood.

11 MAKE QUESTIONS TO THE ANSWERS: a.

_______________________________________________________________________? I used to play with barbies.

b.

_______________________________________________________________________? Yes, I am used to going to the movies by myself.

c.

_______________________________________________________________________? Yes, they would always come back before noon,

d.

_______________________________________________________________________? We are used to listening to music and reading books.

e.

_______________________________________________________________________? No, I didn't use to play outside.

REVIEW

1

UNIT Some, Any, No

12 FILL THE BLANK WITH SOMEWHERE, ANYWHERE OR NOWHERE: a.

We're going ___________________ this Friday, Ariana doesn't want to go out.

b.

Do you know ___________________ around here that sells cakes?

c.

“________________over the rainbow blue birds fly”

d.

Hey man, I need to go_______________ and try to forget this bad day!

e.

I don't wanna go __________________ today.

f.

There is _________________ we can go. All good places are closed!

149


13

MATCH THE PHRSAL VERBS AND THEIR MEANINGS AND AFTER CREATE SENTENCES:

1.

LOOK AFTER

(

) Move your eyes to something

2.

LOOK AT

(

) Search

3.

LOOK OVER

(

) Take care

4.

LOOK FOR

(

) Examine

a.

________________________________________________________________________

b.

________________________________________________________________________

c.

________________________________________________________________________

d.

________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW

1

UNIT Simple Past x Present Perfect

14

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS COMPLETELY:

a.

Have you worked there for the last two years?

______________________________________________________________________________ b.

What did you do yesterday morning?

______________________________________________________________________________ c.

What have you done so far?

______________________________________________________________________________ d.

Did you travel last vacation?

______________________________________________________________________________ e.

Where have you been?

_____________________________________________________________________________

15

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT:

a.

I ____________________ my parents last week. (visit)

a.

She ______________________to Japan many times. (be)

b.

Yesterday, it ___________________ a lot. (rain)

c.

I _________________a new computer and a new cell-phone last year. (buy)

d.

They ______________________ to NY since 2001. (go)

150


13

USE THE MOST SUITABLE ADVERB TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES: RECENTLY

JUST

ALREADY

NEVER

EVER

a.

They are knocking on the door! They have ____________ arrived!

b.

I know all these movies! I've ________________watched them.

c.

She doesn't know Disney. She has _____________ been there!

d.

We've met Joseph ________________. I think we met him only few weeks ago.

e.

Have they _________________ traveled abroad?

REVIEW

1

UNIT Verb Tenses

17

WRITE SENTENCES USING THE GIVEN EXPRESSIONS:

a.

__________________________________________________last year.

b.

__________________________________________________on weekends.

c.

__________________________________________________this year.

d.

___________________________________________________lately.

e.

___________________________________________________, for sure.

18

COMPLETE WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB:

a.

We both _______________a great movie last night. (see)

b.

As long as I remember, nobody ____________tonight. (sing)

c.

We ____________ our tickets yesterday. (buy) We _________________ to Tokyo. (go)

d.

They are good students. They always _______________ 2 hours a day. (study)

e.

I______________to the movies this evening. (go)

19

WRITE A COMPOSITION OF 8 LINES, MINIMUM, ANSWERING THE QUESTION: “Why is choosing a career so difficult for most of people?”

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Done! ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

151


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

152


2

REVIEW


REVIEW

1

2

UNIT

Question Tags x Either, Neither, Both

COMPLETE THE DIALOGUE MAKING TAGS:

Joseph: Rebecca is your friend, ____________________? Louise: Yes, she is! You are interested in her, ___________________? Joseph: Well, I am interested in her, ___________________? Louise: I'm sure you are! I'll arrange something… Joseph: We could go out, _______________? And then you invite her, _______________? Louise: Only if you invite Jake!

2

USE EITHER OR, NEITHER NOR, AND BOTH AND TO FORMULATE SENTENCES:

a.

________________________________________________________________________

b.

________________________________________________________________________

c.

