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N I B O SIR R -JOHNSTON KNOX

The Clipper 70 fleet has raised the bar. The boats are much faster than the previous fleet and provide a challenge to the crews that can only be compared with all professionally manned boats. The success of the Clipper Race has been nothing short of incredible; not just for us but also for those who dared and achieved so much, especially those who started with little or no knowledge of the sea and have finished as experienced sailors. The training programme, based on the practical need to make everyone safe at sea has, for so many people, been the bedrock of this success and has now trained almost 3,000 people and collectively the boats have raced more than three million miles. How much sailing experience you already have or what qualifications you may have already achieved is immaterial. If you are an experienced sailor some of this may seem a little elementary but we make everyone do it with one aim in mind – safety. All Clipper Race crew do the full training so that they use the same techniques, orders and descriptions, which avoids unnecessary and possibly dangerous mistakes.

When we first started the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race back in 1996 my overriding ambition was to make the sea accessible to people from as many walks of life as possible. Since that first edition the race has grown beyond all belief but that ambition still remains today.

It is imperative that you study this manual and take part in the training programme in the sequence we have laid out. If you miss any part of it, fail to return the requested forms or obtain the necessary insurance, visas or inoculations you are jeopardising your berth for the race. Like everything in life, it is the more difficult challenges that bring the greatest rewards, both in experience and satisfaction. The Clipper Race provides those challenges, be it in the wide range of weather conditions across the world’s oceans, to learning how to run, maintain and race a thoroughbred ocean racing yacht. Since 1996 more than 3,000 people have now dared and achieved a life-endorsing goal. While learning the skills that make an accomplished sailor they have seen the planet at its most raw and enjoyed some of the more exotic and exciting ports of the world, in the company of others with a similar outlook on life.

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I hope you enjoy your time on the yacht, learning sailing and meeting your fellow crew members, who will soon become your family and the characters of your stories, which will forever remind you of the time when you decided cruising through life wasn’t enough. When you wanted more and started the race of your life. Make no mistake there is a lot for you to learn and understand and you need to have a good general understanding if you are going to take your place as an efficient and safe team member. Good seamanship will make your passage that much better and that much more enjoyable and the essence of good seamanship is safety.

We have one very simple philosophy - finish the race by saying, “That’s the best thing I have done with my life.” I hope you will add, “So far,” because then I know we have truly widened your horizons. Welcome to the team.

Sir Robin Knox-Johnston CBE RD*

Chairman, Clipper Ventures PLC

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WELCOME

CONTACT US

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CLIPPER RACE HQ Granary and Bakery Building, Royal Clarence Marina, Weevil Lane, Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 1FX UK Tel: +44 (0) 23 9252 6000 Fax: +44 (0) 23 9252 6252 Email: info@clipper-ventures.com

This manual will help you prepare for your challenge of a lifetime, both in your pre-race training and during the race itself. It includes an overview of the Clipper Race Training programme and essential paperwork you must complete before you arrive. It covers what to expect when you arrive for training and information on where to find local amenities you may require, whether you are training in the UK or Australia.

CLIPPER RACE AUSTRALIA Suite 533, Level 5, 203-233 New South Head Road, Edgecliff, NSW 2027, Australia Tel: +61 (0) 2 9363 2020 Email: Australia@clipper-ventures.com

FOLLOW US Clipper Ventures PLC, Unit 1 A, Granary & Bakery, Royal Clarence Marina, Weevil Lane, Gosport PO12 1FX. Tel: +44(0)23 9252 6000 Fax: +44 (0)23 9252 6252 Email: info@clipper-ventures.com

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GET CONNECTED Facebook/clipperroundtheworld Twitter/clipperrace Youtube/clipperrtw Instagram/clipperrace Live Stream/clipperraceteam

Insta

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KEY CONTACTS CREW Crew Manager

Carol Blyth

cblyth@clipper-ventures.com

Crew Coordinator

Jan Hodgkinson

jhodgkinson@clipper-ventures.com

Crew Support

Lydia Weir-Blankenstein lweirblankenstein@clipper-ventures.com

Crew Support

Lizzie Bailey

lbailey@clipper-ventures.com

Head of Training

Thea George

tgeorge@clipper-ventures.com

Training Coordinator

Dawn Miller

dmiller@clipper-ventures.com

Chief Instructor UK

Ben Bowley

bbowley@clipper-ventures.com

Chief Instructor Australia

Jim Dobie

jdobie@clipper-ventures.com

TRAINING

ACCOUNTS Financial Controller

Janice Beesley jbeesley@clipper-ventures.com

AUSTRALIA Managing Director Australia

Kirsty Whyte,

kwhyte@clipper-ventures.com

Accounts and Business Support

Catherine Wells

cwells@clipper-ventures.com

Digital Media Manager

Paul Hankey

phankey@clipper-ventures.com

Press Officer

Marina Thomas

press@clipper-ventures.com

Media Coordinator

Amy Martindale

amartindale@clipper-ventures.com

Race Office Manager (Logistics and crew clothing)

Rob Carter

rcarter@clipper-ventures.com

Race Manager

TBC

Race Director

Justin Taylor

jtaylor@clipper-ventures.com

Assistant Race Director

Mark Light

mlight@clipper-ventures.com

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MILESTONE DATES September 2013

Level 1 training starts

8 March 2014

Level 2 training starts

11 July 2014

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Party

12 July 2014

Clipper 2013-14 Race Finish, St Katharine Docks, London

1 October 2014

Level 3 training starts

10 January 2015

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Brief London

25 April 2015

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Allocation, Portsmouth Guildhall, UK

6 May 2015

Level 4 training starts

[provisional, dates may change]

COMMUNICATIONS

RACE OFFICE

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E C A R E L B A T E TIM

LEG 1

LEG 4

LEG 7

UNITED KINGDOM – EUROPE - SOUTH AMERICA

WESTERN AUSTRALIA – AUSTRALIA – EASTERN AUSTRALIA

WEST COAST USA – PANAMA –
EAST COAST USA

Race 1: United Kingdom – European port. Distance: 730 miles. Duration: Around 5 days.

Race 5: Western Australian port – Australian port. Distance: 3,110 miles. Duration: Around 20 days.

Race 10: West Coast USA – Panama. Distance: 3,329 miles. Duration: Around 24 days.

Race 2: European port – South America Distance: 4,900 miles. Duration: Around 28 days.

Race 6: – Australian port Eastern Australian port. Distance: 1,150 miles. Duration: Around 8 days.

Race 11: Panama – East Coast USA. Distance: 1,800 miles. Duration: Around 14 days.

LEG 2

LEG 5

LEG 8

SOUTH AMERICA – SOUTH AFRICA

EASTERN AUSTRALIA – ASIA – CHINA

EAST COAST USA – DERRY-LONDONDERRY – EUROPE – UK

Race 3: South America – South African port. Distance: 3,390 miles. Duration: Around 18 days.

Race 7: Eastern Australian port – Asia Distance: 4,820 miles. Duration: Around 33 days. Race 8: Asia – Qingdao. Distance: 2,580 miles. Duration: Around 20 days.

40,000 miles of ocean racing – the world’s longest yacht race. 09

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Please note, this route and associated very approximate timings are based on the Clipper 13-14 Race route and are subject to change. They should not be used for anything other than rough planning and definitely not as a basis for booking flights. As race start, finish and stopover ports are confirmed the Race Office will issue updated port dates. Please also remember yachts have destinations not arrival times. We will issue timings with estimated arrival windows based on our experience of running round the world yacht races but even then it should be noted that ultimately Mother Nature is in charge.

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LEG 3

LEG 6

SOUTH AFRICA – WESTERN AUSTRALIA

CHINA – WEST COAST USA

Race 4: South African port – Western Australian port. Distance: 4,750 miles. Duration: Around 23 days.

Race 12: East Coast USA – Derry-Londonderry Distance: 2,850 miles. Duration: Around 13 days. Race 13: Derry-Londonderry Northern European port. Distance: 770 miles. Duration: Around 3 days. Race 14: Northern European port – United Kingdom Distance: 250 miles. Duration: Around 24 hours.

Race 9: Qingdao – Californian port. Distance: 5,680 miles. Duration: Around 33 days.

Route based on Clipper 13-14 Race. Race route and destinations are subject to change.

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IMPORTANT ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS Before you begin your training please ensure you complete and return to Clipper Race HQ:

Medical Report form

Onshore Contact Details/ Next of Kin form

Crew Biography form

Colour photocopy of the photo page of your passport

Confirmation of your insurance policy

Passports

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Bring your passport with you to Level 1 training as you may enter foreign waters during this course. Please ensure you have sent us a colour copy of the photo page of your passport before you come for training. Your passport must be valid for the duration of your time on the race and for at least six months after the end of your final leg, with enough blank pages for immigration purposes. Some countries require full pages for immigration documentation. If you have to renew or change your passport for any reason, please advise us and forward us a new colour copy of the photo page as soon as possible. Crew members with dual nationality: please advise us as to which of your passports you will be travelling on during the race. Please send us colour copies of both passports.

Credit Card Payments Please note that any payments by credit card incur a 1% administration charge. (Debit cards do not incur any charge). We do not accept American Express.

Visas Contact Details If you change any of your contact details, including your email address, please be sure to notify us as soon as possible. The majority of our correspondence is via email. Please advise us if you are not receiving emails from us including the monthly newsletter or if your email is not working Add the following address to your address book: info@clipperventuresnews.com

Payments

Berth Fees can be paid in monthly instalments. Insurance for crew living outside the UK should be made in a single payment. For payment enquires contact Financial Controller Janice Beesley jbeesley@clipper–ventures.com.

Bank Transfers Crew living outside the UK paying by bank transfer need to be aware of the possibility of high bank charges being added by your bank and also being charged handling fees by an intermediary bank. If you wish to cut down on these charges by paying quarterly in advance, then please contact the Accounts Team. The bank details for Clipper Ventures sterling (GBP) account is listed on your payment plan/standing order. Please note that we also have four foreign currency accounts: US$, Singapore$, Euro and Aus$. Details are available on request accounts@clipper-ventures.com. 11

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The Clipper 2015-16 Race will visit several countries that have entry visa requirements, for example the USA, Australia and China. It will be your responsibility to obtain the appropriate visa BEFORE you start the race. If you do not have the correct paperwork you will not be allowed to sail. We will require a copy of any visas that you have obtained for the race for our records. Where a US visa is required it will be a B2 Visa. An ESTA is NOT sufficient for the race. Visas for China can only be applied for three months before you plan to enter the country. For this reason the Clipper Race Office in Singapore will organise applications for Chinese visas for round the world crew members and those joining the race more than three months in advance of our arrival in China. Please be aware this may take four or five days and you will not be able to travel outside Singapore during this time as your passport will be required for the application process. Updated information regarding visa requirements will be emailed on a regular basis and will also be included in issues of Clipper Crew News.

Medical Report Form Please see the form on page 16. This must be completed and all sections signed by you and your doctor and returned to us. Note that the form must be fully completed and returned to the office before we can formally book you onto training courses. If you are injured or ill during the training and the race you will be required to get this form completed again by your doctor.

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T N A T R O IMP Vaccinations

There are a number of vaccinations you will need before you can take part in the race. To find out what they are and where you can get them you should talk to your doctor or local surgery. Alternatively, visit www.netdoctor.co.uk or www.masta.org. The validity period for inoculations varies from a few months to ten years so it is important to ensure all your boosters, such as tetanus, are up to date. Malaria is not particularly rife in any countries that the Clipper 2015-16 Race is likely to visit. However, if you are planning to travel within a country before or after your leg of the race, particularly to the more rural areas, you may wish to consider taking anti-malarial drugs. Again, your doctor will be able to advise you. The main vaccines you should have are: • Typhoid • Hepatitis A

Onshore Contact Information Please see form on page 20. This form must also be completed and returned to us prior to booking your training. In the event of an emergency or serious incident one or both of your chosen contacts WILL be informed, therefore it is important to take this into consideration when nominating them. Please ensure that your contacts can speak good English.

• Yellow Fever – recommended for most countries but is a prerequisite for all crew participating in leg 2 (from Brazil to South Africa). If you are participating in this leg you will need to provide us with a copy of your Yellow Fever vaccination certificate and will also need to carry it with you on the race to present to South African immigration authorities on arrival. Yellow Fever certificates are valid for a period of ten years commencing from ten days after the date of vaccination or, in the case of re-vaccination within such period of ten years, from the date of re-vaccination. Any non-South African citizen arriving in the Republic of South Africa from infected areas without a valid Yellow Fever vaccination certificate will be a given a choice to: • be kept in quarantine for a period of six days

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• Doctor and engineer (vocational skills) Neither the skippers or crew have a choice in which team they are allocated to, however if practically possible, keeping the teams fair, we may look at what team or skipper preference you have stated.

Before you begin your training

After Crew Allocation – team preparation and additional sailing

Please ensure that all the relevant forms (Medical Report Form, Onshore Contact Form, Crew Biography) have been completed and returned to Clipper HQ, along with a colour copy of the photo page of your passport, and that your insurance cover has been arranged. A minimum of £2,000 needs to have been paid towards your berth fee before the commencement of your Level 1 training and a minimum of £3,000 before your Level 2.

Adding extra legs If you would like to add further legs of the race to those you have already booked the first step is to contact the crew management team in the office and find out whether there are spaces available on the leg you wish to add. If there is a waiting list it is worth putting your name down as places sometimes become available as other crew members’ circumstances change. When a place becomes available we will send you copies of the back two pages of the crew contract to complete. Once you have posted the originals back to us, we will then process the change – sending you a confirmation invoice and a revised payment plan. You can scan and email those back to us and we will make the change. We will ask for a hard copy later.

• be vaccinated at their own cost

As you can imagine, allocating more than 780 crew to fourteen race teams is a huge logistical task and we have to make sure we achieve the best possible balance of crew across each of the teams.

• be vaccinated at their own cost

• Age and Sex

See form on pages 21-22. It is the job of our in-house Communications team to promote the race around the world and your help is vital. Please complete the form, giving as much detail as possible and return this to the Communications team.

Communication with crew

• be kept in quarantine for a period of six days

• Sailing ability, and number of legs

• Personality

• be sent back immediately to their port of embarkation

A South African citizen arriving in the country from an infected area without a valid Yellow Fever vaccination certificate has the following options:

The overriding aim is to make the allocation of crew across all boats as fair and even as practically possible taking into account the following:

Crew Biography Questionnaire

• Diphtheria • Polio

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Your Crew Contract stipulates your contractual time commitments with regard to your pre-race training and changeover dates in port when you are joining and leaving the yacht. You may also have some additional opportunities during the run up to race start which will allow you to spend more time on the water and help your team prepare for the race. These are not mandatory but it’s worth remembering that the teams that do better in the race are those that put in the time and effort before the start gun is fired.

Post crew allocation From Crew Allocation, Saturday 25 April 2015, onwards the majority of communication from the Clipper Race Office will be channeled through your skipper and boat secretary. Feedback from past crews tells us that the most effective way for you to get information is through your own boat systems and we will be using this line of communication far more frequently. At Crew Allocation you will begin to lay the foundations for your race campaign, boat organisation and crew roles such as boat secretary, chief victualler etc. The Race Office will pass the majority of communications through these channels. This helps to strengthen team spirit, build team reliance and strong communication throughout the boat – all vital attributes when racing.

Team building Once you discover which team you will be racing with at Crew Allocation it is likely that your skipper will wish to organise a weekend crew bonding event. This is usually arranged by one of your crew and, although not everyone will be able to attend, it is a great opportunity to get to know those people in your team that you haven’t yet sailed with.

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PRE-RACE Pre-race preparations In the run up to the race start a one-week period will be set aside at our UK Race HQ and a further week at the Race Start location for skippers and crew to prepare their yachts so they are race ready on start day. This involves putting in all the finishing and personal touches as well as carrying out the essential routine maintenance that will ensure everything is in optimum working order on the start line. Your skipper will coordinate crew attendance during these weeks as having all 50 people in your team turn up at the same time will be counter-productive!

Pre-start delivery race There is likely to be a final training race from our headquarters in Portsmouth Harbour to the host port for the race start. This will usually last approximately five days and is a great opportunity to get more time on board your boat and to try out a few ‘go faster’ tricks. It will be up to your race skipper to coordinate which of your team will be on board however it is preferable for Leg 1 crew to have first refusal as they will be the ones heading out on start day. In reality not all Leg 1 crew will be able to take part in this delivery race so places are often available for crew who are participating in later legs.

MEDICAL REPORT FORM Full Name (crew member)

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PART A - Notes on Fitness (To be completed by crew member) Please state whether any of the following relate to you

Medical Practitioner Contact Details Name Address

Yes

No

During the five years prior to the proposed commencement of cover, have you received or been referred for any treatment surgery, investigations or follow-ups at any hospital, surgery or clinic for any of the following medical condition(s): Asthma requiring inpatient treatment, bronchitis, any other lung or respiratory condition, cancer, any growth or form of malignancy, diabetes

Phone number

To take part in the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race it is necessary for you to have a good level of health and fitness. The below form is to act as a factual report about your health and medical history.

mellitus, - epilepsy or fits, - any kidney or bladder disorder, any mental or psychological condition; or any other medical condition that is ongoing or from which you have suffered symptoms requiring inpatient treatment? Have you ever had cardiovascular problems, or other heart condition; hypertension or any cerebrovascular problems that have occurred at anytime prior to the proposed commencement of cover and/or any journey? Have you ever been diagnosed with a terminal condition?

Please note that this form needs to be completed and signed by yourself and your GP, and returned to us before you book your Level 1 training course.

Are you aware of any medical condition which could reasonably

Please ensure that all parts are fully completed. Part A determines your fitness in regards to participation in the race whilst Part B concerns personal accident and travel insurance acceptance.

Is your blood pressure controlled by drugs?

As a crew member, it is your responsibility throughout training and during the race to inform your skipper(s) of any medical condition(s) you have and any medication that you may be taking. In addition, it is your responsibility to keep Clipper Race HQ fully informed of any medical condition(s) that develop after this form has been completed, and which may result in you having to complete another form. Answering yes to any of the following questions will not necessarily preclude you from the race but failure to disclose information could have a bearing on your participation, and result in eventual exclusion from the race.

be expected to lead to a claim?

Do you have any blood sugar disorders/need injections of insulin for diabetes? Do you have any other blood related disorders? Have you had a severe head injury with continued loss of consciousness? Have you been or are you being treated for any mental or nervous problem? Do you have or have you ever had an alcohol or drug addiction? Do you have any allergies or are allergic to any medication? Do you have any other conditions or have you had any operations that you feel may hinder your ability to live and work onboard an ocean racing yacht?

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MEDICAL REPORT FORM

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PART A CONTINUED (To be completed by crew member)

PART C (To be completed by Medical Practitioner)

If you have answered ‘yes’ to any of the questions overleaf please give further details below

Please state below whether your patient has any pre-existing conditions or is taking any medication at present. Also please set out any reasons that you, as a medical practitioner, do not believe your patient should take part in such a race.

I certify that I have examined the person named in Part A and that my findings are recorded in Part C. I also confirm that Part B has been correctly answered. To the best of my knowledge I see no reason why this person cannot take part in the Clipper 15-16 Round the World

PART B - Crew Personal Accident and Travel Insurance Declaration (To be completed by crew member) Do you any of the statements mentioned below apply to you?

Yes

Yacht Race, living and working onboard an ocean-going racing yacht. No Signature of Medical Practitioner Date

We will not pay a claim if you at the time of booking the race (and if there has been a change in health prior to the • Receiving or waiting for hospital tests or treatment for any condition or set of symptoms that have not been diagnosed; or • Travelling against the advice of a medical practitioner or travelling to get medical treatment or medical advice abroad; or

(with official surgery address stamp)

commencement of the race) you suffer from a pre-existing medical condition (which is detailed above) unless declared (during the application process or at the time of a change in health) and agreed in writing by us. To declare a condition for consideration by underwriters for

Signature of crew member

cover please contact the Medical Screening Helpline on the

Date

• Have been told about a condition that will cause your death; or

numbers set out below. There will be a one off administration charge of £25.00 to

In regards to crew personal accident and travel insurance you should understand and give explicit consent that the sensitive health and

• Has in the last 5 years suffered from or received medical advice, treatment or medication for:

declare a pre –existing condition, which will be collected

other information provided will be used by Oval Insurance Broking, Clipper Ventures PLC., AmTrust Europe Limited (the Insurer), their

at the time of contacting the helpline.

agents and regulators to process your insurance, provide medical screening, handle claims and prevent fraud.

• a) any heart-related, blood circulatory (excluding high blood pressure if controlled by medication), stroke, renal failure or diabetic condition; or b) any breathing condition for which more than two prescribed medications are taken, or has ever required the use of supplementary oxygen or the use of a nebuliser; or

c) any cancer; or

• Have in the last 12 months, been referred to or seen by a hospital doctor or surgeon (other than an Accident and Emergency doctor) or required hospital in-patient treatment.

Telephone: 01689 892 250 from within the UK Telephone: +44 1689 892 250 if calling from outside the UK

The helpline is open from 09.00 to 18.30 Monday to Friday and 09.00 to 13.00 on Saturday. If there are any changes that affect a previously declared preexisting medical condition or additional medical conditions, which have occurred before the start of the race and after the

Oval Insurance Broking is committed to keeping your data confidential and processes all information in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998. Oval Insurance Broking does not sell, rent or trade its mailing lists, phone numbers or email addresses. I consent to the information provided being used in accordance with the above statement. You must confirm that the information you have provided is truthful and accurate. Failure to do so may invalidate the insurance, leaving you with no right to make a claim. We must be informed of any facts which are likely to influence us in the acceptance, assessment or continuance of this insurance. It is an offence to misrepresent information. I declare that the information I have provided is, to the best of my knowledge, truthful and accurate. I confirm that if circumstances change which may affect this insurance, I will notify Oval Insurance Broking as soon as possible.

Policy has been issued, you must call the Medical Screening Helpline and advise the changes.

Signature of crew member

Date

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ONSHORE CONTACT INFORMATION Please complete the form using BLOCK CAPITALS. The information given will be treated with the utmost confidentiality. Please note that in the event of an emergency or serious incident one or both of the following contacts will be informed, therefore it is important to take this into consideration when selecting them. Please ensure that your emergency contacts speak English and you have told them that you have nominated them as such.

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Name of Emergency Contact (A)

Relationship to crew member

Address

Daytime Telephone Full Name (crew member)

Evening Telephone Email

Address

Name of Emergency Contact (B)

Relationship to crew member

Address Telephone Email Daytime Telephone Evening Telephone Email

Signed

Next of Kin

Date Relationship to crew member

Address

Daytime Telephone Evening Telephone Email

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CREW BIOGRAPHY QUESTIONNAIRE We have an in-house communications team who look after all things mediarelated and you’ll see them around Clipper Race HQ and the stopover ports. It is their job to promote the race around the world and your help in that is vital. The media coverage generated allows us to secure sponsorship for the race, which in turn, allows us to offer crew places at the best possible rate. Also, If you are hoping to raise money for a charity or good cause we can help you to secure coverage for your efforts. Please fill in this form, giving us as much detail as possible. Even if you don’t want to take part in publicity, (let us know overleaf) it is useful for us to have some background details. Publicity will begin immediately. However, if you wish this to start at a later date, please indicate this in the space on the next page. Please inform the Communications Team of any race publicity you are involved with and keep us informed of any media who contact you regarding your participation in the race – a quick email or phone call will do the trick. If possible, send us a copy of any articles or interviews by post, or by email to press@clipper-ventures.com.

The questions in red must be answered.

What do you think will be the most challenging aspect of the race?

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Full Name If different, by what name do you prefer to be known?

Date of birth Place of birth

Are you raising money for charity? If so please give details of the charity and how people can sponsor you.

Where do you live now? Occupation and Employer

Yes

Where did you go to school/ college/ university?

No

Would you be interested in featuring in a crew advert for the next race? Can we publicise your involvement in the race to media? Are you a member of a sailing club? Which one?

Are there any other parts of the world that you have a close connection with? If yes, please give details

Can we publicise your involvement in the race on our website, i.e. team pages, blogs. This includes full name, occupation and DOB

Is there a date before which you would prefer us not to publicise your involvement (eg: you haven’t told your employer/clients yet)? If yes, please indicate date? Please list your local newspapers, radio stations and TV stations here:

What inspired you to take part in the race?

NOTE

Do you subscribe to any magazines [trade or consumer]? Please list

Please post or scan form back to us. What are you most looking forward to?

Please post or scan the form back to us. press@clipper-ventures.com or Race HQ, Granary and Bakery Building, Royal Clarence Marina, 
Gosport, 
Hampshire PO12 1FX

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IMPORTANT ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS Getting to Clipper Race Training, UK Clipper Race Training, Charles House, Gosport Marina 
Mumby Road
 Gosport, Hampshire, PO12 1AH Telephone: +44 (0) 2392 526000 or outside office hours on +44 (0) 7890 510 862

Gosport Ferry:

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+44 (0) 2392 524 551 www.gosportferry.co.uk The service runs every 15 minutes between Portsmouth & Gosport. (£3 return.)
As you get off the ferry you will need to turn right and then follow the Millennium Walk, which leads to the marina’s front gates signed Endeavour Quay. Please follow signs for Marina Reception, the training office is situated inside the Premier Marina office.

By Air: The nearest airport is Southampton, however it only facilitates a limited number of international flights. The next most convenient are London Gatwick or London Heathrow. From Southampton Airport:
The first option would be a taxi which will cost approx. £40, however Southampton Airport Parkway Station can offer train services to both Fareham and Portsmouth Harbour but both destinations will require a change at either Southampton or Eastleigh stations. From Gatwick Airport:
There is a train that runs to Portsmouth Harbour from here and this is probably the easiest and cheapest way. From Portsmouth Harbour you can catch the ferry over to Gosport. (See ferry instructions)

Clipper Race Training, UK

From Heathrow Airport:
From here you would have to get to London Waterloo. The easiest route would be to go by London Underground on the Piccadilly line to Green Park and then change to the Jubilee Line to Waterloo. From London Waterloo there is a direct train that runs frequently to Portsmouth Harbour.
 Alternatively, from both London airports the National Express (www. nationalexpress.com) offers a coach service, which although are slow due to several stops elsewhere, will get you to Portsmouth Harbour with no changes. Alternately there is always the option of booking a taxi.

By Road: From Junction 11 of the M27, follow signs to Fareham. At the first roundabout turn left into Gosport Road – A32, (signposted Stubbington, Lee on Solent) under the viaduct. Proceed over the next roundabout, then branch left signposted A32 Gosport. Follow this road past Fort Brockhurst for a further 1.5 miles. The entrance to Gosport Marina is on the left signposted Endeavour Quay just before the Gosport Ferry Terminal. If you are using Sat Nav, please use postcode PO12 1AH

Parking:

www.thetrainline.com - 0871 244 1545

On arrival into the Marina, please park in the designated Clipper Race parking which is signposted (Do not go through the barrier). In most instances the car park will be unlocked, however if you find it locked with bollards, please speak to the Marina Office and they will unlock this for you.

From the west: Travel to Fareham Station from where you can either take a taxi (approx cost £18) or alternatively a bus to Gosport town. They run approximately every 15 minutes during the day or 30 minutes at night. You should alight at the Gosport ferry bus station. (see ferry information below)

If you are visiting Gosport Marina for a Training course, after you have parked please head to the Training Department office, situated inside the Marina Reception building (signposted). You will be met by a member of Clipper Race staff who will issue you with a key fob for access to the pontoons and marina facilities.

From the East: Travel to Portsmouth Harbour Station from where you will need to get a ferry across Portsmouth Harbour to Gosport (see ferry information below).

If you experience any problems in finding us or with any questions please call Clipper Race Training on +44 (0)2392 526000

By Rail

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01

UC INTROD

IMPORTANT ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS Transport Gosport Ferry www.gosportferry.co.uk +44 (0) 2392 524551 Runs frequently between Gosport town and Portsmouth Harbour railway station. Return ticket costs £3.00 – purchase from machines on both sides of the harbour or ticket office on Gosport side. The ferry is a short taxi ride or 20 minutes’ walk (approximately one mile) from Clipper Race HQ. Trains Portsmouth Harbour Station is the closest to Clipper Race HQ and a short ferry ride to Gosport. (See ferry information above.) There are direct trains from London Waterloo and connecting services from UK airports. For tickets and train times in the UK: www.nationalrail.co.uk - 08457 484950, or www.thetrainline.com - 0871 244 1545 Coaches Coach routes are available from UK airports to the coach station on The Hard in Portsmouth, next to the railway station and a short walk (500m) to the Gosport ferry. Services are operated by www.nationalexpress.com Tel: + 44 (0)8717 818178 24/7 and http://uk.megabus.com Tel: 0900 1600 900 Sunday - Saturday 07:00 to 22:00 Taxis in Gosport Streamline Taxis: 02393 522222 Bridge Cars: 02392 522333 Anytime Taxis: 02392 502233 Gosport Cabs: 02392 589999 Gosport Taxi: 02392 990031 www.gosporttaxi.co.uk Also bookable for airport transfers.

Local Accommodation Crew are not permitted to stay on a boat unless they are specifically taking part in a sail training course. This does not include theory or safety courses. Clipper Ventures is unable to book or reserve rooms. Please use the contact details below. Please note: we have not stayed at these hotels so cannot comment on the standard. Prices may vary from those published here.

