TATTOO ART•EVOLUTION•GLOBAL WARMING•PLASTIC SURGERY•ONLINE AVATARS•ECO CLOTHING•YAKUZA TATTOOS•WOMEN’S IDENTITY•CUSTOM LIVING•SHOE CUSTOMISATION•MUSIC
irreplacable DIF ERENT
IN ORDER TO BE
ONE MUST ALWAYS BE
ALEXANDRA DUNFORD NETANE SIUHENGAL SARAH HINGSTON
CHLOE SAN MIGUEL CASEY SCHOFIELD JI MIN PARK
BRANDING AND LAUNCH
JULIA BRADLEY PINAR CILDIROGLU KIERAN MACKENZIE
ANDREW DIAB PIERRE ISSA
HANADY BARJEL DAVID KATAGUE MICHELLE RUSLI
PRINT DESIGN DIRECTOR
LAURA AGHAJANIAN EVELYN LEE MATT WHITE
ART DIRECTOR CONTRIBUTORS PAGE
08 WHO I S I N CONTROL? Pinar Cildiroglu 14 FASHI O N GOES GREEN Yana Mokmargana 2 TRANSFORM NOW Michelle Rusli 32 YAKUZA TATTOOS Chloe San Miguel 40 FASHI O N & WOMEN Evelyn Lee 46 GLOBAL WARMI N G Hanady Barjel 54 LACES OPEN, LACES CLOSED Damian Krupa 62 TAKE CONTROL Dave Katague 70 TATTOOED CULTURE Matthew White 80 SHAPI N G OUR ENVI R ONMENT Netane Siuhengalu 86 EVOLUTI O N REVOLUTI O N Kieran MacKenzie 94 TRANSFORM ME Julia Bradley 10 ONE STEP AT A TI M E Casey Schofield 108 TATTOO OR TABOO? Alexandra Dunford 1 4 FANTASTI C AS PLASTI C Laura Aghajanian 120 LI F E’ S TOO SHORT TO BE SMALL Andrew Diab 126 VANI T Y OR BEAUTY? Jessica Demian 132 I P OD I N DI V I D UALI T Y Ji Min Park 138 WELCOME TO THE GOOD LI F E Pier e Issa
CONTROL Editorial •
by PINAR CILDIROGLU
We often associate ‘customise’, or customisation with personalisation. Customisation and personalisation both have dissimilar meanings. A simple definition of customise, is ‘to modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task’.2 This definition can be analysed in various ways, especially in the design industry and abroad. Customising enables an individual or user to alter primarily the appearance of a product.
This notion of changing aspects of standard products that are just standard ‘off the shelf ’ commodities is a means of rebellion from stereotypical (how it should be) concepts depicted in products or services in modern society and prior. The 21st century presents people the opportunity to explore endless opportunities in remodeling aspects of life to suit their needs. As defined by Crow & Shanteau, “customisation is who controls the outcome”. 1 (207) “It is through the process of customisation that people/ consumers identify what is appropriate for their own needs,” 1 (219), this means that customisation enables the individual to discover for themselves their true identity and where they fit into contemporary society. People like to customise aspects of life because they like to feel that they are different to the rest of the ‘herd’. For example, primarily in the sporting
arena, athletes like to customise or their sponsorship outfits in order to stand out from their competitors. Snyder and Lopez claim thatcustomising products is an indication of ways that people can ‘differentiate themselves from others’ 6 (400). Therefore, establishing a brand for themselves by which they can be easily identified and remembered. Examine this idea of customisation, we can identify that it is a form of creating a brand or visual identity to be unique. When designing for web or software applications, from a programmer’s point of view, customisation can be viewed as a psychological process. Neuburg (10) identifies that not everybody is the same, so whatever software developers or web designers create must cater for individual tastes.5 Therefore, should offer the user the lexibility to alter how they want the application(s) to look and feel. This topic falls under identity or self
images opposite page Pinar Cildiroglu An example of celebrity branding. Name of celebrity inscripted on the product to indicate the brand owner. Where as without it, its just another ordinary product.
banding, customising a product/ commodity as outlined earlier is a way of depicting ones image and social belonging. Similar to the sporting athletes, celebrities of film, music and fashion also inflict this so called identity realisation and discovery, showing the world (us) who they are and that they are. For example, perfume/fragrances designed by actors and/or singers such Jennifer Lopez , Britney Spears & the Beckhams’. In doing so we as ordinary individuals (non celebrity people), tend to behave in ways which separate us from the pack. Such as, rebellion from the trend or what ‘everyone else is doing’, trying to distance ourselves from the beliefs, similarities and clichés brought upon us by mainstream society. In terms of who’s in control, the answer is quite simple – we are. Individuals determine what is appropriate and right for them, after all it is the individual that must satisfy their five senses; taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. Customisation may also be due to “an individual’s need to experiment” and explore innovative possibilities within a product, as well as “providing a learning experience for the individual”. 1 (Crow & Shanteau, 218) . As identified earlier customisation can be linked to psychology. Drawing from the scenarios mentioned previously in this article, we can confirm that the urge to customise, change or modify a product (primarily) is a result of psychological behaviour. Factors which influence the need to customise comprise of a number of possibilities; such as gender, culture, curiosity, branding and the urge to sculpt an identity for ourselves to
feel individual or part of a cult. Each individual is different and gender is an obvious factor that plays a significant roll in influencing an individuals desire to customise a product and /or service. Gender design has been known as a powerful marketing tool (Marshall & Erlhoff, 189) for selling commodities to consumers, especially when it boils down to how much an individual can customise a product. 4 We are fortunate to live in an era which provides us with endless opportunities and ways in which individuals can become unique as simple as the click of a button. As mentioned earlier we have been accustomed to seeing imagery of athletes and celebrities influencing others on self branding. This is where the heart of self-branding begins – from society’s rolls models; ranging from beliefs, culture and lifestyle.
images opposite page Pinar Cildiroglu ‘Nike iD’ website provides the tools to enable shoe customisation for individuals.
Personal customisation or self branding is when an individual displays their unique qualities to the public. Kase (209) defines self branding as a way of “differentiating yourself and being visible and showing a specific value that you offer”. 3 The self-branding process has led others to differentiate themselves from stereotypes and create a brand of their own. Self-branding has ironically become a trend (opposite of customise) in society and this is partially due to our ability to access more resources to do so. The internet is a classic example in providing us with the tools we need to set us apart from others. Websites such
The ability to move away from standardised “off the shelf ” products as ‘Nike iD’ and ‘Apple Systems’ for instance, are just a couple of examples of developing a way to provide individuals the ability to customise a product to suit their needs. These sites give the user / consumer the ability to move away from standardised “off the shelf ” products to what is regarded as their own brand or commodity. ‘Nike iD’ provides the facilities for shoe customisation, by enabling the user / consumer to create the look and feel of their very own shoe which is unique to them. ‘Apple’ (and other computing brands such as ‘Dell’) on the other hand can provide the user with the option to add or remove hardware and software
components of a computer to meet the user’s technical requirements, appearance and budget. Drawing from these various definitions of ‘customisation’, we can clearly identify and conclude by saying that there is no obvious definition of the customisation processes. In design terms, altering the interface visual appearance of a designed product or service to suit individual needs can be linked to how the user would prefer to be identified or branded. Therefore, in stating this we can identify that customisation is a psychological choice and it is up to the manufacturer to provide the facilities. and the user to customise those products to suit them.
FA S H I O N
GREEN Fashion Customisation • by YANA MOKMARGANA
The fashion industry has come a long way throughout the years. The industry has continued to evolve in order to suit consumer’s needs and wants. With the world
currently worrying over climate change, the fashion industry has also become aware of the impact it has on the world. Fashion designers are now using organic materials
to create their works of art thus making it a more desirable product for consumers. With the world plunging into an irreversible doom, the fashion industry has taken up arms to combat this major dilemma. More then ever, people are becoming more aware of the types of products they purchase and how it will affect the environment. It’s the same with clothing, more and more consumers are reading the labels and making sure that they are purchasing clothes that are made with organic materials. This is what the fashion industry calls it, ‘Eco-Friendly’ fashion. Eco-friendly fashion has become one of the hottest trends around, as people start to realise the impact that their shopping and consumer choices can have on our environment. Instead of paying someone a ridiculous amount of money to make you clothes, consumers are recycling their old clothing and turning it into something new. Clothes and accessories that meet such criteria are usually made using organic raw materials, such as cotton grown without pesticides, or re-used materials such as recycled plastic from old soda bottles. Eco-fashion does not involve
the use of harmful chemicals and bleaches to colour fabrics, thus making it safer for our fragile environment. According to the Sustainable Cotton Project, a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the use of organic cotton, a third of a pound of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals are used to produce the cotton for one simple cotton T-shirt. Then ammonia, formaldehyde and other chemicals are used to process and finish it. Many of these chemicals are known or suspected carcinogens. Purchasing eco-friendly clothes indeed helps the environment; however price has become a major issue. Generally, organic cotton costs more to grow than conventional cotton, but the economics differ depending on variables like quality and location. Organic cotton from India, for example, where labour costs are low and organic farms have been operating for more than a few years, can be cost competitive with conventional cotton used to make T-shirts, denim and medium-quality fabrics.
In New York during Fashion Week last month, models sauntered down a catwalk to a pulsating soundtrack, showing off the latest work of designers including Oscar de la Renta and Proenza Shouler. Except for this, every garment was made with fibres spun from bamboo, corn, organic cotton and other materials that promoters said were more eco-friendly than traditional materials.
images opposite page Yana Mokmargana An abstract view on green fashion.
The new ecologically friendly fabrics are made with materials that cause less harm to the environment, like cotton and wool produced without synthetic chemicals or pesticides, or hardy, fastgrowing plants like bamboo and hemp that are produced with relatively little pesticides or fertilizers1. The show, called Future Fashion, sponsored by Earth Pledge, is a New York-based non profit group that promotes environmental programs. Their aim is to challenge designers to create fashion using only fabrics that are renewable, reusable or that it generated less pollution than conventional material. The message was clear; Eco-style need not be an oxymoron. Eco-advocates and some apparel executives say they believe that goods made with so-called environmentally friendly fabrics, including clothing and home furnishings, could follow the path of organic food and beauty products, which have crossed over from niche to mainstream to become a $15 billion business2. Another great and cheaper way to support Eco-friendly fashion is by wearing recycled clothing. This can mean anything from second hand clothes that have been customised to make them slightly different, to recycling the fibres or fabrics into completely different pieces of clothing and even recycling materials that were something completely different in their previous life, for example; plastic bags. Second hand clothes are a great starting point for creating your own re-styled,
unique and individual clothing. This is a cost effective method and you have the freedom to experiment and be as creative as youâ€™d like. I have seen many inventive and stylish ideas for re-styling second hand clothes3.
Another greatâ€“ and cheaperâ€“ way to support eco-friendly fashion is by wearing recylcled clothing
With the purchase of eco friendly clothes on the rise, it is possible that in the near future all clothes will be made from organic materials. Big companies like Nike have signed a long-term commitment to use organic cotton. They have also set a goal to use organic fibres for at least 5 percent of its cotton-based garments by 2010. That means more than five million pounds of organic cotton a year.
Their aim is to challenge designers to create fashion using fabrics that are only renewable, reusable, or generated less pollution
Marks & Spencer, the British retailer, has also pledged to use 5 percent organic cotton in its private label line by 20124. With the influence of powerful companies leading the way, the world of fashion will have a greater impact on the environment, not for the worst but for the better.
images opposite page Yana Mokmargana An abstract view on how green fashion will be seen.
images opposite page Yana Mokmargana An abstract view on how green fashion will be seen in the future.
Health and Fitness • Health and Fitnesss by Michelle rusli
The world today is a very stressful, fast-paced place to live. Many people have a very hard time making it through life without having problems at times. The best way to make it through life without major problems is to live a healthy lifestyle. Living a healthy lifestyle makes everything much easier to deal with, because you are in a good frame of mind, and you feel well physically. Our society is constantly evolving. One aspect in particular, is the need to customise ourselves to be able to live a much happier and healthier lifestyle. Traditionally, taking regular exercise and paying attention to what we eat helps us maintain a healthier lifestyle. Since the emergence of industrialisation (1880s) (a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one) it has been hard for many to achieve this. 4 (Paige, Waehner). Over the years there has been an increase in the number of organic foods sold in stores, gyms, salad bars, and endorsed by nutritionists and alternative medicine practices all over the world. However, a store owner may open a shop that sells organic food purely to generate profit as well as conform. So the priority is not always the health of the populace. For this reason, one must be careful when purchasing certain health products. Reading labels is important.
