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National Session of EYP Ireland 2019


Simon Lenze Sorcha Finan Emma Barry Lukas Harkotte Kate Rodgers Vilde Westby Luke Bishop Agata Oskroba Julia Eriksson

CONTENTS Media Team Introductions 4 It‘s getting hot in here 6 Agata Oskroba

Roaming the lands without roaming


Rights of those who‘ve done wrong


Lukas Harkotte Luke Bishop

Connect European universities 10 Julia Eriksson

Modern Day Arms Race 12 Vilde Westby

The voices for Climate Action Kate Rodgers


Re/cycling around town 16 The Media Team‘s Guide to Galway 18 Emma Barry

PACKING LIST • valid passport or ID • printed and signed Consent Form • money and/or debit/credit card – Irish currency is Euro • your own coffee mug • reusable water bottle • research material for Committee Work • your outfit for the theme party • sufficient clothing for the entire session (considering different dress codes) • warm clothes for rainy days • toiletries • any medication you may need • excitement


Choose your journalist



Blindness: Coffees needed: Nap power:

100 6 50

Dad dance: 93 CB craving: 100 Hair: minus 10 soul bars

Starting item:


Starting item: Socks Power move: eating kiwis like apples



Levitation: 25 Comm. with plants: 80 Sleep anywhere: 152

Exhaustion: 70 Enthusiasm: 110 Enormous amount of love for alliteration: 66

Starting item: Water bottle (Hydration first!)

Starting item:


Cup of tea



Invisibility: 0 Stomach capacity: 90 Weirdness: 61,5

Love for animals: 100 Overthinking: 80 Eye infection: 1

Starting item: Glitter (can heal allies & blind enemies)

Starting item: Sassy sunglasses

Emma Sarcasm: Caffeine level: Ranting ability:

Luke 100 75 50

Starting item: Heeled boots

Allergies: Need for coffee: Art critic:

100 0 90

Starting item:


Vilde Excitement: Vikingness: Solar energy:

100 68 97

Starting item:



It‘s getting hot in here Agata Oskroba


lobal warming. You hear this phrase every day. In the news, in school, in the radio, even the voice in the new TV advertisement talks about climate change. However, the concept of global warming still seems like an exaggeration for you, everything around looks perfectly normal, doesn’t it? No.

The droughts and California wildfires have already been linked to increased greenhouse gas emissions, and it’s easy to notice the skyrocketing heat. Nonetheless, the effects of climate change occur differently in various regions, so don’t be deceived by the heavy rains occurring in some parts of the continent. Wherever you live, you may already see unusual and more intense weather patterns hit close to home.

Global warming is no longer just a possibility: it is here staring us in the face, a stark reality. Moreover, this change is at least partly due to us.

Additionally, increasing global temperatures affect food production and, consequently, the price of food products. As the climate warms, the air holds more moisture and rainstorms become more intense, damaging crops. Overall precipitation patterns are also changing, bringing droughts to some areas of the world and floods to others. In Poland, potatoes and wheat crops would be affected, threatening supplies to other parts of the European Union.

A recent IPCC special report warns us about 1.5°C global warming – it means that average temperatures all over the globe are increasing. It has many impacts on the world around us and global warming is hitting our everyday life more than we are aware of. First of all, climate change impacts daily weather patterns where you live - and you don’t have to live in the Arctic or Mozambique to witness it.


„...the only solution is to limit the increase in the temperature of the Earth, and thus to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases that we send to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.“

Spain may also be unable to retain its position as a leading producer of fruit and vegetables because rising temperatures are predicted to turn much of the country into a desert. Rising ocean levels as one of the main consequences of global warming are also a big threat for the coastlines used for recreation and human habitation. Sea ice is melting at an accelerated rate. All these beautiful places you have on your travel bucket list will soon change beyond recognition. The Maldives, Fiji, Seychelles, French Polynesia – all of these amazing islands are about to disappear beneath the sea. However, it should be pointed out that the climate of the earth is not a constant thing and that it has very much changed over time. We have in fact seen much bigger climate changes within the last ten thousand years than the one being predicted at the moment.

According to the IPCC, the only solution is to limit the increase in the temperature of the Earth, and thus to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases that we send to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. The authors of the report emphasize the quite obvious truth that the lower the global warming and climate change, the easier it will be for the world to adapt to them. The IPCC concludes that in every corner of the world the countries and their inhabitants have already begun to adapt to global warming. However, these preparations are nowhere near sufficient for future climate change. Climate change isn’t just an imminent threat. While some of the observations described above might only be inconveniences or nuisances, the effects of climate change will only escalate as years go by. Can you imagine what that would look like?