Gosport (walking distance/short drive, closest first) Spring Garden Guest House (basic) £25 - £35 single Spring Garden Lane, Gosport PO12 1LP £50 double +44 (0) 2392 510336 Five nights or more – ten per cent discount applied enquiries@springgardenguesthouse.co.uk www.springgardenguesthouse.co.uk Seafarer (basic) 7 Bury Road, Gosport PO12 3UE +44 (0) 2392 522883 www.seafarer-guesthouse.co.uk iancreal@yahoo.co.uk

£30 single £45 double with shower £50 double en-suite

Domaine Guest House (basic) 5 Bury Road, Gosport PO12 3UE +44 (0) 2392 580457 domaineguesthouse5@yahoo.co.uk

£25 - £30 single £45 - £50 double/twin

Haven Guest House (basic) £25 single/twin 3 Bury Road, Gosport PO12 3UE              £40 double +44 (0) 2392 511333                      £80 sleep four                    West Wind Guest House £50 single 197 Portsmouth Road, £65 double/twin Lee on the Solent PO13 9AA (15-minute drive) +44 (0) 2392 552550 www.west-wind.co.uk info@west-wind.co.uk Premier Inn Fareham Road, Gosport, PO13 0ZX. +44 (0) 871 5279436 www.premierinn.com

£ Prices vary

TION

The Anglesey in the Crescent 24 The Crescent, Alverstoke, Gosport PO12 2DH +44 (0) 2392 582157 www.angleseyhotel.co.uk ruth.angleseyhotel@googlemail.com

£76 standard single from £84.50 double

Thirty Three A 33a Anglesey Road, Alverstoke, Gosport PO12 2EG +44 (0) 2392 510119 www.thirtythreea.co.uk sales@thirtythreea.co.uk

from £69 single from £87.00 double

Fareham (30-minute drive) TravelRest 22 The Avenue, Fareham +44 (0) 1329 232175 www.travelrest.co.uk/fareham solentreservations@travelrest.co.uk

£ Prices vary

Gunwharf Quays and Portsmouth

£ Prices vary

Holiday Inn Express Gunwharf Quays, Portsmouth. +44 (0) 2392 894240 www.holidayinn-expressportsmouth.co.uk Holiday Inn Portsmouth www.holidayinn.com

£ Prices vary

Best Western Portsmouth www.bestwestern.co,uk

£ Prices vary

Or look at www.visitportsmouth.co.uk for more information.

Self-catering accommodation Various in Gosport and Portsmouth +44 (0) 2392 582214 www.harringtonholidayhomes.co.uk enquiries@harringtonhouses.co.uk Jane Lister (very local) +44 (0) 7770 845945 janelister@btinternet.com Please note: Prices correct at time of printing, January 2014

(Bus stop is opposite, take the First E2 or 11 to the Gosport Ferry/ Gosport Bus Station for Training)

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RANCE U S N I W CRE

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ANCE R U S N I CREW

W E R C E C N A R U INS

Clipper Race crew are also advised to carefully consider taking out cancellation and curtailment insurance. This cover is not compulsory but we do strongly recommend arranging it. You must regard insurances required by the Clipper Race crew contract as being the absolute minimum to satisfy your commitment to take part in the race. It is the responsibility of each crew member to ensure these arrangements are adequate or to make alternative arrangements suitable for your own particular circumstances

UK domiciled crew

It is a condition of your Clipper 2015-16 Race contract that before you join a Clipper Race yacht you must be insured for personal accident, medical expenses, personal liability, rescue and repatriation, covering you while taking part in the race and all pre-race activities under the direction of Clipper Ventures.

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‘Clipper Ventures’ insurance brokers, Oval Insurance Broking Limited (Oval), have arranged a scheme with Lloyd’s underwriters that provides the insurance cover and emergency rescue and repatriation services required to comply with the crew contract. Oval is authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority.

If, having considered your particular needs and demands, you should wish to participate in the insurance arranged by Oval, simply complete and return the form that will be sent out with the policy details. Following receipt of the satisfactorily completed proposal form and full payment of the premium Oval will provide confirmation that cover is in force.

Non-UK domiciled crew Unfortunately, due to regulations governing the sale of general insurance, it is not possible for a crew member who is not domiciled in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man to apply directly to Oval for the insurance.

However, subject to the satisfactory completion of the overseas benefits application form (which will be sent to you) and receipt of the necessary payment, Clipper Ventures will contractually undertake to provide similar benefits. Clipper Ventures will insure this liability themselves and undertakes to pass all benefits paid by the policy to the crew member. Please note, payment of benefit to a crew member is conditional on Clipper Ventures receiving payment from their insurers.

You are strongly advised to obtain appropriate advice from your insurance advisor. If you prefer to arrange cover through your own broker you should ensure that the levels of cover offered are at least equivalent to those in the policy offered by Oval. You will need to forward evidence of satisfactory levels of cover to the crew team at Clipper Race HQ. You should also ensure that your existing insurers, for example life, health, pension etc, have been advised that you are to take part in the

Clipper Round the World Yacht Race and they have confirmed that cover can continue. Don’t forget, if you are leaving a property unattended your home insurers must be notified. If you plan to travel before or after your participation in the race you should take out additional insurance to cover your holiday and any activities you plan to participate in.

Crew Insurance

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OTHING L C W E CR

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LOTHING C W E R C

W E R C G N I H T O L C While at sea you will experience many different types of weather conditions. Having the right clothing to protect you from the elements will make an enormous difference to your comfort, mental state, safety and ability to race.

Fabric breathability

Base layer

Mid layer

Outer layer

Base layer

Mid layer

Base layer. This is the first layer next to the skin and is designed to provide thermal protection but mainly to wick the sweat away from the body and transfer it to the outer layer. The base layer spreads your sweat over a wider area as it transfers from the inside to the outside. This ensures it will then evaporate and be more easily transported to the outside. An antimicrobial finish is also applied to reduce the build up of bacteria and associated odours. Base layers come in varying thicknesses with differing thermal properties. It is advisable to have a few sets of base layers so they can be interchanged as required.

This layer provides the essential layer of warmer air and, if necessary, protection from wind and water. The fleece has a deep pile within the jacket which traps air and this is what ensures the wearer stays warm. The outer shell provides protection from the wind and water while also reflecting heat back in towards the body, helping to maintain body heat.

The fabric is highly breathable and will transport both moisture and vapour to the outside to try to keep the wearer as comfortable as possible whilst maintaining the waterproof integrity of the garment. The reality of ocean going fabric is that it is heavier than fabric used in other areas to ensure it is both durable and waterproof enough to last the race. It is therefore not as breathable as some fabrics which are much lighter but these would not be nearly durable or waterproof enough for the conditions you will meet. In effect there is a trade off between water resistance, durability and breathability.

Outer layer The outer layer is designed to be both waterproof and breathable in order to allow your sweat out, keeping you dry and preventing water getting in.

Modern clothing systems are technically advanced and offer a great deal of flexibility to function in a wide range of conditions. However it is important to realise that no clothing system will keep you completely dry and sweat-free when exposed to extremes of weather.

Layering When considering sailing clothing many people think only of the outer layer because it is the most visible. Often the layers underneath and next to the skin are given little thought. This is a mistake. However good your outer protection, you’ll compromise its performance without proper base and mid layers.

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LOTHING C W E R C

CREW CLOTHING Basic Kit Package

Note for Round the World Crew The durability, performance and life expectancy of the type of technical sailing clothing that you will be using (Ocean Pro Smock and Hi-fit Trousers) is very much dependent upon the type of use / abuse that you as a crew member put the clothing through, and also the care that you give to the clothing during the race and during stopovers.

As a participant of the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race you will receive the following garments branded with the Clipper 15-16 Race logo:-

Our experience of dealing with round the world yacht races shows that the crew can put the garments through a complete lifetime of wear and tear in one circumnavigation, and harder use or misuse and poor care of the garments may cause that lifetime to be shorter than the length of the round the world race.

We are pleased to announce Henri Lloyd will once again be the Official Technical Clothing Supplier for your race. As a race crew member you will receive the following branded garments. • GORE-TEX Ocean Pro Smock • GORE-TEX Ocean Pro Hi-Fit Trouser • Rio Jacket • Breaker Soft Shell Jacket • Fast-Dri Silver Polo These products have been selected to provide you with the best possible protection from the elements. Whilst the Ocean Pro Smock and Hi Fit Trouser offer the best waterproof protection available, there is no doubt that you will meet conditions around the world that will result in you being very cold and wet. The products we provide will reduce this discomfort but not remove it completely. It is highly important that you wear the correct layering systems underneath the outer shells and however good your outer layer protection you’ll compromise its performance without the proper base and mid layer systems. Garment care is also an area that is of great importance and you must care correctly for your products to ensure the clothing keeps performing at its best. The GORE-TEX Ocean Pro Smock and Hi-Fit Trouser is the choice of sailing professionals all over the world.The Ocean Pro Smock is constructed from the top of the range GORE-TEX Pro Shell with Ocean Technology fabric.

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The fabric is reinforced with a Cordura 500D back hem for enhanced protection. As the most significant pieces of clothing that protect you from water, a lot of thought has gone into providing you with items that will protect you most in extreme weather conditions. The Smock has been selected as opposed to a more conventional zip through Jacket to provide a more inherently waterproof design – the lack of potentially weaker zips at the front of the Jacket and the additional internal waterproof Dartex storm flap at the neck and an internal neoprene waist band help to repel water more effectively and result in a better fit when dealing with a broad range of body sizes and build. Although not as easy to pull on and off as a Jacket, and the lack of a full front zip makes it harder to vent, we believe that the increased protection a Smock gives will be of greater benefit over the duration of the race and ensure you are protected in the most severe of weather conditions. The Ocean Pro Hi-Fits, constructed from GORE-TEX Pro Shell with Ocean Technology fabric feature fully adjustable shoulder straps to ensure a comfortable fit as well as Cordura 500D reinforced seat and knee patches for added durability.

For instance if you spend the entire RTW race crawling around on the foredeck performing high impact tasks and do not care for your clothing whilst in stopovers, your clothing will deteriorate through wear and tear much faster than that of a crew member who spends more time at the back of the boat and cares for their clothing correctly in stopovers. Realistically, therefore, your garments may not last the whole circumnavigation, especially if they are not cared for correctly. We therefore strongly recommend that Round the World crew members consider purchasing a second set of oilskins. Henri Lloyd has agreed to supply the second set at a vastly reduced price and we can advise on the most suitable product for you and the delivery schedule for these products.

The Fabric

Crew Clothing

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LOTHING C W E R C

CREW CLOTHING The Rio Jacket is the perfect choice for those warmer days where only a lightweight Jacket is required. The Rio Jacket is 100% waterproof, windproof and breathable but its end use is not to protect you from severe weather conditions. It is supplied as a shore team jacket and for fair weather sailing days.

Garment Care In caring for your products, we recommend that you wash the products according to the wash care labels as often as possible. The GORE-TEX Ocean Pro Smock and Hi-Fit must be washed at every stopover to maintain their performance using HL Renew, this will revitalise the DWR (Durable Water Repellency) coating and maximise the garments performance. HL Renew is a wash in treatment for all synthetic and breathable fabrics and whilst we appreciate that washing kit effectively whilst onboard is not possible all your garments should be washed at every stopover to maintain their performance. Put quite simply, if you don’t look after your products, they will not look after you.

Handy tips to help the durability of your Henri Lloyd products •  DO NOT store damp in port. Ensure that all garments are dry when stored. A new development in recent years has been in the Soft Shell category. These garments offer extreme breathability and the thermal insulation properties of a fleece combined with a highly wind and water resistant finish, the Cyclone Jacket is an extremely adaptable piece of kit that can also be used as part of your layering system.

•  DO NOT leave out in the sun for prolonged periods as UV light will degrade the fabric over time. •  DO NOT use direct sunlight to dry your garments after washing as UV light will degrade the fabric over time.

Crew Extras

To complement your basic kit allocation, Henri Lloyd has drawn up a list of additional items that you may require. It is vital that you wear the correct layering systems with the outer layer and if you do not you jeopardise the performance of these products and also your comfort and performance. The level and amount of kit required will vary from individual to individual and also vary from leg to leg. Henri Lloyd are able to suggest items to provide a solution for every conceivable scenario and a dedicated Henri Lloyd representative will be on hand to help you with your personal requirements depending on the number and type of legs you are participating in. All these products are available for purchase with a 25% discount off the RRP (recommended retail price). For further information on crew extra’s please contact; Rob Carter, Race Office Manager: email rcarter@clipper-ventures.com.

•  DO rinse garments with fresh water to remove salt water. Salt is a desiccant and will attract moisture so it is important to remove it in each port. •  DO follow the wash and care instructions on the garments, ensuring they are washed and HL Renew is used at each stopover. •  WASH with HL Renew Cleaner. •  WASH on a separate cycle with HL Renew Reproofer. •  TUMBLE DRY on a low setting.

The high wicking and quick drying Fast-Dri Silver Polo also features silver ion antimicrobial technology with odour control. The essential next-to-skin product reduces perspiration to help keep you cool, while also offering UV protection from the sun’s harmful rays.

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LOTHING C W E R C

G N I N I A R T G N I H T O L C You’ve just read what kit you need to race the world in but your training courses also have their own kit requirements. As well as finding out what it is like to live aboard an ocean racing yacht, the Level 1 training will give you a good idea of what kit and clothing you may or may not require for the race itself. Try to not be tempted to buy specific sailing clothes and kit before your Level 1. If you do not have certain items on the kit list try to borrow them. Sailing is a water sport and your living and working environment will often be rather damp. We cannot guarantee that you kit will remain dry when stowed below so it is advisable to pack your gear into waterproof dry bags. Stowage space is limited aboard so ensure whatever bag you bring it must be soft and able to be squeezed into small spaces. When planning your layers it is important to consider the technical aspect of certain clothing. For example, there is no point wearing high wicking thermals and a set of breathable waterproofs only to put a non breathable layer between them. It should also be noted that natural fibers (excluding merino wool) retain moisture for much longer than synthetic garments. Moisture next to your skin will rapidly increase your rate of heat loss; stay dry and you will stay warm.

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Wet weather gear We will provide a set of waterproofs (sallopettes and jacket) for you to use on training, and before your race you will be provided with a Henri Lloyd ocean racing suit. It is therefore un-necessary for you to bring any foul weather gear to training. If, however, you are training in the warmer months or racing on some of the hotter legs, a lightweight waterproof shell jacket can be less cumbersome and cooler than the offshore/ocean jackets/smocks that are provided. In addition to your kit, please don’t forget to bring your passport!

RECOMMENDED KIT We recommend the following layers for your training:

Clothing Thermal base layer It is important that the thermals you wear have high wicking properties to draw moisture away from your skin. Synthetic thermals are excellent value for money but if you want top quality, merino wool thermals really are the best. One factor to consider when choosing between them is that to remain fresh smelling, synthetic thermals need changing at least every other day whilst merino wool is good for a week or longer.

Trousers/Mid-layer bottoms It is a good idea to bring a couple of pairs and ensure that they are quick drying. You may want to consider a set of mid-layer sallopettes or some fleecy trousers if you are training in the winter months. Jeans are not a good idea as once they get wet, you will become cold very quickly and find them almost impossible to dry on board.

Shorts Quick drying shorts are a must for warmer months.

Long sleeved jumpers/Mid layer jacket It is worth bringing a couple of quick drying, warm fleecy tops to act as an insulating layer between your waterproofs and your base layers. Natural fibres are not ideal as once wet they will sap heat from your body and will be very hard to dry. Another option is to use some form of midlayer insulated jacket but if you do, make sure it is breathable.

Footwear Socks The key to warm feet is keeping them dry and well insulated. Try to avoid cotton socks as once they get damp, they will start to sap the heat away from your foot very rapidly. We recommend purchasing several pairs of thin, high wicking synthetic socks to wear next to your skin and then two or three pairs of thicker insulated socks to wear over the top. The thin socks will need changing more regularly hence the need for more of them.

Rubber soled deck shoes (With non-marking soles) Footwear specifically designed for use on board boats is well worth investing in. Trainers will suffice for Level 1 training but once water starts coming over the rail, you will probably find that the soles become considerably less adhesive to the deck. You also want shoes that you can wear without socks and are quick draining. Full leather docksiders/deck shoes have the added advantage of not smelling when worn without socks. There are also many “technical” deck trainers available that provide better support for your feet but due to the synthetic nature of their construction, they can get smelly if worn wet without socks. It should be noted that if you are training in colder weather, you are less likely to need deck shoes as you will be living in your boots.

For the race you will need a decent pair – depending on your budget and which legs you are doing will depend on the sailing boot you choose to buy. If you are doing around the world you have two choices: Either buy a good set of leather boots that will be comfortable and breathable or; buy a hardwearing set of rubber boots with a thick neoprene lining that will be warm but a little sweaty inside sometimes. If you buy the leather boots you will most likely have to replace them half way round because eventually, all leather boots start to leak. Alternatively, rubber boots should easily last you the whole way round. Also make sure you buy boots that are a touch bigger than you think you need, even with thick socks on. If the boot is tight on your foot you will lose heat through conduction. Gaiters are an absolute must if you are planning on going forward of the cockpit and most manufactures now offer integral gaiters on their top models.

Boots Sailing boots come in all guises and prices. For training a cheap pair of sailing boots will suffice. However, please ensure that they have decent soles designed for use on boats; Hunter wellies have no grip on a wet deck! Talk to skippers and other crew to get more information on what is available.

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ADDITIONAL KIT

Sleeping bag

Personal wash kit

Torch/Head torch

Getting good rest on your training is essential and therefore we recommend that you invest in a good quality sleeping bag. Make sure that the filling is manmade and quick drying; down bags are excellent in cold, dry conditions but useless once they are wet. It is advisable to also have either a waterproof bag or purchase a breathable bivvy bag to keep your sleeping bag dry. Having a small pillow with a waterproof cover will also aid a good night’s rest.

Personal hygiene is of paramount importance when sharing a confined space with lots of other highly active individuals. You will be able to have the occasional shower aboard, but probably not more than once a week at best! A small packet of wet-wipes make an excellent shower substitute when sailing offshore and do ensure you invest in a decent, long-lasting deodorant.

It is important that whatever type of torch you buy it has the option of a red light and is capable of standing up to the elements. Over time, no matter how expensive the head torch is, water will make its way inside and start to corrode components. For this reason we suggest buying a more sensibly priced model and accepting that it will need replacing after a while.

Sun Protection Sun cream is an absolute must even for the colder months. Make sure you get something of SPF 30 or higher. Sunglasses are also a must but don’t take your best pair of Prada’s in case they get knocked off your face and fail the float test. For warmer months, a wide brimmed hat or a peaked cap is a good idea too.

Personal medicines If you are taking any personal medication please keep it somewhere safe and accessible. It is essential that you inform your skipper on any medical conditions that require you to take regular medication. There are seasickness tablets on board for general use but it is often a good idea to find a particular brand that works for you.

Towel Ideally this should be of the quick drying/camping variety

Sailing knife Much like a seat belt or an airbag, one hopes to never have the need to use a knife for real. However, if you do need to use one it could be the difference between life and death. A knife is not essential for training but on the race, most skippers will insist that you have one which is easily accessible about your person at all times. There are a plethora of knives available but here are some key pointers: It should have a folding, locking blade that can be opened with one hand. It should have a blunt tip to the blade to prevent you stabbing yourself or another crewmember. Finally, some or the entire blade should be serrated allowing you to saw through thick lines or webbing.

KEEP IT COMPACT You will always end up bringing too much kit to your first level of training. You should aim to reduce the amount of kit you bring at each successive level of training as once you are allocated a boat and a skipper, they are likely to set weight restrictions for the rest of your campaign. A heavy boat will always sail slower than a lighter boat!

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SP

For over 50 years we've been inspired to develop the worlds best foul weather protection for those who take on the extremes of circumnavigating the globe and choose to face the worst that the world’s oceans can throw at them. From the early sailing pioneers of the 1960's such as Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, to today's Clipper Race entrants we are proud to associate our name with those of you who decide to achieve the extraordinary

henrilloyd.com

CREW S H IP ONSOR


SP

W E R P I C H S R O S N O SP As well as approaching companies for individual corporate sponsorship we recognise many crew members are looking to raise funds through other means. We hope that this section will help give you some ideas to reach your goal.

Through furious storms in the South Atlantic and tropical cyclones in the North Pacific, unparalleled feats of team work and endurance, and months of nose-to-nose racing that has a global audience on the edge of its seats, the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race provides a unique marketing platform for international businesses and destinations to promote their message both at sea and in 15 high-profile ports of call in Asia, the Americas, Africa, Europe and Australasia.

The ethos of the race is to bring ocean racing within the reach of everyone, regardless of their background or sailing experience. Sailing transcends language, territories and cultural boundaries. It’s man against nature.

It’s theatre that plays itself out on the high seas, where crews have to call on skill, strategy and valuable know-how to out manoeuvre and outwit other competitors racing against them in one of the 14 identical 70-foot racing yachts. Regardless of background everyone can understand and appreciate that the Clipper Race is no mean feat. The interest, and the publicity surrounding the Clipper Race and the crew who take part, generates a direct benefit to all those involved at any level of sponsorship. On a commercial level the race provides a unique platform for international organisations and destinations to raise their profile, build global brand awareness and meet influential decision makers through our exclusive race partner network. After two decades, the future of the company and the success of the Clipper Race continues to go from strength to strength.

CREW S H IP ONSOR

Through the branding of yachts, exclusive access to Clipper Race business events and corporate sailing, title, team, fleet and host port sponsorship categories, brands and destinations are able to use this innovative and customisable business model to interact with high-profile clients over a period of 18 months. With a two billion cumulative media audience, 2,527,751 visitors to the event website, and 206 countries following the world’s largest matched ocean racing fleet, there is quite simply no other event in the world that opens up so many doors to business opportunities. Interest from partners has never been higher, whether consumer brands, corporate businesses or destinations and governments.

Before you approach any sponsor it is worthwhile rereading the terms and conditions of your crew contract to ensure that you are not offering something that is outside of your agreement.

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SPONSORSHIP FRAMEWORK

YOUR SUPPORTERS

Sponsorship of the race is layered in the following tiers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Title Sponsor

Team Sponsor

Host Port

Fleet Sponsor

Official Supplier

This is the highest level of sponsorship and allows a business or destination to be named within the race title, giving synonymous association with the Clipper Race brand at all points of communication.

Each of the twelve yacht entries has a Team Sponsor giving a business or destination the opportunity to name and brand one of the Clipper 70s. A Team Sponsor is also often a Host Port sponsor.

The Clipper Race visits around 15 ports over an eleven month period. The route is shaped by Host Port Sponsors – in the majority as part of a yacht entry which invest in the event to showcase its destination on a global platform and benefit from the significant economic impact that a stopover brings to the region.

Fleet Sponsors are multinational brands or corporations that choose to benefit from exposure across the whole race fleet. A Fleet Sponsor has exclusivity within its product category to align itself with the race and promote its product/services to crew, other sponsors, media and the global race audience.

The Clipper Race partners with a number of Official Suppliers on a partial commercial/ partial sponsorship or value in kind basis. The partners supply specific goods or services either on a complementary basis or at a heavily discounted rate in return for rights of association with the Clipper Race brand.

Crew supporters are companies or individuals who agree to directly support a crew member for a sum agreed between the two parties. In this case Clipper Ventures, the rights holder of the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race, is not involved. The list of benefits the crew member can offer is correspondingly limited. All benefits are delivered by the crew member i.e. presentations, blogs sent via their own personal email account.

CREW S H IP ONSOR

Contractual obligations Your Crew Supporters must pay you directly. There are no contractual links between the crew supporter and Clipper Ventures PLC. Fulfillment of any and all arrangements rests with you. You are bound by the terms of the Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Agreement.

The Ground Rules Please ensure that we are aware of any plans you have regarding sponsorship and fundraising. The number one rule is to let us know. This is not only to ensure you are acting within your crew agreement but also to enable us to offer any help where possible. You CAN wear sponsored clothing prior to or during the race. However you are expected to wear official race kit at all events with a high PR visibility such as race starts, race finishes, crew receptions, prize giving ceremonies, briefings etc. However there is nothing to stop you wearing clothing provided by your sponsor while you are at sea or putting their logo on your mid- layer. You CANNOT alter any official race branded clothing supplied to you by us or your Team Sponsor. You CAN write articles for your local papers, trade journals and inhouse magazines. Please send the communications team a copy of the article when it appears. If you need help putting together a press release, let us know. You CAN blog, tweet, follow, share, pin and shout to let everyone know how you’re doing and when you’re doing it. Tell your story and remember to link in with us and we’ll do our best to support your campaigns.

Photography Any photographs not supplied by Clipper Ventures for publicity purposes are to be approved by Clipper Ventures before publication to assure quality and to ensure there is no conflict of interest with other Official Race Sponsors, Partners and Suppliers.

Use of logo The race logo is a worldwide registered trademark of Clipper Ventures PLC. Crew members are encouraged to use the Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew logo on their blogs and throughout fundraising activities. This is a marque that proudly identifies team members. You may not use the logo or its likeness as a company logo or for any other commercial purpose without permission. The logo must always appear in full colour and adhere to the guidelines, available on request.

You CAN use the selection of images we make available for you to illustrate your challenge in your search for sponsorship. You CANNOT offer a sponsor corporate branding on any part of the yacht, including the deck, sails, boom cover and interior, nor can you display any flags or banners on the yacht. You CAN use the Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Member logo.
 You CANNOT use the official Clipper 2015-16 Round the World Yacht Race logo.
 You MUST NOT alter official Clipper Race logos in any way. This includes embedding your own personal slogan to it.

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Crew Sponsorship

40 03


04

SP

CREW SPONSORSHIP Benefits for Crew Supporters

Support from local businesses

Entitlement

Crew Supporter

Use of title

No official association between Clipper Race and crew supporter.

Use of Clipper Race logo and associated logos

No authority to use race logo in connection with sponsorship. Authority to use Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew logo.

Credit in official race brochure, 360˚

None.

Credit alongside crew entry on website

None.

Use of PowerPoint presentation supplied by Clipper Ventures

Yes. Have a look at the collateral in the dropbox http://bit.ly/1euC3Gi or alternatively email Amy, Amartindale@ clipper-ventures.com

Use of official Clipper Race imagery

None. Crew members themselves may use the selection of official photos we provide and any they take on board.

Use of photographic and written material generated by crew member

Yes. Rights-free use of material generated by sponsored crew member for use in internal and external communications e.g. newsletters and intranet.

Get your colleagues on board by giving a lunchtime or early evening talk on your participation in the Clipper Race and your fundraising efforts. Play them short videos on our YouTube channel youtube.com/clipperrtw.

Use of official video footage of Clipper Race

For PR purposes by arrangement with Clipper Ventures.

Chamber of Commerce and local business networks

CREW S H IP ONSOR

Ask a local bakery to donate 20p from every doughnut they sell on a Friday, for example. If you can link your fundraising to a charity they will be more likely to get on board.

Sponsored and other events

41

Organise an event where people can sponsor you – a sponsored swim, silence, walk, run, sit in a bathtub of baked beans for example.

Fundraising opportunities Your employer

Communications transmission costs from yacht

Material for supporter’s use to be generated by crew member and transmission costs covered at crew member’s expense.

Use of yacht afloat

None.

Use of yacht in port

Individual yacht tours for up to four people hosted by crew member – to be agreed with skipper.

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

Ask your company to sponsor you or to help you raise funds within your workplace or further afield in your industry. If you have an in-house magazine ask to write an article about Clipper 2015-16 Race or to follow your progress as you prepare for the race. You can use photos you take on your training courses to illustrate the articles and you can use the selection of images we provide from the race. Similarly, you could write an article for your industry-specific magazine about what you are doing and how it will help your area of expertise on your return.

Find out if your company is a member of your local Chamber of Commerce. If so, mail out a letter to selected affiliated companies explaining what you are doing and the benefits they will enjoy from sponsoring your participation. You could give a presentation to their board or sales management team – motivational experiences are a bonus for sales teams. If your company is not a Chamber member you’ll have to do a little more legwork to find the contacts Groups such as Rotary, Round Table and Lions are specifically set up to help the local community and organise functions throughout the year to raise funds for local good causes. As well as having well-connected members and a wealth of knowledge about raising money these groups are always looking for inspirational speakers.

Think big! Sometimes focusing your efforts on a few large events can be more fruitful than lots of smaller events. Ask local businesses to provide raffle prizes, get local bands to play, organise a five-a- side football tournament, cricket match, beach barbecue, concert, dinner event – anything that will draw a crowd.

Media and publicity The Clipper Ventures communications team can help you place editorial pieces about your participation in the Clipper 2015-16 Race. Tailored press information can be distributed to your local media and supported with race photography and footage. To help you establish credibility and further recognition always obtain copies of this coverage and include press cuttings when you send out letters requesting sponsorship. Email Amy Martindale at amartindale@clipper-ventures.com to let us know what you are up to or to ask for assistance.

BE INSPIRED Clipper 09-10 fundraising guru was undoubtedly round the worlder Andy Milner. Andy, who works for Eastleigh Borough Council in Hampshire, secured sponsorship to pay for his berth fee from five organisations including his employer and one of the professional organisations to which he belongs. He also worked with a local charity, the Rainbow Centre for Conductive Education in Fareham, Hampshire. By February 2009 Andy had already raised almost £3,000 towards his £10,000 target for the centre.

Local businesses support crew member He used his experiences from his pre- race training to pass on to local schools and to write articles for one of his sponsors on how those learnings can be applied to the challenges of team building and leadership in local government. His website is comprehensive, well put together and his training blog is a great read – if you’re just embarking on your race adventure pull up a seat and log on to www.meridian360. me.uk to read about Andy’s time on the race. There are even some good tips on kit to take with you. Crew Sponsorship

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PART 1 G N I N I TRA

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Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual


PART 1 G N I N I A TR

R E P CLIP TRAINING E C A R

A core element of the Clipper Race experience is our pioneering training programme that enables novices and skilled yachts-people to tackle the most challenging situations on the planet. We take the lessons from having raced more than three million miles and apply them to our global training courses, constantly developing the course to keep pace with the increasing demands of the race and ensure you are trained to the highest level.

If you have any questions at any time during your training please do not hesitate to contact the training team.

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Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

Working with our professional skippers and mates, you will live onboard 68foot and 70-foot yachts. From day one you will build teams, learn the ropes, cook, clean and race. On top of that you’ll learn the basics of yacht maintenance and management, racing tactics, survival at sea and weather routing. The most important skill you’ll learn is being part of a multi-disciplined high performance team that will function in every condition that Mother Nature can throw. Your training will consist of four compulsory practical courses, Level 1 – 4. Each course will comprise of both theoretical and practical training, building on the skills of the previous level to fully prepare you for the challenges you will face during the race.