Health issues can be linked to so-called ‘civilisation diseases’, which have dramatically increased due to various lifestyle habits. Research has proven this and outlines that rising stress and anxiety due to a fast paced world and lack of attention to physical activity and good nutrition is to blame. Poor nutrition and bad dietary habits have the greatest influence on weight gain and obesity. As a result, the risk of premature death and civilization diseases like heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes increases. People have become more aware of their health and their standard of living. Contributing to this, consumers have been influenced by the mass media; where desires of becoming skinny and being physically attractive have been evoked and shaped through celebrities, role models and countless manipulative advertisements. The media has played an active role in forming identities and speaking to the desires of millions of consumers. 5 (Robinson, Mary).
By understanding particular lifestyles, we can divide consumers into two general categories. One is the group of consumers that strive to take control of their health by controlling their diet, paying attention to nutrition labels, purchasing more organic foods and taking greater interest in health and nutrition news, all in the quest to achieve a state of happiness and healthier lifestyle.
True enjoyment comes from activity of the mind and exercise of the body The second group are the consumers who lead busy lives and want something that is convenient, whether it is bought and cooked in the microwave, or eaten at a fast food restaurant. It tastes good, is cheap, easy to prepare and it satisfies the need for instant gratification in a lifestyle that is often too busy to cook. Although it is good to see that people are becoming more attentive to their health, one must keep in mind that the labelling of products is not always accurate. They are just there to meet benchmark standards. For example, did you know that in comparison to original fatty items many â€œlow-fatâ€? items have more than 500 calories? 1 (Darlington, Roger). In regards to group two, when people start replacing home-cooked meals with pre-package foods they are in fact consuming more calories, preservatives, and sugar than they would cooking the food at home. images Michelle Rusli, 2009 Golf Equipment, The Peak apartments
images Michelle Rusli Tennis court and 2009, The peak apartments
There is a significant reduction in the intake of fresh whole fruits and vegetables. Debatably, there is perhaps no surprise that the issues discussed previously have led to overwhelming increases in obesity and other health issues. Especially with the rise of mass production and consumerism throughout recent years, where most of the foods we are eating have been modified by new industrial food production techniques which can put us in considerable danger. For instance, in some countries, including America, scientists have found that Perchlorate, a hazardous chemical used in rocket fuel, has been used in powdered formula for infants. The issue of ethics comes into play. Arguably, the safest way to maintain a healthy lifestyle is through regular exercise. One of the several benefits includes the reduction of symptoms like aches and pains that some may suffer from regularly. However, many people encounter the common problem of exercise being boring and timeconsuming. 4 (Darlington, Roger). To combat this, you can find something you enjoy and is appropriate for your fitness level. It can be by joining a Gym Club, dancing to your favourite music, visiting engaging dance classes, playing arcade games like Basketballs or DDR, jumping on Trampolines or even going to karaoke can be a form of exercise.
images this page Michelle Rusli, 2009, Basketball court, UTS
Last but not least, apart from doing the right exercise we must not forget to relax our minds. This can have a profound and positive effect on the physical, psychological and spiritual well-being of a person, which is critical. Exposure to nature, such as walking in parks can improve self-awareness, self-esteem and your mood. As well as meditation and reading books. These activities benefit a person mentally.
One example that shows an important change in product design in trying to helping individuals live a healthier lifestyle can be seen from one of the latest technologies released in Japan. Nintendoâ€™s latest games console, the â€˜Wiiâ€™ has turned computer gaming into a new form of exercise that can help people lose weight and have fun. It has also been known to help in the treatment of children who suffer from hemiplegic cerebral palsy, a condition that can partially paralyse one side of the body. 6 (Schmidt, Tracy S).
Laughter is the best medicine. Aperson with a positive attitude suffer less from bad conditions like heart disease
If the children regularly use their weaker side, their motor function, it can improve their condition. Also from Nintendo, DS players in Japan have released a digital camera that comes with an innovative game called “Face Training”. 3 (Lloyd, Peter). It fits into the dual-screen, handheld machine to show live video of the player’s own face on the right screen, while an animation of a woman’s face illustrates exercises on the left screen. The purpose of this is so that people can exercise their own facial muscles to have nicer smiles and livelier expressions.
Learning to live a healthier lifestyle is easy when you change one small thing at a time Overall, Enormous upheavals in the food and farming industry have occurred alongside the global rise in mental health and behavioural problems. The industrialisation of farming, the rise of processed foods, the pervasiveness of food advertising, and global food policies unconcerned with health have all contributed to the population living on a diet which is radically different to that of 50 years ago. Predominantly not only must we try to eat healthy food and drink an appropriate amount of water per day, we must also be careful of buying the wrong health products as well as avoid any unnecessary fatty foods. Give it a try: rather than eating at Mc Donald’s because it’s cheap buy a piece of fruit simply because it’s healthy! images Michelle Rusli Tennis court and 2009, The peak apartments
Y a kuza
Noir Yakuza Tattoos â€˘
by VIENN CHLOE SAN MIGUEL
How far would you go to mark your identity? Could you endure years of torture to transform your body into a living canvas, or scorch your flesh just to stand out (branding)? As with everything, there is always a line you can cross depending on how far you are willing to go to mark yourself and be identified in this world. Around the world there are people who use their skin as a living canvas. But marks of identity arenâ€™t always works of art; they can sometimes be disturbing to others. For example, the people of the Hamah tribe in the south end of Ethiopia strive for physical perfection by spending hours a day grooming each other to look their best. To the village people, beauty signifies status, bravery and courage among the women. Behind the ideal though lies a painful reality. A young girl will be beaten so severely that the wounds will scar her for life. This is the ritual called the Bullah. This ritual requires a young boy to undertake a task in order to prove that he has become a man. He must run across the backs of numerous cattle without falling down to bring honour to his family. But before this part of the ritual begins, the unmarried single women of the family must be beaten with sticks, hard enough to break the skin and create huge lacerations that will then scar later. This is considered beautiful and is undertaken to honour their male
relative. Rites of passage around the world commonly involve pain. In Papua New Guinea young men of the Sapic river tribe are cut hundreds of times in order pass their rite and become honoured men. Young men in the Amazon thrust their hands into gloves filled with bullet ants again and again to prove their manhood. These forms of initiation still occur to this day, and have even started to circulate within our culture as well. Tattoos where often used not only as a sign of identification or ritual, but also to represent an initiation or belonging. For example gang related tattoos in jail or crime syndicates such as the Yakuza. The Yakuza also known as the Japanese mafia, tattoo themselves to identify not only which gang they belong to, but also particular traits of the individual. This helps to identify themselves not only to every day people but also as proof of what they are a part of, their organization.
The tattoos they wear are distinct and helps differentiate the various gangs. The Yakuza are believed to be one of the largest organised crime phenomena in the world and have been around longer than the Sicilian mafia. Their origins can be followed as far back as the year 1612 when men known as kabuki-mono (the crazy ones), came to the attention of local authorities. Their odd clothing, style, distinctive haircuts and antisocial behavior gained the attention of mainstream society. They have gained notoriety not just in Japan but around the world for their activities.
images opposite page Vienn Chloe San Miguel Kevin Reyes (Bellavista Waters) 2009.
The Yakuza do not discriminate. No matter which country you are from or social class you belong to, it isn’t hard to become a new member. Though it is an all men society, they rarely ever initiate women into the organisation, because they generally do not trust them, and view them as weak. They also believe that they cannot fight as well as men can. Today’s many Yakuza factions are patriarchal in nature but women are integral parts of Japan’s gangland society. Wives, mistresses and girlfriends of top Yakuza figures often undergo extensive tattooing. Sometimes these women use tattoos to demonstrate their affiliation with the gang lifestyle; in other cases it’s done to show loyalty and obedience to the Yakuza member they are involved with. To a Yakuza member, the most important thing is courage. They are prepared to fight to the death, rather than lose the battle. Yakuza members must be willing to die for their boss. It is common within the Yakuza to tattoo themselves. Their tattoos can depict their clan’s crest. Some even tattoo a black ring around their forearm for each crime they have committed. This is not only to identify themselves: who they are and what they are a part of, but also lets others who understand
these markings, know of their standing. From one glance you can tell that a particular man has committed many crimes, and is someone you shouldn’t mess with. Tattoos are also a mark of strength for them, since some tattoos can take over 100 hours to do. It is a sign that they were unwilling to accommodate themselves to society’s rules and forms. Even though in Japan tattoos have become more mainstream, there are still some places such as bath houses that do not permit people with tattoos to come in. Many of the older generations still associate tattoos with the criminal world. Even today, in our Western culture and society, there are negative comments made about tattoos and the people who have them. Some people choose to mark their bodies as an act of sh aping identity, however as stated previously it will not always be the norm for most people, but
It is a sign that they were unwilling to accommodate themselves to society’s rules and forms.
for that person it will feel right. Some extreme forms of body modifications that are carried out today are the splitting of the tongue, by cutting it in half it allows the tongue to move in two different directions; Inserting ball bearings underneath the skin to form patterns, studs, elongating the ear
hole and tattoos. Each of these things physically marks the person forever. They are a means of self expression that act as agents of identification. Tattoos for instance not only mark us with a picture that we like or identify with, it also has a specific purpose or reasoning behind it. It could be for religious purposes, special events such as the birth of a child, remembrance of a loved one, things we believe in, quotes to live by and symbols and pictures that we enjoy. It doesnâ€™t always have to be associated with negative connotations.
The Yakuza also known as the Japanese Mafia, tattoo themselves to identify not only which gang they belong to, but also about the person themselves
images opposite page Vienn Chloe San Miguel Kevnin Reyes 2009. opposite page Vienn Chloe San Miguel Kenson ly 2009. Next page Vienn Chloe San Miguel Kevin Reyes 2009.
Customising our life to suit or own personal needs can be a never ending pursuit, we will always find new things to like, new trends or ideas that we incorporate into our own sense of self and home. It is how we want others to perceive us, while feeling more comfortable in our own skin and how far we are willing to go to achieve this.
From early centuries women only end up in a job commonly known as housewives, through time and the development of mankind, life for women has been much more interesting since then. Now we are able to choose what we want, what kind of job we want to get, we have choices of getting married or not getting married. There are no limitations of what we can do or cannot do; life has become much more customisable therefore we are able to recreate our own identity. Dating back to the early years people worked and act according to the social codes that was set but after the war and the revolutions these were all being eliminated little by little, people wanted change they wanted to be different, they realised that fashion is an important aspect of recreating ones identity and to truly be themselves. Through fashion women was able to find freedom, courage and spirit. We can see this through different famous fashion designers of different times, each of them gave women and fashion a new meaning in their own era.
Fashion and Women •
by EVELYN LEE
Fashion designers like Coco Chanel and Yves Saint Laurent are the creators of style and identity; Pierre Berge said “Chanel gave women freedom” and Saint Laurent “gave them power,”3. Saint Laurent was a ‘true creator’ going
beyond the aesthetic to make a social statement. Let us go back to where it all started, first from Coco Chanel. Chanel’s fashion house was first established in 1920. She lead women of the time away from the traditional corset from previous decades which was tided up tight and confined, these corsets illustrated women and the social views towards women at the time. Chanel recreated fashion introduced a casual look with short skits and relaxed garments which was usually considered as underwear more than outerwear before her time. She gave women freedom, allowing them to find liberation in fashion. Then came the all time famous french designer Yves Saint Laurent, known as the ‘King of Fashion’. He created the collection ‘Le Smoking’ the tuxedo jacket and pantsuits in 1966, this collection was said to have given women confidence remaking the image of what a woman could be. He dressed them in
images opposite page Evelyn Lee Yves Saint Laurent illustration
pantsuits that before were only worn by men, he was able to bring out the beauty and confidence of a women that was not seen ever before and at the same time he was able to maintain the high standards of tailoring and classic trimmings, this particular collection was updated yearly by Saint Laurent until he retired. He also dressed women in safari jackets, pea jackets and also flying suits. He was able to oversee the boundaries and free the tradition of what fashion and women was sterotypically shaped. He was the first designer to use black women models in runway shows.
feminine, making them look girly but goth, as wells as making these clothes look tailored and street savvy2. She is famous for stepping in between these lines making a statement for women that they can be whatever they want to be.
Afterwards along came Rei Kawakubo from Japan, she was popular during the 1970’s-1980’s. Kawakubo on the other hand did not study fashion but philosophy in Japan. Her career started when she graduated from university and started working for a textile company, during this time she learned about different materials and started creating her own collection under the name “Comme des Garçon”4. Her designs pulled away from the conventional forms like classic cuts, bodylines and silhouettes. She turned pockets upside and also applied extra long sleeves. She incorporated elements from old traditional Asian clothing’s to recreate a new and modern globalized image for the outside world. Her designs are smart casual that was able to give women a new sense of freedom and liberation on another level.
Fashion, sex, drugs and rock n roll are all linked together. Every generation every day someone is trying to create an individual image, either trying to replicate her idol or just trying to be someone. People are forever seeking new tastes and trying avoiding the old.