Roaming the lands without roaming. Lukas Harkotte


or over a decade, humans have been meandering in a country without borders, where there is no official language and the culture has become incomprehensible to non-natives, with only some entities providing guidance: The Internet as we know it today would not be where it is without big IT companies like Alphabet or Facebook.

Taxing global media companies can only work globally, any local advance will just cause sidestepping. When Mark Zuckerberg had to justify in front of the European Parliament last May, the MPs not only failed to get anything out of him, they failed so because of their individualism. A fertile soil for companies to cherry pick. This is exactly what happened when Google, Facebook, PayPal, Microsoft, eBay and LinkedIn moved their EU Headquarters to Ireland, where they would not be as heavily taxed as elsewhere in the European Union. Together, they provide an astonishing number of over 13.000 people with a job and therefore a living. A country has to work with these creators of internet infrastructure if it wants development to happen. But if one country acts detached from the group, everyone loses.

The Internet has progressed too quickly and too far for lawmakers of older generations to adapt in time. Almost 30 years after the first World-Wide-Web server went online, politicians still try to get a grasp of what this strange phenomenon really is and - more importantly - how to control it. Their solutions so far have been brute and hasty: There are no turnpikes online and you cannot change a part of the online world without changing the whole of it. Applying analogous solutions to online problems is not only lazy, but also dangerous. The “Right to be forgotten” for example is doomed to fail as long as there is no one controlling what gets saved on the aforementioned servers, which in turn would make the web inhabitable. This approach stems from eradicating physical evidence of a mishap or a crime in the so-called “real life” (How this term came into being and why it is highly problematic is a story for another time). Nevertheless, collecting massive amounts of personal data on the premises of catching terrorists can result in a complete loss of privacy. Politicians have to maneuver this slippery road with deep trenches on either side.

Achieving development and security online is only possible when working within the rules of the internet and not against them. A ban is a lethargic answer to any kind of issue: Instead, companies and private entities should get incentives for developing the web: This way, the existing knowhow will be put to good use and everyone benefits. Massive uprising against article 13 of the European Union Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market has shown what happens if lawmakers exclude users from the debate of their internet‘s future. What they should have done instead is hear and listen to the outcry of their people.


Rights of those who‘ve done wrong

With a state in need of increased Mental Health facilities and shelters for those without a home, it is clear to see than those being released are not getting the care they need and want in order to save themselves from repeat offending. Many ex-prisoners struggle with alcohol and substance addiction, and the government have proven to be unhelpful with allowing these people to receive the care they need. In most cases, released prisoners are given little more than a bed in an emergency shelter and access to a waiting list for mental heath and addiction services. Our treatment of prisoners still in Penal centres tend to be equitable, but in the outside world, it is far from fair.

Luke Bishop

Rehabilitation Services in other Member States such a PrisonSMART in the United Kingdom and EuroPris have allowed governments and agencies to promote proper rehabilitation services and professional prison practice. Many of these services are available in Prisons around Europe and allow prisoners to manage their stress and cope with problems that may affect them in the outside world. These services have helped Member States lower their recidivism rates and let the prisoners’ function as members of communities, able to apply for employment and seek the help they need.

Across the European Union, many Member States have chosen to take very different stances on the treatment of the incarcerated within their country. The European Prison Rules are based on the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners but are not legally binding for Member States. What does this mean for the Prisoners incarcerated? What liberties do they have, and where does the line between internment and comfort stand? In comparison to other European countries, Ireland holds a low rate of death in prison and low prison population. It also boasts a high level of releases from Penal Institutions in the last 10 years, making it a equitable system, based off these figures alone. However, how can we compare to other Countries?

These rehabilitation programmes may indicate the standard of help needed to allow the interned to become part of society again in a positive way.

Ireland tends to have a low prison rate, with only 80 in every 100,000 people interned in prisons across Ireland. However, the number of Repeat offenders in Ireland stands much higher than other Member States. In 2016, Ireland held a 62.3% recidivism rate, with other States such as the United Kingdom only holding a 50% Repeating rate. In Ireland, it is reported that over 80% of these Repeat Offenders do so within three years. Is the Irish government really doing enough to rehabilitate their interned?