Thea George Head of Training tgeorge@clipper-ventures.com

+44 (0) 2392 601 253

Ben Bowley Chief Instructor UK bbowley@clipper-ventures.com

Jim Dobie Chief Instructor Australia jdobie@clipper-ventures.com

+61 (0) 2 9363 2020

Clipper Race Training - Part 1

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RACE TRAINING OVERVIEW LEVEL 1 Crewing Skills

LEVEL 2 Offshore Sailing and Life onboard

LEVEL 3 Asymmetric Spinnaker Training and Racing Techniques

LEVEL 4 Team Tactics and Offshore Fleet Racing

Introduces the basic principles of sailing, how a boat functions and teaches personal safety, along with the principles of good seamanship.

Level 1 = 7 days (total duration), 6.5 days (on water), 0 days (shorebased)

Continues the development of basic sailing and seamanship skills from Level 1 but focuses more on living onboard and sailing in watch systems. This course has a heavy offshore component with a number of nights spent at sea which will allow crew to experience life onboard at sea and experience the roles that occur whilst not on deck. This level includes a one day sea survival course.

Level 2 = 6 days (total duration), 5 days (on water), 1 day (shorebased)

While continuing to draw on skills learnt on the previous levels, Level 3 will introduce the asymmetric kite. This level will enable crew to further develop their sailing skills and acquire new navigational, meteorological and watch leader skills in an offshore environment.

Consolidates all the crews sailing, seamanship and racing skills in an offshore racing environment and enables the race skippers to develop their race teams and boats in a realistic setting.

Level 3 = 6 days (total duration), 5 days (on water), 1 day (shorebased)

Level 4 = 7 days (total duration), 6.5 days (on water), 0 days (shorebased)

Race Training Hubs It is very important to us that the training we provide is both relevant to the adventure you are about to embark on and of the highest possible standard. For this reason there are only a few places where you can undertake your training. You can choose to complete all of your training at one centre or mix your courses between them.

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Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

UK Training Headquarters Training in the UK takes place at Clipper Ventures training base in Gosport on the south coast of England. Conveniently based on the western side of Portsmouth Harbour we have easy access to the Solent and English Channel, a world renowned sailing area. The highly experienced training skippers take full advantage of this incredible sailing area and during your training you will encounter a variety of conditions in the shelter of the Solent and out in the less forgiving seas of the English Channel. Your training may also take you to some of the more remote ports along the south coast of England. The training is delivered on our fleet of ocean racing yachts. The Clipper 70s and the earlier fleet of Clipper 68s, having completed four circumnavigations, are the perfect platform for the Level 1 course.

Clipper Race Training - Part 1

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RACE TRAINING HUBS Level 1 Training

Clipper Race Training Australia New for Clipper 2015-16 Race is a training hub based in Sydney, Australia., This is currently the only training centre outside of the UK accredited to deliver the Clipper Race training scheme. The centre is operated by highly experienced instructors, some of whom are previous Clipper Race skippers.

Total duration: Time on water:

Level 1 training will introduce you to the basic principles of sailing and seamanship and teach personal safety techniques. You will learn all of the basic crewing skills which will become the bedrock of your sailing expertise.

Sydney Harbour provides a great place to learn to sail providing protection from the Pacific ocean with a typically north easterly breeze, plenty of space to practise in whilst being surrounded by iconic scenery. Offshore passages can take you either north or south of the harbour providing challenging training in a variety of conditions.

We will focus on personal safety, good seamanship and the importance of teamwork, learning key skills which will promote both personal safety and the safety of your fellow crew mates. It will also provide an important insight into the inherent risks involved in ocean racing and, most importantly, how to minimise them. You will meet your training skipper and mate who will introduce you to the Clipper 68 training yacht which will be your home for the week. During the evening you will be briefed about safety on board as well as all of the on board safety equipment. The following six days will be spent in the English Channel where you will be put through your paces, learning everything you need to know to be a safe and effective crew member.

Our Australian based training will be delivered on the Clipper 68s and will follow the same format as the training provided in the UK. Levels 1-3 are available for completion in Australia, with the requirement for Level 4 to be completed in the UK.

UK Training

Course Content

Australia Training

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 1

Crewing Skills

Crewing Skills

Pre-course reading

Practical talks

Practical experience

Knots

All safety equipment

Preparing the yacht for sea

Nautical names and terms

Man overboard

Sail hoisting and lowering

How sails work

Points of sail

Sail folding and care

Types of boats/yachts

Knots

Tacking and gybing

Technical clothing

Reefing

Meteorology

Headsail changes

Life jackets and life rafts

Poling out headsails

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Man overboard

Standing Orders

Helming

Know your boat

Log keeping

LEVEL 2

LEVEL 2

Life jackets and life rafts

Offshore Sailing and Life Onboard

Offshore Sailing and Life Onboard

Systems below deck

LEVEL 3

LEVEL 3

Asymmetric Spinnaker Training and Racing

Asymmetric Spinnaker Training and Racing

LEVEL 4 Team Tactics and Offshore Fleet Racing

49

7 days 6.5 days

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

Note: pre-course reading is contained within the training manual

Qualifications gained at Level 1 RYA Competent Crew Clipper Training Level 1 Endorsement

Clipper Race Training - Part 1

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LEVEL 1 SYLLABUS Level 1 Syllabus 1. Nautical terms

3. Emergency equipment

• Has sufficient knowledge of sea terms and parts of a boat, her rigging, sails and equipment to be able to operate effectively as a crew member on board during day to day activities

2. Deck work •

Sail handling

- Understands how to bend on, hoist, lower and flake sails for stowage - Can work as part of a team to reef the mainsail and understand its purpose - Can work as part of a team to change a headsail - Effective use of sheets and halyards •

Rope work

- Understands how to handle ropes in the following situations - Coiling - Stowing - Securing to cleats and bollards - Effective use of warps when mooring - Ability to tie the following knots - Figure of eight - Admiralty knot - Clove hitch - Rolling hitch - Bowline - Round turn and two half hitches - Single and double sheet bend - Reef knot

Understands the action to be taken in the event of an MOB

• Understands how and when to operate all safety equipment including - Distress flares - Life rings and danbuoys - GPS MOB button - Fire pumps, extinguishers and blankets - SARTs and EPIRBs - VHF and DSC • Life jackets and harnesses - Has an awareness of life jacket design and construction - Understands how to inspect and fit a life jacket and harness - Is able to operate a life jacket and utilise all equipment including spray hood - Is aware of and complies with rules for when to wear it •

Life rafts

- Correct stowage and containment on board - Life raft design and construction - Launching - Understands the actions to be taken in the event of abandoning ship and boarding a life raft - Righting a capsized life raft - Life raft equipment

4. Helmsmanship and sailing • Understands the basic principles of sailing and is able to trim sails on all points of sail • Understands the process of tacking and gybing and the actions to be taken in all positions • Is able to steer a straight course during day and night on all points of sail • Ability to steer a compass course

5. Rules of the road • Has a basic understanding of the rules • Is able to keep an effective lookout at sea

6. Standing Orders and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 7. Meteorology • •

Sources of weather information Global weather systems

8. General duties • Is able to work as a safe and effective member of crew • Has a knowledge and understanding of systems below deck • Has an understanding of good hygiene onboard and recognizes its importance • Has carried out all general duties satisfactorily throughou tthe week including - Log keeping and position fixing - Cooking - Cleaning - Basic maintenance tasks

• Deck gear - Safely operates all deck gear and understands potential risks - Understands how to use spinnaker poles and their associated control lines

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PART 1 G N I N I A TR

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CLIPPER

HULL AND EXTERIOR

The hull construction utilises
lessons learnt from the previous races employing well-proven composite construction materials and methods. The hull and deck are of a sandwich construction using glass fibre, epoxy resins and structural foam. More commonly called Foam Reinforced Plastic (FRP), this construction method is light, stiff and is proven to produce an incredibly strong and safe hull. Modern features have been included within the design of the hull, which along with the twin rudders will give improved directional stability when heeling, provide the helm with more control and an overall faster ride.

The introduction of the Clipper 70s for the last race marked a great milestone in the history of the Clipper Race. The 70-foot yachts, designed by renowned
Naval architect Tony Castro are the shining jewel in the Clipper Race crown, stretching
from now until 2020. Two more boats will be added to the fleet, making it 14-strong, for the biggest ever race, increasing crew capacity to around 780 crew in the tenth edition of the Clipper 2015-16 Race. As with all stripped down ocean racing yachts, the Clipper 70s are not for the faint hearted. They are, by design, stripped of all luxuries. You will need to become an expert at living in a confined space, managing all your kit and belongings as you settle into your home. The Clipper 70 design is faster and more dynamic than previous Clipper Race yachts and promises to attack the 40,000-mile racecourse head on. The twelve-strong fleet is a stark comparison to the one which began the very first Clipper Round the World Yacht Race in 1996. Development ideas have been taken from both the previous yacht designs: the Clipper 60s and Clipper 68s.

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New features on the Clipper 70s include twin helms, twin rudders and a six-foot bowsprit, which allows the inclusion of three large asymmetric spinnakers and a suit of Yankee headsails, which will all add to increase performance and boat speed. The inclusion of state-of-the-art features in the new hull design produces a better performance and control, especially in
the light winds encountered near the Equator or between weather systems when crossing oceans. In the 2013-14 edition they are already laying down the gauntlet and breaking race speed records , raising the bar for your race. The design provides total control in the heaviest of conditions, ensuring not only high speeds, but safety too.

The deck layout provides a welldesigned office for the crew to perform in. Eleven Harken winches, including the primaries controlled by twin threespeed coffee grinders, will swiftly bring the sails under control.

The addition of a state-of-the-
art HD fixed camera system also ensures that every piece of action on deck will be captured and used by media and broadcasters around the world to showcase the conditions faced during the race by the crew.

Jammers and organisers have been located in easy to operate locations allowing crew to swiftly change settings. The mainsheet
 has been placed further aft in the cockpit, permitting a better level
 of communication between the
 crew as they undertake the various evolutions during tacks, gybes, hoists and drops. The aluminium mast towers 95foot above the waterline and
is rigged using tried and trusted materials and methods to further improve overall safety. Mast-mounted instruments will provide the crew with immediate feedback on sail MAP trimming and boat speed.

AUSTRALIA

VITAL STATISTICS Length overall (LOA)

75ft 10in

23.15m

Length on deck (LOD)

69ft 10in

21.30m

Length at waterline (LWL)

67ft 11in

20.70m

Beam

18ft 6in

5.65m

Draft

9ft 10in

3.00m

34 tons

34.54 tonnes

87ft 6in

26.66m

FOLLOW US Full load displacement Clipper Ventures PLC, Mast Unit 1 height A, Granary & Bakery, Royal Clarence SAIL AREA Marina, Weevil Lane, Gosport PO12 1FX. Asymmetric Spinnaker Tel: +44(0)23 9252 6000 Mainsail Fax: +44 (0)23 9252 6252 Yankee Email: info@clipper-ventures.com Staysail

GET CONNECTED

Facebook/clipperroundtheworld Twitter/clipperrace 3,552ft2 330m2 Youtube/clipperrtw 1,291ft2 120m2 Instagram/clipperrace 1,324ft2 123m2 Live Stream/clipperraceteam 538ft2 50m2

Insta

BERTHS 24 CONSTRUCTION

Foam cored glassfibre

Training

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INTERNAL DESIGN

You will find a stripped-out interior below decks with 24 bunks, a state-of-the-art navigation station and a simple galley. Watertight bulkheads and doors are placed at strategic locations to provide compartmentalisation in case of flooding.

The navigation station is placed towards the stern, providing a closer link between the navigator and helmsman. It is equipped with all
 the latest navigation electronics, navigation computers and up-to-date satellite communications. This area of the yacht will provide the skipper and media crew member on board with the ideal area to work in.

GRIB weather files will be studied and courses mapped on the navigation computer while photos, diaries and videos will be edited and sent back to Clipper Race HQ using the powerful marine computer.

The engine and generator
 are mounted behind the companion way steps. Their mid-ship position brings increased stability and balance to the hull and it also keeps all the ancillaries and electrical components in one maintenance-friendly area.

Centrally, just aft of the mast, sits a simple horseshoeshaped galley, which will feed in to the communal area. This is where crew briefings and all-important meal times can take place. Crew accommodation runs
from the stern forwards in a series of double bunks and stops short of a watertight bulkhead towards the front third of the boat. Ahead of this is a large compartment for storing sails, with the main hatch located directly above.

CLIPPER 60

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Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

CLIPPER 68

CLIPPER 70

• 60-foot yacht

• 68-foot yacht

• 70-foot yacht

• 72-foot mast

• 89-foot mast

• 95-foot mast

• 
Designed by David Pedrick


• Designed by Ed Dubois

• Designed by Tony Castro

• Debuted in the Clipper 96 Race


• Debuted in the Clipper 05-06 Race

• Debuted in the Clipper 13-14 Race


• Retired after the Clipper 2002 Race

• Retired after the Clipper 11-12 Race

• 12-strong fleet - Increasing

• 8-strong fleet

• 10-strong fleet


• Record top speed 19 knots surfing

• Record top speed 29 knots surfing

• Tops speeds of
 over 30 knot

to 14-strong fleet

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PRE COURSE READING The Clipper Race training courses have been designed to teach you all you need to know in order to be a safe and efficient crew member on board. There is a lot of information to take in.

Figure of eight

Reef knot

Rolling hitch

This is a stopper knot. It is used to stop the end

The reef knot is used when there is tension on both ends, for example

This is used to attach a rope to another rope so that it grips it.

of a rope pulling through a hole.

tying a bundle of sail when reefing.

It is used to take the strain off a line that is fouled.

1) Make a bight in the rope

1) Remember to keep working with the same end. Right over left

1) Pass the end over the fouled rope

We recommend you take a look at the following pre-course reading in order to begin to learn and understand some of the techniques and principles of sailing. Many of these will

2) Make a loop by passing the tail

2) And under

over the standing part

2) Pass it around the rope and itself

be covered during your course but if you already have a good grasp of them before you step on board you will benefit greatly.

Knots Introduction

3) Pass the end under the standing

3) Carry on with the same end...

part of the rope

3) Take it around the rope and itself again

The ability to tie and use appropriate knots while at sea is an essential skill for all sailors. At first there will seem to be a lot of complicated knots to learn but, with time, you will find yourself tying them without any thought. It is also very important that you learn how and when to use the different knots. Making sure you are able to untie a knot is equally as important as making sure it will not come undone at the wrong time. Here you will find a guide to tying the eight most

4) Pass the end through the loop

4) Left over right

4) Around the rope again but this time pass it under itself

useful knots that you will use. Try to learn these off by heart. Once you master these there are many more you can learn.

5) Pull the knot tight

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5) And under and pull tight

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PRE COURSE READING Sheet bend and double sheet bend This is used to join two ropes of similar thicknesses.

1) Make a loop in the

Bowline A double sheet bend is a more secure version of the knot and can be

The bowline is one of the most important knots you will use on the Clipper boats. It is used to make a secure loop in a rope and its main use on

used if the ropes are very different thicknesses.

board is for securing the yankee and staysail sheets to the clew of the sails. One of the main advantages of the bowline is that no matter how

1) Start with a single sheet bend

much load the knot has been under it can easily be undone.

thicker rope 1) Form a bight of the required size. The bigger the bight the

4) Pass the end under the standing part of the rope

bigger the loop will be

2) Pass the thinner rope through the loop

2) Pass the end under the thick rope for a second time and back under its own standing part

2) Make a small loop as shown

5) Then pass the end of the rope back down through the small loop

3) Pass the end around

3) Pull tight

and under the loop in the direction that will eventually leave both ends

3) Pass the end up through the

6) Finally, pull the knot tight

small loop

on the same side

4) The end of the thinner rope then goes under its own thinner part

SIR ROBIN’S TOP 5) Pull tight. Double check

The bowline is one of the most useful knots to know. You will need to tie it quickly and sometimes in difficult conditions so give it some extra practise!

that the loose ends are on the same side

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PRE COURSE READING Round turn and two half hitches

Clove hitch

Admiralty knot

The round turn and two half hitches is used to attach a rope to either a ring or post. It is a very secure knot that is easily undone, even after large strain has been exerted on it. Its most common use on the Clipper yachts is for tying the fenders onto the stanchions when mooring the boat.

The clove hitch is used to attach a rope to a ring or a post. It is a very secure

The admiralty knot is a stopper knot used to prevent the end of

knot that is easily undone even after large amounts of strain have been

ropes passing through sheaves. On many small boats a figure of

exerted on it. Its most common use on the Clipper yachts is for tying the

eight is used for this purpose, however, with the size of the lines

fenders onto the stanchions when mooring the boat.

on the Clipper yachts and the durations for which they are at sea

1) Pass the end around the object

4) Repeat to form a second half hitch

the Admiralty knot is more secure. 1) Pass the working end around the object

1) Start by looping the tail over the standing part

2) Take another complete turn

5) Pull tight 2) Then pass it back over the standing part

2) Then wrap the tail over the standing part three times anti-clockwise

3) Pass the tail through the wraps going from the 3) Take the end over

3) Pass the working end

the standing part,

around the object and tuck

around and back

the end through the loop that

through to form a

is formed

standing part

half hitch

4) Finish by pulling the tail and standing part away from each other 4) Pull tight

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PRE COURSE READING

INTRODUCING

How Sails Work 17 31 16

21 18

25

19

30

26 15 23

22

12 1

32 10

8

2 7

3

11

29

24

5

Air flowing around the outside convex surface travels faster than the air on the inner concave surface.

A sail works in the same way as an aircraft wing. The flow of air over the aerofoil shape of the sail produces pressure changes on either side of it. High pressure is generated on the windward side of the sail while low pressure is generated on the other; this pressure difference results in a force known as ‘lift’ and it is this force that essentially sucks the yacht along.

20

9

13

6

33

14

28

Many people think that sailing boats are pushed along by the wind. This is true when sailing downwind however upwind sailing is a little more complex.

There are several theories as to how ‘lift’ is generated by a sail and this is the subject of many books. Our intention here is simply to help you understand the basics of how sails work. The fluid dynamics of sail power can come later for those who are interested. As air flows over the two surfaces of the sail the air on the inner, concave surface is slowed due to friction with the sail, while the air on the back convex surface accelerates. If it did not accelerate a vacuum would form which nature will not allow therefore the air has to accelerate to fill this vacuum.

27

4

If the air flowing around the outside did not flow faster a vacuum would form at the leech

So, we have established that air flow around the back of a sail is faster than air flow on the inside of the sail resulting in a difference in air pressure on either side. This is explained by Bernoulli’s principle.

THE CLIPPER 68

Bernoulli’s principle

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1.

Satellite communication system

12. Halyard winches and clutches

23. Vang

2.

Radar

13. Companionway hatch

24. Cockpit

3.

Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon

14. Main hatch

25. Pulpit

4.

Gas locker

15. Rope locker

26. Foredeck

5.

Horseshoe lifebuoy

16. Main sail

27. Topsides

6.

Helm

17. Yankee

28. Life raft

7.

Compass binnacle

18. Staysail

29. Shroud

8.

Main sheet

19. Yankee sheet

30. Backstay

9.

Primary winch

20. Staysail sheet

31. Forestay

10. Three speed ‘coffee grinder’ winch control

21. Mast

32. Guard wire

11. Snake pit

22. Boom

33. Boarding ladder

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases. A good example of this principle is when you see the smoke from an open fire being sucked up a chimney on a windy day. The air at the top of the chimney is accelerated due to the wind while the air inside is stationary therefore according to Bernoulli’s principle the air pressure at the top of the chimney is lower than the air pressure inside so the smoke is sucked out of the chimney. The resultant force caused by this pressure gradient is known as ‘lift’ which is exerted in a direction perpendicular to the sail. It is lift that enables sailing boats to sail upwind. The force generated not only moves the boat forward, there is also an unwanted sideways force. We are constantly trying to improve this mix through sail trim.

High pressure

Low pressure

Difference in pressure creates lift

This is obviously a very simplified explanation of how sails work but will give you a basic grasp of the principles. We will build on this at a later stage.

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PRE COURSE READING Collision Regulations Despite the vastness of the world’s oceans the large majority of vessels still operate in a relatively small area, whether this is the giant, unmarked marine highways known as shipping lanes or in and around ports and harbours where you can find merchant ships, fishing vessels and yachts happily existing alongside each other, pursuing their separate agendas. This is possible due to a set of rules by which all vessels operate and which has been developed over the past 150 years. These rules are the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCS). The IRPCS are comprised of many rules and it is imperative that everyone who goes to sea has a clear understanding of how they are applied on the water. There are many books from which you can learn the rules and several of these are listed in the reading list in Section 9. We will look at them in more detail during your Level 3 training however, for now, there are a couple to be aware of.

Rule 5. Look out Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision. This is the most fundamental rule. If this is not observed the rest of the rules may as well not exist, however most sea farers will admit to letting it slip from time to time, especially on a sailing yacht where the sails and sometimes the heel of the boat obscure the view. It is the responsibility of everyone on board to maintain a good lookout by both sight and hearing at all times. If you see or hear something report it to the skipper, mate or watch leader immediately and never assume they have already seen it. On a sailing yacht there are two potential blind spots. Low clewed headsails create a very large blind spot on the leeward bow. The high cut clew of the sails on the Clipper 68s helps mitigate this but there is still a blind spot when the boat is well heeled over. On any yacht this spot is particularly bad if you are sitting on the windward side of the cockpit.

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The second blind spot exists to windward during strong winds when rain and spray sting the eyes making it very difficult to maintain a good lookout. In addition to this our natural instinct to stay dry and warm does not encourage us to maintain a good watch to windward. Once another vessel or object has been identified the next task is to determine whether a risk of collision exists and what action needs to be taken in order to avoid it. In order to do this you will need to understand a little about the different types of vessel you are likely to meet.

Fishing boats Other very common vessels that you will come across are fishing boats and trawlers. They will often be found working in groups and are massively constrained in their ability to manoeuvre when engaged in fishing activities. Most commercial fishing is conducted at around five knots but these vessels are capable of some impressive speeds, especially when they are on the way home!

Merchant shipping The great majority of vessels that you will encounter at sea will be merchant vessels. These will come in all shapes and sizes depending on their function and area of operation. These ships generally operate on an unforgiving schedule and will usually take the shortest route between ports, forming giant, unmarked marine highways called shipping lanes. These ships are classed as motor vessels and are therefore required to give way to sailing vessels however it should be noted that often the field of view of the deck officer is limited due to the size of the ship and its cargo. In open water the bridge will often only have two people on watch at any time. You should therefore never assume they have seen you!

Unlike merchant and fishing vessels, not all the skippers in charge are qualified or experienced seafarers. This is not to say that these vessels will not be sailed professionally as there are many highly experienced and professional skippers out there. The point is that you cannot always take it for granted that the skipper will take the consistently predictable actions you may expect. It is also worth remembering that sailing vessels engaged in racing conform to a whole different set of rules: the racing rules of sailing. This does not mean that they are not also bound by the normal collision regulations but it is perhaps worth making some allowance as they may be preoccupied by the racing.

Motor vessels Like sailing vessels, motor vessels also come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, from large luxury super yachts which often look more like ships, to smaller leisure craft and rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) designed for inshore use. As with sailing vessels there is no requirement for the skippers of these smaller vessels to be qualified or even experienced. This is not to say that these vessels will not be driven professionally as there are many highly experienced and professional skippers out there. The point is that, as with sailing vessels, you cannot always take it for granted that the skipper will take the consistently predictable actions you may expect.

In inshore waters these vessels are often restricted by their draftt and ability to manoeuvre. A large container ship can draw up to 15 metres (50 feet) and their propellers and rudders are less effective in shallow water, so even if they wanted to try to avoid you they probably couldn’t! During the day these ships will display a cylindrical day shape on their mast. During fishing and trawling operations these vessels are often connected to hugely complex structures of wire, cordage, heavy metal and netting making them very unmanoeuvrable. They also often operate in close proximity to each other, wrecks and other underwater obstructions. It is well worth keeping a good lookout for these vessels and ensuring you give them a wide berth. During daylight hours these vessels will display an hourglass shape in their rigging when they are fishing but be warned - they often display this whether they are fishing or not!

These days even the smallest of motor vessels has a lot of power and is capable of travelling at high speed therefore a boat spotted several miles away will be on top of you very quickly and this needs to be taken into consideration when trying to avoid them.

Sailing vessels Sailing vessels come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, from old fashioned square riggers with enormous sail area and limited manoeuvrability to cutting edge high performance racing yachts which are highly manoeuvrable and capable of high speeds. There is, of course, a raft of yachts between these extremes with differing functions and manoeuvrability.

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SAFETY Safety Brief Every time you get on a Clipper yacht you will be given a safety briefing. If at any time you are unsure of any of the points that are covered please ask your Skipper or Training Mate for clarification. Remember – this is for your safety and it is your responsibility to ensure you understand and are familiar with the environment you will be working in.

Your safety brief will include the following • Welcome • Introduction to the boat and staff • Overview of the course or delivery • Orientation of the sailing area • General safety •

Moving around deck - Always work on the high side - One hand for the boat, one for yourself - Trip hazards Cockpit fiddles Hatches - open and closed Spinnaker and jockey poles Deck blocks Hand rails Winches Cleats Jammers Ropes and lines Jackstays - Boom and mainsheet

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• Winch safety

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Minimum number of turns Pulling in by hand Loading up Easing Releasing Use of safety turns Use of jammers in conjunction with winches Use of and stowage of winch handles

Personal equipment

- Life jackets Clipper life jackets are to be worn at all times when on deck Fitting Crotch strap Inflation •  Automatic •  Manual Light Whistle

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Importance of staying on board What to do if in the water - Wet weather gear Availability and location Importance of staying warm and dry - Sunburn and exposure - Avoiding dehydration

Safety equipment on deck

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Safety equipment below decks

- L  ocation and operation of fire extinguishers, fire blankets and fire pump - Location and operation of man overboard equipment - Location and operation of search light - Location of first aid kit and medical stores - Location and operation of all through hull fittings - Location and operation of bilge pump system - Location and operation of pyrotechnics - Location and operation of gas system shut off valves - Location and operation of fuel shut off valves - Location and operation of VHF radio, DSC, Sat C and satellite communications

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Location and operation of life rings and danbuoy Location and operation of EPIRB Location and operation of throwing line Location and operation of safety knives Location and operation of life rafts Location and operation of emergency steering

Safety below deck

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Safety procedures

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Precautions when using companionway steps Clipping on before exiting the companionway Precautions when moving around below Precautions when cooking Use of lee cloths SOPs and Standing Orders Gas routine Maintenance of the Ship’s Log and position on paper charts Emergency radio procedure Skipper’s standing orders

• Domestic - Heads Location and operation Hygiene - Fresh water system and pumps Necessity to save water - Tidiness and hygiene - Smoking and alcohol policy - Mobile phone policy

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LIFE JACKETS AND HARNESSES Yachting is one of the safest leisure sporting activities and many sailors will never be required to deal with a serious emergency situation. However it is a well proven fact that in the event of an emergency at sea, people who have received training are more likely to survive.

Basic seamanlike practices •

Always move along the high, or windward, side of the yacht

• One hand for you (to hold on) and one hand for the yacht (for the job) •

For this reason emergency drills such as a man overboard, steering failure and medical emergencies will form a key part of your training. They will be repeated time and time again throughout your training sessions and you will gain experience of the actions to be taken under a wide variety of conditions. For your own safety you and everyone else you are training with must make themselves aware of the Clipper Standing Orders and SOPs.

Personal Safety We all have to take responsibility for our own personal safety as well as a responsibility towards the safety of others on board. An example of this would be to look after other crew members by checking their life jacket is fitted correctly whenever you know they have just put it on – they will do the same for you.

a sail is being lowered • Always look out for others, especially when involved in

This is every sailor’s worst nightmare and prevention is definitely better than cure. Being physically attached to the boat is an excellent first step! Your safety line should be used whenever there is any danger of unsteady motion on the boat. Remember that if you go overboard at night or in bad weather there is a significant risk that you will not be found.

should be a tight fit when your fist is placed between the strap and your chest • Always use the crotch strap • Your life jacket should be kept around your neck or in your

manoeuvres or on the foredeck • Always have your knife with you and easily accessible

designated life jacket pocket • Never leave it lying around on or below deck. You may need to be

• At night you should always have your torch easily accessible

able to locate it quickly

• Never run, either on board or on the pontoons • Look after all the on board equipment • If you see a job – do it

Life jackets and harnesses

Use of safety lines Safety lines should always be worn with life jackets. Crew who fall overboard on a yacht have often gone to the trouble of putting on a safety harness yet have not actually clipped on, possibly one of the easiest aspects of using a harness.

Each time you join your Clipper yacht you

Man overboard

Immediate action • Raise the alert • Stop the boat • Locate the casualty In the event of a man overboard follow this standard procedure

Raise the alarm The call of ‘MAN OVERBOARD’ should be made by everyone, as loud as you can. If the skipper is sleeping make sure he/she is woken.

Stop the boat

will be supplied with a life jacket

You should clip on at all times but

with integral safety harness. This will

particularly in the following situations

Once the helmsman is certain that everyone on deck is in a safe location they should immediately perform a crash stop or hove to.

be yours for the duration of the trip and

• At night

could save your life, so look after it!

Locate the casualty

• When working on the foredeck

Providing a minimum of 150N (Newtons)

• Before coming on or going off deck

One person should constantly look and point at the casualty. This is a VITAL role and this person should not do anything else.

of buoyancy it is designed to ensure that

• In heavy weather

an unconscious person floats face up and is suitable for both swimmers and non

When clipping on make sure you only clip on to the jack stays which

swimmers alike.

run down both side decks or the fixed eyes which are designed for

Your life jacket can either be inflated orally, by blowing into the

the yacht as this will prevent you falling overboard.

The crew member nearest the navigation area presses the GPS Man Overboard button and writes down the GPS position in the logbook.

Start engine

automatically when immersed in water.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS

Each time you are issued with a life jacket you should carry out the following checks

As well as holding on make sure you clip on whenever you can. It may slow you down as you move around the boat but your safety is more important.

• Inflation test: orally inflate life jacket and leave for one hour, then check it is still fully inflated • Remove the CO2 cylinder and make sure it has not been

is present and attached to the life jacket • Check all buckles and clips for damage

Once the GPS MOB button has been pressed the same crew member should start the engine and inform the helmsman they have done so.

Drop sails Both yankee and staysail should be dropped.