Now in our time a more local talent has been able to incorporate all the elements that we are looking for as a woman, making it “be-all girl” possible, meaning that we can choose whatever and whoever we want to be all in one package. Karen Walker a New Zealand fashion designer has been able to make women look both masculine at the same time
These famous fashion designers help to create endless choices for women, to suit their taste, their character and their mood. Fashion for women is a tool to make them glamorous and sexually appealing. It possesses the ability to make a statement and stand out from the crowd.
Fashion, sex drugs and rock ‘n’ roll are all linked together.
Superstars like Madonna has set an extraordinary example, in each era from material girl till frozen, her style has changed she has transformed form wild and reckless to mature and funky. She has proved to us that we could create our own image according to what we like instead of following social trends1.
She gave women a new sense of freedom and liberation on another level. Chanel, YSL, Rei Kawakubo and Karen Walker has proved to turn fashion into statements in each other their era, they have liberated women and gave them confidence in style. They were the ones to step ahead to encourage change in our lives. We can be whatever we want to be.
images opposite page Evelyn Lee Coco Chanel illustration
G L O BA L WARMING Environment • by hanady barjel
The effects of global warming are undeniable, but we have stepped up to redeem ourselves. Over the past several years global warming has become a constant topic of discussion . As a result of this increased social awareness we have seen changes in our larger companies, but minor modifications to other parts of our homes and lifestyles that also contributed to our aim of bettering our world. In simple terms, global warming is the increase of the earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide and other gases warm the surface of the earth naturally by trapping solar heat into the atmosphere. This cycle sustains a habitable planet. As with many things in life, too much of the one thing is not good for you. This case is no different. The extensive burning of fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil, and deforestation on a large scale3 has resulted in the significant increase of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.4 Due to changes in temperatures, we see a shift in rainfall patterns and a rise in sea levels. Our flora and fauna has also been affected. Ultimately the human race is considerably affected. As global warming has become a serious problem that the world faces many people have become culturally aware of the deteriorating state of our natural environment. Approximately six months ago the shopping centres had stands setup promoting the usage
of the new Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs also known as CFLs. These light bulbs were designed to use less energy and last longer then a regular light bulb, which results in decreased waste production.2 Soon after, the government saw to it that all the light bulbs in our homes were changed to CFLs to ensure a decline in energy usage. As global warming seemed to become more of a house hold issue, we saw more changes. These changes included bathroom fixtures, the shower head in particular. A ‘low-flow’ shower head was designed, and its purpose was to slow down the flow and discharge of water, only releasing half of the usual amount, and sometimes even less, than a normal shower head. Advertisements were then put into place encouraging people to trade in their showerheads for the new more environmentally friendly designed showerheads. On the 28th of March 2009 at 8:30pm millions of people took part in Earth
Hour. Earth Hour first began in Sydney in 2007, and it is a yearly event that takes place which gives everyone the chance to ‘vote’ in an election between Earth and Global warming. To simply place your ‘vote’ at 8:30pm local time you switch off all your lights, and as result you are supporting Earth. This event was designed to allow people to show their support and voice their opinions on global warming. Figures and such are presented to world leaders at the Global Climate Change Conference in
In 2008 a staggering total of 50 million people switched off their lights in support of Earth Hour
Copenhagen this year. Earth hour has proved to be a success! In 2007 a total of 2.2 million homes and businesses participated in the event, and in 2008 a staggering total of 50 million people switched off their lights in support of the occasion.1
images Opposite page Powerlines in the sky. Hanady Barjel. next page Left The Gum Tree, Hanady Barjel and Suja Samivel. Right Powerline. Hanady Barjel and Suja Samivel.
Some of the worlds largest companies decided to make the change to express their views on global warming, and as a result we saw significant changes in their products. One of the most recent changes was the newer ‘Greener’ range of Apple Macbooks, which have been designed using materials that are highly recyclable, free from harmful substances and chemicals as well as being more energy efficient. Customisations in these major areas are evident, but it is also in our every day life that we change our daily routines, and make amendments to our homes to do our part in bettering our world.
Many people install solar heating systems, to help in decreasing output of energy and water tanks that contribute to our struggle with the ongoing water crisis. We also customise of daily routines as a result of global warming. We take public transport to work, or car pool with fellow employees, we buy or re-use our green bags when we are shopping and we take shorter showers to reduce the waste of water. It is also simple things such as switching of a light when you’re not in the room, or turning off your computer when it’s not in use that all contribute to creating a greener future. Many of us have gotten to the point where we are making these minor changes to our lives and our routines subconsciously. We, as a society make these changes, whether they are deliberate or not, to better our life, and the world, to make for a better and greener future.
images The Whitered Tree. Hanady Barjel.
Laces Open Laces Closed Sneaker Customisation • by DAMIAN KRUPA
Everything seems to be getting revamped and improved; with dull, ordinary items on a shelf transforming into remarkable and unique artworks used as a means of signifying a particular identity or individuality. An especially popular avenue used to showcase this established sense of self includes footwear; especially sneakers. From cars to furniture, electronics and apparel, everything seems to be getting revamped and improved; with dull, ordinary items on a shelf transforming into remarkable and unique artworks used as a means of signifying aparticular identity of incomparable individuality. An especially popular avenue used to showcase this established sense of self includes footwear; especially sneakers. While the origins of footwear and even sneaker customisation, of course, cannot be dated explicitly, the 1980s may be credited with nourishing the increasing popularity of sneaker customisation thanks largely to its association within certain subcultures such as hip hop – where b-boys would often showcase their latest pair of customised kicks. Puma Clydes, the Adidas 3 Stripe and Converse All-Stars were amongst the initial sneakers favoured by those who customised their shoes. These basic sneaker styles proved to be the perfect blank canvas for their aspiring ideas.
Be aware that sneaker customisation is not limited to punk kids writing song quotes in an aggressive font on the side of their Chuck Taylors, as this is but one of the most primitive forms of customisation. The Adidas 3 Stripe sneaker is a classic example of footwear commonly exploited as a form of expression to portray a certain persona, lifestyle or culture. Bobbito C. Garcia points out a popular, and rather obvious, form of customisation with this particular brand of sneaker, with “people painting stripes to give their sneakers a new life”1 and thus combating the increasingly overbearing persuasions of consumerism and normalcy. The classic Adidas 3 stripe sneaker, made popular by hip hop legends Run-DMC, is notably iconic to shoe customisation thanks to its distinctive stripes, flat soul and laces. Shoe laces were a big aspect of sneaker customisation in the 1970s and 1980s, as trends for wider laces would overlap sneaker customisation from its niche into popular culture globally.
The quickest and simplest form of customisation would involve cleaning, stretching and replacing shoelaces to give an old sneaker a completely fresh and new look. With ranges of thickness and endless colours of laces available, anyone could inexpensively modify their sneakers and owners could make an individual statement simply through their shoe laces alone. Todays leading sneaker manufactures have introduced sneaker customisation on a whole new level by providing the consumer the option of customizing their sneakers interactively online. Converse One, Vans Customs,Nike ID, Pumaâ€™s Mongolian BBQ and even independent online urban fashion store StampdLa, all give individuals the opportunity to customise their shoes before purchasing them. The popularity of customising sneakers and the necessity for shoe individualisation became apparent to sneaker manufactures and as a result, they almost immediately began to cater for the market. Adicolor, the adidas customisation concept, was released in 1983. This concept saw Adidas provide only a blank white shoe with 6 colour markers, leaving the potential design and its character to be customised entirely by its owner. Adicolor was the first to encouraged the experimental use of colour in order to showcase personal expression and individuality.
images opposite page Damian Krupa Lost Identity of Sneaker
Customisation is essentially an attempt to break free from the norm, as well as mass produced culture, however apt elaboration reveals the true hypocrisy of it all. Consumers purchase an ordinary sneaker available to everyone who can afford it, which is then manipulated by the consumer to represent a personal representation of themselves. Regardless of this fact, the demand of massproduced customised footwear is strong, as seen through the success of Staple Design, a sneaker re-seller in New York City
specializing in selling reworked and customised sneakers. Staple design has established itself as a boutique for unique customised clothing and footwear that resells custom sneakers, and essentially, the identity associated with it.
Adicolor encouraged the experimental use of colour in order to showcase personal expression.
Sneakers no longer simply serve as protective and comfortable footwear but also as a public medium that enables and encourages self expression and individuality. TTK - a sneaker customizer and street artist - has gained international recognition for his customised sneakers. He acknowledges that the growth of sneaker art, and indeed his original style has influenced individuals on an globally. TTK states, â€œwhoever would have guessed some sneakers and some paint and some time would translate to, you no me spreading my name worldwideâ€?2 .
Sneaker customisation can most certainly be considered an art-form as graffiti and individual art styles are utilised to produce unique and practical artworks. As street artist turned sneaker customizer Andre Trenier points out “I can paint on a canvas but no one else is going to see it unless they come to your house…where as this is like a painting you can wear”3. Renowned graffiti artists such as Hash, Haze, Insa and Futura 2000 all have collaborated with Nike to produce shoes representing their identity and style as artists, though this unintentionally and ironically defeats the whole purpose of customisation – as an outlet for self expression of ones identity.
“I can paint on a canvas but no one else is going to see it unless they come to your house…where as this is like a painting you can wear”
images previous page Damian Krupa Colours Create. opposite page Damian Krupa The identity of 72 sneakers.
Sneaker customisation began innocently as an avenue for people to showcase their personality somewhere that could be viewed by everybody on something that could not be regulated or censored. Unsurprisingly, sneaker customisation has evolved through consumerism and mass production which has resulted in the activity inevitably loosing its original intention – to creatively modify sneakers in order to represent an identity. However, from your own additional drawings to the way you wear them (laces open, laces closed or no laces at all); customised sneakers still serve as an extension of your personality and as a representation of your character.
Only a small percentage of people in the world release themselves from such negative mindsets. Most of the people who’ve crossed the obstacle of being held back in life develop this just because their personality purely accommodates for this change. Negatively, some involuntarily change due to a near death experience or are faced with extreme poverty or pain. These negative experiences often lead to an epiphanic insight on life and its importance. Does life really need to be taken so seriously? Are we all too trapped in our routines of structure and beliefs that life will not continue if certain rules aren’t followed? Once we break free from these limiting beliefs can we truly live the life of fulfillment which we desire and deserve.
Human Behaviour •
by DAVID KATAGUE
But the society of today does not have to go through such negative experiences in order for them to take control. A lot of motivational companies have taken advantage of this and have created workshops and seminars to emulate those feelings of failure and lack of self worth. The general aim or goal in these seminars is to influence people to change or adapt and take control of different aspects in their lives, from family relationships, to financial abundance and physical / mental and spiritual health.
But what actually happens at these workshops, how do people gain momentum to destroy old habits of procrastination and self pity? Many of these seminars utilise a tool called ‘NLP’ in their training. NLP whether it be used either as a gimmick, or marketed as one of the most diverse tools you can learn, many people are hesitant of its capability to render any worth or usefulness. The word Neuro Linguistic Programming can be broken down to three distinct words: neuro1, linguistic and programming. The Oxford English Dictionary defines Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) as “a model of interpersonal communication chiefly concerned with the relationship between successful patterns of behavior and the subjective experiences (esp. patterns of thought)
underlying them” and “a system of alternative therapy based on this which seeks to educate people in selfawareness and effective communication, and to change their patterns of mental and emotional behavior”. images opposite page Thoughts of Knot David Katague 2009.
NLP was founded in the 1970s by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, as an effective method of psychological therapy, with the capability to remedy such problems like phobias, habit disorders, learning disorders, psychosomatic illnesses and depression. After such problems were so easily addressed, it was clear it could be used to increase to level of ones wellbeing and healthy bodily functions. It was later reengineered and promoted to be known as a ‘science of excellence’ which came from a study by Bandler based on modeling from therapeutic sessions of the family therapist Virginia Satir.
NLP has transformed over the years to become a lucrative industry, and so many different deviations of the original practice have been found in seminars / workshops, books and other print publications, recorded cd’s and tape sets, in the form of exercises and principles intended to help engage and influence one to adjust their habits and behaviours2. The standard of knowledge and experience a practitioner can have varies throughout the industry, which causes disagreement between who is capable of properly implementing NLP and who is only there for show. For example, if someone learns NLP but only grasps a few of the concepts from it say in this case just ‘Anchoring’ they then promote that they are NLP practitioners, whilst part of this is true, it is also misleading. Anchoring is just a small strand of the entire NLP composure.
It’s similar to the preconception that if a person purchase the Adobe Creative Suite, they’re instantly a Professional Graphic Designer.
“The standard of knowledge and experience a practitioner can have varies so much throughout the industry, which causes disagreement between who is capable of properly implementing.”
images opposite page Nerve Endings David Katague 2009.