Connect European universities - with or without Brexit


s I‘m writing this article, I have just completed my University application. Not long ago I was choosing amongst Switzerland‘s universities where I would most preferably study. My decision was primarily based on the following criteria: • How low/high is the university ranked on World University Rankings? • Has the university acquired a large network? • What is the possibility of attending an exchange year? It is probable that these points are not only fundamental to me, but to many future university students in Europe. In our globalised society, we have a desire for a large network with possibilities to interact with other programs. Today the network a university has established determines the attractiveness of the degree. In the future more jobs will involve working in international teams and with clients from all over the world. The Muse names cross-cultural competency as one of the key skills for 2020 and beyond. Without doubt an Exchange year benefits your career. Evidence is provided by the Erasmus Impact Study, which has aimed to investigate the impact of Erasmus mobility and intensive programs on skills development, employability, institutional development and the internationalization of Higher Education Institutions in Europe. The key findings were the following: On average, Erasmus students have better employability skills after a stay abroad than 70% of all students. The unemployment rate of Erasmus students five years after graduation is 23% lower. Furthermore the share of employers who considered experience abroad to be important for employability also nearly doubled between 2006 and 2013.


As Switzerland is not part of the EU, us Swiss students fear that we cannot be a part of the Erasmus program: Especially now that Switzerland has not yet completed the ongoing negotiations about the new frame treaty with the EU. This may now also be a fear British students have to cope with – or exchange students studying in Britain. Brexit happening costs the EU 18 of its 30 universities in the top 100 QS World University Rankings and might even cost the Erasmus program some of its current offers and resources – to continue participating in Erasmus the British government and the EU will need to reach an agreement. One of the big questions we are trying to find answers to in this sessions is how the EU should develop its strategy for higher education and further strengthen its quality and competitiveness. In my opinion, no other social group can find better solutions to this issue than the ones who are at most in need of a functioning educational system us - the youth. It is in our interest to improve the education we receive and to adapt our education to our needs.

European Commission, 2014

I think it is already clear that only by connecting Universities all over Europe we can make sure to further strengthen the quality of our education. Now, dear Delegates, you „only“ need to figure out a supportable strategy to do so.

Julia Eriksson 11

Modern Day Arms Race Is the EU falling behind?


ince the European Coal and Steel Not in the near future. That the EU will replace Community was founded in 1952, what has NATO as the guarantor of European security eventually become the European Union has is a farfetched thought, a European military never faced as many isolated problems as we do force even more so. Anyone who has ever today. Southern Europe, still weakened by the studied political science could tell you that a 2008 economic crisis, is experiencing waves of country giving up its own forces to a collective, migrants, the Middle East a source of terrorist international force is as impossible as it gets. attacks across Europe. Russia’s annexation of Military autonomy – the possibility of defending Crimea is an ever-present proof of Russia’s military one’s borders if attacked – is one of the basic might and their disregard of international law and components of a state. Giving that up? Not very order. In addition to this, the EU is facing pressure feasible. Therefore, the EU’s ambition of creating from within, as the United Kingdom is dragging a European military force is a dream set a very out an excruciating exit from the Union. Brexit is a long time into the future. drastic event amongst multiple other Eurosceptic movements fueled by the rise So when the EU updated of populism throughout the its Common Defence and „All of this adds up to a continent. All of this adds Security Plan (CDSP), up to a vulnerable European vulnerable European Union what did they present? In Union tense with insecurity 2016, when presenting tense with insecurity and and instability. Should we be their European Defence worried? Action Plan (EDAP), the instability. Should we be EU revealed their aim to worried?“ The foreign policy of US invest more funds into a president Donald Trump, and European Defence Fund. especially his relationship While this initiative does with NATO, has also opened up for the possibility not set any target for a military force, it reveals of a more independent EU concerning defence. many opportunities for the improvement of Trump has remained critical towards NATO, as European defence and security. The EDF is he denounces the European NATO members for supposed to fund collaborative research in the not investing the promised amount of funds into security and defence sector, as well as assisting in the organisation. In 2014, the NATO members joint defence capabilities. This means that instead all agreed to invest 2% of their GDP, something of states each spending money on individual few of them have been able to keep. With the US defence projects, they can join efforts in a more becoming more and more unwilling to pay the cost- and time-effective project. In addition to rather one-sided price for Europe’s security, will bringing more innovation and stability to the this leave a vacuum for the EU to finally become defence industry, the EDAP promises a more more autonomous of NATO’s influence and effective and expanding defence and security establish their own independent military force? sector for the EU Member States.


Vilde Westby As a European teenager living in one of the most peaceful countries in the world, I must admit I am a bit of a pacifist. Writing this article has therefore been intriguing in that I have never thought of security and defence as relevant today. This continent is the source of the liberal world order we see as the standard for human rights and international relations today. Because of the ideas of John Locke and Montesquieu in the 17th century, I can for example view education not as a privilege, but a fundamental right. It is also because of those ideas that I, and my parents, have been lucky enough to never experience war and its devastating effects. Why do we need these initiatives if peace is still prevalent? Is this a step back from the once idealistic goals of organisations like the UN and the EU? I sure hope not, but while the rest of the world is arming up, Europe does not want to sit vulnerable and unprepared, blind with notions of everlasting peace.