________________________________________________________________________

3

CORRECT THE MISTAKES:

a.

I don't like to go to the movies also. ________________________________________________________________________

b.

Neither doesn't he. ________________________________________________________________________

c.

They too prefer walking in the park. ________________________________________________________________________

d.

So shouldn't you. ________________________________________________________________________

e.

I also can speak four languages. ________________________________________________________________________

154


REVIEW

2

UNIT Adverbs

4

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE CORRECT ADVERB:

a.

Louise is happy. She smiles ______________________________________.

b.

The boy is loud. He shouts _______________________________________.

c.

Her English is fluent. She speaks English __________________________.

d.

My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives ______________________.

e.

The painter is awful. He paints ___________________________________.

f.

Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays _________________________.

g.

This girl is very quiet. She behaves _______________________________.

5

CORRECT THE MISTAKES:

a.

Mike speaks slow.

____________________________________________________________________________ b.

The test was not difficult. They could solve all the problems easy.

____________________________________________________________________________ c.

Louise and Ariana arrived lately for the party.

____________________________________________________________________________ d.

Their food is great. They cook very goodly.

____________________________________________________________________________ e.

He tried to drive as fastly as he could!

____________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW

2

UNIT Past Continuous

6

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:

a.

What were you doing when the class started? ________________________________________________________________________

b.

Were you sleeping at 5 a.m? ________________________________________________________________________

c.

What was your classmate doing while you were answering the previous question? ________________________________________________________________________

d.

Was your teacher using the cell-phone when you arrived? ________________________________________________________________________

e.

Who was talking at the reception? ________________________________________________________________________

155


7

FILL THE BLANKS WITH WHEN OR WHILE:

a.

The man was working __________________ the phone rang,

b.

_______________ Joseph was walking to college, Jojo was barking.

c.

Mike was driving his car __________________ he saw a terrible accident!

d.

The man and the woman were arguing __________________ the police cop arrived.

e.

I was having a nice dream ____________________ my mother woke me up.

REVIEW

2

UNIT Indirect Speech

8

TRANSFORM THE DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT ONES:

a.

“I'll be waiting for you next week” – said Peter ________________________________________________________________________

b.

“They have worked hard” – I said. ________________________________________________________________________

c.

“She went to the supermarket yesterday morning”- said David. ________________________________________________________________________

d.

His mother told him: “Study for your test!” ________________________________________________________________________

e.

“Don't smoke inside the theater” – the woman said. ________________________________________________________________________

9

MAKE THE SAME TRANSFORMATION WITH THE QUESTIONS BELOW:

a.

“Have you bought any jewelry?” – asked Martha. ________________________________________________________________________

b.

He asked me: “Where are you going now?” ________________________________________________________________________

c.

“Can you play any musical instrument” – The man asked. ________________________________________________________________________

d.

“Who did you meet last week?” – asked Louise. ________________________________________________________________________

e.

She asked: “Will you travel abroad next vacation?” ________________________________________________________________________

156

49


10 TRANSFORM THE INDIRECT SPEECH INTO DIRECT ONES: a.

My father told me not to arrive late! ________________________________________________________________________

b.

Ariana said that Jojo was the most beautiful puppy she had ever seen! ________________________________________________________________________

c.

The boy said they would practice a little more. ________________________________________________________________________

d.

The “puppylovers” asked if they could Regram Joseph's photo. ________________________________________________________________________

e.

Mrs. Wood asked where Louise kept her books. ________________________________________________________________________

REVIEW

2

UNIT Relative Clauses

11 JOIN THE INFORMATION USING A RELATIVE CLAUSE: a.

She worked for a man (the man used to be an athlete) ________________________________________________________________________

b.

I dropped a glass (the glass was new) ________________________________________________________________________

c.

Ariana loves books (the books have happy endings) ________________________________________________________________________

d.

Joseph talked to the girl (her car had broken down in front of his house) ________________________________________________________________________

e.