Being highly criticized by the scientific community, there is no scientific evidence that NLP is actually capable of its outrageous claims. NLP pretends to be a science, but in fact is a pseudoscience, as the claims of changes caused are not from normal scientific methods. Since it is such a well known breakthrough in counseling method, being experimented, research was conducted and suggested many of its claims remain unproven and unjustified. NLP is considered by scientists as in the same league of counseling as hypnotism.
As the history of NLP is so controversial, how can one go without knowing an example of its worth. One of the worlds most famous and successful motivational speakers Anthony Robbins, the revolutionary who many motivational speakers now model from, utilises adapted methods of NLP in all of his seminars. Although his motivation seminars focus on creating a life of wealth, many people who attend first have to overcome a large amount of obstacles before they can become freed in their mind from all restrictions. There are three main techniques Robbins applies which are simple yet effective. The first being ‘Rapport’, involves matching, pacing and leading to establish a connection of rapport from one person to another, maintaining such rapport can be also done by matching and pacing nonverbal behaviour such as body posture, head position, hand gestures and also by matching the rhythm of the other through mirroring their breathing, pulse and tone of voice. This technique is effective in creating a connection of rapport during interviews, presentations and can also be used to an extent in telephone conversations.
Another frequently used technique is called ‘Anchoring’3 which is a process where one is required to recollect a particular state of mind and the response associated with such a state. Recollected responses may include unique visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory or gustatory stimulus. By replacing the previous stimulus with a new anchor, psychotherapists often anchor positive states like calmness and relaxation, or confidence when treating phobias and anxiety induced by public speaking.
images opposite page Brain Waves David Katague 2009.
These anchors are repeatedly conditioned to fully anchor into ones mindset. An experiment was conducted with monkeys where a monkeys pointing finger was articulated repeatedly over a thousand times each time a bell was rung. After the articulations, the bell was rung and the monkey’s pointing finger curled without the monkey in control of his/her own hand. In no particular order is the third called ‘Swish’, which is a technique used for reducing or removing unwanted habits. By disrupting the pattern of thought or ‘cue image’ which leads to the unwanted behaviour by replacing it with a
desired alternative, the habit can be completely cancelled by the brain. Swish can be similarly compared to Anchoring, and when used in conjunction can be even more successful, the difference between the two is Anchoring is physical state, whereas Swish is the visual state. The ‘Swish’ technique was first published by Bandler as one of the first techniques listed. Even though these techniques are not scientifically proven, one can feel free to try the listed techniques in everyday life for themselves. Richard Bandler still professes that the use of NLP is not therapy, nor is it about therapy4.It is about education and teaching people to have control over their own minds. NLP is a heavily discussed and overly used method of regaining control of the human mind, for so many different purposes.
Since the beginning of the human race we have had an urge to differentiate ourselves from one another. Even as early as Neolithic man in Eurasia, we were beginning to customise and differentiate ourselves by modifying our bodies. One of these forms of body modification is tattooing. There are several different methods of tattooing. The most common way that tattoos are applied today is through the use of a tattoo machine, commonly referred to as a tattoo gun. The tattoo gun injects pigment into the dermis (under layer) of the skin. As the wound heals the pigment from the tattoo ink becomes trapped in the dermis layer of skin and is permanently visible. Another way of tattooing the skin is a method practiced by those in the Middle East, as well as Africa, known as scarification. This method involves cutting large gashes into the skin, and then rubbing ash into the wounds. This technique creates a much more dramatic tattoo, as the skin often becomes raised as the wound heals.
Tattoo Art â€˘
by Matthew White
But why tattoo ourselves? In Neolithic times it is believed that tattoos were probably used therapeutically, used to treat ailments such as arthritis. Otzi the Iceman, who was found in the Otz
Valley in the Alps and is believed to have died around 3300BC, was found covered in 57 tattoos of various shapes and sizes. It is believed that these tattoos were for therapeutic reasons, as they had been placed over areas of the body such as kidneys and knee joints. Tattoos were also used to signify social status. For example in the Pilipino tribes of North Luzon, when a man had taken the head of an enemy warrior he was given a special body tattoo known as a â€˜chaklagâ€™. This is the same in gangs today, who use tattoos to signify their status and identity. Gang members will often have their name tattooed in large writing over their bodies to intimidate rival gangs and to identify themselves. Self-made tattoos such as teardrops can symbolise a number of things including the amount of time spent in prison, the number of men they have killed or the loss of a loved one, depending on how the tattoo has been depicted.
Because of this link between tattoos and criminality, tattoos are generally frowned-upon by mainstream society. However tattoos are beginning to become much more socially accepted. This is largely due to celebrity influence. Stars like Angelina Jolie, Britney Spears, Johnny Depp and David Beckham have helped bring tattoos past the stereotype of the bikie. The most recent Barbie doll release is a further testament to society’s acceptance of tattoos.’Totally Stylin’ Tattoo’s Barbie’ comes with a selection of tattoo stickers to decorate Barbie, as well as a stamper so owners can stamp Barbie or themselves with tattoos. While there has been much criticism of this product by many parents, stores have reported that the product has been massively successful, even selling out in a number of locations.
Because of this link between tattoos and criminality, tattoos are generally frowned-upon by mainstream society Many youth subcultures of today embrace the practice of tattooing. Many people involved in the hardcore/metal music scene choose to have all kinds of designs tattooed on themselves. At any concert, you will see people as young as seventeen sporting tattoos of roses, skulls and quotes, and this is widely accepted within this subculture. Not only is this a form of self-expression, but it is a way of creating one’s selfidentity and sense of belonging. In a world where the clothes we wear, the products we consume and the music we listen to reflect our identity to everyone around us, tattoos are just another means to self-expression.
Blake Ellis is the Bassist from the Screamo/Electro Band Atlanta Takes State. He has played in several bands, and has written a large amount of music. He got his first tattoo of a rose on his forearm in 2008 by a friend who had access to a tattoo machine. After
He designed and drew each individual tattoo himself his first tattoo, Blake wanted more. In mid 2008 he began to have tattoo designs drawn up for a full-length sleeve tattoo at Blacktown Tattoos. The tattoo has been worked on for over 6 months and has had the original rose tattoo incorporated into his design. The design he has chosen is Japanese inspired, and depicts a snake and tiger attacking each other. There is a swirl of patterns and shapes surrounding the creatures, and it is very artistic. The work is a labour of love for both Blake and the tattoo artist responsible for the design, who has asked Blake come back to the studio several times at no charge, just to fix up areas of the tattoo he was not satisfied with. Blake intends on adding to his tattoos, with another full sleeve tattoo to cover his other arm planned for the near future. Nick is the Synth Player from “Atlanta Takes State”. At a recent concert he was more than happy to show them off. Nick has a tattoo of a rose on his right arm, a shark and anchor on his left bicep and an octopus and pirateship on his lower abdomen. Each of these tattoos
Images Above Matthew White Nick and Blake from Atlanta Takes State have their share of tattoos
is of special significance to Nick, as he designed and drew each individual tattoo himself. He has studied graphic design at college and is currently completing his HSC. Like Neolithic man, people today strive to differentiate themselves by customising themselves. We as human beings have a primal need and urge to differentiate ourselves from one another. Whether it be through our clothes, haircut, piercings or tattoos,
it is all done in an attempt to create an identity for ourselves. As tattoos are becoming more accepted in mainstream society, they have become a more common way of customising oneself.
Above Matthew White Blake Ellis, Teddy & Tattoo
Above Matthew White Original rose Blake had tattooed by his friend, worked into his sleeve
Above Matthew White Blake chose the design from an existing Japanese tattoo and customised it
Above Matthew White Nick and SelfDesigned Rose Tattoo - after the show
Images Above Matthew White The latest tattoo Nick has designed, has yet to be filled in opposite page Matthew White Nickâ€™s bicep tattoo, which he designed himself
ENVIRONMENT Environment •
by NETANE SIUHENGALU
Throughout history, one thing has remained consistent: the ability of man to manipulate and shape the environment. This interaction with our surroundings has clearly marked significant periods of our history and will continue to do so in the years to come. The motivation for this can perhaps be split into three factors: the basic human instinct to survive; the need to express one’s self; and the overwhelming advancements of technology. These factors may be discussed critically or celebrated as symbols of human achievement.
Moving from location to location, early humans affected their surroundings in multiple ways. In a time when life was primitive, human expressionism emerged to show the creativity which lies within. There has always been a need to communicate an individual’s feelings and ideas. Cave paintings have been found all over the world that have given us an insight into our history. These were merely works of documentation and artistic pleasure at the time, but have become of great importance as historical artifacts. “Cave and rock paintings are inseparable from the 50,000-year-old Aboriginal society and culture. Aboriginal people did not develop a written language but communicated their religion, laws and history through song, poetry, painting and carving.”1 (2003)
Russian Marxist Georgi Plekhanov put forward some fascinating theories at the end of the nineteenth century. He explains that the art and belief structure of Australian Aborigines can only be understood as a product of their huntergatherer existence. “As long as primitive man remains a hunter, his tendency to imitation makes him, among other things, a painter and sculptor. The reason is evident. What does he need as a painter? Power of observation and deftness of hand. These are precisely the qualities which he also needs as a hunter. His artistic activity is therefore a manifestation of the very qualities which are evolved in him by the struggle for existence. When, with the transition to cattle-herding and agriculture, the conditions of his struggle for existence change, primitive man in large degree loses the tendency and ability for
painting which distinguished him in the hunting period”3 (353) Thus, attributes to adapt and interact with various surroundings have developed . In Aboriginal society, while some were regarded as having special painting skills, everyone was involved in hunting or gathering and all participated in communicating and expressing the stories and religion of that society.
There is a desire, not only to mark, but to connect with the earth
This early example of the powerful relationship between man and the land also shows the human need to be identified or ‘written’ in their environment. There is a desire, not only to mark, but to connect with the earth. This is after all, the entity that provides and sustains life. image opposite PAGE Netane Siuhengalu How we’ve shaped our environment had primitive beginnings.
Jump forward to the present day and we are presented with a thoroughly different world to that of prehistoric man. Arguably this is the result of human intellect and innovation as well as human ignorance and foolishness. The boom of globalisation, urbanisation and consumerism over the past few decades, hand in hand with significant technological advancement has caused numerous changes in society and the environment. Nonetheless, the need to express one’s self in this ever changing world has remained. New inventions and key movements such as the Industrial Revolution (18th19th centuries) would mean that the environment would now be sculpted in
a different way. The dominant species on the planet faced a new struggle for existence and has countered it through the gradual manipulation of agriculture, architecture and technology and the development of infrastructure. Our ability to modify our environment is unparalleled; however the motive is not always purely to survive. The more developed nations are part of a society that has blossomed out of the need to more comfortable; a society that consists of a visual and somewhat impulsive species. Around us are signs of how humans have solely shaped the environment out of pleasure: modern buildings, landscaping, technological paraphernalia, artistic installation as well as the wondrous structures of ancient civilisations. “…the core of landscape design, was first the creation of his own personal environment, the home; and expanding from this the adaptation of the habitat of the habitat, the region, the country, the ethnic groupings and regroupings, and finally and hopefully, the planet as a whole.”2 (321) However, the repercussions of human interaction with the environment have been as damaging as it has been rewarding. Surrounded by symbols of man’s creativity and ingenuity, the obviousness of a planet in dire trouble is present. Since the introduction of the twentieth century, industrialised man began to alter the agrarian balance and timing of nature upon a global scale, and in doing so bought about problems which he alone must solve. Man’s ideas were abstract and could only be fulfilled through existing materials and laws which were changeless.
“[Human expression] was already powerful enough to have largely reshaped the surface of the earth...”
“This element [human expression] was already powerful enough to have largely reshaped the surface of the earth, but when it ignored those laws, it did so at its peril. Violation manifested itself in ugliness… the fundamental human criterion from which all else stemmed was the preservation of the identity of the individual as a life force within a vast inanimate machine upon which it had come to depend.”2 (321)
image opposite PAGE Netane Siuhengalu The earth has been shaped according to human activity
On a more communal level, human expressionism has triggered avant garde movements and trends, but has also enforced the human need to be an individual with positive and negative consequences such as violence, vandalism and ruining the environment. Humans have a deep need to express their feelings, ideas and situation as we have seen from the activities of early man. Through our behaviour, our consumption, how we present ourselves and through expressive art forms, we construct our own identities in way that connects us to the rest of the world. Life has and perhaps always will be the individual’s quest to find themselves and make their mark. “…we mark it [earth], not to say it’s ours, but to connect to it – to say we belong to it as much as it belongs to us. That the world and us are one.”4 (2009) Is this not the ultimate reason for man’s desperate attempt to redeem himself and combat global warming, pollution and the forces that threaten our planet?