Prepare equipment

pierced. Ensure you replace it tightly into the

including your safety line, is not worn

The crew member nearest the danbuoy should immediately throw this and the horseshoe life ring overboard.

Press MOB button on GPS

metal bottle. The gas is released manually by pulling a toggle or

• Check the emergency light is working and the whistle

Throw the danbuoy and life ring

this purpose. Also ensure you always clip on to the windward side of inflation tube, or by carbon dioxide which is stored in a sealed

• Check the straps for chafe and that the stitching on all straps,

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• Adjust your life jacket each time you put it on. The waist belt

• Always sit upwind of sails and rigging, especially when

firing mechanism

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Distress Situations

Always be aware of what is happening around you

• If you do a job – do it properly By its very nature ocean racing involves an element of risk. It is not possible for us to remove this, nor would we want to as it is a key part of the appeal for so many people. Accidents are unfortunately inevitable; it is only through continuous awareness of potential dangers and creating techniques that reduce exposure to risk that we are able to minimise them and deal with them appropriately and quickly. This is as important for us as race organisers as it is for the race crew and is a priority right throughout the yacht build, the training and the race itself.

Your life jacket should be worn at all times whilst on deck.

Never clip on to •

The steering pedestal

The pulpit / pushpit

Sheets or running rigging

Standing rigging

Guard wires or stanchions

The boat hook, lifting strop and scramble net must be made ready and attached to the deck or an appropriate halyard. A crew member must be prepared as a swimmer with a life jacket and climbing harness.

Recovery under engine Man overboard manoeuvres are always carried out under engine unless, for some reason, the yacht’s engine is not functioning. This is to ensure that the casualty is recovered as quickly as possible in order to maximise their chances of survival.

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SAFETY WIND DIRECTION

Recovery manoeuvre under engine 1. Casualty falls overboard (

)

2. Crash stop 3. Throw the danbuoy and life ring

What to do if you are overboard

Foam fire extinguishers can be used on all other

types of fire, including electrical, except for diesel or

• Make sure someone knows you have gone overboard

4

oil-based fires.

• Inflate your life jacket and pull the spray hood over your head

2&3

• Switch on light • Fasten cuffs and ankle seals on foul weather sailing suit and

4. Start the engine and drop the headsails

put up hood and fasten spume visor

5. Manoeuvre downwind of the casualty

• Adopt HELP (Heat Escape Loss Prevention) position, crossed

6. Approach the MOB into the wind so that the

To windward of casualty

mainsail is depowered. Pick up the MOB on the

1

leeward side by the shrouds

Fire blankets should be used on liquid fires (cooking

arms and legs but relaxed

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oil) or people, smothering the flames and depriving

• Keep movements to a minimum to prevent cold water shock

the fire of oxygen.

• Put waves to your back To leeward of casualty

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• Do not swim to the danbuoy unless it is very close • Do not try to swim after the yacht, let it come to you • Use your whistle to make sound signals • DON’T PANIC

Recovery manoeuvre under sail 1. Casualty falls overboard (

Fire

WIND DIRECTION

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2. Crash stop and throw the danbuoy and life ring

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2

Turn off the engine if the fire is in the engine space

handling these items and when lighting the stove or oven. A fire on

Close off ventilation to the fire

board is very serious and can spread rapidly around the boat.

Apply extinguisher to the base of the fire

Use all available means of communication to raise the alarm

Prepare life rafts and crew for abandonment

Fire prevention

5. Approach the MOB on a fine reach so that the mainsail is

• Keep the engine bay and electrics clean and tidy

when released 6. Pick up the MOB on the leeward side by the shrouds

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To windward of casualty

To leeward of casualty 5

Recovering a casualty from the water There are several pieces of equipment on board a Clipper yacht to aid in the recovery of a man overboard including a helicopter strop and scramble net. The technique employed will be dependent on the situation and whether the casualty is conscious.

Conscious casualty The helicopter lifting strop is by far the most effective means of recovering a casualty. It should be attached to the end of the spinnaker halyard and lowered to the casualty. The casualty places it under his or her arms, tightens it around the chest using the adjusting loop and is smartly hoisted back on board.

• Never smoke below deck, when refuelling, handling gas bottles or upwind of flammable items such as sails

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Unconscious or injured casualty

under the galley counter

including gas, oil and solvents. Great care should be taken when

4. Tack around and manoeuvre downwind of the casualty powered up when pulled in and depowered

Raise the alarm; make sure everybody on board knows about it

• Shut off all fuel valves for the engine and generator. These are

Several flammable items are carried on board the Clipper yachts

)

3. Put the boat on beam reach and drop the headsails

In the event of a fire breaking out, tackle it

• Always turn off the gas at the stop cock as well as on the cooker

Flood Any flood on board is very serious. Floods can happen for several reasons, including a hull breach due to striking an object or if one

• Always take care when cooking fats and solvents

of the underwater fittings (seacocks) fails. The Clipper yachts

• Always report smells of gas or gas alarms

are fitted with bilge alarms to warn of floods however it is very

• Always put used matches under a tap before discarding

important to check the bilges regularly in order to identify flood

in the bin

There is only one option – someone has to go in and get them

Fire requires three elements to burn: oxygen, fuel and heat. If any of

• A swimmer should be prepared wearing the climbing harness and a life jacket. He or she attaches the helicopter lifting strop to the harness and is lowered by halyard into the water

these elements are removed the fire will go out.

Fire fighting

risks early. The bilges should be pumped dry every hour as it is normal for them to have some water in them. In the event of flooding due to a failed seacock or hull damage the following steps should be taken. •

Commence bilge pumping immediately

•  The swimmer them places the lifting strop under the casualty’s arms and tightens it around the chest using the adjustable loop

The Clipper fleet is fitted with several types of fire fighting

Close watertight bulkhead doors

equipment including both foam and CO2 extinguishers, fire blankets

Identify source of water ingress

• Both the casualty and the swimmer are hoisted back on board

and a manual fire pump. It is important that all crew members know

• Stop water ingress by closing seacock or plugging hole

Remember that the swimmer will also be cold and wet after this and should also be treated as a casualty.

exactly where each piece of equipment is stored as well as when and how it should be used. Carbon dioxide extinguishers are primarily for use in the engine and generator compartments. They should not be used on cooking oil fires as the blast of gas

with a wooden bung or other object •

Prepare life rafts and crew for abandonment

Use all forms of communication to raise alarm

• If possible manoeuvre vessel relative to weather to reduce motion which could result in early swamping

can cause oil to splash. Do not use on people as the cold gas can cause burns.

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ROPES AND DECK WORK There are many ropes and lines onboard a yacht. They need to be kept tidy otherwise they will become tangled, preventing us from reacting quickly when we need to. Ropes should always be neatly coiled before being stowed.

Cleats

Cleats have many uses on boats but perhaps the most common is for securing mooring lines to the deck when mooring the yacht in a marina. As the Clipper yachts are so heavy it is important the mooring lines are secured properly to ensure the boat is safe but also to prevent the mooring lines jamming under tension. Using them correctly is very simple

Coiling a rope 1) In order to make all of the

4) Pull a loop of rope through the top

coils the same length use

of the coil

the width of your arms each time

Put a turn all the way around the cleat

2) Always coil the rope in a

5) Finally push the end of the rope

clockwise direction into

through the loop. The line can now

your left hand. Twist your

be hung up with a clove hitch or

right hand away from you

round turn and two

each time you form a coil,

half hitches

Follow this with a figure of eight

And then another turn all the way around

This is enough to hold the boat and it will never jam. OXO is a good way to remember it. Mooring lines Every time we moor the yachts it is important to ensure that they are secure. The boats should always be secured with a minimum of a bow and stern breast line and two springs. Often we will add two extra breast lines.

this will stop the coils kinking

3) Keep coiling until you have about two metres left then wrap the rope three times tightly around the coil near the top

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS Everything on board should be stowed neatly and ready to use. This is especially true of ropes. You don’t want to be untangling them at the time they are needed.

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ROPES AND DECK WORK Winches

Clutches

Everything on board a Clipper 70 is big and heavy; for this reason we use winches for pretty much everything we do. The winches operate under enormous loads and, if not treated with respect, could cause serious injury - hence the need to understand how to use them correctly.

Since it would be impractical to provide a separate winch to deal with all the various control lines, clutches are provided for some of them. These devices grip a line under tension by means of a lever and cam, which enables winches to be freed for other purposes.

Using winches

Using them correctly is very simple 1) Always load the rope clockwise around a winch

3) Once you can’t pull any more put a fourth turn around the winch and then a final turn into the self tailor

2) Put three turns around the winch and pull in as much as you can. You should never operate a winch with less than three turns

4) Put the winch handle into the top of the winch and start turning it anti-clockwise. The winch has two gears so, once it gets hard to turn, try going the other way 5) Once you have finished, put the winch handle away. It should never be left on the deck. Finally put one more safety turn around the winch to prevent the rope being kicked

Clutch open

Clutch closing

Clutch closed

2) To release a rope from a jammer

3) To close the jammer

Using jammers

out of the self tailor Always be aware that the line you are pulling in has two ends. Winches are very powerful and can easily damage sails and other deck gear. Always have one eye on what you are doing at the other end of the line.

Easing and releasing winches 1) Be very careful when letting

2) If you need to release a rope

a rope out on a winch, there

quickly, first ease the pressure

is a lot of tension on it. To

off and then lift the line up

1) A n example of both open and closed

let a little bit out, carefully

vertically and flick off all the

jammers. The white plate section

simultaneously pull the release

take the rope out of the self

turns except the last one

simply winch the line tight until the

at the forward end of the handle

white plate section is visible and

trigger whilst pushing the sliding

indicates the jammer is open

the release trigger clicks closed

part of the mechanism back

tailor but keep tension on it. Put the flat of your left hand

inside the body of the jammer

against the winch (as shown in the picture) and use both hands to slowly ease it out

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ROPES AND DECK WORK Clipper 68 and 70 deck gear In addition to the aforementioned deck gear, both the Clipper 68s and 70s have additional pieces of deck equipment, the pedestal grinder, which is often called the coffee grinder.

Before grinding make sure that the pedestal is connected to the working winch and disconnected from any lazy winches. The grinder is very powerful and can easily damage sails and other deck gear. Always have one eye on what you are doing at the other end of the line.

In Level one, using the individual coffee grinder on the Clipper 68 will be good preparation for using the twin system on the Clipper 70 in later training and the race. Situated in the centre of the clipper 68s deck it enabled two people to work together to operate the primary winches and perform some of the harder jobs more quickly. Two people should work together on the grinder. One crew member should stand on each side of the pedestal and take hold of one outside handle and one inside handle as shown in the picture. This will help to stop your heads banging together. Make sure you do not stand too close to the pedestal or you might hurt your hands by hitting your lifejacket buckle as you turn the handles.

Connecting the grinder to a winch: The grinder is designed to operate both primary winches. It is important however that the grinder is only connected to one winch at a time. This is done using two levers which are situated at the base of the grinder pedestal. A winch is connected when the lever is pointing towards it, and disconnected when the lever is pointing either forward or aft. Winch selection levers.

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Pointing out towards

Pointing aft away from

the working winch

the working winch

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WORKING WITH SAILS Each of the Clipper Race yachts carries eleven different sails which can be used in a variety of combinations to suit the conditions. Each sail has a specific wind range within which it will provide optimal performance. The best sail combination will depend on the following: • • • •

Wind speed Sea state Point of sail Condition of sail

Below is a guide to the maximum wind ranges for each sail. The key to maximising the boat’s performance is knowing the conditions in which each sail will perform best and this is where experience is key. Each sail has its own idiosyncrasies and knowing these will help prolong their life and also make the yacht go more quickly. A good starting point is to have a guide to the basic settings for each sail and one to indicate which combination of sails makes the yacht go faster in any given conditions.

Sail

Recommended maximum wind strength

Main

Reef to conditions

Yankee 1

18 knots apparent

Yankee 2

24 knots apparent

Yankee 3

30 knots apparent

Staysail

35 knots apparent

Spinnaker 2.2oz 30 knots apparent Spinnaker 1.5oz

20 knots apparent

Spinnaker 0.75oz 12 knots apparent Windseeker

6 knots apparent

Always remember that your sails are your power. Without them you will not be able to race so you need to make sure they are properly looked after. They must never be

Mainsail Controls

Headsail Controls

Halyard

Halyard

Trodden on

Allowed to flog

Stretched out of shape

This is the rope used to hoist the mainsail. We use the halyard to adjust the luff tension which affects the shape of the sail.

This is the rope that pulls a sail up the mast. It is also used to adjust the luff tension of a sail which, in turn, will adjust the draft position. As the luff is tensioned the draft position moves forward.

Sheeted in before they are fully hoisted

Allowed to rub (chafe) against the rigging

Sheet

Sheet

This is the line used to control the angle of the mainsail. It has a dedicated winch on the port side in front of the helm. Care should be taken when adjusting the mainsheet as the loads can be large. There should always be a minimum of three turns on the main sheet winch.

This is the rope that pulls the sail in and out. By pulling it in the headsail will be sheeted in and the boat will be able to sail closer to the wind. When the boat bears away the sheet will need to be eased.

Inspection on a regular basis should be a high priority

Sail Anatomy •

Head

- Top of the sail where the halyard is attached

Clew

- This is the aft corner of the sail where the main outhaul or jib sheets are attached

Tack

- This is the front corner of the sail

Foot

- This is the bottom edge of the sail

Luff

- This is the front edge of the sail

Leech - This is the aft edge of the sail

Vang The vang is operated from the snake pit. The line applies a downward force to the boom and must always be released before any manoeuvre that results in the boom being lifted. The main purpose of the vang is to control the amount of twist in the sail when off the wind.

Traveller The traveller is used to adjust the angle of the mainsheet which helps us to control the amount of twist in the sail. Both traveller lines are operated from one winch on the starboard side of the cockpit. Always ensure that both lines are jammed off before taking anything off the winch.

Car position The position of the headsail car can be moved forwards or backwards. By doing this we adjust the angle of the sheet. If the car is moved forwards the sheet will exert more tension on the leech of the sail, decreasing the amount of twist and allowing the foot to become fuller. Moving the car back will increase the tension in the foot and flattens the lower section of the sail while increasing the twist in the sail.

Points of Sail A modern yacht will sail at any angle to the wind up to an angle of about 40ºeach side of the wind. Depending on the direction in which we want to travel we could be required to sail at many different angles to the wind. Each time the boat changes direction the sails will need to be adjusted. The diagram below shows the different points of sail and the associated sail trim.

The above three mainsail controls work in harmony with each other to control both the sheeting angle and the twist of the sail. This complex interaction will be demonstrated during your practical training.

Cunningham The cunningham is employed by attaching a handy billy (block and tackle) to the cringle (metal ring) just above the tack and then applying tension. Like the main halyard the cunningham is used to adjust the luff tension and the shape of the sail.

Leech line The leach line is used to prevent the leech of a sail flapping or vibrating. On the mainsail it is adjusted at the tack.

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WORKING WITH SAILS Close-hauled or beating

Using tell tales for sail trim

When sailing a straight line, keep the sail almost entirely hauled in for maximum speed. If your destination requires you to sail closer to the wind than the yacht is able to point, you will have to zigzag to it. This zigzagging upwind is called tacking or beating (to windward). Aim as close as you can to your destination with the wind on one side. After a while, tack and aim as close as you can again. Continue like this until you reach your destination.

Tell tales are small strips of wool or ribbon which are attached to the sails. Their purpose is to show the air flow across the two surfaces of the sails. When trimming sails we try to get them so they are flying on both sides which shows even air flow on both sides of the sails. On the headsails if the windward tell tale is not flying the sail needs to be brought in whereas if the leeward tell tale is not flying it needs to be let out. The tell tales on the main sail are attached to the leech; let out the sail until all of the tell tales fly then bring it back in until the top tell tale only flies 50 percent of the time. Please be aware, tell tales may only be used when the wind is on or forward of the beam.

• Ensure the correct reefing line is ready to go on a winch and have the other two ready to be pulled hand tight • Have the topping lift ready to be winched in

Shaking out a reef

This is the reverse of the previous evolution Preparation • •

Depowering the main (VMT)

We will look at sail trim in more detail at Level 2.

Good sail trim is essential to generate good boat speed. The wind is constantly changing so the sails will need constant attention. Remember TRIM, TRIM, TRIM!

When sailing a straight line, let out the sail just slightly from completely hauled in for maximum speed.

Beam reach When sailing a straight line, position the sail at just over a 45° angle to the boat for maximum lift.

Broad reach When sailing a straight line, position the sail at an angle of 45° or more to the boat to catch as much wind as possible. With the spinnaker up this is ideal for high boat speeds and high adrenaline levels.

Running When sailing a straight line let out the sail nearly perpendicular to the boat for maximum speed. As modern sails are aerodynamically efficient, using a sail in drag mode (i.e. dead downwind) is actually slow, as the drag creates less drive than the lift of the sail would. Therefore it is quicker to sail at angles to the wind and gybe, rather than dead downwind. It is safer and more comfortable, too.

Basic sail trim There are two simple rules for trimming sails • •

If in doubt, let it out A flappy sail is an unhappy sail

An over-trimmed sail is less efficient than an under trimmed one. Overtrimming causes the sail to produce more sideways and heeling forces which are detrimental to boat speed and direction. An under-trimmed sail will flap and generate less lift. It should be noted that a sail is most efficient just before its point of collapse.

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Sail Evolutions Sail changes on a yacht are like gear changes in a car – the whole idea is to get back up to speed as quickly as possible. The crew is divided into two fundamental groups – the trimmers and the changers. The trimmers have to concentrate on sail trim all the time, even during evolutions, and the changers have to execute the evolution in as efficient and safe a manner as possible.

Reefing Reefing the mainsail or shaking out a reef are both evolutions that are performed time and time again as they are a quick and easy way to react to a change in wind speed. The Clipper 70s use a slab reefing system which, as the name suggests, allows large sections (slabs) of the sail to be taken out of or put into play. The following explanation does not specify individual winches for the lines used as winch selection will depend on the tack the boat is on and which reef is being worked on.

Putting in a reef Preparation • Flake the main halyard on deck for a smooth drop and take up all the tension on the main halyard winch so as to allow the jammer to be opened

 ase vang and mainsheet whilst the topping lift is pulled hand tight E until the sail is sufficiently depowered

Shaking out the reef

SIR ROBIN’S TOP

Close reach or fine reach

Set up the main halyard on its winch with the jammer open Set the working reefing line on a winch with its in-boom jammer open. If the other two reefing lines are involved (e.g. if the first reef is shaken out, the second and third reefing lines will also have to be let out) they will have to be flaked on deck and their in-boom jammers opened

 elease the reefing line. It is vital that the aft end of the sail is R released before the luff end, to prevent mainsail sliders being pulled from the mast track Once the reefing line is free the cunningham can be released and the mainsail halyard winched up to the desired height and luff tension The two other reefing lines must be checked to ensure they do not catch as the sail goes up

Depowering the main (VMT)

Trimming the main (TMV)

• Release the vang, easing it out to avoid the boom bouncing up •  Ease out the mainsheet until the mainsail depowers, grinding up the topping lift to support the boom

Lowering the main

 he topping lift is now released and the mainsheet and vang T applied as necessary to properly trim the sail

Tidying up All lines are tidied up ready for use

• Ease out the main halyard until the reefing cringle can be attached to the cunningham, then pull the handy billy tight so that the cringle is as low as possible Setting the reef • Grind in the main halyard to the desired luff tension. While this is happening the relevant reefing line can be pulled in by hand on a winch • Once the luff tension is correct, grind in on the reefing line until the clew cringle of the sail is down to the boom Trimming the main (TMV) • Ease the topping lift so that it is loose and pull the main in until it is correctly trimmed. Finally apply the vang as required Tidying up • If the first reef was put in, both the second and third reefing lines will need to be pulled in by hand to stop them flogging around. If the second reef was put in, only the third reefing line will still be loose and so need pulling in • The lines should be tidied up as usual, and made ready for use

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WORKING WITH SAILS Headsail Changes The speed of a headsail change is not measured by the overall evolution time but by the time that the yacht does not have a trimmed headsail up, otherwise known as being bareheaded. To minimise the time for which the yacht is bareheaded, a racing change is usually done.

Great care should be taken not to let go of the end, even when the halyard is connected to the new sail. As with the sheets, the snakepit crew should control the tension on the halyard to allow the bowman to work unimpeded.

•  The new sail is tacked on to the appropriate deck strop and then hanked on to the bottom of the forestay by the bowman, who will be in the pulpit. Depending on which sail is already flying the lower two hanks may need to be undone on the existing sail. •  The headsail halyard is put on to the appropriate winch, the jammer released and the halyard flaked to ensure a smooth drop. •  The sail bag is taken down below and the foredeck crew should place themselves along the foot of the sail. The furthest forward crew member should be as close to the tack of the sail as possible as he or she will be vital in gathering in and controlling the major part of the sail. Dropping the old sail •  On the bowman’s signal the halyard is smoothly eased out so that the bowman can release the hanks of the old sail as they drop down to his or her level. The speed of the drop should be matched with the speed at which the bowman can undo the hanks. •  The foredeck crew gathering in the sail should tie it securely with pre-positioned sail ties as quickly as possible and then two of them stand by to sweat the halyard. •  When the old sail is safely under control, the cockpit crew ease the sheets in order that they may be changed from the old clew to the new and one member goes forward in order to change the leeward sheet car to its new setting. The windward car can be changed while the foredeck crew are preparing the hoist. •  The foredeck crew member at the clew of the sail should change the sheets from one sail to another as soon as possible. The working sheet should be changed first. The cockpit crew should closely observe this operation so as to give the right amount of slack whenever it is required. •  Once the old sail is completely un-hanked the bowman swaps the halyard from the head of the old sail to the head of the new sail.

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Helming

We tack and gybe to turn the yacht through the wind resulting in the sails changing sides. When we are sailing upwind we turn the boat so that the front of the boat passes head to wind; this is a tack. Downwind we turn with the back of the boat passing through the wind; this is a gybe. Both tacking and gybing require a lot of crew members as all of the sails have to be transferred from one side of the boat to the other.

On ‘Helm’s a lee’ make your turn. Just before you turn, look down a line perpendicular to the yacht’s heading and to windward. This gives you an idea of your new heading. Turn the yacht steadily and remember to start to straighten up before you think you need to.

When tacking or gybing all crew members must be in a safe position, ideally in the cockpit. Watch out for the boom and mainsheet which will travel across the deck. Also remember that the low side of the boat will become the high side and vice versa. Crew members in the snakepit should also be aware of the yankee sheets as they can flog wildly during a tack.

Preparation •  The new sail should be brought up from below tack first and pulled up to the bow along the windward side of the boat.

Tacking and Gybing

Tacking Raising the new sail • When the bowman, the mast men and the cockpit crew are ready the sail is hoisted smartly. The final tension is applied under the control of the bowman at the pulpit. • During the hoist the cockpit crew should endeavour to ease enough sheet so that the hoisting party is not battling against a partially filled sail but at the same time trying not to let the sail flog excessively. • Once the sail has been hoisted it is then trimmed immediately.

Tacking involves turning the bow of the yacht through the wind so that the wind moves from one side of the yacht to the other. The sails will also swap sides. In order for this to happen the yankee and staysail sheets will need to be released from the working winches and hauled in on the opposite side of the boat. The mainsail will change sides of its own accord however may need to be tended if the sheet is eased or if adjustment to the traveller is required. There are four basic command calls ‘Stand by to tack’ - Everyone should move into the correct positions by the relevant winches and prepare to tack.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS Communication is the secret here. The bow team, snake pit and cockpit need to work in unison. Remember communication is not just verbal; keep your head up and watch what is happening in other parts of the boat so you can react to their needs.

Tidying up • The old sail should be brought back on the windward side of the boat and neatly flaked with the luff forward. Be careful to pack it in the correct bag and have the tack end of the bag matched with the tack of the sail. • The sail bag is taken down below and the foredeck crew should place themselves along the foot of the old sail. These crew should position themselves as near to the tack of the sail as possible as they need to control and gather the main bulk of the sail.

‘Ready about?’ - This is a question: ‘Are you ready to tack?’ If you are shout, ‘YES!’ ‘Helm’s a lee’ - The helmsman is initiating the turn. Safety turns should be removed from winches. ‘Lee ho’ - The boat has turned through head to wind and sails should be released from the working winches and pulled in and trimmed on the new side.

On ‘Stand by to tack’ keep on going. Make sure you know which way you are going to turn (to windward).

‘Lee ho’ will be called sometime through your turn; just keep on going. As your experience grows, you will be making the calls through the tack and you will learn several techniques to make tacking easier.

Headsail sheets On ‘Stand by to tack’ one crew should go to each working winch, make sure the line is flaked and clear to run (no feet in the line etc). DO NOT REMOVE THE SAFETY TURN! Two crew should go to the lazy winches. One should make sure there are three turns on the winch, pull in any slack and be ready to pull the sheet in, whilst the other gets and holds a winch handle and readies themselves for winching. On ‘Helm’s a lee’ the crew on the working winches remove the safety turn. KEEP THE SHEET IN THE SELF TAILOR! On ‘Lee ho’, the crew on the working winch should spin the turns off the winch apart from the last turn which strips any twists out of the sheet, and LET GO! The crew on the lazy sheet should pull it in. When the sail is over on their side and they can no longer pull it in, the sheet should be loaded onto the winch and final tension applied by winching until the sail is trimmed for course.

Main sheet On ‘Stand by to tack’ make sure the slack has been taken up on both traveller lines and they are secured by the jammers. If the mainsheet has been eased, take the winch to three turns and prepare to pull in the slack during the tack.

There are four main action stations: running backstays, helming, headsail sheets and the main sheet.

On ‘Helm’s a lee’ pull in any slack in the mainsheet to prevent it catching on deck gear or crew as it passes across the deck. Once the yacht has settled on its new course, trim the main as appropriate. Wait for the main to settle on its new side before adjusting the traveller.

Running backstays

After each tack all lines should be tidied.

On ‘Stand by to tack’ one crew mans each running backstay winch. The lazy runner (on the low side) should be brought back until it is just touching the mainsail. It should then be loaded up onto the winch, and a winch handle inserted. DO NOT WINCH! On the working winch, all spare line can be thrown off. DO NOT REMOVE THE SAFETY TURN – the runner is still needed to support the mast! On ‘Helm’s a lee’ remove the safety turn from the high side winch. On ‘Lee ho’ ease the working runner to the guard position. Winch the new runner tight. Once the headsails have filled, on the new tack, send the old runner all the way forward and close the new runner tricing line clutch taking out any slack.

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WORKING WITH SAILS Gybing is similar to tacking – the difference is the stern of the yacht passes through the wind. Because of this the sails are powered up throughout and the mainsail particularly will come across with a bang. Gybing

Helming On ‘Stand by to gybe’ keep going straight but get an idea of what your new course will be. On ‘Bearing away’ start your turn. Keep the turn slow; you have a lot of time in a gybe. When the wind fills the main from the new side there is a tendency for the yacht to heel and round up. This can be avoided by a small amount of opposite rudder at the right time. When the yacht is under control and the main is filled from the new side, head up onto your new course.

The main is often well out and, for safety reasons, this needs to be brought into the centre before a gybe. It also allows the lazy runner to be brought aft. There are four basic command calls ‘Stand by to gybe’ - Indicates preparation for a gybe ‘Ready to gybe?’ - This is a question and needs an answer. If you are ready a ‘Yes’ will do, but if not call, ‘No’ and put your arm in the air to signal this as your shout may be drowned out by other crew’s shouts. ‘Bearing away’ - Indicates that the helmsman is initiating the turn. ‘Gybe ho’ - Indicates the boat has turned through the eye of the wind. As with tacking there are four main action stations: running backstays, helming, headsail sheets and main sheets.

Main sheet On ‘Stand by to gybe’ pull in the main, initially by hand and then winch it until the boom is secured in the centre of the boat. Also check that the slack has been taken up in both traveller lines and secure them both with the jammers. On ‘Bearing away’ wait for the mainsail to blow across the boat and then ease out the sheet in a controlled and smooth fashion. ‘Gybe ho’ will not be called until both headsails are backed, the mainsail will already have swapped sides by this time so do not wait for ‘Gybe ho’ to be called. Once the yacht has settled on its new course trim the main appropriately.

Running backstays On ‘Stand by to gybe’ one crew mans to each backstay winch. The lazy runner (on the low side) should be brought back as the mainsail is centred until it is just touching the back of the mainsail. It should then be loaded up onto the winch, and a handle inserted. DO NOT WINCH. On the working winch all the spare line can be thrown off.. DO NOT REMOVE THE SAFETY TURN - the runner is still needed to support the mast! On ‘Bearing away’ remove the safety turn from the old ’working’ runner and send it all the way forward. Whilst this is taking place the new working runner should be winched on tight.

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Headsail sheets On ‘Stand by to gybe’ one crew mans each working winch to make sure the line is flaked and clear to run (no feet in line etc). DO NOT REMOVE THE SAFETY TURN. Two crew should go to the lazy winches and make sure there are three turns on the winch and be ready to pull the sheet in. Two other crew should be ready on the coffee grinder and ensure it is connected to the lazy winch. On ‘Bearing away’ remove the safety turns from the working winches but keep the sheets in the self tailors. On ‘Gybe ho’ the crew on the working winches should spin the turns off the winch, just leaving the last one to strip any twists from the line, and LET GO! The crew on the lazy sheets should pull it in. When the sail is on their side and they can no longer pull it in, the sheet should be loaded onto the winch and final tension applied by winching. It is very important for the sheets to be held until ‘Gybe ho’ is called as, if they are released early, the sails will end up in front of the forestay. Winching them back is hard work, time consuming and may result in damage to the sail or hanks. After each gybe all lines should be tided.

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DECK ROLES

On board the Clipper Race yachts we have an ethos of full participation; you will be able to get involved in all areas of the boat. Often, however, we find that crew will go on to specialise in the areas where their strengths lie. By specialising they become more efficient at a job, understand how that job fits in with others on board, and this improves communication. In order for a crew member to specialise they need to understand all the roles so, even if you wish to be bowman, a few days in the snake pit will be invaluable. When training, specialisation is not encouraged, partly for this reason and partly to allow everyone to experience as much as possible. The definition of the roles below is not absolute; each team finds different defining edges to each job. Each watch should be able to fill each slot so when all the crew is up, there will be double the hands in each area. To avoid confusion, clear guidelines need to be laid down for situations when the whole crew is up, otherwise crew will get in each other’s way.