Louise went to Edinburgh. (Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland) ________________________________________________________________________

f.

Louise traveled to Scotland. (she met a lot of nice people) ________________________________________________________________________

12 WRITE SENTENCES USING THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS: a.

WHEN _________________________________________________________________

b.

WHO

c.

WHERE _________________________________________________________________

d.

WHOSE _________________________________________________________________

e.

WHICH OR THAT _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

157


REVIEW 13

2

UNIT Present Perfect Continuous

WRITE DOWN THE CAUSES FOR THE FOLLOWING RESULTS. FOLLOW THE EXAMPLE: I'm Thirsty. _____________________________________________________________ I am thirsty because I have been running

a.

I'm Tired. _________________________________________________________________________

b.

He is so stressed out! _________________________________________________________________________

c.

They are very excited! _________________________________________________________________________

d.

My sister is unhappy _________________________________________________________________________

14

TRANSFORM THE SENTENCES INTO NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE:

a.

They have been waiting at the bus stop over an hour. (neg) ____________________________________________________________________

b.

Has he been driving for the last 30 minutes? (neg) ____________________________________________________________________

c.

I haven't been sleeping well. (int) _____________________________________________________________________

d.

Ariana and David have been dating for the last two months. (neg) ____________________________________________________________________

e.

She has been dreaming about her new job. (int) _____________________________________________________________________

REVIEW

2

UNIT Collocation

15

FILL THE BLANKS WITH THE CORRECT VERB:

a.

_____________ a promise

b.

____________ the dishes

c.

_____________ a shower

d.

____________ a test

e.

_____________ a kiss

f.

____________ a toothache

g.

_____________ a call

h.

____________ a huge

i.

_____________ angry

j.

____________ married

k.

_____________ judo

l.

____________ lunch

158


REVIEW

2

UNIT Adjectives

16

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF THE ADJECTIVE:

a.

The girl was so ____________________________ after her first kiss. (embarrassed – embarrassing)

b.

That was absolutely ________________________. I'll never go out again! (embarrassed – embarrassing)

c.

The boy watched that horrible horror movie. He was ____________________! (terrifying- terrified)

d.

The Horror movie was definitely ____________________. (scared – scaring)

e.

I went to Cancun last summer. I'm so ________________ by the beauty of the beaches! (fascinated – fascinating)

17

WRITE 5 LINES, MINIMUM, ANSWERING THE QUESTION: “What were you and your family doing when the September 11 th attacks happened ?” _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Done!

159


NOTE

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

160


ANSWER BOOK UNITS

Feed back


LOOK OVER

UNIT

Future will x Going to

1

WILL | ARE GOING TO | WILL | AM GOING TO

2

a. I won't buy her a present | Will I buy her a present? b. We are going to watch the new reality show. | We aren't going to watch that new reality show. c. The party isn't going to be at Liam's house. | Is the party going to be at Liam's house? d. She will travel with you, | Will she travel with you? e. I will answer the phone.| I won't answer the phone. f. She won't open the door | Will she open the door?

3

a. What are they going to do on Sunday? b. What time is it going to be? c. What will he do? d. What will they do?

5

a. will meet b. is going to arrive c. will study d. will make e. is going to rain

LOOK OVER 1

a. b. c. d. e.

3

I I I I I

5

162

4

Answer may vary.

UNIT Modal Verbs

can must could may would

2

a. b. c. d. e.

will be able to can can | could | is able to | was able to have been able to am able to | can | could

could dance | I Couldn't dance | Could I dance? should dance | I Shouldn't dance | Should I dance? would dance | I wouldn't dance | Would I dance? must dance | I mustn't dance | Must I dance? may dance | I may not dance | May I dance?