Evolution â€˘ by Kieran mackenzie
Most of us customise our lives in order to shape and give meaning to our own identity. Whether that is for cultural reasons, personal, instinctive or otherwise, as long as we are physically able to alter our lives in some way, we will. If the reasons being are to make life easier, more safe, exciting or more challenging, customisation will always play a part in these outcomes. Evolution is natureâ€™s way of customising all things. However, has man taken evolution into its own hands? Are we standing in the way of what nature intended? We create life, take it away, and alter living things to make them evolve in the ways that we want. Can this be justified? What else have we taken away from nature and made our own? What else has or is evolving in ways not primarily meant for human beings? Throughout history, as far back as the origins of the earth will take us, animals, humans, and the vast array of all things living, have been subjected to evolution. Whether it be the spade-like snow shoe that is now the hoof of the arctic reindeer, or the adaptive skin colours of the Amazonian camellias, customisation or evolution has played an extensive and in many cases vital role for living things all around the world. Some say this is all due to the work of a higher power, though many also believe a natural presence is the cause of such an occurrence. Darwinâ€™s theory of evolution and his writings on the origins of species is what is believed to be the
reason behind this natural display of the growth of existence and its ongoing fight for survival. Natural selection, genetic drift, instinct, laws of variation are all driving mechanisms that make up and back up the theory of evolution, a process where customisation and nature function together for the survival and development of all living species. The first and most important feature of evolution is natural selection. Natural selection is a process causing heritable traits that are helpful for survival and reproduction to become more common in a population, and causing harmful traits to become rarer. This occurs because individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to reproduce, so that more individuals in the next generation inherit these helpful traits1. Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random changes in traits, and the natural selection of those variants that are best-suited for their environment will remain. Text books, studies, and writings can all
images opposite page Kieran MacKenzie Photo of James Duignan (Epping, Sydney ) 2009. next page Kieran MacKenzie (North Rocks, Sydney ) 2009.
show distinctive substantiation of this process happening throughout time, but many people don’t know that this development is continuing every day of our lives. In useful and in harmful ways, we are all subjecting our bodies and our lives for the adaption’s future generations may hold. Take smoking for example. The legal act of taking what nature has provided, rolling it in paper, and then inhaling the toxic fumes it emits when we burn it. Although Mother Nature bestowed upon us this poisonous substance we call tobacco, was it natures intention for us to use it in ways that will harm our bodies to the extent of it killing us? I don’t think so. There are many natural substances that are toxic that we will go nowhere near because we know it will kill us. However, we also know and it is a fact that smoking tobacco will kill us. The question is not why we do this but what will be the effects on future generations to come? There are approximately 1.3 billion smokers alive today and of those, half will eventually die directly because of tobacco. Tobacco causes 50% more deaths than HIV/ AIDS does2. So how will our bodies adapt? Will our lungs form a barrier against the harmful toxins that enter them? Or will they change from their sponge like texture to a more hard and rigid surface, as to not allow for the absorption of such toxins to enter our bloodstreams? This cannot be discovered over 10, 50 or even 1000 years. If we are still around millions of years down the track, maybe our bodies will have found a way to combat such a substance. However at the rate technology and science is expanding, by the time we have to wait around to see if anything has changed, we might be able to simply change it ourselves. We might be able to implant lungs of steel. We’ll be unstoppable. Tobacco smoke, tear gas, bring it on! Is science taking the natural out of natural selection? We have already started with
food. Giving it specific traits to survive longer or in different ways. Soy beans can now be resistant to herbicides, we’ve taken the enzyme out of tomatoes that make them rot, allowing for a much longer life span, and we’ve even modified rice to contain more vitamin A3. Now who says this is wrong or right? These are all beneficial characteristics to obtain. Maybe the question is where does it stop? Genetically modified food began to emerge into the mainstream in 1990. If they have come this far in 20 years, what will be the capabilities in 100? Many people do believe that it is wrong to take over Mother Nature’s job, but many people are benefitting from the positive outcomes this process creates. We can’t stop now. Heading back to the fundamentals of evolution, brings to the stage the second major feature of evolution which is genetic drift. This is an independent process that produces random changes in the frequency of traits in a population. Genetic drift results from the role probability plays in whether a given trait will be passed on as individuals survive and reproduce.
We will become the new Mother Nature, a hugely important role that takes on the part of ultimately deciding the fate of human beings
Though the changes produced in any one generation by drift and selection are small, differences accumulate with each subsequent generation and can, over time, cause substantial changes in the organisms. This process can culminate in the emergence of new species. Indeed, the similarities between organisms suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor through this process of gradual divergence.
images this/oppisite page Kieran MacKenzie Photos of Patrick Mcdonnell (North Rocks, Sydney) 2009.
We can relate the elements and features of evolution to many things in human life. Our bodies and our way of living are under â€œconstructionâ€? everyday, so to speak. Slowly functioning away is the work of evolution and its components. This could all come to a stop though. Evolution and natural selection may not even play a role in the future of humans. Technology may be so advanced that the artificial selection of traits and other desired features of our bodies may be very much achievable. Natural selection remains one of the cornerstones of modern biology, and as we know was introduced by Charles Darwin in his groundbreaking 1859 book On the Origin of Species in which natural selection was described by analogy to artificial selection, a process by which animals with traits considered desirable by human breeders are systematically favored for reproduction. The concept of natural selection was originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of heredity; at the time of Darwinâ€™s writing, nothing was known of modern genetics. The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subsequent discoveries in classical and molecular genetics is termed the modern evolutionary synthesis. Natural selection remains the primary explanation for adaptive evolution.
There is more to an individual then their outer being - Individuals have an ‘inner self ’ that is an essential part of who they are. Over the years there has been a rise of individualism – an underlying competition to create a self-identity. Through this need of self-identity we have come to use the form of commodities as building blocks to creating who we are. We change; we adapt, accessories, add and transform so that we have an identity in this world. The notion of not being good enough stares us in the face but this ideology hasn’t always been around. After the industrial revolution many things changed, this included how we lived and perceived ourselves. The massproduction of commodities have brought a new change in the 20th century a change in which we now call a consumer culture “The equating of personal happiness with the purchasing of material possession and consumption”4 (Struken, Lisa, 199).
Advertising and Consumer Culture • by JULIA BRADLEY
Advertising has much to blame for this ideology of being inadequate. It depicts the social values and ideas of what the great life should be. Advertising promises the consumer that we too can be apart of this great life. Their solution is one of their many products whether it being perfume, a bag, jewellery or a luxury car. “All advertisements speak the
language of transformation. They tell consumers that their products will change their lives”.4 (Strucken, Lisa 205) Today we live in a world that is surrounded by brand names, names that promise you an identity. Instead of buying just a bag we buy the Gucci bag – we rather purchase products for their aesthetic design then their use of functionality. Everyone knows what an iPod is and sadly enough nearly everyone has gone out and bought one. Without the name, the iPod would be nothing to us, it would just be a normal MP3 player. But because it was created by Apple we find it attractive and we desire it. The product becomes another building block to accomplish our need for self-identity. The iPod portrays the look of, young, up to date, wealthy and ‘cool’. “Products, like people have personalities… The personality of a product is an amalgam of many things – its name, its packaging, its price, the style of its advertising, and, above all, the nature of the product itself”. 3 (Shudson, Michael 5)
Advertising is a business in where it manipulates us and tricks us into purchasing their product. It is said “Ads perform the very contradictory work of convincing many different consumers that a mass-produced product will make them unique and different from others”4 (Strucken, Lisa, 205). Most of consumers in advertising are not part of the ads. Take perfume ad’s, they show an extremely beautiful woman, with flawless skin and a body most women would die for. She seductively sprays the perfume on her neck and then a handsome man, with blue eyes, toned body comes up to her, desiring her.
Advertising has redefined what is important in our social life and what is important to us
Nothing like that happens in real life, but the viewer is sitting at home wishing and wanting to be that women – the advertisement is centring on the consumers insecurities. Therefore the next day the consumer goes out and buys that perfume in order to cure their feelings of doubt and they’re thought of not being good enough.
Advertising has redefined what is important in our social life and what is important to us. Everything we are is made up of what we purchase, but the product itself is an empty piece of object, what gives the person the identity is the meaning, the brand and personality that advertisement has created for that product. Without advertising the product is nothing and becomes nothing to the consumer. We cannot escape the notion of being inadequate because at every turn we are surrounded by advertisement.
In this post-modern era many artist have emerged and have been influenced by consumer culture and advertising. Barbara Kruger is a post-modernist and feminist American artist who addresses a wide range of issues related to gender, power, consumerism and the media. Her work is mainly made up of words and pictures. The effect she uses is impacting as it uses words that change the usual meaning of the images. Kruger explains the reason to why she has chosen to work in this particular medium. “ I work with pictures and words because they have the ability to determine who we are, what we want to be and what we have become”1 (Linker 42)
How we perceive ourselves is socially controlled
Image page no. 96 Julia Bradley “No Identity” Right Page Julia Bradley “Apple Identity”
Her work ‘unitled (buy me I’ll change your life) 1984’ is a provoking piece. It’s telling the consumer/viewer that identity and how we perceive ourselves is socially controlled – it shows that in a way advertising has control over our decision and our self-identity. Through many of her pieces we are faced with a provoking thought on social life, consumerism and who we are in this world.
We are defined by what products we have, what clothes we wear and what car we drive
Advertising controls our ‘inner-self ’ that part that makes up who we are. We are defined by what products we have, what clothes we wear and what car we drive – it is these material possessions that we hope will give us that desire of individualism and most of all our identity in this world. We will always change, adapt, accessories, add and transform as long as advertising is apart of our society.
Shoe customisation • by Casey schofield
time In today’s society of the look good feel good generation we are, now more drawn to products that fulfill our aesthetic needs. Although beauty plays a big part when purchasing a product manufacturers often forget the important value of comfort and choice and this is when shoe customisation takes a hold. What a person wears on their feet can show a lot about one’s identity, including ones occupation, temperament, hobbies, attitudes and groups for which one belongs. By wearing particular shoes, an individual demonstrates that they care about and want to present part of their identity through their feet. Shoes can show a lot about a person’s life. Shoe manufacturers also create identity through continually customising products and the company’s identity too. Although many people enjoy their common mass-produced shoes, customers feel that the shoes are still not meeting their needs whether it is for fit or comfort; Consequently, creating the need for a mass customised object that will answer the customer’s needs. The need to customise the product becomes apparent as customisation results in a better-designed object which the customer can display with pride. The problem with many shoes today is that due to mass production of large quantities of shoes, they become
too generic and do not always fit the customers’ needs, which in turn is part of their identity. Hence comes the need in the market place for a company that can customise shoes to a person’s identity. These companies come under the identities of online shopping websites like Nike ‘ID program’, Zazzle, and ‘mi’ adidas which are just a few of the custom mass produced products found online for shoes. “The main reason for dissatisfaction”…. [Is the failure to…] “Respond to individual needs regarding the desired ideal product of individual customers” 1 (586). Although style is thought to be a large reason for shoe customisation, a study in 1998 called the outsize study showed that other problems were outlined as more important. According to this study, fit is the most important issue, followed by quality and design…”1 (586).
Not only are the exterior of the shoes are customised but also through small and unnoticeable alterations such as the use of party feet, inner soles and heel grips.
images opposite page Customised Converse shoe Casey Schofield
There are three main needs for customisation of shoes and these include: a) Style: which means colour and cuts. This is where most of the individualism can be seen. As previously mentioned “examples in footwear include the ‘ID program’ of Nike where customers can select between various styling and colour options for otherwise standard models.”1 (589). b) Fit and comfort: which is seen as the most important trait in a shoe due to the differences in foot shape and size. Customisation of this kind can be seen in the ‘mi adidas’ sports program. c) Functionality: customising in terms of functionality such as cushioning and innersoles. Companies that make this available include mi adidas.
Fit is the most important issue followed by quality and design
While customising shoes is seen as a way to alter comfort, the emotional effects of shoe customisation can be seen to be just as important. Shoe customisation affects consumers as It Is a means of expressing one’s identity: the social groups they belong to and what they do for a living. It can show a persons rank in society and even help to enhance a persons capabilities (such as sprint shoes for running). Without this kind of evolution in footwear the shoe would still be primitive in function. Thus by creating the ability for consumers to create their own ideal
footwear, consumers feel as though they are part of the design process. The customer may now be more likely to customise their footwear again. However, are these billion dollar companies really trying to help the customer find the perfect fit or is this a ploy to sell more shoes? Throughout the process of creating your own shoe and accessorising it, there is a tendency to forget that companies create operations that allow customisation in order to sell more expensive and disposable shoes. The ‘humble shoes’ are now thought of as an item of fewer value and seen as a product that can be chucked away in the next few fashion seasons. Long gone are the days when shoes were bought as a prime way to get around without damaging your feet on rough terrain. Shoes are now mainly customised to what’s in fashion. Companies aim to create powerful selling strategies in order to persuade consumers into buying another pair of overpriced shoes that quite frankly you could do without. Thus, by including the customer in the design process, a positive view of the brand is created, In turn, customers fell like they are the people creating the shoes not the companies. Therefore the shoe customisation industry leans heavily towards creating identities and ways that the consumer can create identities for shoes, for without personal contribution shoes are just another product of minimal emotional value. There is an intimacy established when one can create their own shoe. In conclusion, customisation allows identity to be created through shoes, in terms of the shoes representing who a person is. From their personality, occupation, followings/ groups, personal or orthopedic needs and fashion culture. Through the
customisation of shoes in the Nike ID program, ‘mi’ adidas program and Zazzle online shoe store, it has become apparent that customers crave for a designed product that they can mould
Customers can select between various styling and colour options for otherwise standard models. images opposite page Customised heel Casey Schofield next page: customised sneaker Casey Schofield
themselves. Through customisation, a person can feel important when the product meets their needs, whether it be through slight measurement changes between the left and right foot, customising the pattern on the sole or the colouring of the tongue of a shoe. Customisation of shoes clearly represents a person’s identity, as the shoe is a reflection of who and how a person lives in the every day world.