The voices voices The for Climate Climate Action Action for heard around around heard the world world the Kate Rodgers

Š Daniel Reinhardt/ dpa 14

The notion of climate change was first mentioned 51 years ago in a report titled “Sources, Abundance, and Fate of Gaseous Atmospheric Polluters” by the Stanford research institute. The report tried to grapple with the impact of rising CO2 levels, warning if ignored “could bring about climatic changes” like temperature increases, melting of ice caps and sea level rise. Despite the countless early warnings, how much really has been done, have we heeded the warnings of the multiple scientists and researchers citing the need for action for the past five decades? For the most part, no. There are now an infinite amount of articles and reports spelling out the effect that climate change has and will have on the globe but those with the most power to make a difference haven’t taken drastic enough action and even in some cases haven’t taken any at all. Ireland isn’t excluded from this group as Based on current shortfalls in reaching the target of reducing emissions by 20% by 2020, climate and energy experts estimate Ireland will face fines of up to €600 million a year until it is compliant. The vast majority of people would agree climate change is a pressing issue and needs to be addressed but most people don’t take action themselves. I think this is why the actions of the then 15-yearold Greta Thunberg were so sensational, she turned her opinions and words into actions in August when she staged a strike outside Swedish parliament in order to highlight her frustration towards the lack of climate action. She continues her protest still, the #fridaysforfuture protests climaxed on the 15th of March 2019 when on one single day an estimated 1.6 million young people participated in over 2,000 protests in 125 countries occurred.

Almost all of the participants in the strikes were under 18 and thus unable to vote, most young people don’t believe there is enough time to wait about until they are the age of majority. The leaders of tomorrow are finding it necessary to step up to the plate today and striking is the most effective way to do so. It’s hard to gauge just yet what impact the strikes will have but European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker to commit to spending 1 trillion Euro to abate climate change between 2021 and 2027. Not to be forgotten though is the impact the strikes have had on the conversation regarding climate change, climate change has been brought to the forefront of public discussion. It is quite possible that climate change will be the top of the agenda in upcoming elections across the globe. In the words of Conner Rousseau, a spokesperson for the Flemish Socialist party in Belgium „They‘ve forced all of the Belgian political parties to take a stand on the climate issue. We have elections in May, it will be one of the main themes.“ The strikes have birthed new hope for this planet, the inheritors of the planet are unsatisfied with the lack of care shown towards their home by previous generations and they aren‘t afraid to take a stand for what they believe in.


Re/cycling around town The younger generation have not not been shy about publicly sharing their views and visions surrounding our environment for the upcoming years. Including multiple strikes taking place globally in the hope of encouraging politicians and the public to address the issues of climate change.

school and as competitive as as I am, I remember encouraging my sister to walk with me to school so I could get a prize at the end of the week. Unfortunately she wasn‘t as keen as I was, but my entire class made an effort to try and walk to school. For one, it kept us moving and motivated to be healthier and also reduced traffic congestion in the village. It was a win-win for everyone.

Many young people took to the streets to broadcast their concerns about making a change. I remember seeing the photos from this strike and being reassured that this generation is dedicated to change and dedicated to making a world a better place.

Private companies encouraging the use of environmentally sustainable transportation such as cycling to work, getting public transport or carpooling, is the basis of encouraging these transportation methods globally. The Cycle to Work Scheme is a tax incentive scheme which aims to encourage employees to cycle to and from work. Under the scheme employers can pay for bicycles and bicycle equipment for their employees. This is one step forward in creating more sustainable transportation methods in the country and has been taken up by many MNC’s in Ireland.

A campaign was put in place by the Green Schools organisation. Their aim was to encourage young children to walk or cycle to school. Children would receive rewards in school if they walked or cycled to school. This came into play when I was in primary


Introducing a rent-a-bike scheme for students to cycle to and from school would encourage students to take a more environmentally friendly and cheaper method of transport for school. It would also reduce traffic congestion in urban areas for parents dropping their children to school, fulfilling our aim. Many MNCs have been contributing to sustainable transport in urban areas by sponsoring rent-a-bike schemes. Coca Cola have sponsored bikes in many urban centres such as Cork, Rome, Valencia and Galway. Santander has also sponsored bikes in London. A large majority of European citizens live in an urban environment, with over 60 % living in urban areas of over 10, 000 inhabitants, so the usage of environmentally sustainable transport is essential. This encourages the use of cycling within urban centres instead of grabbing a bus or a taxi. It’s a cheap and efficient way to get around city centres without doing too much harm to the environment. These bikes can also be used as a touristic function, many times when visiting cities I chose to rent a bike as it is a unique way to see a city. Also a lot cheaper if your a student like me. Transport is no stranger to the debate, transportation, private and public is one of the main factors causing air pollution in many cities. Urban mobility accounts for 40 % of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70 % of other pollutants from transport.