Answer may vary

4

can can't have to should could can / may have to have to would can


LOOK OVER

UNIT Comparative x Superlative

1

a. better than b. the most interesting c. bigger than d. worse than e. the fastest

3

a. as handsome as b. as rich as c. as intelligent as d. as romantic as

5

a. the biggest b. older than c. the tallest d. bigger than e. less food than

LOOK OVER

UNIT

2

4

a. the least good b. more badly c, less long d. the least rich e. the least intelligent a. my grandmother is the oldest person in my family b. last week, I was busier than this week c. among all my brothers I am the shortest d. he is a bad player. I believe he is the worst in college e. in relation to Brazil, China is farther than Canada.

Indirect Questions

1

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Do you think Joseph likes Italian food? Can you tell me if David has already traveled abroad? I was wondering if you have plans to travel this summer? Could you tell me if your parents are joining us for dinner? Do you know what time the bank opens? Could you tell me why you moved to Europe? Do you think it is a good idea? Can you tell me what the time is? Could you tell me what time it is?

2

a. b. c. d. e.

who broke the window? who told you that? what happened? who made a sandwich? who answered the questions?

3

Personal answer

163


LOOK OVER

UNIT Used To x Would Always

1

a. b. c. d. e.

3

a. I am not used to cleaning my bedroom every week Am I used to cleaning my bedroom every weel? b. c. d. f.

4

am used to got used to used to are used to got used to | used to

2

a. b. c. d. e.

used to used to would always used to would always

I didn't use to play on the streets | Did I use to play on the streets? She would never take her sister to school. | Would she always take her sister to school? They aren't used to going to trend places | Are they used to going to trend places? We didn't use to take good grades at school | Did we use to take good grades at school?

Answer may vary

LOOK OVER

UNIT Some, Any, No

1

a. b. c. d. e. f. a.

no some any some some any Answer may vary

2

a. b. c. d. e.

3

a. b. c. d. e.

get over put off show off show up look after

4

SEPARABLE: turn on, pick up, fill out, pull down INSEPARABLE: brake up, come over, sit down, give up, look after

5

a. b. c. d.

have a crash palls geek hang out

164

nothing anything something nothing anything


LOOK OVER

UNIT Simple Past x Present Perfect

1

Simple Past: two weeks ago | yesterday | Last month Present Perfect: for | recently | since

2

a. b. c. d. e.

went spoke have learnt have been have moved

3

a. b. c. d.

Rebeca haven't met them until now They have lived in a big city for 10 years Joseph and David have been friends since they were kids Louise has lived in College since 2016

4

a. b. c. d. e.

David has played soccer for the last ďŹ ve years I have bought nice shoes they have not ďŹ nished their homework until now Louise and Ariana have driven around the town for 2 hours they have gone to the U.S.A

LOOK OVER

UNIT Present Perfect adverbs

1

Answer may vary.

2

a. b. c. d. e.

3

AFFIRMATIVE: already, just, lately, recently, never NEGATIVE: already, just, lately, recently, yet INTERROGATIVE: already, just, lately, recently, ever

4

END OF A SENTENCE: yet, lately, recently BEFORE VERB: already, just, ever, never

5

a. b. c. d. e.

I haven't been to the gym yet | Have I already been to the gym? She has already traveled to Canada | Has she already traveled to Canada? They haven't worked hard | They have worked hard The man hasn't walked on the moon yet | Has the man already walked on the moon? We have seen a better movie | Have we seen a better movie?

have - graduated has - met have - bought have - driven have eaten

165


LOOK OVER

UNIT Verb Tenses

1

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

have been didn't call was am going to go will have am going to call

2

a. Answer may vary

3

Answer may vary

4

SIMPLE PRESENT: daily SIMPLE PAST: concluded PRESENT CONTINUOUS: in occurrence PRESENT PERFECT: not concluded

5

Answer may vary

LOOK OVER

UNIT Question Tags

1

a. b. c. d. e.

Ariana likes both red and black hair. I like neither vegetables nor fruits I can speak to him either on phone or in person She travels by both boat and plane. They want neither to study nor to take bad grades

2

a. b. c. d. e.

won't she didn't she aren't I will you shall we

3

a. b. c. d. e.

have I do I is it was she can they

4

Answer may vary

166


LOOK OVER

UNIT

Adverbs

1

a. b. c. d. e.

abruptly everywhere gracefully now usually

2

a. b. c. d.