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Mast

Helm

The mast crew is normally made up of the last two members of the foredeck crew. They need to be able to work together in order to hoist as quickly as possible. Like the rest of the foredeck team they need to be strong and agile as well as being able to tie bowlines quickly under pressure and sometimes underwater!

The art of good helming is the ability to maintain a steady course and get the most out of the yacht in all conditions and especially in light winds.

Bow

Snake pit

Trimmer

The bow is the high adrenaline position on the boat. The bowman leads the team on the foredeck and anything in front of the mast is their responsibility. You will need to be agile, strong and prepared to get very wet as you will often need to climb out to the end of the bowsprit.

A good snake pit is always a step ahead of the game ensuring that each line is ready when needed.

A good trimmer has an eye for what works built up by experience through trial and error. They should not be afraid to reverse what they have just done in a bid to find optimum sail angles. Good communication with the helm is paramount.

Foredeck

Cockpit

Watch leader

The foredeck crew works closely with

The cockpit is where all of the sheets are controlled. Every crew member should be able to operate any point of the cockpit rapidly and accurately. If the cockpit crew get it wrong it can cause a lot of extra work for the rest of the crew.

The watch leader is the skipper’s right hand man. He or she is responsible for running the yacht when the skipper is sleeping. They must maintain a cohesive functioning team, coordinate sail changes and trimming as well as ensuring a steady course and standard of helming. In addition to this they must always have an eye on the meteorological and tactical situation. With good, all round knowledge they are able to act quickly to remedy a problem encountered during a manoeuvre.

the bow and should be able to step into their shoes if they are injured or on mother watch. They play a key role in sail changes and preparing sails pre-hoist, as well as helping at the mast with the mainsail during reefs. Like the bowman you will need to be strong and agile.

This is the centre of operations for every manoeuvre. In the snake pit you control all of the halyards as well as many other sail controls. You should be able to lay your hands on any line, day or night, and prepare it for action in a flash. A small mistake in the snake pit can disrupt the momentum of any manoeuvre.

A good helm should develop a natural feel for the yacht and have the ability to remain focused when everyone else is working rapidly around them. They are often the first to notice changes in wind direction or strength and should communicate this information to the Watch Leader.

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FURTHERING YOUR KNOWLEDGE Sail Trim

Racing Rules and Tactics

Weather

Sailing Theory and Practice

North U. Performance Racing Trim by Bill Gladstone

2013-2016 The Rules in practice by Bryan Willis

North U. Weather for Sailors by Bill Biewenga

The Complete Day Skipper by Tom Cunliffe

A clear, concise, well illustrated book explaining the Racing Rules.

North U Weather For Sailors explains weather from a sailor’s perspective, starting with global weather and narrowing in to explain how local forces and regional weather patterns interact to create the sailor’s weather. From there the workbook shows how to interpret forecasts and apply predictions to improve your sailing performance. Included are dozens of examples showing how to see if a forecast is ‘coming true’ and how to apply a forecast to a particular race or cruise.

Perhaps the best and most readable book on sail trim around. Covers sail trim, helmsmanship and boat handling with extra emphasis on honing your trim skills. Excellent for beginner and advanced.

North U. Trim CD The CD puts performance in motion and shows how changes in trim change the sailing performance of your boat. Use the interactive ‘sail shaper’ to see how different sail controls change sail shapes. Understand how to adjust angle of attack, depth and twist to match different sailing conditions. Detailed trim guidelines are provided for mainsail, jib, genoa, spinnaker and asymmetric spinnaker trim.

IRPCS International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea This gives the text of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCS) together with a commentary after each rule for yachtsmen. It is thus the most effective way for yachtsmen to become familiar with the ColRegs, as they are colloquially known.

www.sailtrain.co.uk/Irpcs/index.shtml Excellent tutorial for the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS The beauty of sailing is that there is always something new to learn. Read as much as you can and, if you have the opportunity, sail on as many different boats as possible. It is all great experience and will help you on your race.

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North U. Performance Racing Tactics by Bill Gladstone This is perhaps the best and most readable book on racing tactics around. It is perfect for both the beginner and more experienced. Topics include strategy, tactics, race preparation, starts, upwind, reaching, downwind, rounding marks and wind shifts.

North U. Tactics CD The CD covers starting, upwind and downwind topics, including strategy, tactics and rules using animations, graphics, photos, photo sequences, video, and the interactive wind shift simulators. Additional topics include mark rounding, finishing and distance racing tactics.

Navigation, Strategy and Tactics by Stuart Quarrie As the title suggests, this book covers all aspects of a fascinating subject. The layout makes it simple to extract information, while both the text and line diagrams explain a complex subject in easy to understand diagrams. Anyone who is interested in navigation or tactics should have a copy whether or not they are the navigator on the yacht.

RYA Weather handbook (Northern and Southern Hemisphere) by Chris Tibbs This RYA handbook explains the complexities of weather and is full of practical and useful advice on how to understand weather maps and improve your forecasting skills.

Weather at Sea by David Houghton Best selling colour-illustrated basic textbook on meteorology for yachtsmen. Set book for the RYA Coastal Skipper and Yachtmaster Offshore courses.

Weather on the web https://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/ Brilliant site for everywhere except southern Africa. http://grads.iges.org/pix/wx.html Good for far south but not very detailed. www.weathersa.co.za/ South African Bureau. www.bom.gov.au/nmoc/MSLP.shtml Southern hemisphere weather. Has archives – very good. www.nhc.noaa.gov/ US National Hurricane Centre, leads on to North Atlantic forecasts.

Very readable book covering basic boat handling, seamanship, navigation and life aboard.

Blue Water Sailing Manual by Barry Pickthall This is the manual for ocean sailing and racing offering up-to-date advice on topics as diverse as equipment, setting sails, rig strength, electronic navigation, weather routing, preparing the crew, boat handling, night sailing, heavy weather tactics, jury rigs, survival techniques and much more.

Ocean Sailing by Tom Cunliffe A full-colour guide to crossing an ocean, by a favourite author who has done lots of it, in a sailing or power yacht. Covers sextant work, ocean weather, navigation, skippering, etc. Ideal reading for the Yachtmaster Ocean certificate.

Racing Skipper – Techniques to Make You a Winner by Mike Golding A guide to winning in all types of yacht. Use the Golding technique to tune the boat, motivate the team and hone your strategy. As skipper of Group 4 Mike Golding won the BT Global Challenge and is one of UK’s most successful racing skippers.

Coastal and Offshore Navigation second edition by Tom Cunliffe Upgrade your navigation to Yachtmaster standard. This edition now also covers electronic navigation.

Seaman’s Guide to The Rule of the Road by JWW Ford An extremely useful visual aid. This easy to read study guide provides clear and simple questions and answers to a complex subject.

Sail and Rig Tuning – Ivar Dedekam An excellent book for novices and experts alike. In this book the author has distilled those rules of thumb and theories pertaining to sail trim and rig tuning commonly agreed upon among the sailing community. What makes this book different from most other books on this topic, is the short, concentrated text with adjacent corresponding illustrations.

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CLIPPER 2015-16 RACE TRAINING DATES

GLOSSARY OF BASIC TERMS Aft: toward the back of the boat. Backstay: Fixed length of wire from masthead to stern of boat Backstay: Fixed length of wire from masthead to stern of boat Bearing away: turning away from the wind. Boom: a pole running at a right angle from the mast. Bowsprit: Fixed strut protruding from the bow of the boat. Serves to keep the spinnaker away from the forestay Cleat: Used for securing mooring lines Clew: After corner of a sail Coffee Grinder: Used to drive either primary or mainsheet winches onboard Checkstay: Stabilises middle part of the rig Cunningham (also called a downhaul): adjusts the tension of a sail’s luff. Downhaul: line running out to the end of the bowsprit. Attaches to the tack of the spinnaker, used to control the shape of an asymmetric spinnaker

Mast: a pole usually going straight up from the deck, used to attach sail and boom.

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 2

Obstruction: an object that a boat could not pass without changing course substantially to avoid it, e.g. the shore, perceived underwater dangers or shallows.

2014 Dates

2015 Dates

2014 Dates

Outhaul: an adjuster that tensions the sail’s foot.

28th Feb - 6th Mar

27th Feb - 5th Mar

8th Mar

Port: the left side of the boat when you are looking forward.

7th Mar

- 13th Mar

6th Mar

14th Mar

- 20th Mar

21st Mar

- 27th Mar

28th Feb -

5th Mar

29th Mar - 3rd Apr

7th Mar

-

12th Mar

13th Mar - 19th Mar

12th Apr

- 17th Apr

14th Mar -

19th Mar

20th Mar - 26th Mar

31st May - 5th June

21st Mar -

26th Mar

28th Mar - 3rd Apr

27th Mar - 2nd Apr

14th June - 19th June

28th Mar -

2nd Apr

Reaching: sailing with the sail eased.

4th Apr

2nd Apr

5th July

4th Apr

9th Apr

Reefing: reducing the amount of sail area.

11th Apr - 17th Apr

10th Apr - 16th Apr

19th July - 24th July

11th Apr -

16th Apr

Rig: the arrangement of a boat’s mast, sails and spars.

17th Apr

17th Apr - 23rd Apr

26th July - 31st July

18th Apr -

23rd Apr

25th Apr - 1st May

24th Apr - 30th Apr

16th Aug - 21st Aug

25th Apr -

30th Apr

Port tack: wind across the port side. Primary winch: Biggest winch on a boat, normally used for yankee sheets Pulpit: fixed metal railing enclosing bow section of foredeck Pushpit: fixed metal railing enclosing aft deck area of boat

- 10th Apr

- 23rd Apr

- 12th Mar

- 8th Apr

-

2015 Dates 13th Mar

- 10th July

-

Fairlead: prevents chafe of mooring lines

Rudder: underwater part of a boat used for steering.

Forestay: fixed length of wire from masthead to bow of boat onto which yankee sails are attached

Running: sailing before the wind with the sail out. Running backstay: used to oppose the load of the inner forestay

2nd May - 8th May

1st May

- 7th May

6th Sept - 11th Sept

2nd May -

7th May

Foot: Bottom edge of a sail

Sail trim: the position of the sails relative to the wind and desired point of sail. Sails that are not trimmed properly may not operate efficiently. Visible signs of trim are luffing, excessive heeling and the flow of air past tell tales.

9th May

8th May

- 14th May

13th Sept - 18th Sept

9th May

-

14th May

16th May - 22nd May

15th May - 21st May

21st Sept - 26th Sept

16th May -

21st May

23rd May - 29th May

22nd May - 28th May

27th Sept - 2nd Oct

23rd May -

28th May

30th May - 5th June

29th May - 4th June

4th Oct

30th May -

4th June

Sextant: a navigational instrument used to determine the vertical position of an object such as the sun, moon or stars. Used with celestial navigation.

13th June - 19th June

5thJune

11th Oct - 16th Oct

6th June

-

11th June

27th June - 3rd July

18th Oct - 23rd Oct

13th June -

18th June

Sheet: Line used to control the trim of a sail

4th July

27th Oct - 1st Nov

Gybe: the action of turning the boat before the wind, i.e. turning her so that her stern goes through the wind. Halyard: Line used to hoist a sail Hank: Clip attached to the luff of a headsail used to attach the sail to a stay Head: Top corner of a sail Headsail: Any sail forward of the mast Head up: sailing closer to the wind. Inner forestay: fixed wire between upper section of the mast to the deck (runs parallel to forestay). The staysail is hanked onto this. In irons: boat is pointing into the wind, sail is flapping and probably also going backwards. Jackstay: a strong webbing strap running the length of the boat on each side. By clipping the lifeline to this, it ensures that Jack stays on the boat. Jammer/Clutch: Device used for holding lines in place when not on a winch. Kite: another commonly used name for a spinnaker. Lay line: the course on which your boat, sailing close hauled on starboard tack, can just make a windward mark which is to be rounded to port is the starboard tack lay line for that mark. The most windward line on which you would approach the mark on port tack is the port tack lay line. Leech: Aft edge of a sail

Seacock: a valve going through the hull which can be shut from inside the boat.

Shrouds: Fixed wires preventing lateral movement of the rig Spinnaker: a very large lightweight sail used when running or reaching. Spreader: spars extending toward the sides from one or more places along the mast. The shrouds cross the end of the spreaders, enabling the shrouds to better support the mast. Stanchion: Metal post supporting guardwire railing Starboard: the right side of the boat when you are looking forward. Starboard tack: wind across the starboard (right) side. Stern: the back end of a boat. Tack: Forward corner of a sail

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18th July - 24th July 25th July - 31st July 1st Aug

- 7th Aug

8th Aug

- 14th Aug

15th Aug - 21st Aug 22nd Aug - 28th Aug 29th Aug - 4th Sept

12th Sept - 18th Sept

Windward: the direction the wind is coming from, upwind. Yankee/Staysail car: moveable turning block for adjusting sheeting angle of headsails

- 11th June

- 9th Oct

11th July - 17th July

Traveller: Transverse track allowing sheeting point of the mainsail to be moved from port to starboard and vice versa

Letterbox: the gap between the foot of the mainsail and the boom.

Mainsheet: line that controls the position of the mainsail.

- 10th July

5th Sept - 11th Sept

Vang (also called a kicker): a device used to keep the boom from rising.

Luffing: pointing the boat into the wind, sail flapping.

- 15th May

Tacking: changing direction by turning the bow through the wind.

Leeward: the direction the wind is going downwind.

Luff: Forward edge of a sail

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Mark (buoy): an object the sailing instructions require a boat to pass on a specified side.

19th Sept - 25th Sept 26th Sept - 3rd Oct

2nd Oct

- 9th Oct

10th Oct - 16th Oct 17th Oct - 23rd Oct 24th Oct - 30th Oct

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PERSONAL LOG LEVEL 3

It is always helpful to keep a record of all the sailing you have competed, whether it is because you are working towards more advanced qualifications or just so that you can look back at your past experiences.

LEVEL 4 Provisional

2014 Dates

2015 Dates

2014 Dates

2015 Dates

1st Oct

- 6th Oct

11th Feb - 16th Feb

N/A

6th May

10th Oct

- 15th Oct

18th Feb - 23rd Feb

15th May - 21st May

17th Oct - 22nd Oct

25th Feb - 2nd Mar

25th May - 31st May

24th Oct - 29th Oct

4th Mar

4th June - 10th June

29th Oct - 3rd Nov

11th Mar - 16th Mar

14th June - 20th June

5th Nov

- 10th Nov

18th Mar - 23rd Mar

25th June - 1st July

12th Nov - 17th Nov

20th Mar - 25th Mar

19th Nov -

25th Mar - 30th Mar

24th Nov

26th Nov - 1st Dec

- 9th Mar

- 12th May

Dates From, To

Name of Vessel Class, Size

Details of Voyage Course Type, Race Leg, Port Visited

Days Onboard

Distance Logged

Night Hours

Skipper’s Signature

28th Mar 3rd Apr 2014

Level 1 Training Clipper 68 - EXAMPLE - EXAMPLE - EXAMPLE 7 180nm 0 Ben Bowley EXAMPLE - EXAMPLE Gosport UK

27th Mar - 1st Apr 1st Apr

- 6th Apr

8th Apr

- 13th Apr

10th Apr

- 15th Apr

15th Apr - 20th Apr 17th Apr

- 22nd Apr

22nd Apr - 27th Apr 24th Apr - 29th Apr 29th Apr - 4th May 1st May

- 6th May

6th May

-

8th May

- 13th May

15th May

- 20th May

11th May

22nd May - 27th May 29th May - 3rd June 5th June

- 10th June

12th June - 17th June 19th June - 24th June

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Name of Vessel Class, Size

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Details of Voyage Course Type, Race Leg, Port Visited

Days Onboard

Distance Logged

Night Hours

Skipper’s Signature

Dates From, To

Name of Vessel Class, Size

Details of Voyage Course Type, Race Leg, Port Visited

Days Onboard

Distance Logged

Night Hours

Skipper’s Signature

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RACE TRAINING OVERVIEW Level 2 Training Total duration: 6 Days Time on water: 5 Days Shore based training: 1 Day

Qualifications gained at Level 2 RYA Sea Survival

During Level 2 Training you will continue the development of basic sailing and seamanship skills from Level 1 but this level focuses more on the living onboard and sailing in a watch system. The course has a heavy offshore component with a number of nights spent at sea which will allow crew to experience life onboard at sea and experience the roles that occur whilst not on deck. This level includes a one day sea survival course. You will have received joining instructions in the month leading up to your Level 2 course. Please note that although the majority of Level 2 courses start on a Saturday, the location of where the course starts from may differ. On your arrival you will either be starting the RYA Sea Survival course, the location of which will be provided in your joining instructions, or you will need to make your way down to your boat where you will be met by your Skipper and Mate who will introduce you to the Clipper Race yacht that will be your home for the duration of the course. You will be briefed about the safety equipment and onboard systems. Out on the water the primary focus of the week is life onboard and sailing in watch systems. Remaining offshore for a number of nights will allow the crew to gain their first taste of the need for self- sufficiency at sea when racing across the world’s oceans.

Course Content Pre-course reading

Talks and demonstrations

Practical experience

Collision regulations

On board fixtures and fittings

Review all Level 1 topics

Basic sail trim

Safety equipment

Yankee and staysail trim

Sail trim

Mainsail trim

Collision avoidance

Man overboard (MOB) and MOB under poled out headsails

Basic chart work

Emergency steering

On board radio communications

Mother Watch

Daily engineering and safety checks

General yacht husbandry and basic maintenance

Poled out headsails

Helming techniques

Living to a watch rota

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LEVEL 2 SYLLABUS Test your knowledge

In watches crew are to refresh and cover the following skills:

- Reefing - Racing headsail changes - Sail trim including Tell tales Car positions and twist Use of vang Use of traveller Emphasise difference between upwind and downwind trimming

- -

Keeping a good look out Collision avoidance

• Anchoring • Revise emergency steering/storm sails On the final morning the yachts return to Gosport Marina early morning (0600-0800) for deep clean and debriefs, crew depart by 1600

b. The high side

9. What are the three edges of a sail called?

c. It depends what job you are doing d. Whichever is quickest

3. When should you wear your life jacket a. At all times on deck b. Only when you have your wet weather kit on

10. What is the name given to a rope used to hoist a sail? 11. What is the name given to a rope used to control a sail?

c. When you want to d. When there are one or more reefs in the main

4. What is the first action to be taken in the event of a man overboard?

12. What are the four control lines needed to pole out a yankee?

a. Stop the boat b. Throw the dan buoy c. Raise the alarm d. Drop the sails

5. What is the minimum number of turns that should be on a working winch when pulling by hand? a. one b. two c. three d. four

c: admiralty knot

Offshore phase

Watch keeping duties

a. The low side

1. a: Round turn and two half hitches; b: bowline;

Crew to be placed in watches and head out on offshore phase

8. What are the three corners of a sail called?

Tacking and upwind work including running backstays Downwind sailing, preventer and gybing Man over board (MOB) drill

2. Which side of the boat should you walk along while underway?

2. b

- - -

7. Name the five main points of sail.

3. a

d. Use a winch handle to hit the jammer so that it will open

c. In the end of a sheet?

4. c

Recap on:

- Mother watch - Yacht cleanliness and bilges kept dry - General yacht husbandry including basic maintenance when and if required (whipping, taping of split pins etc) - Daily engineer checks for both main engine and generator - Daily safety checks to ensure the yachts safety equipment is ready to be used - Steering gear checks

b. Attaching a sheet to the Yankee?

5. c

c. Wrap the line around your hand so you can’t let go

6. a

- Bilge pump systems - Raw water systems - Fresh water systems - Fuel systems - Safety brief - Engine generator check - Gas - Fire - Flooding - Abandon ship

MOB offshore and if conditions allow, at night Poled out Yankee Proper use of and maintaining the ships log Yacht maintenance and upkeep

a. Tying a fender to a stanchion?

b. Make sure you are holding the tail of the line tightly

7. Close hauled, fine reach, beam reach, broad reach, run

• • • •

a. Transfer the load from the jammer to a winch

8. Head, tack, clew

• Sea Survival course • Review the Clipper Race yacht system and emergency equipment

1. Name the type of knot you would use for the following:

9. Luff, leech, foot

The following applies to the on water practical days of the course and may not necessarily correlate with days one to six of the course:

To tell tales when going upwind Helming to a compass course Night helming/blindfold helming practice (feel the boat) Use of windex/sailing to wind angles (TWA downwind and AWA upwind) Target boat speeds/angles Communication from helm to watch leader of change in wind strength/direction, weight on the helm

10. Halyard

• All topics covered at Level 1 are to be reviewed and skills consolidated

- Helming

11. Sheet

Review of Level 1

6. What should you do before opening a loaded jammer?

12. Uphaul, downhaul, guy, yankee sheet

Level 2 Syllabus

Answers 101

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LIFE ON BOARD Life on board Watches

In order to race a yacht 24 hours a day the crew needs to operate in shifts or watches. Different boats will opt for different watch patterns; a common system is four hours on, four hours off during the night and six hours on six hours off during the day.

When on watch you are responsible for:

This system has the advantage of the opportunity for a long sleep during the day (six hours) while keeping your time on deck low at night. Six hours on deck in cold dark conditions can seem like a lifetime! No matter what system you work in there will normally be a mother watch system running alongside it. The on watch is responsible for running the deck; the mother watch cooks and cleans, whilst the off watch rests.

• Sailing fast

• Carrying out routine maintenance

In order to maximise the performance of your yacht the sails and helm will need constant attention. There is no substitute for good boat speed.

As the saying goes, if you look after your boat she will look after you. Routine maintenance will need to be carried out on a daily basis to keep your yacht running smoothly.

• Maintaining a good lookout

• Waking the new watch

When keeping a lookout, keep an eye out behind the yacht as well as ahead. It should not be up to the helm alone to spot other vessels.

The new watch should be woken in plenty of time to prepare for coming on deck. Some watches like longer than others, whilst differing conditions also affect the time taken to prepare. Twenty minutes to watch change is normally sufficient but 40 minutes should be given if the on-coming watch needs to eat.

• Navigating and maintaining the Ship’s Log The Log should be kept every hour, preferably on the hour or as near as possible if a manoeuvre is being carried out.

• Collecting weather data Weather reports should be received and reported as often as possible. These come in several forms. Synoptic charts and GRIB files will be sent to the fleet from the Race Office but other weather information can be gathered using the VHF radio and Sat C equipment.

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It often takes a crew 24 to 36 hours to settle into a watch system. These first few days can seem very hard as you are unlikely to sleep very well. Once a routine is established that allows plenty of time for rest whilst also keeping the yacht running efficiently, life will soon seem quite normal.

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LIFE ON BOARD Standing orders Each skipper will publish a set of standing orders. While these will vary from boat to boat the fundamental standing orders will be the same across the fleet. The aim of the standing orders is to enable the safe and efficient operation of the crew and yacht. The standing orders should be followed at all times and will include at least the following topics: •

Informing the skipper

Use of life jackets and life lines

Safety on deck

Winch safety

Ships Log and chart work

• Lookout •

Watch handover

• Traffic •

Safe navigation and passage planning

Gas procedure

Working aloft

• Smoking •

Ship and personal hygiene

Prescription medicine

Maintaining course control and standard of steering

Maintaining a cohesive functioning team

Coordinating sail handling and trimming

Avoiding other vessels

Keeping track of yacht positions by regular fixing

Ensuring an up to date log is kept

• Overseeing daily checks on standing and running rigging as well as all deck fittings and safety equipment • Analysing changes in wind strength and direction with a view to pass detailed information onto the skipper and navigator

When to wake the skipper The skipper is ultimately responsible for everything that happens aboard their yacht. However it is unrealistic to expect them to be awake all of the time; in fact it is important that everyone on board gets as much sleep as possible in order to be able to continue functioning as an efficient crew member. This is no different for the skipper. Before going below most skippers will tell the watch leader when or under what circumstances they should be woken. In order for the skipper to sleep they will need to be confident that they will be woken up when appropriate. The skipper should always be woken for any form of emergency or if the watch leader has any doubts concerning:

• Alcohol •

Drugs, weapons, laws of the land

• Swimming

any damage to the yacht or systems not working as expected

whenever visibility is reduced

Safety drills

It is very important that all crew members are aware of the standing orders and comply with them at all times. In the absence of the skipper from deck it is the watch leaders’ responsibility to ensure they are enforced.

The watch leader Each watch will be led by a watch leader. This will be a member of the crew who has been selected by the skipper to lead the watch in the skipper’s absence. To be a good watch leader you do not necessarily need to be the best sailor on board but you will need outstanding leadership, communication and decision making skills. These are required in order to motivate your watch, keeping them working together effectively and also making appropriate decisions concerning the performance and safety of the yacht within the boundaries set by the skipper. Responsibilities of the watch leader: • Ensuring the skipper’s standing orders and instructions are carried out by the crew

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• any injury or illness to any crew member

Waking the skipper when needed or if in any doubt

Sailing the yacht, her safety and the safety of the crew

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• whenever there is a significant (skipper to define) change in the expected weather conditions •

whenever another ship or yacht is within a three mile radius

• whenever a ship is considered to be on a collision course (irrelevant of distance) • when approaching land or a navigation hazard the skipper shall specify an ‘inform/wake me’ distance for known navigation hazards or land (eg. “Wake me when we are at this point or distance,”) whenever there is a concern or a question over set, drift or course to steer •

an MOB situation

an evacuation due to fire or flooding

• on receipt of urgent communications from other Clipper vessels, the Clipper Race Office or on receipt of any MAYDAY or PAN PAN call and •

whenever there is concern over the crew or ship’s safety

Nobody should hesitate to call the skipper. They are on call 24 hours a day. If in doubt, SHOUT!

Mother watch duties A high performance sailing team needs fuel in order to perform. It is the responsibility of the mother watch to prepare and serve food for the rest of the crew as well as cleaning and tidying the yacht in order to maintain a healthy crew and living area. Mother watch duties need to be taken very seriously. They form a fundamental part of a race team as without adequate good food the team cannot function. Take care when preparing the food and try to make it as tasty as possible. If you are not naturally a cook or do not have much experience, make sure you read the instructions. There is nothing worse than coming below after a cold, hard watch, dreaming about a hot cooked meal, to then be presented with something inedible.

Mother watch duties include: •

Assisting the duty watch on deck as required

Preparing meals and washing up

Helping re-pack sails

Keeping below deck clean and tidy

Cleaning heads and grab rails

Providing stand-in for any injured crew member

Encouraging the on watch to stay hydrated

Mother watch provides a change from the usual routine. Every crew member will take their turn as mother on a rota system. This also gives you an opportunity to catch up on some sleep as, provided no sails need stitching and help is not needed on deck, after the yacht is cleaned and all meals have been cooked and tided away you are left to your own devices. This normally results in the mother watch catching up on their sleep, enabling them to arrive on watch next day refreshed and raring to go.

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LIFE ON BOARD Nutrition and hydration The varied sailing environments that you will experience during the race result in dynamic nutritional and hydration requirements. During long distance races intense, vigorous activity needs to be supported with the appropriate intake of energy in order to sustain proper blood sugar levels throughout the event. Studies have shown that offshore sailors need to consume between 3500 and 5000 calories per day in order to sustain these high levels of exertion. This equates to about twelve portions of spaghetti Bolognese! The normal recommended daily intake is 2000 calories for women and 2500 for men. It is important to make sure you eat enough of the right type of food at regular intervals throughout the day in order to sustain your energy levels throughout each race.

The average, moderately active individual requires 1.9-2.6 litres of water per day. Compared to this an active, persistently sweating individual (for example an America’s Cup sailor in tacking duel) will require 1.8-2.0 litres per hour. They may need to replace upwards of 11 to 15 litres per day. The quantity of water you will require will not only be affected by your level of physical activity but also the climate. In hot, tropical conditions you will obviously need to consume more fluids. The most important thing is to monitor your own hydration level in order to prevent dehydration. It should be noted that someone who is only five per cent dehydrated will experience at least a thirty per cent drop in both physical and mental performance. “What colour is your urine?”

You may laugh but this is an excellent means to check your hydration levels. If you are fully hydrated your urine will be clear. If this is not the case the deepness of colour or lack of clarity gives a good indication of your level of dehydration. It is important to keep a regular check on this and adjust your fluid intake accordingly.

Ten food hygiene requirements when preparing food

Ten boat cleaning standards for good hygiene

• Always tell your skipper if you are suffering from any skin, nose, throat, stomach or bowel trouble or infected wounds • Keep any long hair away from face • Clean down any food preparation surfaces and wash hands properly • Cover any cuts and sores with a waterproof high visibility dressing • Make sure raw meat is kept and returned to the bottom of the cool box. It should always be stored in sealable containers • Cover food • In preparation, separate raw meats and ready to eat food and use separate chopping boards and preparation surfaces • Make sure food is cooked or reheated right through and is piping hot in the middle. Don’t reheat it more than once and cool leftovers quickly • Do not prepare any food which has passed its ‘Use By’ date • Clean knives and utensils thoroughly after use with raw food

• Use separate cleaning sets for the galley, the heads and below decks • Use a disinfectant cleaner in the heads, never in the galley • Use an antibacterial cleaner in the galley and for all food and hand contact surfaces • Always wash hands after visiting the heads, handling raw food, touching ready to eat food, cleaning the galley and heads and before preparing food • Clean as you go – clear away used equipment, spilt food etc., as you work and clean surfaces thoroughly • Clean food areas and between tasks, especially after handling raw food. In the galley dry your hands with paper kitchen towels not the tea towel • Wash any cleaning cloths after use and leave them to dry in the air • Store cleaning equipment away from food • As soon as rubbish bag is full, double bag it, tie it securely and store in the lazarette until next ashore to dispose of

Personal hygiene Personal hygiene is of paramount importance on board a yacht. You will be living in close proximity with the rest of your crew and life can become very uncomfortable and smelly unless everyone maintains high levels of personal hygiene. Due to the restricted availability of fresh water on board you will not be able to take a shower on a regular basis. Instead we recommend the liberal use of wet wipes to keep yourself clean. This is also much more practical in rough weather than trying to stand up in the shower. The use of antiperspirant/deodorant is also very important.