Luckily, a change has been made to encourage more environmentally friendly modes of transport. For example, Cork and Dublin (Ireland) have introduced “Low Emission Buses”. Full electric, hybrid-electric, hydrogen and compressed natural gas/biogas buses are being tested alongside retrofitted diesel buses in the hope to decarbonise the transport sector and improve air quality throughout the country. I believe a focus on developing these rent-a-bike schemes to more locations within city centres could encourage their usage. So if your planning on seeing the sights in Galway after the session make sure to take full advantage of the Coke bikes… maybe not with a large suitcase…. The European Commission has put an emphasis on reducing our carbon emissions in the last couple of years. The European Commission is working to improve citizens‘ quality of life and strengthen the economy by promoting sustainable urban mobility and increased use of clean and energy efficient vehicles. It’s clear, the usage of cycling schemes and renta-bike schemes has made more sustainable and affordable methods of transport in European cities. Implementation of more cycle to work schemes and encouraging young people to walk to school is the way forward in creating more sustainable transport which is better for our environment. To reducing our carbon footprint, carbon emissions and air pollution, I believe we should begin with our methods of transport. Something so small as talking a walk instead of a bus makes such a difference in reducing our carbon footprint.

Emma Barry 17

The Media Team‘s Guide to Galway While your head is stuck in the fun and games of the session, the media team found out the best places to visit in Galway. Hopefully this will inspire you to explore Galway city while your up this neck of the woods and see the city for all its glory. Galway is known for being the urban hub of rural Ireland. Located in the west of Ireland, it’s a harbour city full of culture. Galway city and Galway County are full of endless adventure, entertainment, and beauty. A traditional Irish pub is always around the corner and you won’t find it hard to find a band playing traditional folk music. The west-coast city with almost 70,000 is home to bands of students, artists, writers and craftspeople. The city won the prestigious title of the European Capital of Culture in 2020, ensuring it is a place well worth a visit!

Spanish Arches

Eyre Square

The two arches were part of the extension of the city wall from Martin‘s Tower to the bank of the River Corrib, as a measure to protect the city‘s quays. Now.. it’s the place to be seen on a nice day. Have a picnic, read a book or chill with your session buddies by the Spanish Arches. Located right by the water, it’s a lovely spot to be on a sunny day.

Also known as John F. Kennedy Memorial Park, is an inner-city public park in Galway. Its located beside the Galway Train Station and is close to the major shopping streets in Galway. It’s a lovely area to relax on a nice day in Galway city. There is a playground and plenty of benches around. It is a popular place for locals and tourists on a sunny day and the grass areas are often packed with people.


Galway Cathedral Salmon Weir Bridge

NUIG Galway is famous for its prestigious university. The National University of Ireland was founded in 1845. It makes it one of Ireland‘s oldest universities. The beautiful campus is definitely worth the visit. Galway has been dubbed the ‚Most Charming City’ by the New York Times which attracts many visitors to the university.

Lovely spot in Galway city centre, with stunning views. If you‘re lucky you can see the salmon swimming below you. One of the top places to see in Galway. The cathedral is modern, airy and has a green dome on top. Well worth a visit if you‘re in the city.

Galway City Museum

Quay Street This old European style, cobble road is the centre of “craic” around Galway. With plenty of quirky shops and traditional pubs it’s really the essence of Galway. This street is never shy of various street performers or musicians. If you want to tour Galway in one day… this is the place to be.

Galway City Museum has three floors of exhibitions engaging visitors in the archaeology, history and sea science of Galway. With free entry into the museum.. you have no excuse not to go. The modern building is inviting and will give you a real sense of what Galway is about. 19

GALWAY2019 2 2 N D N AT I O N A L S E S S I O N O F E Y P I R E L A N D

The Media Team

Simon Lenze Sorcha Finan Emma Barry Lukas Harkotte Kate Rodgers Vilde Westby Luke Bishop Agata Oskroba Julia Eriksson

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Galway 2019 - Session Issue  

The Media Team of Galway 2019 proudly presents the Session Issue, containing a series of academic articles as well as some fun about the hos...

Galway 2019 - Session Issue  

The Media Team of Galway 2019 proudly presents the Session Issue, containing a series of academic articles as well as some fun about the hos...

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