She has been nicely | She has behaved nicely He used to act well. They sang greatly. She speaks softly.

3

a. b. c. d. e.

carefully slowly loudly easily badly

4

a. b. c. d. e.

Almost Very| So Always Perhaps answer may vary

5

Manner: Brutally, Weirdly, Quietly Frequency: Regularly, Seldom

LOOK OVER

UNIT

Place: Here, There, Downstairs

Time: Monthly, Early

Past Continuous

1

Answer may vary.

2

a. b. c. d. e.

My mother was ironing the clothes while I was watching netix. They were chatting when the cellphone turned o.. He was looking at the sky when he saw a spaceship. While they were running on the streets, the drivers were discussing. The sun was shining when started raining.

3

a. b. c. d. e.

They weren't watching tv. | Were they watching tv? The dogs were not barking. | Were the dogs barking? My friends weren't having a party. | Were my friends having a party? She wasn't complaining about her grades. | Was she complaining about her grades? I wasn't taking a shower. | Was I taking a shower?

4

a. b. c. d. e.

When it stopped. When she cut her hand. When I heard a thunder. While she was playing. While Joseph was walking.

5

Answer may vary

167


LOOK OVER

UNIT

Indirect Speech

1

a. The girl said that gave her great pleasure to be there that evening. b. She said that she didn't want to see any of them and she told them to go away. c. The teacher says that if you work hard you will pass / The teacher said that if they worked hard they would pass. d. He said to wait for her return e. She told him to wait till she returns.

2

a. He said they were not studying and that the grades would be horrible. b. Louise told David to study and that way he would go to the dance, c. Joseph said they couldn't study all day and Ariana told him he was right, they were not robots. d. He said that he studies every day and that he had studied a lot those days. e. She said they hadn't been preoccupied about the exams but then Mr. Albert had scared them all.

3

a. b. c. d.

4

She said she wanted her friends there. He said his children had gone to school the day before. She said they were making dinner that evening. My mom told me to calm down. My sister said she hadn't had time to go to the grocery shop that morning.

5

She said had studied a lot those days and that she didn't have time to hang out with her friends anymore. She said that The last time she had seen her friend had been two months before. She also said she was not happy at all and that she wanted to have time for herself. She said she hoped those busy days end up soon.

My mom told me I couldn't go to the party then and that I had to go the following day. They said they've been busy those days so they could go out only the following weekend. He told me he didn't work there and that he worked at that store. Katty said that she had been busy since the weekend before.

LOOK OVER

UNIT Reported Questions

1

a. b. c. d. e.

The host asked what the capital of brazil was. She asked if I had done my homework. Louise asked if they had been on a tv show the week before. He asked how I was. She asked| requested him if he could open the door.

2

a. b. c. d. e.

He asked if I played the piano. David asked what my favorite soccer player was. The man asked what time it was then. She asked him if he had seen the beautiful moon the night before. Mike requested if I could give him a hand.

3

a. b. c. d. e.

He asked me if she had been to the grocery store the previous day. She asked if they were doing their homework. She asked what the movie was. Louise asked where he went that morning. You asked how the weather was.

4

a. b. c. d. e.

Who turned the lights o? Where are you going? Are you getting married the next year? Can you rehearse next Sunday? Why did you take the wrong bus?

168


LOOK OVER

UNIT Relative Clauses

1

a. b. c. d. e.

Who Why That Who That

2

That | Which | Which | Who | That | Who | That | Who

3

b. c. d. e.

Australia is a beautiful country where we can go scuba diving. Winter is a cold season which is my favorite. She is an old woman who I always see when I go to the library. He is an actor who lots of people like.

4

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Sells meat. Who plays a musical instrument. is a person who is ill in hospital. A photographer is a person who takes photographs. A dentist is a person who looks after your teeth. A fool is a person who is very stupid. A genius is a person who is very intelligent. A liar is a person who doesn't tell the truth.