Water Dehydration may be the cause of poor sailing performance

Similar to a car needing fuel and oil, the body requires water and electrolytes to perform all the cellular processes necessary for both communication and function in the body. If water is low and electrolytes out of balance, cell communication deteriorates and systems do not function properly. It then becomes hard for the body to physically respond, limiting your ability to function effectively on board. It can sometimes be difficult to maintain good levels of hydration at sea as you need to consume much more fluid than usual. It is a good idea to carry a sports bottle with you all the time so you can drink at frequent intervals.

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Hygiene During the race up to 22 people will be living, eating and sleeping in the confined space of a Clipper Race yacht. In this situation good hygiene is of paramount importance in order to prevent the spread of bacteria and illness amongst the crew. If the crew becomes debilitated due to illness their ability to race effectively will be significantly reduced. There are three main areas where hygiene is of paramount importance • Cooking • Cleaning • Personal Hygiene

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS When cooking the meals remember that in most watch systems the crew eat in two shifts. If this is the case, cook foodstuffs such as rice, pasta etc in two lots. This way the amounts are smaller and each watch has fresh food.

On any long voyage fresh water needs careful husbandry. On the Race the yachts all have water makers on board however any piece of machinery can break down and water makers are no exception. In addition to the water maker the race yachts have water tanks but these too should not be totally relied upon. There is always the risk of contamination. For all these reasons you must bear in mind that rationing of water could occur. Careful husbandry of fresh water supplies should become second nature on the yacht. • Use salt water for washing of dishes and personal washing with salt water soap • Clothes can also be washed in salt water, saving fresh water to rinse them • Use a small cup of water when brushing teeth rather than running a tap

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LIFE ON BOARD The off watch When you are off watch it is important to ensure you get as much rest as possible. This is not always easy, especially in stormy

The following points should always be covered during a watch handover: • Course ordered and any navigational hazards expected during the next few hours

conditions nor the extreme temperatures of the Tropics. It is always worth remembering that you never know when you will get your next good sleep so take any opportunity you can to get some rest. The Clipper yachts have enough bunks for everyone on board so

Sails carried and present weather conditions

Wind and weather trends during previous watch

• Race tactical situation and skippers policy; for example, tack if the wind backs

Electricity

you will be allocated a bunk when you arrive. However this does not mean you will always sleep in it. When racing we operate a ‘hot

Movement of any shipping in sight or on radar/AIS

Electricity on board comes from batteries. These can only supply

bunking’ system. This is ensure everyone is sleeping on the high

Any other instructions from the skipper

a certain amount of electricity before they need to be charged.

side of the yacht which helps with the boat’s performance. In order

Therefore, when you have finished using a light, turn it off. The

Sail changes or checks performed during previous watch

to operate this system you will normally pair up with someone from

batteries are charged using the generator when at sea, whilst shore

the opposite watch who’s bunk is opposite yours. This way you

State of deck

power is used in harbour.

can always sleep on the high side. It is important to remember to

‘State of deck’ means anything unusual should be pointed out. Barber

keep the area around your bunk tidy and clean at all times as your

haulers, preventers, poled-out headsails etc should be all pointed out,

counterpart from the opposite watch may need to use it.

as should information such as, “The starboard Yankee halyard is on the

Stowage While on board you will have a bunk which comes with stowage space

middle winch (in the snake pit). We left it there so that we do not lose

for all your clothing. Space is limited so think carefully about what you

any more tension,” or “The kicker is on that winch so it can be eased

bring. There is no space to store suitcases on board so bring a soft

if the boom goes in the water. Someone needs to be standing by it all

bag instead. It is very important that you keep your bunk and stowage area clean and tidy to prevent your belongings being spread around the boat as it heels over. It cannot be guaranteed the stowage area will remain dry at all times, it is therefore highly advisable to use some form of waterproof dry bag.

Seasickness Seasickness affects different people in different ways. Some are not affected, while others are incapacitated. Each crew member normally develops his or her own methods of dealing with it. Some throw up

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS Living on board with 22 other people is as much of a challenge as sailing across the oceans. You will need to be tolerant but when problems arise deal with them quickly before resentment develops. Remember, never go to bed until the issue is resolved. As you will be going to bed three times a day that should nip any problems in the bud!

and get on with things, others eat ginger biscuits, whilst others know they will be better after a certain amount of time. The important thing to remember is that most people recover well after a short time, usually 24 to 36 hours or less. Once you know you get over it the actual experience is easier! During your training you will spend a significant period of time at sea and you will often find crew on day three enjoying a jovial meal down below in Force 6 or 7, when 48 hours earlier they were laid low in a Force 4 or 5. There is life after seasickness and until you know that,

Watch changeover The ongoing watch should put on oilskins and lifejackets before going on deck unless otherwise briefed when called. Harnesses must be clipped on before leaving the companionway. At night crew should call out their names as they come up as it is difficult to recognise people in the dark. The oncoming watch need to all

you will just have to trust us!

be on deck ten minutes before watch change in order to be briefed

Avoid working yourself up as this can make things worse. Crew often

going on deck as you will be a little disorientated at first. Give

get worked up about going below and nightfall. If you feel sick below,

yourself time to acclimatise.

and to give them time to settle in. Always remember to be careful

try to make it back on deck. If you are sick below, use a bag, try not to be sick in the heads or galley sinks as this can spread germs. On

The watch leader (or anyone who navigates on his/her behalf)

deck make sure you are clipped on and go to the low side aft. Let your

should carefully study the chart with the navigator they are

skipper know you are feeling sick.

relieving before going on deck. Watch leaders are to hand

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the time.” And so on.

Husbandry

The Clipper Race yachts will be your home for the duration of the race. Good habits of yacht husbandry and seamanship should become second nature. It helps with your comfort and the comfort of members of your team as well as safety. Good practices start from training and should be continued throughout the event. Everything ready for use Always tidy up after a job and put things away. Every piece of yacht kit has a stowage place and if the piece of kit is not in use, it should be stowed ready for when it is next required. Winch handles especially should always be re-stowed after use. Anything that can move, will move!

On deck Halyards and sheets must be stowed or coiled away for instant use and should be recoiled or stowed should they be disturbed. Before use, halyards should be flaked to ensure easy running. •

Don’t lash sails to the guardrails

• Keep checking the sails for chafe – using binoculars where necessary •

Ensure leach lines are at the correct tension

Don’t drop hatches

Watch out for and prevent wear and tear Keep all ropes taut – a flapping rope wears. Halyards that are not in use should be pulled taut and secured off the mast. The same applies to spinnaker sheets. Nothing should be flapping in the breeze. Routine checks and maintenance are a vital safeguard on a long voyage to ensure that everything is standing up to the strain. Anything out of the ordinary must be reported so that it can be investigated and remedial action taken.

over their watch on deck.

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LIFE ON BOARD Sheets and halyards should be adjusted regularly so that the section in the sheave is varied. Prevent sails chafing on spreaders, running backstays, shrouds and guard rails. Put leather patches on chafe points. Look out for cringles (eyelets) working loose. Try not to damage anything by thoughtless actions like dropping something heavy or slamming doors. A door swinging and banging down below is not only noisy but is damaging itself – tie it back. Sails should be folded carefully. •

If you see a job – do it

If you do a job – do it properly

Time spent in preparation and maintenance is seldom wasted

• Prevent plastic bags, drinks cans and loose items from blowing overboard. Ban loose items such as sandwich wrappings or the plastic yokes on multi-packs of cans of drink from coming on deck • If litter does find its way overboard use the opportunity to practice your man overboard procedure • Set an example to the rest of the crew by not throwing any litter (including biodegradable waste) overboard • Cigarette ends can last up to five years and can cause birds to starve if swallowed. If your team decides to allow smoking on board provide receptacles for cigarette ends • Remove as much excess packaging as you can before heading off to sea •

Recycle as much waste as possible as you would at home

There are two basic principles to remember in order to adhere to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. Fines can be levied against offending businesses or individuals who break these rules • It is illegal to dump any plastic, including synthetic fishing nets, ropes and plastic rubbish bags into the sea • Food waste and other ground garbage including paper products, bags, glass, metal and crockery must not be dumped within 12 miles of land

How long until it’s gone?

Rubbish

Traditionally, oceans were seen as vast areas in which rubbish was dumped regardless as it became invisible, either decaying or sinking. Today attitudes are different and the situation has changed, mainly because of the number of nonbiodegradable products that are used. Once thrown into the sea, non-biodegradable products may not sink or decay and can be fatal to marine life. Plastic bags can be mistaken for food by fish and seabirds and other marine life can try to eat them. Plastic material also entangles seabirds, seals, turtles and fish, trapping them and slowly choking them to death. There are a few things that you can do to help prevent pollution.

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Discover the decomposition rates of common debris and help save the planet and prevent more rubbish in our seas. Orange/Banana Peel:

2-5 weeks


Cigarette Butt:

1-5 years


Plastic Grocery Bag:

10-20 years


Tin Can:

50 years
 


Aluminum Can:

200 years


Plastic Bottle:

450 years

Fishing Line:

600 years


Glass Bottle:

1 million years

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ROLES ON BOARD In addition to sailing your boat and maintaining your boat during the race there will also be other roles that need to be fulfilled that may not seem that obvious initially. Medic

Engineer

Safety Officer

The race yachts are full of mechanical equipment such as generators, engines, watermakers, plumbing, pumps, steering gear etc. all of which require regular maintenance. The engineer is responsible for carrying out this work, ensuring that the yachts equipment remains in good working order. If things go wrong the engineer may be required to come up with improvised solutions to keep the yacht operating until it reaches port.

The role of the Safety Officer (SO) is to ensure that all safety equipment is checked and maintained in a fully operational condition. The role will include ensuring that all safety equipment is on board prior to the start, is fully operational and undamaged and if relevant is within its service dates. The role also includes ensuring that all crew are kept up to date and trained on how to use the safety equipment correctly i.e. running fire drill practice. The SO will also ensure that new crew joining the yacht are fully briefed on the operation of safety equipment and are familiar with drills.

This role is normally filled by someone who has medical training, a doctor, nurse, paramedic or even a vet. Working with the skipper (who is also medically trained) they take responsibility for the welfare of the crew, treating any illness or injuries that occur on board. The medic is supported by doctors in the UK who are on call 24 hours a day to offer advice and support, as well as other medics within the fleet who offer advice within their own areas of expertise.

Stopover Manger

Sail repair In any ocean race it is inevitable that sails will be damaged and need repairing. When a spinnaker is blown it is replaced by a smaller, heavier sail. The down time can cost miles so it is important to be able to repair them as quickly as possible. The Clipper yachts carry heavy duty sewing machines for this purpose.

Boat Secretary

The sail maker/repairer will often find themselves working under great pressure in hot, cramped conditions.

Photography and media State of the art satellite communications systems are on board each Clipper 70 makes it easy to send back video and photos to Race HQ, as well as live broadcasts mid-race. James Rogers, media and round the world crew member on board Qingdao, said: “On board we decided that keeping the best record of our adventure was going to be really important from
the off. We took advantage of all the kit that
the media team provided, as well as the cameras that crew had brought to capture the action. “It is just the simple pleasure of looking back over the videos, photos and blogs and being reminded of one of the thousands of memories that you find hard to believe are real when you have returned to your normal life.”

Chief of Staff / Skipper’s PA This is a highly demanding role as the Chief of Staff (CoS) is responsible for the majority of administration related to the day to day running of a race yacht. The skipper’s time requires careful management and it is important for them not to try and micro manage the campaign. The CoS will normally liaise with the Clipper Race Manager and the Boat Secretary to ensure that the skipper is presented with all pertinent information in a timely manner. Via the CoS, the skipper can then delegate tasks to the various other heads of department within the team.

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Helps to co-ordinate team events/contacts and acts as a useful focal point for communications to the skipper and CoS. This is a great position for someone doing a later leg of the race as a lot of their job requires them to have a decent internet connection and the ability to provide information for leggers waiting to join the boat. The boat secretary will normally also manage the team’s social media threads.

Social Secretary This role would either suit a round the world crewmember or a group of leggers acting as a committee. Responsibilities include: Organising all crew social events, crew parties, management of the crew kitty, sorting out crew entertainment whilst racing and the organisation of crew clothing. This role requires significant commitment prior to the start and at each stop over.

The Stopover Manager works in conjunction with the skipper and the CoS to manage the day to day maintenance and activities that are required to be carried out during each of the stopovers. This position requires a lot of commitment in port and will normally be shared around the crew from stopover to stopover to ensure everyone gets their fair share of R+R between races. Crew members with hands on project and man management experience would be well suited to this role.

Bosun The Bosun is responsible for the routine maintenance, care and repair of all sailing related deck equipment including sails, standing and running rigging, winches, halyards, sheets, guys, blocks, stanchions, guard wires, dinghy, etc. The Bosun will organize the repairs and maintenance pre-start, during each leg and at each stopover port, ensuring sufficient spares and tools are carried on board and topped up when used. They are also responsible for ensuring the deck and hull of the yacht look clean, tidy and free from rust stains before arrival in port. Some training will be given for this role prior to the start. While the Bosun manages all of the above, they will be calling on team mates of assistance with the rolling jobs list.

Quartermaster/Chief Victualler This role carries significant amounts of responsibility. The role of the Quartermaster is to ensure that all the correct supplies are purchased, prepared, loaded and correctly stowed aboard prior to the start of each race. Their main responsibilities include: Organising the menu plan (taking into account the nutritional and dietary requirements of the crew for each specific leg), organising the purchases of food stores in each port, managing the menu whilst at sea, tracking the usage of stores and implementing stock takes pre-stopover. This position would ideally suit a round the world crewmember with experience in organising logistics, menus and food supplies for large groups of people. The Quartermaster will be assisted by several other crewmembers at each stopover and will also be responsible for managing the yacht’s food budget on the skipper’s behalf.

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RULE BOOK HIGHLIGHTS International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGS)

Rule 12 Sailing vessels a) When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of other as follows:

As you will know from your Level 1 training, the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) incorporate a vast number of rules. It is very important that everyone who goes to sea has a good understanding of the rules in order to enable each of us to play our part in preventing a collision at sea. It is not our intention to present you with all of the rules of the road here. There are many books which already do this and some of these can be found in the further reading section. However, we will highlight a few selected rules that have particular relevance to the race and sailing vessels.

i. When each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other;

ii. When both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward;

iii. If a vessel with the wind on the port side sees a vessel to windward and cannot determine with certainty whether the

Rule 5

other vessel has the wind on the port or starboard side, she

Look out

shall keep out of the way of the other.

Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and the risk of collision.

Rule 7 Risk of collision Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist.

b) For the purposes of this rule the windward side shall be deemed to be the side opposite to that on which the mainsail is carried or, in the case of a square rigged vessel, the side opposite to that on which the largest fore-and-aft sail is carried.

Rule 16 Action by give way vessel Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, as far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.

A yacht should take a series of compass bearings on a closing vessel. Unless the bearings change appreciably, a risk of collision exists.

Rule 17 (abridged) Action by stand on vessel a) i. Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed

ii.  The latter vessel may, however, take action to avoid collision by her manoeuvre alone as soon as it becomes apparent to her that the vessel required to keep out of the way is not taking appropriate action in compliance with the rules.

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SAILS Basic sail trim The purpose of this section is not to be an exhaustive guide to sail trim (the web and books in the recommended reading section are excellent) but to give the basic theory of how sails work as well as how to maximise their performance. Your training and race skippers will spend a large portion of the training time talking to you and teaching you about sail trim. And rightly so; the difference of 0.1 knot in boat speed equates to 2.4 miles each day which, at the very least, gives you about 20 minutes extra in port and, at worst, could be the difference between first and last place.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS Good boat speed is vital when racing, without it you will soon drift to the back of the fleet. Always remember, TRIM, TRIM, TRIM and then TRIM again!

Definitions Before we can start discussing sail trim we need to define a common language. Only once we are able to describe sail shape can we look at the difference it can make to a boat’s performance. Draught – This is the depth of the sail at its deepest point Chord length – This is the horizontal distance from a sail’s luff to a leech. Draught position – This is the position of maximum draught. It is measured along the chord length from the mast and is usually expressed as a percentage. For example, if a sail’s maximum draught is half way between the luff and leech the draught position would be 50 percent.

Luff Draught position

The pessimist complains about the wind; The optimist expects it to change; and the realist adjusts the sails.

Basic sail shape can be described by the amount of draught and its position along the chord length

Draught

Chord length

William Arthur Ward

Leech

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SAILS How sails work The theory of lift In order to sail we rely on air flowing around a sail (or wing). Air flowing against the concave inner surface is slowed due to friction with the surface of the sail, while the air flowing around the convex outer surface of the sail accelerates. If the air flowing over the outer surface of the sail did not accelerate a vacuum would form. If this were to happen the air would be drawn in to fill the vacuum, thus flowing faster.

Air flowing around the outside convex surface travels faster than the air on the inner concave surface.

We have now established that air accelerates as it flows around the outside of a sail. Bernoulli’s principle states, “As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases.” Therefore the air flowing around the outside of the sail exerts a relatively low pressure on the sail and creates lift. It is this lift that drives the boat forward.

High Pressure

Low Pressure

Difference in pressure creates lift

The lift acts as perpendicular to the sail at the point of maximum draught. The lift generated has two components – one forward and one sideways. Assuming the shape of the sail does not change, when the sail is sheeted in the lift produces a lot of sideways force, and when the sail is eased out, then the lift produces lots of forward force, and a little sideways force. If the air flowing around the outside did not flow faster a vacuum would form at the leech

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS Never be afraid to re trim the sails but always do it in measurable steps. This way if your changes cause the boat to slow down you can return the sails to the original settings and return the boat to its original speed. It is only through trial and error that you will learn the intricacies of sail trim.

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Use of ‘tell tales’ Tell tales are very simple and highly effective trimming devices attached to the luff of headsails and the leach of the mainsail. We shall explain the use of leach tell tales in the Level 3 section of this manual. There are two important factors to remember when using tell tales on headsails. Firstly, they will not work when sailing deep downwind because if the apparent wind is very far aft, the sails are no longer working as aerofoils. The second point to bear in mind is that they work most effectively once the correct amount of leach twist has been set. This is done by moving the sheet cars to the appropriate position. We shall explain this in more detail after looking at how tell tales work. Tell tales are a visual representation of how well the air is flowing over either side of the sail. If the tell tales on both the windward and leeward sides of the sail are flowing straight along the sail in a fore and aft direction, there is a good, equal and attached laminar flow of air over the sail. The tell tales will start to flutter and point upwards when there is turbulent air on one side of the sail.

What we aim to see is the leeward tell tales steaming straight aft and the windward ones pointing just slightly up from the horizontal. This will provide the best compromise between speed and pointing ability, or Velocity Made Good (VMG) to windward.

The forward component acts against drag (friction) caused by the air and the water and what is left causes the boat to accelerate. When the forward component equals the drag, the yacht is travelling as fast as it can in the conditions (i.e. it is no longer accelerating). The sideways force acts against the lateral resistance of the keel, rudder and hull. The keel and rudder also act as foils, and generate their own lift as they travel through the water. In order to maximise the boat’s speed in the right direction, we want to minimise the resultant sideways force and any drag caused, whilst maximising the resultant forward force. Two or more sails can be used together to increase the lift generated. When the sails are set together correctly then the combined lift generated is greater than the sum of both sails independently. So, when setting the headsails, think about how they affect the main and vice versa. The spinnaker also acts as an aerofoil. It also interacts with the mainsail.

The reason this happens is because there is not enough air passing over that side of the sail to keep a good laminar flow of air attached to the inside of the sail. Conversely, if the boat is sailing too far away from the wind then the outside (leeward) tell tales will start to flutter due to them not getting enough clean air passing across them.

The easiest way to understand tell tales is when sailing as close to the wind as possible. When sailing close hauled, the headsails are sheeted in as close to the centreline as possible, and the tell tales can be used to steer the boat by. If the boat is pointing too close to the wind then the inside (windward) tell tales will start to point up and flutter.

As soon as our course dictates that we start to ease sheets, tell tales are used to assess how well trimmed our headsails are. If the windward tell tales start to flutter, see figure 2, we need to sheet on and present more of the inside face of the sail to the wind, thereby re-attaching a good laminar flow of air to that side of the sail. If the leeward tell tales start to flutter, see figure 3, we need to ease the sheet and present more of the outside of the sail to the wind. One final point to remember is that a sail is always most efficient just before its point of collapse. It is therefore best to ease the sheet until the windward tell tales just start to break away and flutter and then sheet the sail back in a small amount until both sides are streaming nicely fore and aft along the sail.

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SAILS Headsail car position Our aim when setting headsail cars is to have an equal amount of tension on the foot and the leach of the sail. If the car sits too far forward on the track, the leach becomes tight before the foot and we lose drive from the lower parts of the sail. If the car is too far aft, the foot becomes tight before the leach and air will spill out of the upper parts of the sail, this is known as twist. We can use our tell tales to assess if we have too much or not enough twist in our headsails.

If we luff up and the bottom windward tell tale starts to flutter first, it indicates that the sail has too little twist and not enough air is flowing past the bottom parts of the sail. To correct for this we move the car aft. If we luff up and all the windward tell tales break and flutter simultaneously then we have the correct amount of twist.

A good rule of thumb when initially setting headsail cars is to have the sheet angle bisecting the sail and pointing to approximately half way up the luff of the sail.

From this starting point, we can then use the tell tales for fine tuning. If we deliberately point a little too close to the wind (luff up) and watch the tell tales, we will normally see that either the top or the bottom windward tell tale will start to flutter first. If the top flutters first, it indicates that the sail has too much twist and the top of the sail is spilling air. To correct for this we move the car forward.

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This method works when reaching under white sails too. After we bear away and ease the sheet then we need to move the car forward to bring the top windward tell tale back into line as easing the sheet changes the sheeting angle of the sail. We would normally only do this if we are planning to stay on the same point of sail for a decent amount of time as moving the cars when the sheet is loaded can be a little tricky. When we change to a different sized headsail, we always need to move the cars. This is because the clew of the sail sits further forward the smaller the sail is and therefore the sheeting angle changes. Once you start sailing on your own boat on Level 4 training, you will compile a list of different car positions for different sails on all points of the wind. This will allow you to quickly set the cars during headsail evolutions.

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EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Emergency Situations and Sea Survival

Search and Rescue

Abandonment to liferaft

In the event of a yacht having a man overboard or having to

Safety is the number one priority during training and on the race. Before you race oceans you must be familiar with all the safety equipment and procedures on board.

abandon ship the whole Clipper Race fleet, as well as any

Before a rescue helicopter initiates a rescue they will contact the

The thought of having to abandon a yacht and seek the sanctuary of a liferaft is a sobering one and, for the majority of us, it is something we will never have to experience.

boat via VHF radio. Always remember that they are experts and

Before we go to sea it is important that we understand the

their instructions should be carefully followed. Everyone onboard

process in case the worst should happen.

To maximise your chances of survival at sea four priorities need to be attended to: protection, location, water and food.

Protection

commercial vessels in the area, will be required to assist with the search and rescue operation.

Helicopter rescue

We all hope that we will never have to abandon our boat but we must always be prepared. Make sure you know the location of all of the liferafts and how to launch them in an emergency but remember: your best chance of survival is to stay with the yacht for as long as possible.

needs to be briefed about what is going to happen as when the helicopter is overhead it is very noisy on the yacht and communication

One of the major lessons learnt from the Fastnet Race disaster of

is almost impossible.

1979 was that the yacht remains your best survival craft and should

Attend to any injuries or disabilities and set up the canopy to provide protection from the elements.

never be abandoned unless it is on the point of sinking. Of the 48

If the decision to abandon ship is made then the actions

yachts abandoned during the storm, 38 were later recovered. By

to be taken are as follows:

contrast, five of the 15 crews who took to the liferafts reported that they were capsized by the seas and one liferaft broke up

Location

completely. The design of liferafts has been greatly improved but

You must be located, seen and heard by rescuers. Equipment for this

the simple lesson is stay with the yacht whenever possible.

ranges from emergency locator transmitters, night and day flares and Each Clipper 70 has three 12 person liferafts, thus enabling the

distress rockets to strobe lights, whistle, torch and reflective tape.

entire crew to be saved even one raft should be lost. It is important

• Crew musters on deck with lifejackets and oil skins. If time allows, spare warm clothing should be stuffed into oilskins pockets and survival suits should be worn •

Send distress message by all means possible

Gather grab bags containing:

Water

that everybody knows onboard knows where the liferafts are

-

Sourcing drinkable water is difficult at sea. Generally you need

stowed and how they are launched. The liferafts are only used on

- EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating and Reporting Beacon)

-

command from the skipper or senior person present and will only

at least two litres of water each day to sustain normal bodily

be used in extremes, i.e if the vessel is sinking or if there is an

functions. Without water most people will not survive longer than

uncontrollable fire.

three to four days.

It should be noted that stability and protection from the elements

Food An average adult can survive 25 to 30 days without food. Do not eat until your water problem is solved. Food such as chocolate and fish require water to digest them and, as such, are not ideal emergency rations.

Below is a guide, but remember each circumstance is different and the aircrew are in charge, so it is important to follow the instructions that they give you to the letter. • Stow all loose gear on deck as the downdraught from the helicopter is very strong

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS It has always been the tradition at sea to help those in danger and should we get into trouble we can still rely on this today. But remember the cavalry is not necessarily going to come charging over the horizon immediately. Although the response will be instant, the closest rescuers may be hundreds of miles away and will take time to reach you.

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• If necessary use a hand held flare or smoke flare as a signal to the helicopters. Never use a rocket flare if a helicopter is nearby • Always follow the pilot’s instructions • The helicopter will lower a lightweight line. This line develops a static charge as it is being lowered so you should not touch it until it has been earthed by being dipped in the water • Once you have hold of the end of the line the diver will be lowered. Pull in the line and flake it into a bucket •

When the diver indicates, pull him on board

The diver will then take charge of the situation

Emergency rations and survival equipment

SART (Search and Rescue Transponder)

- Torches

are largely a matter of size, thus the Clipper 70 provides greater

-

Hand held VHF radio and GPS

potential for safety than a life raft. Only extreme damage should

-

Additional food, flares and water should also be collected

-

Documents such as log book, charts and passports

-

Medical kit and personal medication

lead to the abandonment of a vessel since the use of emergency pumps and watertight bulkheads and doors can control flooding.

• Liferafts should be launched on the leeward side after checking that the painter is attached. If the boat is on fire it may need to be launched to the windward side • Strong members of the crew should board each liferaft first in order to load stores and assist those weaker than themselves. Try and stay dry when boarding the liferaft • The liferafts should then be tied together and the painter cut allowing the liferaft to drift clear of the vessel •

Everyone should take sea sickness pills once onboard the liferaft

Everyone should also urinate after getting in the liferaft

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EMERGENCY SITUATIONS RYA Sea Survival A one day course providing an understanding of how to use the safety equipment onboard your boat.

Session 3: Medical aspect to sea survival Subjects covered •

Effects of immersion

Cold shock

A genuine lifesaver

Protective measures

Long term immersion

The one day basic sea survival course consists of theory sessions in a classroom followed by a practical session in an indoor swimming pool. All the instructors are approved RYA Sea Survival Instructors with over 25 years practical experience. They are supported by fully qualified lifeguards and all the instructors are first aid qualified.

• Hypothermia

On commencement of the training all students are required to complete a short medical questionnaire, this won’t restrict any student , it is only required to inform the instructors if additional precautions need to be introduced to the practical session, such as inhalers etc.

The theory session consists of four presentations on the following: Session 1: Principles of survival (the basics) Subjects covered •

Principles of survival

Survival requirement (what makes you a survivor)

• Prevention • Protection

Post immersion

Secondary drowning

• Frostbite •

Session 4: Location and recovery Subjects covered •

Rescue equipment and how to use it

How to be rescued using a rescue vessel and helicopter

Session 5: Practical This session is designed to put into practical use the lessons learnt during the theory sessions. You will spend up to a maximum of two hours in the pool area. All trainees will be wearing 150N lifejackets during the practical session. The practical session will cover: • How to inflate a liferaft and transfer a full complement of crew into the raft from the poolside and from the water

• Location • Water

Immediate actions on boarding

• Food

How to right a capsized liferaft

How to haul a casualty into a raft

How to tow an unconscious person

Assistance using throwing line to recover nearby survivor

Session 2: Modern lifesaving equipment Subjects covered • Lifejackets

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Heat exhaustion

• Burns

Launching a liferaft

Actions on entering a liferaft

Righting a liferaft

Casualty recovery

Immediate actions on boarding a liferaft

Secondary actions on boarding a liferaft

You will be awarded the one day RYA Sea Survival Certificate on completion of the course. You will also be given a sea survival booklet.

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RACE TRAINING OVERVIEW Level 3 Training Total duration: Time on water:

6 Days 6 Days

Course Content Pre-course reading

Talks and demonstrations

Practical experience

Racing Rules

70 Orientation

Review Level 1 and Level 2 Topics

Advanced Sail Trim

Racing Rules

Clipper 70 Familiarisation

Start Line Tactics

Spinnaker Hoists

Advanced Sail Trim

Spinnaker Trim

Spinnaker Gybes

Spinnaker Drops

Helm Coaching

Advanced Sail Trim

MOB under Spinnaker

Race Boat Handling Skills

Introduction to Level 3 training While continuing to draw on the skills learnt on the previous levels, Level 3 will introduce you to the Clipper 70 and asymmetric spinnaker work. This level enables you to further develop your sailing skills and acquire new sail trim and racing techniques in an offshore environment. After a day of Level 1 and 2 consolidation, you will head offshore to sail around a simulated race course. The course will incorporate plenty of spinnaker drills and will span a number of nights at sea.

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Although the procedures and general deck handling of a Clipper 70 are the same as on a Clipper 68, the new boats are faster, more powerful and less forgiving to sail. They feel very different on the helm and require different trim settings to attain their maximum performance potential. The hull shape is designed for achieving electrifying speeds down wind and as a result, they can be hard to get in the groove when sailing on the wind. The 70s are real racing thoroughbreds that in the right hands can deliver excellent performance. The key difference is the type of spinnakers used. The 70s utilise asymmetrical spinnakers flying from a fixed bowsprit, whereas the 68’s employed symmetrical spinnakers with twin poles. The use of asymmetric spinnakers simplifies the processes for rigging and gybing the sail and also changes the way in which the boat has to be sailed tactically. An asymmetrical spinnaker cannot be sailed as deep downwind as a symmetrical spinnaker. This means that to achieve a decent Velocity Made Good (VMG) downwind the boat must be gybed more frequently.