TAT TOO TA BOO What’s in a tattoo? •
by ALEXANDRA DUNFORD
A hot knife slicing through your skin. The tapping of the gun. Sweat. Blood. Tears. Doesn’t sound appealing does it? Then why do thousands of people worldwide, every day, endure customising their bodies in such a way? Is it a way to stand out from the crowd? Or is it to fit in?
Tattooing involves injecting coloured pigment into the skin, the dermis, which is the layer of connective tissue underlying the epidermis. This injection of pigment is permanent, may fade slightly, but will remain their for the rest of the individuals life. Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink or ashes. Some cultures still continue this practice and also create tattooed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones.1 Traditional Japanese tattoos (Horimono) are still “hand-poked,” meaning, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, handmade and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel. This method is known as tebori. The most common method of tattooing in today’s times is the electric tattoo
machine (Tattoo Gun) which inserts ink into the skin via a group of needles. The unit then rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to 150 times a second. Body customisation in the form of tattoo’s has a long history and is widely practiced. Tattoo’s are the worlds current cultural craze and the interest is a subsection of the larger cultural and historical significance of body customisation. There are many reasons behind why people customise their bodies in such a way. One reason is for decorative and spiritual uses. Tattooing the skin with decorative and spiritual uses serve each individual differently. Tattoos can serve as marks of rank and status within a community as tattooing has been used historically to denote both high class segments of society and to indicate criminal elements.
In the Polynesian and Maori cultures, higher castes and royalty wore more elaborate skin art than commoners. Traditional Samoan tattooing included patterning to represent family histories.2
Tattoos are also used by Forensic Pathologists in identifying bodies if they have been burned, putrefied or mutilated beyond recognition. Tattoos can also serve as symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, provide protection and demonstrate pledges of love. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures, as tattoos may also show how a person feels about a relative or about their country.
images opposite page Religious Illustration Charcoal and lead illustration photoshopped onto an arm. images Following Pages Andre Cuevas Photograph of Religious tattoo on entire back. Jameson Ahsai Photograph of tattoo on arm extended illustrations and photoshopped.
Tattooing can also be done to fit in. In tribal societies where tattooing was done ritually, it often represented a part of the transition from childhood to adulthood and everyone went through this process. Another reason as to why people customise their bodies with tattoos is for identification. People have also been forcibly tattooed for various reasons. The well known example is the identification system for Jews in concentration camps during the Holocaust, where a tattoo of a triangle was made on their chests. However, identification can also be chosen as a way of standing out from the rest of society. Western culture is currently experiencing a shift from away from the idea that only sailors,
bikers and roughnecks get tattooed. An example of identification via tattooing can be seen in the body art of the Yakuza gangsters in Japan. A certain amount of conformity is part of the cultural norm, and these gang members not only signify their defiance of societal standards, but prove their devotion and commitment to their own isolated group with their full-body tattooing. Tattooing is also done as an aesthetic alteration of the body. Some skin markings are seen as signs of beauty whereas others symbolize the gaining of power or prestige. In North Africa, many tribes tattooed tiny groupings of dots on womenâ€™s arms or faces, a ritual to ward of evil influences.3 When usedcosmetically, the permanent colours provided by tattooing can hide or neutralizing skin discolorations. Tattoos can also enhance the colour, shape as well as texture of eyebrows, lips as well as eye make up. So, why do they do it? This is a question that has as many variations as there are tattoos and tattooed people throughout the world. Some of the reasons can seem contradictory, but, they are personal and hold significant meaning for the wearer. The history of tattoos and body customisation has existed for over five thousand years and is still a cultural craze. Perhaps in the near future tattoos will be a â€˜thingâ€™ of the past? Maybe everyone will be identified and coded at birth with a tattoo? Until then, tattooing will continue being a historical significance to millions worldwide.
PL A STIC
Surgical Barbie •
by Laura Aghajanian
For many decades Barbie, as a fashion icon has caused women world wide to feel the need to buy and be like plastic. Barbie is renowned for her long legs and perfect smile. Making her the envy of all woman and adored by many men. This savvy businesswoman has dominated her market and inspired girls of all ages to work towards looking their best. However negative media and some societal groups oppose Barbie. Claiming that she sets impossible standards of plastic perfection that is unrealistic for women to achieve. The effects of this can be seen in the women who have gone to extreme lengths to emulate this fashion icon. Examples include the infamous Cindy Jackson, followed by Sarah Burge. Barbie is now celebrating 50 years of fantasy, fashion, glamour and perfection. She is said to make her debut while celebrating in a New York fashion show. Barbie designer outfits will be showcased and worn by lifesized Barbies to paying tribute to the various styles and trends previously worn by the popular icon. Diane Von Furstenburg, president for the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) and sponsor of Barbies fashion show believes that, “Barbie represents a confident and independent woman with an amazing ability to have fun while remaining glamorous”.11 (Tomko, Heather) This demonstrates the image and personality that Barbie is being marketed as having.
Mattel’s vision statement, “More than a doll”12 (Weissman, 88) is marketing Barbie as having the means to captivate her devoted fans. This is due to her remarkable ability, “to adapt, to improve and to expand”8 (Peter, Luliana) her iconic identity to suit varying culture and fashion trends. Society groups have named, “Barbie as a standard…of beauty, perfection, and ideology”.12 (Weissman, 88) Renowned author MG Lord explain how this has happened as he states that, “Barbie may be the most potent icon in American culture in the late twentieth century. She is the archetypical female figure, something upon which young girls and women project their idealised selves”.12 (Weissman, 88) It is these opinions and views that strongly express that Barbie is to be imitated by woman in society. This has caused woman to see Barbie as encapsulating the ideal picture of beauty, fun and success, and not to forget independence. Despite these fans there have also been groups of disgusted feminist women who reject
this desire to fall under the spell of Barbie and her image of perfection. A prime example of this is when Aqua, a European band released a song “Barbie Girl” in 1998, which projected a satirical; upbeat and catchy tune that is a parody of Barbie’s flawless and sparkling reputation tainted by “sexual and unsavoury themes”.1 (Astrchan, James.B) Lyrics such as “I’m a Barbie girl, in the Barbie World. Life in plastic, it’s fantastic! … I’m a blond bimbo girl, in the fantasy world.”2 (“Barbie Girl: Aqua Lyircs) Degrade the doll and as a result, it devalues the “life-sized” Barbie’s. images opposite page Laura Aghajanian Cheerleader Barbie: Girl dressing up as her favourite Barbie.
Despite negative media publicity, research has demonstrated that these views may not be far off depicting the reality of Barbie’s affect on society. It has been proven that each year girls and women are feeling a stronger need to change their appearance. Pressure is forced upon them to live up to Barbie’s perfect image. Girls that once just played with Barbie now desire to be Barbie. “At a time when women are already comparing themselves to models seen in magazines and going to extreme lengths - plastic surgery, eating disorders - to try to obtain this level of perfection, Mattel is only going to make women more self–critical as they push Barbies image on women with already low self-esteem.”11 (Tomko, Heather) This suggests that women and girls basing their physical image on such unrealistic attributes have the potential to cause great harm to their bodies. Regardless of the goals and aspirations of Barbie’s image of perfection, it has been scientifically proven that the proportions of her body are impossible to achieve. This research has not deterred some women from still trying to emulate this iconic figure. Women have and will continue to alter themselves and their identity, taking extreme measures in the pursuit of improving their looks and hoping to
boast their self- esteem. It is believed to be a direct influence of the perfection portrayed by their beloved model and doll Barbie. A recent trend has shown an increase in the number of women and now men that are under pressure to replicate the plastic perfection illustrated by Barbie. Their stories display a journey of physical change and alterations to which they are customising their looks to become a living Barbie. Cindy Jackson has been defined as the first international ‘life–sized’ Barbie. Even at the age of 53, she admitted that she never outgrew her obsession with becoming Barbie. “I think a lot of little 6-year-old girls or younger are looking at that doll and thinking, ‘I want to be her.’ And it’s something they grow out of… I looked at a Barbie doll when I was 6 and said, ‘This is what I want to look like.’ ”6 (Leung, Rebecca) After 31 operations over a 14 year span, Cindy’s dream to become Barbie were finally coming true. Jackson claims that she, “...
“Life in plastic, it’s fantastic!” invented the extreme makeover when I began to have extensive cosmetic surgery 20 years ago, after inheriting several thousand pounds from my father. I started having my upper and lower eyelids reshaped to open my eyes, liposuction on my knees and collagen injections.”10 (Stonehouse, Cheryl) The procedures changed every inch of her body. This became an addiction for Jackson. Consequently, she was dubbed ‘The living Barbie Doll’. Not only has she become well known for her looks but also the
number of surgeries completed on her body. This has made her a “pioneering case study” for cosmetic surgery 10 (Stonehouse, Cheryl).
images opposite page Laura Aghajanian Barbie and a dressed up ‘life-sized’ Barbie composited together.
Like all old Barbies, Jackson had been replaced by a newer more ‘up market’ version. Making way for Britain’s version of a “Real life Barbie”, Sarah Burge. With 27 cosmetic surgery procedures, this former Bunny Girl is now an international TV ambassador for cosmetic surgery. She is now a plastic surgeon consultant as well as a member of the society of Permanent Cosmetic Professionals group.9 (Slade, Hazel) This real life Barbie states I have been, “…nipped, tucked and sucked to within an inch of my life, but I’m proud to be a walking, talking Barbie doll”. 7 (Mackay, Julie) Burge has undergone procedures such as silicon breast implants, face lift, nose jobs, botox and dermabrasion just to name a few 3 (Clarke, Natalie). Unlike Jackson, Burge has claimed that she “…has always been a confident, good-looking girl… that has never really needed any plastic surgery done.” 5 (Johnston, Jenny) She has always felt a desire to look better. It cost 100,000 pounds in total for initial major
“...never really needed any plastic surgery done.” cosmetic surgery customising Burge’s whole body in many procedures. It now only takes 20,000 pounds a year to maintain her looks through beauty treatments and procedures 4 (Glynn, Richard). The obsession to customise her looks and identity to resemble those of Barbie, started when she was in
beauty school in her late twenties. After getting hair extensions done a colleague told her she looked like Barbie. “I took it as a compliment. I have always thought Barbie looks fantastic - she has a great body and lovely features. I guess it is the reason why I’ve had so much plastic surgery because I wanted to look like her! ”4 (Glynn, Richard) With nicknames from family members such as Barbie Burge, Barbie or Plastic Fantastic, Burge recognises that, “…like Barbie, she’s mostly plastic!” 5 (Johnston, Jenny) At 54 years old she will continue to have surgery to prevent her from looking her age. With men whistling and approaching her in bars saying, “You look just like a Barbie doll.” She does not take offence, but rather she adores the attention, “…it has made me feel fantastic and it is such a boost when people think I look 20 or 30 years old.”4 (Glynn, Richard) Burge claims that people mostly respond to her in a positive way, making comments that she is the “ideal woman”. Leaving only a small group of people that have sent nasty emails declaring that she looked, “disgusting and was setting a bad example to younger girls.”7 (Mackay, Julie) These malicious statements do not seem to faze Burger as she gives more weight to the flattery of, “being mistaken for someone else. That someone has endless legs, flawless skin and flaxen hair. She also happens to be about 12 inches tall. For the past few years I’ve been known as the reallife Barbie. And I’m probably more plastic than she is.”9 (Slade, Hazel) It is becoming more apparent over time that Barbie is influencing woman to alter their body through means of surgery in order to become more like her. The trend to emulate this fantastic plastic doll continues as more “lifesized” human dolls emerge.