LOOK OVER

UNIT Present Perfect Contunous

1

a. b. c. d. e.

have played has won have already started has been working has been waiting

2

Answer may vary

3

a. b. c. d. e.

4

Answer ay vary

You have been copying the homework Louise hasn't been paying attention on the task Her father has been waiting to pick her up I have been living in the U.S.A How long have they been driving?

169


LOOK OVER 1

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

3

5

UNIT

make take do do make have give get

Collocation 2

a. b. c. d. e.

Answer may vary

4

DONE – DONE- DO- MAKE- HAVING- GO- DO- GIVE

a. b. c. d. e.

6

Answer may vary

incorrect (take) correct correct incorrect (do) correct

LOOK OVER

Ariana doesn't want to do the washing up again. Could you take a picture of us? I have to make new friends at school. Mike goes climbing on the weekends. My parents always tell me to do my best.

UNIT Adjectives Idioms Proverbs

1

a. b. c. d. e.

relaxing bored challenging exciting entertained

2

ANNOYING – BORED – CONFUSING – DEPRESSED – EXCITING – FRUSTRATED – FRIGHTENING SATISFIED – SHOCKING - EMBARASSING – TIRED – TERRIFING – DISAPPOINTED – AMUSING EXHAUSTED – WORRING – SCARED – SURPRISING

3

a. b. c. d. e.

4

Sequence: E, C, D, B, A

5

a. b. c. d.

Tired exciting annoying disappointed disgusting

It's best to do something on time. But if you can't do it on time, do it late Don't just wait for good things to happen to you. Work hard to achieve your goals Don't whine and complain if you don't get what you wanted When you get money quickly, like by winning it, it's easy to spend it or lose it quickly as well. e. If someone's paying you or helping you out, you have to be careful not to make them angry or say bad things about them. f. You can't keep having good luck or fun forever; eventually it will stop.

170


ANSWER BOOK REVIEW


LOOK OVER

1

REVIEW

1

a. am going to b. will c. will d. will e. will f. is going to

2

answer may vary

3

Answer may vary

4

a. should b. must c. could d. may e. Can f. Would g. have to

5

( ( ( ( ( (

6

the most - more the least - more - better

7

Answer may vary

8

a. b. c. d. e.

9

Answer may vary

172

7 6 2 1 5 3

) Advice ) Necessity ) Past ability ) Present ability ) Obligation ) Strong Possibility

the oldest taller than better the farthest more

( ( ( ( ( (

5 1 8 4 5 8

) ) ) ) ) )

Prohibition Permission Oers Weak Possibility Belief Hypothesis


LOOK OVER

1

REVIEW

10 a. would always

b. used to c. would always d. used to e. used to f. would always 11 a. What did you use to do?

b. Are you used to going to the movies by yourself? c. Would they always come back before noon? d. What are you used to doing? e. Did you use to play outside? 12 a. nowhere

b. anywhere c. somewhere d. anywhere e. nowhere 13 ( 2 ) Move your eyes to something

( 4 ) Search ( 1 ) Take care ( 3 ) Examine 14 Answer may vary 15 a. visited

b. has been c. rained d. bought e. have gone 16 a. just

b. Already c. never d. Recently e. Ever 17 Answer may vary

18 a. saw

b. will sing c. bought | are going to go d. study e. am going

173


LOOK OVER

2

REVIEW

1

Isn't she? / aren't you? / aren't I? / couldn't we? / will you?

2

answer may vary

3

a. I don't like to go to the movies either. b. Neither does he. c. They prefer walking in the park too. d. Neither should you. | So should you. e. I can also speak four languages.