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LEVEL 3 SYLLABUS Level 3 practical syllabus 6 days, crew arrive at 0830 on first day and depart at 1700 on last day

• Racing rules and race tactics theory chats and then to be applied practically, to include:

Day 1 and 2

• •

Complete safety brief as per the annex in the SOPs Recap on previous training including

- Upwind work, tacking and running backstays - Downwind work, use of preventers and gybing - Reefing - Racing headsail changes (changing up to bigger sails only) - MOB

Day 3 to 6 •

Asymmetric kite training to include:

- Setting up the asymmetric kite ready to hoist - Hoisting the kite - Show and explain the reason for leaving the lazy sheet/tack retrieval line ready for a letterbox drop - Dropping the kite (do this before gybing so crew understand the actions if needed) - Gybing the kite with a preventer - Helming with a kite - Trimming a kite including

Sheet Mainsheet raveller Tack line What to do in a broach, dump the vang! - MOB under kite • Offshore race training - Crew to be given a race course to sail round - Crew in watches to simulate a race and whilst keeping the boat racing carry out duties including Mother watch Engineers Safety checks Proper use of ships log Ensuring weather forecast are obtained by VHF

- - -

Practise race starts Sail selection Upwind performance headsail and mainsail fine tuning

Angle of attack Shape (draught) Twist Changing ‘gears’ on the boat to suit prevailing conditions • Ocean racing rules • Definitions - Clear astern - Clear ahead - Overlap • Keep clear • Leeward and windward • Obstruction • Proper Course • Luffing • Mark Rounding and giving mark-room • IRPCS (not RRS) at night

Introduction to the asymmetric spinnaker

Preparing for hoist:

• Bring the spinnaker on deck and make sure to immediately attach the bag to the guard rails on the leeward side,

Asymmetric spinnakers operate more like a Yankee, generating lift from the side, rather than the top like a symmetric spinnaker. This makes asymmetric a better choice on reaching courses, than symmetric spinnakers which excel when running. Due to this, when using asymmetric spinnakers, a better VMG downwind can be achieved if you sail at a shallower angle and gybe more often, rather than trying to sail too deep and slow.

as far forward as possible on the foredeck • Next, the sheets need attaching to the clew of the sail. The sheets need to run outside of everything and come back over the top of the guardrails before attaching to the sail. Make sure the lazy sheet does not drop over the end of the bowsprit and get pulled under the boat • The tack line should be then run either under the sheets (for outside gybes) or over the sheets (for inside gybes) and attached to the tack of the spinnaker • The tack of the sail then needs ‘sneaking’ to the end of the bowsprit, by hauling in on the tack line. We are now ready to hoist the sail.

Another advantage of asymmetric spinnakers over symmetrical spinnakers is that they have fewer control lines and are easier to set up, hoist, control and drop. The tack attaches to a tack line run to the end of the bowsprit, the head to a halyard and the two sheets to the clew. However, unlike a Yankee, the luff is not hanked on to the

Day 6 • • •

Yachts to return between 0100 - 0400 Deep clean and debrief Crew depart at 1700

forestay and is instead ‘loose luffed’. This allows the sail shape to be dramatically changed by tensioning or loosening the halyard. Lazy Sheet Tack Line

Outside Gybe

Active Sheet Spinnaker bag

Inside Gybe

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SAILS

Trimming an asymmetric spinnaker

Flying a spinnaker well requires excellent communication between the trimmer, and constant attention to the sheet. The trimmer should always have their eyes on the luff of the spinnaker, watching for the amount it curls. A well trimmed spinnaker should always have a small amount of luff curl as this indicates the sail is eased as far as it can be before it collapses (remember, a sail is most efficient just before its point of collapse). If the luff starts to curl dramatically and it looks like the whole sail is about to back and collapse, the sheet needs tensioning.

The hoist The helm needs to steer a course deep downwind so that the main and headsail blanket the spinnaker, allowing it to be hoisted all the way without filling prematurely

Conversely, if the luff is not curling at all then the sail is over-sheeted and the boat will be sailing slowly. In this case, the sheet needs to be eased until the luff starts to curl again.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS It is vital the crew work as a team, the helm will constantly be looking for feedback from the trimmer and the navigator/tactician to make sure the racing yacht is in the best position relative to your competitors.

Crew positions: •  Sheet trimmer needs to be in a position they can see the luff of the sail and communicate well with the helm. The trimmer should NOT sheet on until they hear the call of ‘made’ from the halyard sweater • Grinders need to be ready on the coffee grinders to sheet on the sail once the trimmer calls ‘grind!’ • Pit crew ready to adjust the tack line and tail spinnaker halyard (prepared to grind the last of the halyard if the sail fills before a full hoist can be completed by the mast crew) • One or two mast crew ready to sweat the halyard •  Bowman on foredeck ready to help spinnaker out of the bag • Once all crew are in position and ready, the command to,

under trimmed

“hoist!” is given by person running the deck (usually the watch

correctly trimmed

over trimmed

leader or skipper) • Halyard is sweated until the head of the sail reaches the top of the mast; sweaters then call, “halyard made!” • Once the trimmers hear the call of, “made” they sheet on hard and fast to pop the wool and open the spinnaker • Crew then swiftly drop and secure the headsail on the foredeck to allow the spinnaker to breath and fly properly

far downwind as possible. In the stronger gusts, the helm will

also be providing a constant flow of information to the helm about

be able to bear away whilst keeping the sail pulling well, but when

how much pressure/power there is in the sail. I.e:

the wind goes light, the helm must head up to keep plenty of

“I’m losing pressure in the sheet, come up higher.” Or...

dialogue with the trimmer. Together they helm the boat and trim

“I’ve got a lot of pressure here, come down lower.”

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

The aim is to keep the sail fully powered up whilst sailing as

possible without the spinnaker collapsing. The trimmer should

• The helm then settles the boat onto course and starts a steady the sail to attain maximum VMG downwind

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The trimmer’s goal should be to keep the sheet as eased as

drive in the sail by increasing the apparent wind strength. Spinnaker trim takes time and practice to get right. The more time you can spend trimming the spinnaker during training, the better.

Tack line is adjusted to create appropriate luff tension

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HELMING Tack line

The tack line should be seen as an active trimming component and although it is not adjusted as often as the sheet, it will still require regular attention and adjustment. The tack line controls the tension in the luff of the spinnaker and due to this, also moves the draft position in the sail, fore and aft. After the initial setting of the sail, the tack line should be adjusted using the following rules of thumb:

Helming Downwind

Trimming on and easing out on the mainsail will move the centre

The importance of the spinnaker trimmer

effect on the balance of the boat.

Helming downwind on reaches and runs is a highly dynamic exercise that requires excellent communication between the trimmer and helm.

If the boat is trying to turn towards the wind all the time and

The spinnaker trimmer often has the best feel of the boat’s

decreases lift.

performance as they can feel the pressure in the spinnaker via the sheet. Working together as a team allows the helm to take advantage of slight changes in wind conditions.

• If the tack line is angled to leeward or if the luff becomes

of effort aft and forward in the sail plan, which will have a big

the helm starts to get heavy (weather helm), the mainsail should be eased and depowered. However, if the mainsail is eased too much when reaching under spinnaker, it will become backwinded by the spinnaker and disturb the clean flow of air coming off the leech of the sail, which increases drag and

In short, if the mainsail is back winding, the spinnaker will not be performing very well and the boat will be sailing slowly. Often if this is the case, the boat will sail faster and more upright with a Yankee flying, rather than the spinnaker.

unstable, tighten the tack line. If the tack line is angled to windward and you want to open up the upper luff, ease the tack line

Helming downwind with an asymmetric spinnaker

• Generally, the closer to the wind you sail, the tighter you want the tack line, in order to keep the luff as straight as possible

It is very unlikely that you will spend much time sailing dead downwind with an asymmetric spinnaker flying, as this is not the fastest way to get downwind in the majority of conditions.

• As you bear away down wind and start sailing deeper, the tack line needs easing to allow the luff to open up, float away from the bow and eventually, when sailing deep enough downwind, rotate to windward • The tighter the tack line, the more stable the spinnaker will be. If you are finding you cannot ease the sheet sufficiently to achieve correct trim without the sail becoming very prone to

However the one exception to this is in very strong winds

collapse, take in some tack line • In lighter conditions, easing the tack line helps the spinnaker to breath and creates a better sail shape for light airs • Before hoisting or gybing, the tack line should be brought right in to keep the spinnaker as stable as possible during the manoeuvre

where target boat speeds can be achieved even when the The spinnaker trimmer is also in the best position to tell the helm when to sail higher and lower, dependent on how much load is in the spinnaker sheet. As the wind builds and the load on the sheet increases, the trimmer should tell the helm to

wind is dead astern. This tactic can be risky though as the boat is less stable and quick, instinctive helm inputs will be required to prevent the sail from wrapping around the forestay during a collapse.

come down (sail deep). In strong winds, it is possible to sail very deep downwind without sacrificing boat speed. Conversely, as the wind decreases and the load on the sheet drops, the trimmer can call the helm up (sail higher). Sailing higher increases the apparent wind speed which, in turn, enables you to sail faster. It should be noted however that as your angle to the wind is higher, less of your progress is toward your destination downwind! For this reason it is always a good idea to keep a watchful eye on the VMG to the waypoint, or away from the wind. This information is provided by the on board instruments. When sailing higher on the wind with an asymmetric spinnaker, not only does the spinnaker sheet require lots of attention but so too does the mainsheet.

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CONTROLLING A BROACH

HELMING

If you are on the helm in big wind and sea conditions, there is always a chance that you may end up a little high on the wind, with the sail starting to overpower. Before you know what’s happening, the boat can “broach”.

A broach is a rapid, uncontrolled turn, usually to windward. If the boat starts to broach, the pit crew should be instructed to immediately dump the vang and the mainsheet, which helps depower the mainsail and move the centre of effort forward in the sail plan. The spinnaker sheet should also be rapidly eased (but not dumped) to help reduce the heel of the boat and make the rudder more effective again. Pumping the helm back and forth can also help the rudder to start working correctly as often, it is the fact that the rudder has stalled that caused

If the wind then shifts far enough aft to make the other gybe favourable, the boat should be gybed and the same process repeated on the opposite gybe. As we mentioned earlier when looking at trimming the spinnaker, the general principle of sailing fast downwind is to sail deeper in the gusts and sail higher in the lulls to keep the boat speed and apparent wind up.

Be aware that helming a boat is not a numbers game and over time

If the boat is trying to broach regularly, either the sail plan or course

you should aim to use as many sources of information as possible

needs adjusting to prevent the boat being sailed at the edge of

to assess how well you are performing. If you constantly focus on

her performance envelope. A couple of big broaches are normally

the instruments and pay no attention to how the boat feels then you

enough to cause major damage to the spinnaker and often on the

will always be playing catch up.

third, the sail will explode completely.

During your training, make sure you spend some time helming the boat with your eyes closed and concentrate on the feel of the wind on your face and neck, how much the boat is healing, how much pressure you feel over the rudder through the wheel. This will help you to learn to trust your instincts and work with the elements to keep the boat on its feet rather than chase numbers around the dial due to lag in the instruments. (It should however be stressed that you must inform one of your instructors before trying this).

Be proactive Good helming requires you to be proactive rather than reactive.

Helming is as much about trusting your senses as it is about reading instruments

If you are constantly reacting to the information conveyed by the

Good helming is essential on all points of sail in order to keep the

the helm.

boat performing to her maximum potential speed. Helming is a skill that can take some time to perfect and no matter how much time you spend on the wheel, each time you do a stint, you will improve.

 bove all else, the most important thing is that A you understand what you are trying to achieve and appreciate that boat speed should be your primary focus when helming the boat on any point of sail.

the broach in the first place.

Helming on a broad reach

In most conditions, the best way achieve a high VMG to a destination directly downwind of your position is to sail on a broad reach, aiming to sail as low as possible without dropping below the boat’s target speed for the prevailing true wind strength.

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS

instruments and compass, you will always be trying to catch them up, will sail less of a straight line and will require more input from

Larger helm input slows the boat down because the more angled the rudder is; the more hydrodynamic drag is exerted on the boat. The sooner you act, the less you will need to turn the wheel and the faster the boat will sail.

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THE ART OF GYBING

The next six steps must be performed simultaneously as one fluid manoeuvre to ensure the boat does not come out of the gybe either too slowly and wrap the spinnaker, or too fast with the sail flogging hard on the new gybe. The key aim is to have the clew of the spinnaker sufficiently eased so that it floats around from one side to the other as the boat passes through directly downwind:

• Helm calls, “helm to weather” and

• Once the clew has gone forward of

starts a slow but continuous turn

the forestay the new sheet trimmer

downwind, only aiming to stop the

works with the grinders to rapidly

turn as the boat come out on the other

sheet the spinnaker into the roughly

gybe on a broad reach - around 130

correct trim for the new gybe, as

degrees Apparent Wind Angle (AWA).

the old trimmer let’s fly and completely

They must keep the turn going at all

dumps the old sheet

times throughout the manoeuvre but should adjust their rate of turn to keep

Gybing Gybing with an asymmetric tends to be simpler than gybing a symmetrical spinnaker, due to the reduced number of control lines to be attended to. However, timing, excellent communication and coordinated team work are essential if the gybe is to run smoothly. There are also two methods of gybing an asymmetric spinnaker that you are likely to use dependent on wind strength:

In stronger winds

in sync with the two sheet trimmers

Listed below are the steps required for both methods: • Tack line to be pulled on tight to straighten the luff and stabilise the sail

side, the mainsheet trimmer rapidly

send the clew of the spinnaker

eases the mainsheet so that the

right forward of the forestay as

boat does not round up too fast, and

Helm keeps the boat on a steady course, normally a broad

the boat reaches dead downwind,

allows for the preventer to be swiftly

reach while;

then prepares to dump the sheet

re-attached on the new side

completely once the new sheet has

-  Bowman checks that both sheets are free to run and that the lazy sheet has not dropped below the end of the

the load of the sail and the clew is

bowsprit (usually only a problem in outside gybes)

gybed over to the correct side

-  Active trimmer ensures that slack from the working sheet is flaked and free to run -  Second trimmer loads the new sheet onto the new winch

• While the old sheet is being eased,

• NB: After the old sheet has been

the trimmer on the new sheet tails in

released, it needs to be kept under

the sheet after the second trimmer has tailed in all they can.

the slack that they are receiving on

control to prevent it dropping under

(Double check that the grinder is directed to the correct

their sheet. They need to be careful

the end of the bowsprit and potentially

winch and that the winch is in top gear)

not to take too much weight on

getting pulled under the boat

-  Two crew ready on the grinder, ready to take in the last of

Preventer is disconnected and main sail is centred

In lighter winds

Running backstays are switched over

the sail can be gybed between its own luff and the forestay.

• Main trimmer stands by for a big ease on the mainsheet

between the tack line and forestay.

gives large, continuous eases, to

outside of the tack line as mentioned earlier in the Preparing for a

This is known as an inside gybe and the sheets should be run

• As the mainsail flicks over to the new

the sail should be gybed outside of itself with the sheets running Hoist section.

• The trimmer on the old active sheet

once the mainsail has gybed over.

their sheet until the clew has floated around to the new side of the forestay Please Note: If the sail is being gybed inside the tack, the bow crew should be helping to pull the clew between the forestay and tack line at this stage. By pulling down on the new sheet just as the clew reaches the forestay, they help the sail to float through the gap between the forestay and the spinnaker’s luff. If the sail is being gybed all the way around the outside of itself, the clew needs to be eased much further forward of the forestay than for an inside gybe.

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THE ART OF GYBING Tidy up:

Letterbox drop set up:

• Normally the tack line needs easing and re-trimmed for the

• The lazy sheet should be removed from the blocks on the

new course as it was pulled on tight before the gybe. If however, the new course is higher on the wind than before the gybe, the tack line will need to be kept on fairly tight • Assuming the new course puts the apparent wind aft of a beam reach, the preventer should be re-attached as soon a practically possible and ground on tight again • Any slack from the active sheet should be flaked neatly onto the deck to allow for a rapid ease or another gybe without the risk of twists jamming in the winch or blocks

-  The trimmer on the active spinnaker sheet ensures that their sheet is flaked and free to run when the call is given to

windward side and run forward to the forestay • The lazy sheet should then be passed around the outside of everything, back down the leeward side and a bight (loop) of rope led through the gap between the top of the boom and the foot of the mainsail (the letterbox)

release their sheet -  The bowman prepares to trip the tack line which will release the tack from the end of the bowsprit -  All remaining available crew line up along the windward side of the boom, making sure they stay inboard of the lazy

• This bight of rope should then be run through a snatch block on

sheet and eventually the sail itself as it comes through the

the windward rail and then back to a winch

letterbox. (They must stay inboard, if they are outboard of the sail and it fills during the drop, they will be knocked over

The drop:

the side.) The two crew right at the boom have the vitally

Gybing an asymmetric smoothly and successfully every time

important job of ‘bear hugging’ the luff and leech of the

takes plenty of practice and excellent team work. When it goes

sail together. This helps keep any wind out of the sail and

right it is a very rewarding experience, where the boat speed only

prevents it from re-inflating part way through the drop

temporally dips before the sail is filled on the new side and the

• Once crew are ready at their stations for the headsail hoist, the

boat is back up to target speed again.

Yankee is hoisted which helps blanket the spinnaker during the drop

If the manoeuvre goes badly and the sail wraps around the

• The helm then steers the boat deep downwind before giving

forestay or twists itself up, it is generally a better idea to abort

the command to “trip” the tack line

the gybe and get the spinnaker re-inflated on the original gybe

before attempting to gybe again. Often, trying to make a bad

Tack line is then tripped

• The crew then tail the lazy sheet and almost immediately

gybe stick will result in compounding the wrap and potentially damaging the spinnaker.

release the active sheet to allow the clew to come through the

If the boat is helmed too rapidly through the turn and the

spinnaker through and get both the tack and clew together. The

trimmers do not get enough time to tail in the slack on the

halyard can then be eased as the crew ‘bear hug’ the luff and

new sheet before the kite re-inflates on the new side, the

leech of the spinnaker together, working toward the head of the

letterbox. The crew at the boom should pull all the foot of the

spinnaker will start to flog hard. This puts massive shock loading

sail as it is eased down

into the sail and sheet, often resulting in damage to the clew of

• It is important that the crew do not just pile the sail on deck

the spinnaker.

as it drops. They need to ensure that the spinnaker all gets dragged down the main companionway as swiftly as possible to

The only solution here is to keep the boat on a broad reach

prevent it getting caught by a gust and pulled over the side

while the grinders winch the sail in like their lives depend on it. Next time the boat is gybed, the helm should slow the rate of

• Once all three corners of the sail (head, tack and clew) are

turn down during the manoeuvre to keep better time with the

through the letterbox, the sheets, halyard and tack retrieval line

sheet trimmers.

(if used) can be disconnected and reset for the next hoist

Dropping There are many different ways to drop an asymmetric spinnaker but in this manual we shall look at the most commonly used method, the “letterbox drop” where the spinnaker is blanketed

• In preparation for the drop, the crew need to get themselves in the correct positions as follows: -  One crew ready to tail the Yankee halyard when the

behind the mainsail during the drop and “posted” through the

headsail is going up and then quickly switch onto easing

foot of the main and the top of the boom.

the spinnaker halyard for the drop itself. It is imperative that they ensure the spinnaker halyard is correctly flaked and free to run all the way until the spinnaker is below deck

• While crew on deck tidy up and re-trim for the course, a team below deck work to wool the spinnaker as swiftly and tightly as they can, before re-packing the sail into the correct bag As with all spinnaker work, timing, communication, team work and lots of practice are required to get drops running well. If the drop goes badly, there is a good chance that the spinnaker may end up in the water. Some very good advice follows in this next section about recovering a kite that has been pulled over the side and is full of water.

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 s Hyde Sails prepare to A power the Clipper Race for the fourth time, here are a few top tips from the international sail makers.

HYDESAILS

Clipper 70 asymmetrical care and trimming tips: Here are some tips on how to improve performance and care of your asymmetrical spinnaker (ASO) in various wind conditions. All wind speeds given below are True Wind Speed (TWS) and angles are True Wind Angle (TWA). Conditions:

Pump Rudder to keep laminar flow across it

Avoid snap filling the ASO at all cost

Gybing: • •

(ASO halyard) • Helms person needs to be in sync with sheet trimmers during gybes • If the helms person turns too quickly, the ASO will wrap or snap fill • The ASO trimmers need to gybe the ASO sheets quickly Tack Line: Never let the tack line out more than 1.5 feet max. When gybing, to the sheet trimmers.

0 to 12 knots / Code 1A

(Lightweight spinnaker)

ASO Rotation:

10 to 18 knots / Code 2A

(Mediumweight spinnaker)

This takes a lot of skill. Rotating the ASO to sail deeper than 150

19 to 30 knots / Code 3A

(Heavyweight spinnaker)

degrees is the number one reason why the ASO gets wrapped around the headstay. The best way to avoid this is to try not to rotate the ASO. Unless you have a very skilled helms person and ASO trimmer working together, I would not recommend this

150 degrees is the maximum you can sail an asymmetrical downwind.

trimming technique. However, if you do decide to rotate the ASO....;

150 degrees is a very difficult angle to trim and requires a very skilled

Rotation Step:

trimmer and driver working in sync to keep the asymmetrical from starving for air behind the mainsail. Starving the ASO behind the mainsail is one of the most common

Ease out tack line 1.5 feet.

Tweak ASO lead forward. This will help the ASO to rotate.

• If the tack line does not fly to the windward side, do not attempt to rotate the ASO. There is not enough wind, or you are already

reasons for collapses. When this happens in light airs, it can lead to the ASO wrapping around the headstay. When this occurs in high winds, it leads to snap filling of the ASO. Snap filling is the number

running too deep with this sail, starving it behind the mainsail. •

Over sheet the mainsail a bit. This will allow more airflow to the ASO.

one reason that causes the ASO to explode.

ASO Drops:

Rounding Up:

If the ASO goes into the water on the drop, make sure to do

If you feel the boat starting to load up and lean over, ease the ASO sheet out. Do not dump the ASO sheet and cause the ASO to collapse. Also the helms person should pump the rudder to reattach laminar flow across the rudder, in order to regain steerage control.

Clipper 2015-16 Race Crew Manual

Keep tack line tight

• Make sure the ASO luff is tight before gybing

keep the tack line (luff of ASO) tight. Helms person needs to drive

Wind Angle:

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0 to 10 knots: Inside ASO or outside of ASO

• 11 knots and above: Outside of ASO only

the following: • Everyone only pull “upward” on the luff of the ASO to get it out of the water first. • Once you reach the tack, start pulling in the foot of the sail. Start at the tack and work towards the clew.

Reducing Round Ups:

• If you follow these steps you will not shrimp the ASO under the boat.

• • • • • •

Tighten ASO luff to flatten the ASO Move ASO lead aft to twist off head Twist off mainsail with traveller Release the boom vang when boat is loading up Flatten out the mainsail or reef Do not ease the ASO halyard or tack line

Avoid the crew rushing to grab the leech, luff or the foot at the same

Do not over-sheet the ASO

time. This will shrimp the ASO under the boat.I hope these tips will help with the performance and care of your ASOs. Harry Ostoposides Hyde Sails USA

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RACING TECHNIQUES Racing Techniques and Sail Trim Put very simply, boat speed wins races. In this section we will introduce to you some of the ways in which you can optimise your trim settings to best suit the prevailing conditions, maximise boat speed, and ultimately arrive first into port.

It is therefore generally best to change the trim of your forward most sail first (normally the Yankee or asymmetric spinnaker) before

Draft position

This is defined as how far back from the luff the maximum amount

The amount of twist a sail has in it can be defined by how much the

of draft can be found in the sail. A good starting point is to have the

upper parts of the sail fall away to leeward when compared to the

draft at 50 per cent (half way between the luff and leech) and then

lower parts of the sail. Due to the true wind speed being higher at

Sail Trim Definitions

try moving it forward and aft from there to suit your conditions. The

the top of the rig than the bottom, the apparent wind angle is slightly

• Groove

draft stripes on the sails can be used to judge draft position as well

further aft at the mast head than it is at the boom.

then re-trimming the staysail and mainsail respectively to suit the new headsail trim.

as chord depth.

For this reason, we need to always have a little bit of twist in our sails

Moving the draft further forward gives a lower lift/drag ratio and

otherwise top sections of our sails would be over-sheeted most of

also means that you can’t point quite as close to the wind. It does,

the time. The taller the rig, the more noticeable this effect.

however, provide a rounder entry for the wind to start interacting with the sail (more forgiving sail shape), which in turn widens the groove. In rough conditions, or at night, this makes the boat easier to helm, as discussed previously.

Even if you get everything else right out on the water by sailing the shortest distance, making no mistakes during evolutions and have

Moving the draft aft on the sail improves the lift/drag ratio, meaning

no breakages; without good boat speed, you will never win. Boat

the sail is working more efficiently. It also allows the boat to point

speed is one of the most important factors in all forms of sailing

closer to the wind and big gains can be made on a long upwind

boat racing and it forms the back bone to any successful campaign.

beat by having the draft set to the correct position.

One statistic that beautifully illustrates this point is: If your team’s

Be warned though, moving the draft aft makes for a finer entry

average speed is consistently 0.1 knots slower than the rest of the

(less forgiving sail shape), narrowing the groove and making it

teams’ over the entire race around the world, you will have spent

more difficult to keep the sails from stalling.

another six days at sea in comparison to the rest of the fleet.

• Twist

When a boat is sailing in the ‘groove,’ the sails are working effectively

More twist creates a wider groove (more forgiving sail plan) and is better for getting the boat moving after a tack, or in light winds. More twist also depowers the upper aft sections of the sail which will reduce the healing force on a boat and decrease weather helm. Less twist creates a narrower groove as the sail is more inclined to stall. It will also increase the healing force on the boat which, in turn, increases weather helm. Decreasing twist in the leech of the sail does allow for higher pointing ability, although this height comes at the expense of a little boat speed. Setting the correct amount of twist on headsails has been covered in Part 2 of this manual when we discussed using tell tales to set car

and the boat is sailing at maximum efficiency. The width of the groove

As you can see, it is always important to consider the abilities

positions. To assess the twist on the mainsail, we must look to the

If you are to have any chance of placing a good finish position in a

can be defined by how much tolerance the sail has for changes to the

of the helm and sea state before deciding on where to set your

leech tell tales on the back of the mainsail. The leech tell tales show

matched fleet of yachts, you must be constantly focused on getting

angle the wind hits the front of the sail.

draft position on sails.

us whether the air is flowing cleanly off the back of the mainsail or

the best possible performance out of your boat...at all times.

The narrower the groove, the less tolerance for changes in this angle and the more easily a sail will stall if small course errors or slightly

not. If all they are all streaming cleanly aft then we probably have a little too much twist in the sail for most conditions.

incorrect sail trim are applied. However, a narrower groove will allow you to point closer to the wind than a wide groove. A sail with a more forgiving shape will give a wider groove for the helm and trimmers to work with. Generally, the rougher the sea state, the wider you want your groove - to allow for the boat getting thrown around by the waves. If the groove is too narrow in these conditions, the sail will be constantly stalling and produce only small amounts of occasional lift. •

Chord depth (draft)

In simple terms, ‘draft’ identifies the fullness of a sail, how flat or curved it is. This can be difficult to assess from the deck so the sail has a series of black lines (draft stripes) running from luff to leech. One crucial factor when considering sail trim is that the whole sail

The black draft stripes create some definition to the sail and allow you

plan works together to act as one large driving force for your yacht.

to see how curved it is. The deeper the draft in a sail, the more lift it

This means that if you change the trim of one sail, it will affect the

will create but with more lift comes more drag. A flat sail will produce

airflow passing the other sails in the sail plan.

less power but also exert less drag. One rule of thumb states that in flat water you should have flat sails and in choppy water fuller, deeper sails.

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RACING TECHNIQUES When sailing upwind, the main trimmer should aim to have the top tell

We alter a sail’s angle of attack to the wind by using either its

tale flying around 50% of the time as this gives a nice combination of

sheet, or in the case of the mainsail, a combination of sheet and

helm balance, power, groove width, and pointing ability.

traveller. Bringing the sail more inboard will increase the angle of

A good way to set a nice, average amount of twist in the main is to sail

attack, and letting the sail further outboard will decrease it.

close hauled with the traveller centred. The mainsheet should then be

The easiest way to assess if the sail has the correct angle of attack is

adjusted to get the top tell tale flying about 50 per cent or the time. If

to let it out until the luff just starts to ripple and collapse, we then sheet

all the tell tales are flying then the main should be tensioned to reduce

on or move the traveller up until the luff section of the sail just fills.

the twist and get the top one curling around to leeward of the leech about half the time. If the top tell tale is never streaming, the main should be eased to increase the twist as the top of the sail is stalling. Once the top tell tale is flying at least half the time, the correct amount of twist has been set and the traveller should be used to change the position of the boom relative to the centreline.

Sail shape rules of thumb defined by gears on a car One way to simplify how to decide on a good sail shape for the conditions is to imagine sail shape selection in the same light as you would gear selection in a car.

In flat water, where our objective is to point as close to the wind as possible, very little twist will be employed in a bid to increase VMG to windward. In very light airs (2-6 knots) it can be very hard to get the boat moving. In this situation, we set the sails with lots of twist, to help encourage what little wind there is to stay attached to the sail along the whole length of the chord, which will create some lift.

1st Gear/Low ratio:

(Good for strong, unstable winds and rough, short sea states) Low gearing gives lots of power for acceleration after a tack or when the boat is constantly being knocked about by big waves. It will not give ultimate top speed or pointing ability but will allow the boat to quickly regain a good pace after the sails have been shaken about and her forward motion has been hindered by dropping off the top of a wave. To put the boat in low gear we need to:

Angle of attack

In simple terms, the angle of attack of a sail is the angle of the wind relative to that sail; how far in or out the sail is.