In today’s day and age, society is discovering new and inventive ways to customise themselves to suit their own identity. They accomplish this customisation through manipulation of their physical appearance, the use of their possessions or materialistic items and the manner in which they conduct themselves at certain times. All these types of customisation create a personal identity. One of these means of customisation that plays a major part in ones identity is appearance. (Especially in the last 20 years) Obviously throughout time, fashion, hairstyles and what one wears, distinguishes them in a hierarchy, group or a certain social order. This is going to be the case inevitably throughout a human social structure.
Body Customisation • by Andrew diab
Sometimes we have to sit back and really think about what we are doing to ourselves? From the boom of mass media, advertising and fast food chains in the seventies and eighties till now, obesity and anorexia has emerged a major problem. As a result, we are now more educated in relation to knowing what is healthy and what isn’t; the media plays an active role in influencing the public in regards to health. But there seems to be a fine line between being healthy and going to a harmful extreme. In the past, a larger man was considered to be wealthy, logically, the wealthier they are, the more they can afford to
eat, the more they eat, the more weight they gain. In historical paintings the so called size 16 woman with curves was considered a symbol of beauty. This was the type of imagery and attitude dominant within societies at the time. Time has changed; with the media, multimillion dollar companies and advertisements controlling what our society should desire to look like. No matter how hard we try, it is inevitable that we are influenced on how we present our physical bodies. Every day being surrounded by flawless thin female models or tall lean cut male models has driven society to reach their own physical peak of perfection. In some people’s cases, this is done in any means necessary, even if it puts their own body in harm’s way. From advancements in medical technology, cosmetic surgery has been the resolution for poor self esteem, especially for females. Some can argue that surgery can increase the health of
your body, like in a case of liposuction. It is clear to see that the majority of physical enhancements have no benefit, what so ever. Larger breasts, tighter skin, all just to customise their identity to their liking. Strutting their plastic bodies down the streets of Hollywood, struggling to put a smile on from all the Botox. All they are doing is submitting their self confidence to the judgment of the media and putting their body through potential health risks. Why is it really necessary to take these risks? images opposite page Andrew Diab 12 images of 6 body types, overlayed eachother to create a customised body
One epidemic I am starting to recognise, especially in my generation of males, is the amount of ‘Gym Junkies’. Walking about with their oversized tattooed bodies. Everyone would like to see themselves in a healthy light, and fair enough if doing gym is the way to go, but for the same reasons as cosmetic surgery, the media and the level of social acceptance has pressured and influenced men to pump iron religiously. Some males see it as a release and become addicted to the point where they overload their bodies with supplements, and go as far as jumping on the ‘Gear’(steroids). It is medically proven that most of these supplements can damage our vital organs and influence aggressive behaviour and mood swings. When is enough, really enough?
When is enough, really enough?
Society has gone as far as customising their own children before they are born. No one has the right to play God, so why should it change now? Controlling the genetics for the physical attributes of a child is taken advantage of our technologies for the wrong reasons.
It defeats the concept of having offspring as an image of yourself, when you go to customise your child’s gender, eye & hair colour. If a couple are having trouble conceiving a child then using IBF to bless them with one is acceptable, as long as the child’s attributes are its own naturally. When do extreme types of customisation, like this, become ethically wrong? Most of these extreme cases of unhealthy physical customisations are brought upon us mentally. People forget the power of mental scares when we are
children. These childhood experiences shape the rest of our lives. So being bullied as a child or unloved by close ones can easily result in erratic and unhealthy physical changes. We just have to learn how to deal with the pain and not put ourselves at risk.
When do extreme types of customisation, like this, become ethically wrong?
images opposite page Andrew Diab 10 images overlayed eachother during a gym exercise called bench
We seem to forget as a society from the creation of man, we are all made equal yet unique. All of us look and behave differently to the person next to us. Unfortunately the power of love is what drives people to customise what they want. To feel loved by a social group, to feel loved by the opposite sex and to feel love from themselves. No matter what anything or anyone thinks about you, you are beautiful in your own way. There is always someone out there that is made for you. As long as you love yourself and respect each other, we will all live happier and healthier lives.
vanity beauty OR
by Jessica Demian
Can cosmetics really hide who you truly are? Can they cover up or disguise your true feelings and create a barrier from your true inner self? Can they really enhance your physical image and allow you to feel beautiful?
Are cosmetics just a universal idea that when someone uses cosmetics, the products will remove your blemishes and create an image of you which you no longer loathe? Arguably, cosmetics are used not just to enhance beauty, but also to portray a particular image of an individual. Often this is in order to relate to the people around them. Others use cosmetics as a barrier between their own insecurities about their image, as well as a means of blending in with society’s stereotypical cultures or ‘cliques’ as some like to call it. As an individual in the 21st century, acceptance is seen as a major concern. It is said that those who are insecure, use cosmetics as a form of change from their normality, or an escape from their inner selves. Using these various products allows the individual to transform an existing character to a modified character in order to fit in, while also allowing them to boost their confidence and their self-esteem. Vanity transforms these ordinary
individuals into modified clones of society’s expectations and social classes. It could be debated that a person losses individuality through this and is left with more ordinary attributes than those intended. Could this be because the confidence and acceptance they once strived for are artificial? Negatively, cosmetics are also used as a form of ‘flight’, where excess make up is closely linked to particular sub-cultures such as ‘gothic’ or ‘emo’. These ‘cliques’ use make-up to hide from themselves and create a barrier between themselves and the people around them. In using cosmetics, these individuals attempt to become different from the rest. These groups ironically use these tools of visual enhancement, which are universal, to create an image of diverse culture. However, by attempting to separate themselves from the rest of the crowd they become one with those of similar taste. Is this like the form of “acceptance” mentioned previously?
As stated in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, where a journal was written about cosmetics, it informs us of results which show that women who presented themselves wearing cosmetics, are seen as healthier and more confident then the women who choose to present themselves without cosmetics. Also, it shows that women were awarded more prestigious job offers and greater earning potential then women who don’t present themselves while wearing make up1. Based on these findings, cosmetics are now seen as mandatory attributes to a woman in today’s society, as it allows for people to see them in a different light, basically in a more positive way.
opposite page Jessica Demian Photography of Magdalena, 2009 Next page Jessica Demian Photography of Magdalena, 2009
Despite all the negative issues associated with the use of cosmetics, when used sensibly, and for the intentions in which it was created, they can enhance a female’s facial features and create a sense of elegance. It can allow one to feel beauty and grace as well as allowing them to acquire a confidence. This helps heighten their self confidence and helps maintain personal contentment. When used in the right way, cosmetics can help accentuate a female’s greatest features; that are of course on her face. Using cosmetics has become a part of everyday culture. There are many who will not leave home without applying a layer of make-up in order to feel comfortable. Considering the above factors, although cosmetics are used for enhancing beauty, these days they are mainly used for the wrong reasons in today’s world. So is it vanity or beauty?
Women who presented themselves wearing cosmetics, are seen as healthier and more confident
There is always a reason for why people like particular products; it is part of our individualism and this ultimately shapes our identity consciously and subconsciously. Everyone’s taste in fashion, music, cars, toys, and even cigarettes differ. Mobile phones have formed to create another category in which people can pick and choose according to their personal style. The mobile phone has become more than just a form of communication, but also an object of identification. It is clear that many people recognise that identity is shaped by expressing themselves. Trends rise and fall and this is dictated by consumers who are always on the look-out for the newest and most luxurious products.
iPhone Individuality • by JIMIN PARK
Customisation is one way of expressing yourself and displaying your personality. This involves modifying or building according to personal specifications or preference. As an activity, customisation has spread and increased in intensity; from cars to hair, from shoes to mobile phones. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of customisation is its promotion of individuality. In the midst of technological creations and advancements the customisable mobile phone has emerged. A phone’s cover case, icons and background can be altered to suit the owner’s style. A new wave of customisable products that are so ductile and comprehensive have hit the mobile phone industry
According to Personal and Ubiquitous Computing journal in 2001, the mobile phone emerged as a charismatic technology compared to other mobile technologies (laptop and car phone) and as a leading technology, in just a few years, has appropriated 11% of total telephone traffic. It has dragged its widespread presence and amount of use from the workplace to the domestic sphere. Traditionally an individual’s social identity has been interlinked with their location within physical space. The revolution in mobile communication has partially replaced the old locationbased paradigm with the new social network-based paradigm which is a ‘second space’ in which individuals are placed while they are engaged
with their mobile phones. Now it is developing into more than just a social identity, to become a personal identity. The mobile phone has become a fashion item that is often used to enforce an individual’s style. In the past, people use to decorate their phone with stickers, cover case and other physical accessories. However it didn’t fully satisfy consumers due to the limited products available.
How you would you customise? Now that you can customise whatever you like. There are various types of cover cases with many designs, as well as the possibility of creating your own. If you’ve ever thought about getting a Pink iPhone for yourself, there is a private company, who can give your iPhone a custom paint job with your preferred colour. Furthermore you can attach wide lens to the camera, mirror-film screen protector, sport armband and many other accessories are available in the market, to make your phone more practical or simply as forms of decoration. images This page iPhone by Jimin Park, Burwood
You can also customise the applications; theme, icons and background image. Using online theme maker, you can modify and style different elements of iPhone themes such as wallpaper, dock and status bar. After you are done customising, click on the ‘compile theme’ button and your iPhone theme is all ready for use. So how is it possible to customise applications? With the iPhone’s initial release, the open source community
accomplished an amazing feat that caused considerable controversy within Apple Inc.: the community designed a free, open source compiler and tool chain for building iPhone applications. It was deployed over the air community distribution repository, and built a notably large development base for â€œcustomisedâ€? devices, such as iPhone. Ironically, it was due to consumers not manufacturers that the device became even more customisable. Users themselves have drawn out a means of expressing character and personality from a massproduced product that would originally impose conformity on consumers. Consequently, we can se the importance of identity in processing a unique individual style. iPhone customisation is relatively new so one can only assume that it will continue to grow and develop as part of a society that is fixated on customisation.
images This page Customised iPhone by Jimin Park, Burwood
Life Online • by PIERRE ISSA
Its funny to think, that in a world populated by billions, the individual still struggles to break from common trends that bind them to their peers. Whether it be as part of a social group, university, sporting team or friendship circle the individual eternally strives to stamp their position as being uniquely different from the person standing next to them.
Essentially we all occupy the same space; but it is how we occupy it that gives us our unique identity. This in effect gives birth to the concept of customisation, and through it we seemingly find new and inventive ways to give ourselves some character - a type of character that is meant to determine how the world perceives us. From our physical appearance, to the people we associate with and everything in between, we are forever searching for ways around becoming just another number, and/or statistic. Conformity has never been a crowd favourite but with so many trying to break its boundaries, it becomes inevitable for common trends to appear, and soon enough we find ourselves embracing the very thing we stand to fight. As if it weren’t hard enough trying to find our place in the real world, the emergence of the online world has opened even more trap-doors
and provided us with more ways of customisation to run ourselves in circles. Whilst we may be given another chance or “second life” to re-create ourselves in the online world, we are still given the same opportunity and the same tools as those we oppose. We can create for ourselves a wonderful world of online aliases and our own impressively crazy avatars, we can talk trash or play it cool, hell – we can even die and press a button to restart and re-live our lives. We are virtually invincible (excuse the pun)… but at the end of the day our real name is still Joseph (our friends call us Joe to – yes you guessed it – separate us from the millions of other Josephs). We still live at home with our parents, working fulltime in a dead end job and well we have just about exhausted every avenue of online customisation in order to break from conformity but we’re still just plain old Joe.
And for those who still maintain their social life, well of course we can customise that too by dressing in fluro, wearing sunnies indoors and baggy singlets, taking photos with our best buddies (vodka cruisers) and partying hard in an attempt to be different. Funny isn’t it? Our friends. The ones we hang out with? The ones wearing the same top you bought last week, or the shoes which look oh, so similar. Think about it. Not so different now are you?
...be yourself and embrace the identity you were given - that’s what makes you different.
It doesn’t end there though don’t worry we can still customise a huge number of things, like our car, our body, our hair, our computers, our ringtones, our emotions and even our behaviour, because surely nobody else has ever thought of that. image opposite page Pinar Cildiroglu Tools of cyber space, where you can always amend, go back, or simply start again if you go wrong.
Customisation in order to create for oneself a unique identity has driven society and culture into the ground – truly the only way to be an individual in today’s day and age is to be yourself and embrace the identity you were given, that’s how you came to be – that’s what makes you different. That and of course your finger prints, until we find a way to customise those too – because you know, its another way to change who you are – that is after all the way to be different.