4

a. happily b. loudly c. uently d. carefully e. wonderfully f. quietly

5

a. Mike speaks slowly b. They could solve all the problems easily c. Louise and Ariana arrived late for the party d. They cook very well e. He tried to drive as fast as he could

6

Answer may vary

7

a. when b. while c. when d. when e. when

8

a. Peter said he would be waiting for me the following week. b. I said they had worked hard c. David said that she had gone/been to the supermarket the previous morning. d. His mother told him to study for the test. e. The woman said not to smoke inside the theater.

9

a. Martha asked if I had bought any jewelry. a. He asked me where I was going then. b. The man asked if I could play any musical instrument. c. Louise asked who I had met the week before. d. She asked if I would travel abroad the following vacation.

174


LOOK OVER

2

REVIEW

10 a. “Don't arrive late”- said my father

b. “Jojo is the most beautiful puppy I have ever seen!” – said Ariana c. “We will practice a little more” -said the boy d. “Can we regram your photo?” – the “puppylovers” aked Joseph e. “Where do you keep your book Louise?” – asked Mrs. Wood.

11 a. she worked for a man who used to be an athlete

b. I dropped a glass that/which was new c. Ariana loves books that/which have happy endings d. Joseph talked to the girl whose car had broken in front of his house e. Louise went to Edinburgh which is the capital of Scotland f. Louise traveled to Scotland where she met a lot of nice people. 12 Answer may vary

13 Answer may vary

14 a. They haven't been waiting at the bus stop over an hour

b. He hasn't been driving for the last 30 minutes c. Have I been sleeping well? d. Ariana and David haven't been dating for the last two months e. Has she been dreaming about her new job?

15 a. make

b. do c. take d. take e. give f. have

g. make h. give i. get j. get k. do l. have

16 a. embarrassed

b. embarrassing c. terrified d. scaring e. fascinated

17 Answer may vary

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New Slangs are created every single day. Check a few of them below:

SLANG

MEANING

What's up?

How are you doing?

Pal, bro, buddy, dude

friend

Couch Potato

A lazy person

Hang out

To casually gather together

Screw up

To make a mistake

Busted

caught someone doing something wrong

have a crush

attracted to somebody

To dump somebody

stop having a romantic relationship

Epic Fail

doing something extremely wrong.

Loser

don't like someone because of its actions

Geek

a digital-technology expert or enthusiast

Babe

A beautiful woman

DunnoI

Don't know

Crash

sleep

Piece of cake

Very easy

Shot

Another try

Pain in the neck

annoying

Go bananas

Get insane

Beat

exhausted

Take it easy

relax

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There are thousands of phrasal verbs. Here is a list with the most used ones in alphabetic order: PHRASAL VERB

MEANING

EXAMPLE SENTENCE

ask some body out

invite on a date

Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.

blow something up

add air

We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.

break down

stop functioning| get upset | divide in pieces

Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.

break up

end a relationship

My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.

bring somebody down

make unhappy

This sad music is bringing me down.

bring something up

vomit

He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.

call something off

cancel

Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his ancé.

catch up

get to the same point as somebody else

You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.

check somebody/ something out

look at carefully, investigate

The company checks out all new employees.

cheer up

become happier

She cheered up when she heard the good news.

chip in

help

If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.

clean something up

tidy, clean

Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside.

come across something

nd unexpectedly

I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.

dress up

wear nice clothing

It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.

drop somebody/something off

take somebody/ something somewhere and leave them/it there

I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.

drop out

quit a class, school etc

I dropped out of Science because it was too difcult.

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.

gure something out

understand, nd the answer

I need to gure out how to t the piano and the bookshelf in this room.

ll something in

to write information in blanks, as on a form (BrE)

Please ll in the form with your name, address, and phone number.

ll something out

to write information in blanks, as on a form (AmE)

The form must be lled out in capital letters.

nd out

discover

We don't know where he lives. How can we nd out?

get along/on

like each other

I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.

get away

go on a vacation

We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.