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sails than it would with under-sheeted sail.

that is good at getting the boat going again after she is slowed by a twisted sails in rough water and tricky helming conditions.

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collapse; a boat will sail much slower with over-sheeted

Generally speaking, more twist creates a more forgiving sail plan large wave or error on the helm. For this reason we tend to have more

Remember, a sail is most efficient just before it’s point of collapse; a boat will sail much slower with over-sheeted sails than it would with under-sheeted sail.

Remember, a sail is most efficient just before it’s point of

• Create full, deep sails that have a lot of twist and the draft far forward to give us a wide groove • We achieve this by: Easing the outhaul, easing the mainsheet

For the sail to work efficiently, this angle between the luff of the sail

and vang (depending on point of sail), easing both headsail

and the wind must remain the same on all points of sail. We wish to

sheets a little and ensuring the halyards on all sails are

keep the angle of attack of the sail the same as our course, relative

sufficiently tight to take the draft position well forward of

to the wind changes.

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RACING TECHNIQUES 2nd Gear/Medium ratio:

3rd Gear/High ratio:

When sailing upwind the vang should just be brought hand tight as

(Good for medium to strong, consistent winds.

(Good in medium winds and flat seas)

it plays no part in the active trim of the mainsail until the boat has borne away past a close reach.

Works well in more moderate sea states)

Once the boat bears away from the wind enough, the traveller will not drop sufficiently to leeward to achieve the correct angle of

Staysail/Yankee car position

The position of the headsail sheet car on the track has the biggest influence on the amount of twist in your headsails. The further forward

the angle of pull on the mainsheet becomes less vertical and more

you move the car, the less twist there will be in the leech of your

lateral. By tensioning the vang before easing out on the mainsheet, the

headsail and vice versa.

height of the boom remains fixed and therefore so does the amount of

As mentioned in Part 2 of this manual, you can use the tell tales at the

• Outhaul

expense of creating a very narrow groove. When running in high gear,

The outhaul is used to control the chord depth in the lower part of the

smoother rhythm as the waves have a steadier pattern and longer

the helm focus on steering the boat with the upmost of accuracy; if

mainsail. Easing the outhaul creates a deeper lower section to the sail

wavelength. Medium gear increases the top speed by reducing the

they get it wrong the sails are likely to stall very quickly. We are now

providing more power, but also more drag.

amount of drag on the sails and it also allows us to point higher too;

more concerned about reducing our drag than creating powerful sails.

Tensioning the outhaul flattens the lower part of the sail creating

luff of a headsail to assess where your cars should be set to get the correct amount of twist you desire for the prevailing conditions.

Upwind performance Good sail trim is crucial for maintaining optimal upwind performance. As on all points of sail, the sails will require constant attention and adjustment in order to maintain optimum shape and performance. Very slight changes in wind strength or direction, sea state and even

To put the boat in high gear we need to:

less power and less drag. The outhaul can obviously only be used to

• Flatten the sails right off and have minimum twist. The

change the sail shape when there is a full mainsail flying (i.e. no reefs.)

helming styles will all require you to tweak the set up of your sail plan.

It is the job of the Yankee trimmer to guide the boat upwind. This is

draught position can also be moved further aft in both sails • We achieve this by: Tightening the outhaul completely, tightening both headsail and main sheets and easing off slightly

allow the helm to guide the boat smoothly over the waves

on all halyards to drop the draught further back on the sails

• We achieve this by: Tightening the outhaul, tightening the

Main halyard

helm. The two must work together to find the optimum balance between

or aft on the sail. Tightening the halyard moves the draft forwards.

speed and pointing in order to attain maximum VMG to your destination.

Loosening the halyard moves the draft aft.

Trimming devices

little. We also need to sheet on a little with both headsails to

Mainsail trimming devices to be found on a Clipper 70:

Headsail trimming devices

Mainsheet, traveller and vang

forward as for first gear.

achieved through constant sail trim and clear communication with the

By varying the halyard tension we can move the draft position forwards

mainsheet and vang and bringing the traveller up the track a

as we want to have a forward draft position, but not as far

sheet is no longer pulling down as much as it was when the clew was

This is due to the fact that as the sheet is eased to let the boom out,

off course by waves, we should be able to settle her down into a

decrease their twist. We may ease the halyards a small amount

fact that as you ease the sheet, and the clew moves outboard, and the

High gear gives us maximum pointing ability and speed but at the

However, we still want the draft position relatively far forward to

will also have some effect on the twist of the sail. This is due to the

angle of attack and the vang must be used to control the amount

Now that the boat is no longer slamming and being knocked wildly

• Flatten the sails and reduce the amount of twist they have.

The sheet mainly controls the sail’s angle of attack to the wind, but it

closer to the sheet car.

twist in the mainsail.

To put the boat into medium gear we need to:

Staysail/Yankee sheet

attack for the mainsail. At this point, the mainsheet is used to control of twist in the mainsail.

giving us medium power and medium pointing ability.

Staysail/Yankee halyard

As with the main halyard, changing the tension in a headsail halyard

There are several ways in which you need to constantly monitor your boat’s performance: •

Boat-on-boat comparison if in sight of another Clipper Race yacht

Whether you are attaining the target boat speed for the conditions

• Current performance vs. recent performance in the same

moves the draft position forward and aft on the sail.

conditions •

The ‘feel’ of the boat

SIR ROBIN’S TOP TIPS  he crew need to work as a team to ensure that boat T speed is maximised at all times. The boat that sails the least distance, at the maximum speed attainable for the prevailing conditions, will always win the race. These three trimming devices work together to determine the angle of attack and amount of twist a mainsail has. When sailing upwind, the angle of attack of the mainsail is controlled by the traveller and the twist in the leech is controlled by the mainsheet tension. 149

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RACING TECHNIQUES Sail selection

Boat speed and working with targets

Each headsail has a designed strength and performance range. The table below gives the wind ranges for a Clipper 70 race yacht’s headsails: Sail

By continuously assessing as many of these factors as you have available to you at the time, the trimmers can direct adjustments in sail trim and driving style. The trimmer should be constantly communicating the boat’s current performance and suggesting ways to improve it. Sail plan set up Before you can begin to think about sail trim, it is important to consider your sail plan for the prevailing conditions. The boat will be easiest to handle, more comfortable and generally fastest when she has the correct size sails up in the right combination. We refer to this as a ‘balanced’ sail plan. The aim is to get the combination of sails working together in harmony as one continuous ‘sail plan’. Within any sail plan there is a sweet spot of power, where the majority of drive comes from. This sweet spot is known as the Centre of Effort (CE). The underwater profile of a boat (especially the keel) plays a vital role in stopping the boat drifting sideways when wind fills her sails. This hydrodynamic resistance to slipping sideways also has a focal point, normally the top centre point of the keel. This point

The boat will tend to pivot around her CLR so the positioning of the CE of the sail plan, relative to the CLR, is of vital importance to attaining a balanced boat. If we set a full mainsail but only a very small amount of headsail, the CE is likely to be well aft of the CLR. This will have the effect of pushing the stern away from the wind and the bow toward the wind. To keep the boat going straight, we would need a constant amount of helm input, steering away from the wind to stop the boat turning to windward. This is called ‘weather helm’ and the more we have, the more the defection of the rudder will slow the boat down by causing drag. If we regularly need to use more than around 8 degrees of rudder

Maximum recommended wind strength guide

#1 Yankee

16 knots apparent

#2 Yankee

25 knots apparent

#3 Yankee

34 knots apparent

Staysail

40 knots apparent

Windseeker

8 knots apparent

The key skill when it comes to sail selection is choosing the correct sail when the wind is around the crossover point between two sails. Here, there are two main factors that influence our decision. Firstly, the sea state will affect our choice of sail. In big waves and choppy conditions, we should consider using the larger of the choice between two sail. The boat needs plenty of power to punch

As we have already discussed, boat speed is our primary concern on any racing yacht. One of the best ways to keep crew focused on boat speed is through the use of target boat speeds.

through the waves and get moving again after she is stopped by slamming off a steep wave. In flatter conditions, the smaller of

A target boat speed is a performance prediction based on the

two sails will let you point a bit closer to the wind, thereby

true wind speed and wind angle. For every wind speed and angle,

increasing your VMG.

a predicted target boat speed can be calculated. This can be

The other big factor in sail selection is to consider the trend of recent wind conditions. In simple terms, if the wind is increasing

done in two ways: either by using a computer model or through recording your boat’s actual performance.

then plump for a smaller sail; conversely, when the trend has shown

Many boats utilise both of these methods, starting with

a steady decrease then the larger of two sails should be used.

predictions from a computer model and updating these figures to

deflection, we know that the sail plan set up could be improved.

represent their boat’s actual performance.

If we set a very large headsail and a small amount of main, the

The main benefit of target boat speeds is that they provide a

CE in the sail plan is likely to be well forward of the CLR. The

constant measure of performance. They also provide a common

bow of the boat will get pulled to leeward and to keep the boat

goal for the crew, keeping them motivated and working together.

in a straight line, we would need a constant helm input steering

Target boat speeds are excellent for letting you know if you are on

toward the wind. This is known as ‘lee helm’ and can be very

the pace, however if you are not achieving your targets, they do

dangerous as the boat is always trying to bear away

not tell you what to do about it!

and eventually gybe.

Finally, always remember that the boat’s performance will be

There are other factors that affect helm balance on the boat

affected by such things as sea state or wind gradient (wind

but for now, we should aim to have a small amount of weather

shear), and sometimes you will need to adjust your targets to

helm all the time when sailing upwind.

take account of this.

is called the Centre of Lateral Resistance (CLR).

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RACING STRATEGY & TECHNIQUES Introduction to strategy, tactics and racing rules Like all sports, yacht racing requires tactics. You cannot head out onto the race course without a plan and expect to win. Tactics, in the broadest sense, incorporate strategy, tactics and the racing rules. The strategy is the overall plan for the race and is dependent upon the weather, expected changes in the weather,

In ocean racing there are not so many boat-on-boat situations, due to the fact that the length and duration of the races tends to spread the fleet out more than inshore racing. Therefore, boat-on-boat tactics are less important, although they will come into play at the start and often, in the last 100 miles of each race.

Introduction to start line tactics The start of a yacht race can be one of the most exciting and demanding moments of any race. Getting a good start demands dexterity, close quarters manoeuvring, impeccable timing and boat handling skills but most of all, the ability to stay calm when

tides and ocean currents.

everything about the situation screams “PANIC!�

The race rules are the Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) together with

The aim is to arrive at the selected spot on the line at full speed

the Notice of Race and a specific set of sailing instructions for each

with clear air and no interference from other competitors as the

race, which the Race Director explains at Crew Briefings during

start gun fires. This is no mean feat and achieving this best possible

stopovers, ahead of each individual race start.

scenario requires clear communication and excellent teamwork.

Strategy is all about wind and currents. The race strategy

The first tactical decision is deciding where on the start line you want

should be in place prior to crossing the start line, and its aim is to

to be. This will depend on the set of the line and also your first leg

plan an optimal route, taking advantage of favourable winds and

strategy. The set of the line means the angle of the line to the wind.

currents whilst avoiding unfavourable conditions such as areas of

Since we normally start to windward it is advantageous to start at

light winds or adverse currents.

the end which is furthest upwind. This is known as the favoured end.

When preparing for an offshore or ocean race, the prevailing winds and currents can often be researched well in advance and an overall strategy formed. As race start day approaches you will need to look at the long range weather forecasts for the area of the race

As an example of how important this is; when starting at the correct end of a line which is 5 degrees off from being square to the wind, you will gain a 25 per cent distance advantage over a boat that starts from the unfavoured end of the line.

and modify your strategy to take account of current conditions.

Another consideration to bear in mind when deciding where on the

For example, when crossing the Equator you need to identify the

line to start is your first leg strategy. If the conditions dictate that you

point at which the Doldrums is the narrowest. Although this can be

should sail up the right hand side of the course, then you should start

monitored over time, it is not until race start day that the most up to

at the right hand end of the line. This will allow you to tack to the right

date information can be obtained.

without being obstructed by other boats. Likewise, if you wish to

Tactics tend to be more spontaneous, short term techniques, used to implement your strategy. Tactics are used to deal with boat-on-

Once you have decided where on the line you want to start, the challenge is to get to that point at full speed when the start gun is fired.

work the left hand side of the course, start at the left hand end of the line, although the advantage here is generally less.

boat situations or for trying to control the actions of other boats so as to make the best use of the rules and enhance our strategic decisions whenever possible. 153

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RACING STRATEGY & TECHNIQUES A practice start is always a good idea to help get your timing and approach correct. Then, as the start approaches, keep your wits about you as the skipper manoeuvres the boat into position and call

Definitions Clear astern, clear ahead and overlap

for more or less power. On your final start approach (as opposed to your timed practice runs) there are likely to be other boats trying

One boat is ‘clear astern’ of another when her hull and equipment

to get to the same point on the line so there is normally some

in normal position (including the bowsprit) are behind a line abeam

aggressive and exciting jockeying for position just before the gun.

from the aftermost point of the other boat’s hull and equipment in normal position. The other boat is ‘clear ahead’. They ‘overlap’

Application of rules to ocean racing

when neither is clear astern.

Ocean racing is primarily governed by the Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) which are issued by the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) and the application of the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collision at Sea (IRPCS).

However, they also overlap when a boat between them overlaps both. These terms always apply to boats on the same tack. They do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unless Rule 18 applies or both boats are sailing more than 90 degrees from the wind.

B A C

The ISAF RRS are more complex than the IRPCS rules but are derived from them. IRPCS rules apply AT ALL TIMES and between all vessels on the high seas, whereas the RRS apply only from dawn until dusk (as defined by the times of sunrise and sunset for that date and location, which are located in the Nautical Almanac).

Boat A is clear ahead of boat B; however boat C is NOT clear astern of boat B. Therefore, there is an overlap between boats B and C.

The full RRS are quite complex. You will find the complete rules at:

A

http://www.sailing.org/tools/documents/

Leeward and windward A boat’s leeward side is the side that is or, when sailed head to

In round-the-cans racing it is slightly easier to define, as you can

wind, was away from the wind. However when sailing by the lee

see the start and finish of each leg. There is no proper course

or directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which her

before the start. This implies you can luff to your heart’s content

mainsail lies. The other side is her windward side. When two boats

before the start gun goes off.

on the same tack overlap, the one on the leeward side of the other

ISAFRRS20132016Final-[13376].pdf

B

Here are some extracts from the RRS which illustrate the basic

is the leeward boat. The other is the windward boat.

Obstruction

This is not mentioned specifically in the RRS, but is a common term

An object that the boat could not pass without changing course

steer higher than the proper course to force an overlapping yacht

substantially, if she were sailing directly toward it towards it

to windward of you to keep clear. The permutations of under what

and one of her hull lengths from it. An object that can be safely

circumstances you may obtain luffing rights over another competitor

passed on only one side and an area so designated by the Sailing

are quite complex and lengthy, but the three common scenarios are

overlap between boats A and C.

Instructions (SI’s) are also obstructions.

as follows:

Keeping clear

However, a boat racing is not an obstruction to other boats unless

• You are overtaking on the windward side of the other yacht,

they are required to keep clear of her, give her room or, if rule 22

within two boat lengths of her. In this case, once you overlap

One boat keeps clear of another if the other can sail her course

applies, avoid her. A vessel underway, including a boat racing, is

the leeward yacht then has the right to sail higher than her

with no need to take avoiding action and, when the boats are

never a continuing obstruction.

proper course and luff you.

principles that you need to be familiar with.

C There is an overlap between boats A and B as well as boats B and C. As boat B is overlapped with both A and C there is also an

overlapped on the same tack, if the leeward boat can change course in both directions without immediately making contact with

Proper course

the windward boat.

This is the course a yacht would sail to finish as soon as possible if no other yachts were present and covered under RRS. In an offshore race this is a moot point as different yachts will undoubtedly have different strategies when it comes to making best use of the weather and tidal systems.

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Luffing and practice. You have ‘luffing rights’ when you have the right to

• You are being overtaken by a yacht to windward. As soon as an overlap is established, you may sail higher than your proper course to luff the other yacht. • If two yachts are overlapped and sailing nearly parallel but slightly convergent courses, when they get within two boat lengths the leeward yacht may luff the windward yacht.

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RACING & REGULATIONS Racing rules Below are some of the key racing rules that it is worth getting to know before you start racing. The RRS are revised and published by ISAF every four years. The latest edition is the ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing 2013 – 2016. These will be updated on the 1st January, 2017.

Mark-room

astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead.

10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at shall keep clear.

When rule 18 applies

Section B – General limitations

Rule 18 applies between boats when they are required to leave a

A boat has right of way when another boat is required to keep clear

10. On opposite tacks When boats are on opposite tacks, a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard-tack boat.

• Need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room or mark-room, and; • Shall not be penalised under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage or injury.

A

mark on the same side and at least one of them is in the zone.

14. Avoiding contact

However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room or mark room;

in the full RRS.)

B

the same time, the one on the other’s port side or the one astern

A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.

are limits to the actions of the right-of-way boat explained, in detail,

Race Mark

13. While tacking

Section A – Right of way of her. The general RRS rules for right-of-way are as follows: (There

to give mark-room, she is not required to give it.

When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, a boat clear

boats until she is on a close hauled course. During that time, Rules

Part 2 – When boats meet

the time the overlap began, the outside boat has been unable

12. On same tack, not overlapped

1. Safety

or vessel in danger.

(e) If a boat obtained an inside overlap from clear astern and, from

shall keep clear of a leeward boat.

After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other

A boat or competitor SHALL give all possible help to ANY person

overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not.

When boats are on the same tack and overlapped, a windward boat

Part 1 – Fundamental rules

1.1 Helping those in danger

(d) If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an

11. On the same tack, overlapped

*NB: The RRS dictates the zone to be three boat lengths radius

However, it does not apply:

from the mark, however, Clipper Race SI’s stipulates the zone to be

(a) between boats on opposite tacks on a beat to windward;

five boat lengths.

(b) between boats on opposite tacks when the proper course at the mark for one but not both of them is to tack; (c) between a boat approaching a mark and one leaving it, or; (d) if the mark is a continuing obstruction, in which case Rule 19 applies

16. Changing course 16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear. Section C – At marks and obstructions Section C rules to not apply at the starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them. When Rule 20 applies, Rules 18 and 19 do not.

18.2 Giving mark-room (a) When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat mark-room unless Rule 18.2(b) applies. (b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them reaches the zone,

Three-length zone

the outside boat at that moment shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone, the boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter give mark-room. (c) When a boat is required to give mark-room by Rule 18.2(b), she shall continue to do so even if later an overlap is broken or overlap begins. However, if either boat passes head to wind, or if the boat entitled to mark-room leaves the zone, Rule 18.2(b) ceases to apply.

B

A

C

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RACING & REGULATIONS Racing mindset Being a good racing sailor is not simply about technical sailing ability although this is important. It is about having the right mindset. A good racing mindset requires the right attitude.

If you have no idea what the next move is, ask. The important thing is to understand what the options are and be ready for all of them.

Anticipation Always be ready for the next move. By anticipating the next move, you will be ready to perform the moment an evolution is called, which will significantly speed up any manoeuvre.

Detail As the saying goes, ‘the devil is in the detail.’ Always pay attention to the small things and make sure they are correct. Something that appears small and insignificant will often come back to bite you on a boat, so keep an eye on the small things and always make sure they are right. The big things will then tend to look after themselves.

Speed Racing is all about speed. Performing any evolution will slow the boat down, therefore it is important that everything is done quickly. It must, however, always be done correctly. It is better to complete

Protests and redress 60: Right to Protest, Right to Request Redress, or Rule 69 Action 60.1 A boat may; (a) protest another boat, but not for an alleged breach of a rule of Part 2 unless she was involved in or saw the incident; or (b) request redress 60.2 A Race Committee may; (a) protest a boat, but not as a result of information arising for a request for redress or an invalid protest, or form a report from an interested party other than the representative of the boat herself; (b) request redress for a boat; or (c) report to the protest committee requesting action under 60.1(a)

correct for mistakes made first time around. Always try to complete

need not hail but she shall inform the other boat at the first

tasks as quickly as possible, but not so fast that you make mistakes.

reasonable opportunity;

incident in the racing area that she is involved in or sees, she shall hail “Protest” and conspicuously display a red flag at the first reasonable opportunity for each. She shall display the flag until she is no longer racing. However;

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evolution, it will allow you to anticipate when they are likely to need

the boats involved and one of them intends to protest, the

you to do something in the pit. The more aware you are of how the

requirements of this rule do not apply to her, but she shall

rest of your team is getting on during an evolution, the more primed

attempt to inform the other boat within the time limit of Rule 61.3.

and ready you are to help them at a moment’s notice, and so the

62 Redress

Attitude

62.1 A request for redress or a protest committee’s decision to

Anticipate – are you ready for the next move?

consider redress shall be based on a claim or possibility that

Detail – pay attention to the small things

a boat’s score in a race or series has, through no fault of her

Speed – if you can do it, do it quickly

own, been made significantly worse by; (a) an improper action or omission of the Race Committee, committee decision when the boat was party to the hearing;

first reasonable opportunity. When her protest concerns an

above. If you are aware of what the bow crew are doing during an

iii. if the incident results in damage or injury that is obvious to

by rule 43.1(c) or 78.3, it shall protest the boat.

(a) A boat intending to protest shall inform the other boat at the

Having excellent situational awareness will help you with all of the

she need not display a red flag;

protest committee or organising authority, but not by a protest

61.1 Informing the protestee

Awareness

ii. if the hull length of the protesting boat is less than six meters,

However, when the Race Committee receives a report required

61 Protest Requirement

159

an evolution once, correctly, rather than having to repeat it to i. if the other boat is beyond hailing distance, the protesting boat

(b) injury or physical damage because of the action of a boat that was breaking a rule of Part 2 or of a vessel not racing that was required to keep clear; (c) giving help (except to herself or her crew) in compliance with Rule 1.1,or; (d) a boat against which a penalty has been taken under Rule 69.1(b).

smoother the manoeuvre will run.

• Awareness – be aware of everything that is going on around you

Remember •

Do it right

Do it fast

Do it now

If you are new to sailing, it will not always be easy to achieve every one of these elements. For example, it is difficult to anticipate the next move until you fully understand all of the sailing manoeuvres. The important thing is that you are aware that at the same time as developing your technical sailing ability, you also need to develop your racing mindset or attitude.

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PART 3 G N I N I A TR

RACE PERFORMANCE Race team development

The model suggests that there are three fundamental components to a high performance team

 igh performance team lessons H from missionperformance.com the learning and development partner to the Clipper 2013-14 Round the World yacht race.

High performance teams have (1) Clarity (2) Culture and (3) Interdependence, or CCITM 1. A Clarity of purpose at the individual and team levels:

Clarity: • The individuals within the team will be clear on their values, rules, expectations, and principles that will guide their behavior

Mental preparation for your race:

and will be comfortable in sharing them.

As crew allocation and Level 4 training approach, your attention • Your team has a clear understanding of where they are

will turn to your personal and team preparations.

going, their common purpose and will understand how their Personal preparation:

contributions and roles support the central purpose team.

Research from the 2013-14 race indicates that the degree to which

These will rely on you exercising trust and tolerance. For without

each crew member prepares themselves mentally for the race will

them, your success and that of your crew will be limited.

have a large bearing on both the value they add to the team, and the satisfaction they take from the race.

Building a high performance team on the race is a two way relationship between the crew and the skipper. You have a

At a very basic level you could start to identify and

responsibility to yourself, your fellow crew and the skipper to

share the following:

prepare appropriately for the race.

1. Your personal values that guide you through life. 2. The expectations that you have of yourself and others.

Once you have prepared yourself, you are ready to contribute to building your team.

3. Your fears and anxieties. 4. Your personal objectives and measures of success for the race.

Team Preparation:

Once you and your crew mates have thought deeply and honestly

There are many models to help you and your skippers to

about these questions, it would be a useful exercise to share them with your friends and family as a first step to sharing them at crew allocation and Level 4 training. Success on board, however measured, will rely on the quality of relationships that you have on board.

build a high performance team.

A simple and effective model or blueprint that was used on the 2013-14 race is the CCI - Clarity, Culture, Interdependence model illustrated here.

2. A well-developed Culture that defines consistently

how they behave.

Culture: •

Your team will have an agreed set of principles and values that will guide individual and team behaviors.

• These principles and values will underpin how you do business as a team and how others experience you. 3. Mature independent people who choose to work Interdependently.

Interdependence: • It is a conscious choice to work interdependently and it requires greater levels of trust, effort and tolerance to achieve it. • Individuals will need to make sacrifices and be mentally prepared and resourceful to achieve it. Each member will choose a mindset that facilitates greater collaboration and coordination. • As a team you can identify the mission critical aspects of performance to achieve your purpose and know at an individual level how your efforts support it. More detail and support will be given to you as crew allocation approaches. In the meantime, work on your mental game and read around the subject of building high performance teams.

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EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Man Overboard (MOB) under spinnaker

The Drop

The standard MOB drill has been covered in Part 1 of the Training

Either the lazy sheet or the tack retrieval line should be lead through

The casualty should be

Manual, but the basic drill can become more complicated if you

the letter box and then through a snatch block on the windward

recovered in the same way

have the spinnaker up at the time of the incident. A MOB under

rail, as described earlier in Part 3 of this Manual. By having the sail

as a conventional MOB

spinnaker leaves the crew with two options;

always ready to drop, vital seconds can be saved and the amount

Firstly, you can simply drop the spinnaker, or secondly, you can

If we plan on being on one gybe for a significant length of time, it is prudent to have the spinnaker rigged to drop at a moment’s notice.

The drop should then be executed in the normal way in a swift

done in any drills and, in normal circumstances, is the preferred

but controlled fashion. The very last thing anybody wants in this

option as there is less to go wrong. However, in extreme conditions,

situation is to trail the spinnaker in the water, so make sure the drop

the latter may be preferable.

is clean and not rushed.

Remember:

Remember, there will be fewer crew available for the drop than

away from the casualty • As many extra lines are in use when flying a spinnaker, make doubly sure that there are no lines in the water before starting the engine • The preventer may well be on so this will need to be released or removed as appropriate

Wind direction

of time spent sailing away from a casualty reduced.

ditch the spinnaker. The former of these two options should be

• All the time the spinnaker is up, the yacht is heading at speed

MOB recovery procedure when flying the spinnaker

normal as not only is one of the team in the water, others may well be tasked to pointing, communications, MOB equipment deployment, etc.. The key priority in any MOB situation is to keep

Prepare to drop spinnaker

tabs on the casualty’s location.

Ditching the Spinnaker If the decision has been made to ditch rather than drop the

as quickly as possible Once the spinnaker has been dropped or ditched turn up wind and return to the casualty

spinnaker, then the lines must be dumped or cut rapidly in the following, strict order: 1. Lazy sheet followed by active sheet: Cutting the sheets

Searching for a Man Overboard

allows the sail to fly like a flag from the masthead and bowsprit 2. Tack line: Cutting the tack line allows the sail to lift clear of the water and stream out more horizontally from the masthead. At this point the helm can turn back towards the wind, reducing the chances of running over the spinnaker and reducing the distance to the casualty 3. Halyard: Once wind is on, or just forward of the beam, the

In the event that you lose sight of a casualty in the water you will need to initiate a search. There are several ways that you can do this and two good examples are described here.

Expanding box search pattern The expanding box search pattern is carried out as follows:

halyard should be cut allowing the spinnaker to fly away from the masthead and be clear of the yacht before it hits the water If order is altered or any of the lines snag, there is a good chance the yacht will run over the spinnaker which, in turn, will minimise the chances of even getting back to the casualty at all. It is imperative then that everyone is prepared and clearly briefed before the first line is cut.

• Create datum by deploying the danbuoy and noting the GPS position • Head past datum on heading 090o until the marker is visible only 50 percent of the time. This is the EDR (Expected Detection Range) • Continue on course for a total distance of 1 x EDR • Steer 000o 1 x EDR • Steer 270o 2 x EDR • Steer 180o 2 x EDR • Steer 090o 3 x EDR • Steer 000o 3 x EDR etc to establish an expanding ‘anticlockwise square spiral’

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EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Sector search pattern The sector search pattern is carried out as follows: • Create datum by deploying the danbuoy and noting the GPS position • Head past datum on heading 000o until marker is visible only 50 per cent of the time. This is the EDR (Expected Detection Range) • Continue on course for a total distance of 3 x EDR • Note distance run or time (this is the pattern leg length) • Steer 120o for 3 x EDR • Steer 240o for 6 x EDR • Steer 000o for 3 x EDR • Steer 120o for 6 x EDR • Steer 240o for 3 x EDR • Steer 000o for 3 x EDR This returns you to approximate datum and a second circuit can be made with the same headings plus 30o.

Post-recovery care In an offshore or ocean environment medical assistance could take some time to arrive so as soon as the casualty has been recovered they will need medical care. They will very likely be suffering from shock, hypothermia and any other injuries sustained during the man overboard. The skipper, in conjunction with any medically trained crew on board, will see to this. One of the central bunks should be prepared with sleeping bags and suitable medical kit whilst recovery is in progress. Also remember that if a swimmer was deployed during the rescue they may also be suffering from shock and hypothermia and may need some attention.

Hydrostatic squeeze Hydrostatic squeeze is the effect of water pressure on a casualty’s body, particularly the legs which are suspended in deeper water. While a casualty is in the water the pressure around their legs squeezes the blood up into the body core and reduces the blood circulation in the limbs. This is beneficial as it helps to maintain the body’s core temperature. When a casualty is recovered from the water this effect is lost and the effects of hydrostatic squeeze are suddenly removed, allowing the blood to rapidly flow into the legs which in turn causes a sudden drop in blood pressure which can result in heart failure. Hydrostatic squeeze has been suspected as a cause of post-rescue death in many immersion hypothermia victims. In order to prevent this, rescuers should attempt to maintain the casualty in a horizontal position during retrieval from the water and aboard the rescue vehicle. If rescuers cannot recover the patient horizontally, they should lie the casualty down as quickly as possible after removal from cold water.

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