Who is in Control? 08-13 PINAR CILDIROGLU 1. Curtis P. Haugtvedt, Karen A. Machleit, Richard Yalch. (eds.) ‘Online Product Customization: Factors Investigating the Product and Process’. Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in the Virtual World : New Jersey : Routledge : 2005 : 207-219 2. “Customize” AskOxford: Oxford Online Dictionary 10 Mar 2009. <http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ customize?view=uk> 3. Kase, Larina. “Stand Out. Be Different and Get Better Re sults” The Confident Leader: How the Most Successful People Go from Effective to Exceptional : New Jersey : McGraw Hill Professional : 2008 : Chapter 14 : 209 4. Marshall, Tim & Michael Erlhoff (eds). “Gender design.” Design Dictionary: Perspectives on Design Terminology. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag AG, 2008. 189-190. (Part 7 – G) 5. Neuburg, Matt. ‘Customization’. AppleScript: The Definitive Guide: Sebastopol : O’Reilly Media Inc : 2003 : 9-10 6. Snyder, C. R, Shane J. Lopez, ‘Online Product Customisation’, Handbook of Positive Psychology : New York : Oxford University Press : 2005 : 400
Fashion Goes Green 14-21 YANA MOKMARGANA
1. Stewart, Tabori, & Chang. Sewing Green. United States, Ace Books, 2009 2. Birnbaum, David. Birnbaums. Global Guide To Winning the Great Garment War. Hong Kong, Bantam, 2000 3. Fasanella, Kathleen. The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Sewn Product Manufacturing. New York, Minotaur 1998 4. Harder J, Frances. Fashion For Porfit. New York, Soho Press, 2000
Transform Now 22-31 MICHELLE RUSLI
1. Darlington, Roger. “How to be Healthy”, Roger Darlington website (2008, 30 Apr). 4 Mar 2009 <http://www.rogerdarlington.co.uk/healthy.html> 2. Lloyd, Peter. “World of Today: Japanese becoming more health conscious”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) (2005, 15 Apr), 10 Mar 2009 <http://www.abc.net.au/ worldtoday/content/2005/s134 6113.htm>
3. Food Navigator USA : Breaking News on Food & Beverage Development - North America. “Food shopping becomes healthier.” News Headlines: Financial and Industry page (2004, 29 Nov). 02 Mar 2009. <http://www. foodnavigatorusa.com/Financial-Industry/Food-shoppingbecomes-healthier> 4. Paige, Waehner. “Simple Ways to Live a Healthy Lifestyle”. About.com : Exercise & Health page (2005,14 Sep), 04 Mar 2009. <http://exercise.about.com/od/healthin juries/a/healthylifestyl.htm> 5. Schmidt, Tracy S. “Is the Wii Really Good for Your Health?” Time : Biz & Tech page (2007, 01 Feb). 05 Mar 2009. <http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1584697,00.html> 6. Robinson, Mary. “Well Naturally Product: Vitality Brands”. Ripp-off Report: Cross-Border Scams category (2007, 14 Nov) 10 Mar 2009 <http://www.ripoffreport.com/ reports/0/284/RipOff0284780.htm>
Global Warming 46-53
Tattooed Culture 70-79
1. 60 Earth Hour. “Thank you for taking part in Earth Hour 2009”. Earth Hour Australia. (2009. 28 Mar). <http://www.earthhourau.org>
1. Design Boom. “History of Tattoos: A Brief History of Tattoos” History Page. n.d. 14 Mar 2009 <http://www. designboom.com/history/tattoo_history.html>
2. Home Improvement. “What is a Low-Flow Showerhead?” Home Tips.com. n.d. 01 Apr 2009. <http://www. hometips.com/cs-protected/guides/showerheads/ whatis_lowflow.html>
2. The Writers Write Lifestyle Network. “Mattel Launches Tattoos Barbie Doll” Shopping Blog.com page (2009, 07 Mar). 11 Mar 2009. <http://www.shoppingblog.com/cgi-bin/ sblog.pl?sblog=307095>
3. Howden, Daniel. “Deforestation: The Hidden Cause of Global Warming”. The Independent. (2007, 14 May). <http:// www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/ deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html> 4. NRDC Natural Resources Defence Council. “Global Warming Basics: What it is, how it’s caused, and what needs to be done to stop it”. Issues: Global Warming page (2005, 18 Oct). <http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/f101.asp>
Yakuza Noir 32-39 VIENN CHLOE SAN MIGUEL 1. DeMello, Margo. “Yakuza”. Encyclopaedia of Body Adornment : Santa Barbara : Greenwood : 2007 : 295
Laces Open, Laces Closed 54-61 DAMIAN KRUPA
2. Hill, Peter B. E. “The Modern Yakuza: Structure and Organisation - Tattoos”. The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State. New York : Oxford University Press : 2006 : 86-89
1. “Custom Sneaker Designs” Tangible Thoughts (2004). 6 Apr. 2009. <http://www.tangiblethoughts.com/janeinfo/ profile.html>
3. “Identity” AskOxford: Oxford Online Dictionary. n.d. 10 Mar 2009. <http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ customize?view=uk>
2. Just For Kicks. Dir. Thibaut De Longeville, Lisa Leone. DVD. Image Entertainment, 2005.
Shaping the Environment 80-85 NETANE SIUHENGALU
1. Allan, Susan. “A major discovery of Aboriginal cave paintings in Australia.” World Socialist Website. (2003, 05 Aug) 05 Apr. 2009. <http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/aug2003/ rock-a05.shtml> 2. Jellicoe, Susan., G. Jellicoe. The Landscape of Man. Revised edition. Singapore : CS Graphics : 1987 3. Plekhanov, Georgi. “Primitive Man”. Selected Philosophical Works. Volume 5 : Moscow : Progress Publishers : 1976 : 358 4. Seymour, Aaron. “Article feedback.” Basecamphq. (2009) 04 Apr 2009. <http://customise.basecamphq.com/projects/2999642/posts/21040584/comments#33881734>
4. “The Hamar”. BBC. n.d. 15 Mar 2009. <http://www.bbc. co.uk/tribe/tribes/hamar/index.shtml>
3. “Simply Sneakers” TTK @ Muse Sneaker Art Gallery. (2008, 24 Mar). 5 Apr 2009 <http://www.simplysneakers. com/ttk-muse-sneaker-art-gallery/>
Evolution Revolution 86-93
Fashion and Women 40-45
Take Control? 62-69
1. Darwin, Charles. Origin of species by means of natural selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London : John Murray : 1859
1. Kellner, Douglas. “Madonna, Fashion, and Image”. Media Culture : New York : Routledge : 2003 : 263
1. Dilts, Robert. Applications of Neuro-linguistic Programming: Capitola : Meta Publications :1983
2. “Kiwi fashion designer: Karen Walker”. Tourism New Zealand. n.d. 14 Mar 2009. <http://www.newzealand.com/ travel/media/backgrounders/fashion/fashion_karenwalker_backgrounder.cfm>
2. Dilts, Robert. Roots of Neuro-linguistic Programming: Capitola : Meta Publications :1983
3. Lichfield, John. “Sarkozy leads global tributes to Saint Laurent”. The Independent. (2008, 3 Jun). 14 Mar 2009. <http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/news/ sarkozy-leads-global-tributes-to-saint-laurent-838887.html> 4. “Rei Kawakubo”. 3Yen: Japanese Fashion (2007, 22 May). 14 Mar 2009 <http://fashion.3yen.com/2007-05-22/reikawakubo/>
3. “Neuro” AskOxford: Oxford Online Dictionary n.d. 10 Mar 2009. <http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/ neuro?view=uk> 4. O’Connor, Joseph., J. Seymour. Introducing NeuroLinguistic Programming: The New Psychology of Personal Excellence : London : Mandala : 1990
2. Ruse, Michael. Genetically Modified Foods: Debating Biotechnology. New York :Prometheus Books : 2002 3. The Cancer Council: New South Wales. “Smoking in Australia – Statistics”. Preventing Cancer (2007). 05 Apr 2009 <http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/editorial. asp?pageid=371>
Improve Me 94-99 JULIA BRADLEY 1. Linker, Kate. Love For Sale: The Words and Pictures of Barbara Kruger. New York : Harry N Abrams : 1990
2. Rider, Shawn. “Barbara Kruger: Signs of Postmodernity.”. WDP: Art and Design in a Friendly, Collaborative Environment (1999). 29 Apr 2009. <http://www.wdog.com/rider/ writings/real_kruger.htm>. 3. Shudson, Michael. Advertising: The Uneasy Persuasion: Its Dubious Impact on American Society. London : Routledge : 1993 4. Sturken, Marita., Cartwright, L. “Consumer Culture and the Manufacturing of Desire.” Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture : London : Oxford University Press : 2001.
One Step at a Time
1. Miller, Frank. T., Melanie Muller. A New Marketing Approach to Mass Communication : London : 2004 : 586
Tattoo or Taboo 108-113 ALEXANDRA DUNFORD
1. Caplan, Jane. Written on the Body: The Tattoo in European and AmericanHhistory : London : Reaktion : 2000
5. Johnston, Jenny. “I’m the Human Barbie Doll”. (2006, 23 Dec). Daily Mail. 12 Mar 2009 <http://www.reallifebarbie.com> 6. Leung, Rebecca. “Becoming Barbie: Living Dolls: Real Life Couple Are Models of Plastic Perfection” CBS News. Online. (2004, 6 Aug) 12 Mar 2009. <http://cbsnews.com/ stories/2004/07/29/48hours/main632909.shtml>
2. Truch, Anna, “Section 4 : “Mobile Communication and the New Intimacy” Exploring the implications for social identity of the new sociology of the mobile phone. Centre for the Study of Mobile, Technology, and Culture, UK : Budapest : Online Submission, 2004. <http://www. socialfuturesobservatory.co.uk/pdf_download/mobilecommunicationandthenewintimacy.pdf>
7. Mackay, Julie. “I’m the real life Barbie” Take 5 Real Life : ACP Magazines Australia : 21 Jun 2007.
3. Zdziarski, Jonathan. IPhone Open Application Development : Sebastopol : O’Reilly : 2008
8. Peter, Luliana. “1959 to 2009: Celebrating 50 years with Barbie”. Killeen Daily Hearld. Online. (2009, 21 Feb). 12 Mar 2009 <http://www.kdhnews.com/news/story.aspx?s=31474> 9. Slade, Hazel. “So Proud to be the real life Barbie”. Town Crier Today : Cambridge Press (2007, 4 Jan). 14 Mar, 2009. <http://www.reallifebarbie.com/Local_press.jpg> 10. Stonehouse, Cheryl. “I Spent £20,000 To Look Like Bardot”. Daily Express. Online. (2008, 25 Nov) 12 Mar 2009 <http://www.express.co.uk/features/view/72658> 11. Tomko, Heather. “Barbie brings plastic perfection to fashion”. The Tartan : (2009, 02 Feb). 12 Mar 2009 <http://www.thetartan.org/2009/2/2/forum/barbie> 12. Weissman, Kristin. N. “Product of the Imagination”. Barbie: The Icon, the Image, the Ideal: an Analytical Interpretation of the Barbie Doll in Popular Culture. UniversalPublishers : 1999 : 88
Life’s to Short to be Small
2. Mifflin, Margot. Bodies of Subversion: A Secret History of Women and Tattoos : New York : Juno Books : 2000
3. Miller, Jean-Chris. The Body Art Book: A Complete, Illustrated Guide to Tattoos, Piercings, and Other Body Modifications : New York : Berkley Publishing Group : 1997
Personal Opinion. Written by Andrew Diab. 2009. Reference: N/A
Fantastic as Plastic
Vanity or Beauty
1. Astrachan, James B. “Court calls Mattel’s Copyright Suit Frivolous”. Bnet Business Publications : (2004, 2 Jul) 14 Mar 2009. <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4183/ is_20040702/ai_n10062674>
1. Rebecca Nash., et al. “Cosmetics: They Influence More Than Caucasian Female Facial Attractiveness.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Vol. 36 :(2006, 30 Mar) : 493-504. 09 May 2009. <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118619992/issue?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0>
2. “Barbie Girl: Aqua lyrics”. AZ Lyrics.com (2000). 02 Mar 2009.<http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/aqua/ barbiegirl.html> 3. Clarke, Natalie. “The £½m Barbie: The woman who’s spent 20 years in search of plastic perfection”. Mail Online. (2008, 31 Oct). 14 Mar 2009. <http://www.dailymail.com.uk/ female/article-1082213/The--m-Barbie-The-woman-whosspent-20-years-search.html> 4. Glynn, Richard. “100,000 pounds worth of surgery made me a real-life Barbie!” New You Magazine. Online. (2007, 28 Sep). 11 Mar 2009. <www.reallifebarbie.com>
iPhone Individuality 132-137 JI MIN PARK
1. Leopoldina Fortunati, “The Mobile Phone: An Identity on the Move” Association for Computing Machinery. Vol. 5 : London : Springer-Verlag : 2001 : 85-98. <http://portal.acm. org/citation.cfm?id=593591.593593>
Welcome to the Good Life 138-141 PIERRE ISSA Personal Opinion. Written by Pierre Issa. 2009. Reference: N/A
identityof course is that so purpose
the value of oFten with it comes
RICHARD R. GRANT
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