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PHRASAL VERB

MEANING

EXAMPLE SENTENCE

get back

return

We got back from our vacation last week.

get over something

recover from an illness, loss, difculty

I just got over the u and now my sister has it.

give something back

get out of bed| stand

I got up early today to study for my exam.

get up

return a borrowed item

I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.

give something up

quit a habit| stop trying

I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.

go after somebody

follow somebody| try to achieve something

My brother tried to go after the thief in his car.

go ahead

start, proceed

Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.

go back

return to a place

I have to go back home and get my lunch.

go out

leave home to go on a social event

We're going out for dinner tonight.

go over something

review

Please go over your answers before you submit your test.

grow up

become an adultto

When Jack grows up he wants to be a reman.

hand something out

distribute to a group of people

We will hand out the invitations at the door.

hang out

spend time relaxing (informal)

Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.

hang up

end a phone call

He didn't say goodbye before he hung up.

hold something back

hide an emotion

Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral.

hold on

wait a short time

Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.

keep on doing something

continue doing

Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.

keep something up

continue at the same rate

If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.

let somebody down

fail to support or help, disappoint

I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.

log in (or on)

sign in (to a website, database etc)

I can't log in to Facebook because I've forgotten my password.

log out (or off)

sign out (of a website, database etc)

If you don't log off somebody could get into your account.

look after somebody/ something

take care of

I have to look after my sick grandmother.

look for somebody/ something

try to nd

I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding.

look forward to something

be excited about the future

I'm looking forward to the Christmas break.

178


PHRASAL VERB

MEANING

EXAMPLE SENTENCE

look into something

investigate

We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.

look out

be careful, vigilant, and take notice

Look out! That car's going to hit you!

look something over

check, examine

Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?

look something up

search and ď€ nd information in a reference book or database

We can look her phone number up on the Internet.

look up to somebody

have a lot of respect for

My little sister has always looked up to me.

make something up

invent, lie about something

Josie made up a story about why we were late.

make up

forgive each other

We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.

make somebody up

apply cosmetics to

My sisters made me up for my graduation party.

mix something up

confuse two or more things

I mixed up the twins' names again!

pass away

die

His uncle passed away last night after a long illness.

pass out

faint

It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.

pass something out

give the same thing to many people

The professor passed the textbooks out before class.

pay somebody back

return owed money

Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday.

pay for something

be punished for doing something bad

That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.

pick something out

choose

I picked out three sweaters for you to try on.

put something down

put what you are holding on a surface or oor

You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.

put somebody down

insult, make somebody feel stupid

The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.

put something off

postpone

We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.

put up with somebody/ something

tolerate

I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car.

put something on

put clothing/ accessories on your body

Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.

run into somebody/ something

meet unexpectedly

I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.

run over somebody/ something

drive a vehicle over a person or thing

I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.

run away

leave unexpectedly, escape

The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.

run out

have none left

We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.

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PHRASAL VERB

MEANING

EXAMPLE SENTENCE

set something up

arrange, organize

Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.

set somebody up

trick, trap

The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.

shop around

compare prices

I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.

show off

act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully)

He always shows off on his skateboard

sleep over

stay somewhere for the night (informal)

You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.

stick to something

continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing

You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.

take after somebody

resemble a family member

I take after my mother. We are both impatient.

take something apart

purposely break into pieces

He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.

take something back

return an item

I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work.

take off

start to y

My plane takes off in ve minutes.

take something off

remove something (usually clothing)

Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!

take something out

remove from a place or thing

Can you take the garbage out to the street for me?

take somebody out

pay for somebody to go somewhere with you My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.

tear something up

rip into pieces

I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him.

throw something away

dispose of

We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.

turn something down

decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)

Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.

turn something down

refuse

I turned the job down because I don't want to move.

turn something off

stop the energy ow, switch off

Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.

turn something on

start the energy, switch on

It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on.

turn something up

increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.

turn up

appear suddenly

Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neigh bourhood.

try something on

sample clothing

I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will t.

try something out

test

I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.

wake up

stop sleeping

We have to wake up early for work on Monday.

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Livro completo FINAL  

Com as ultimas alterações.

Livro completo FINAL  

Com as ultimas alterações.

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