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Ancient, Medieval, Modern (17th-18th century) Philosophical Conceptions Aristotle



God (as ultimate object) Revelation Authority

Relationships (spatio, temporal, causal, etc.) Empirical-Mathematical Correspondence-Coherence


Object: Essences Method: Syllogistic Criterion of Truth: Self-Evidence


Scope: Change: Matter: Divisions:

Everything Natural v. Supernatural Purposive (Teleological) Creation Animate (Hylozoistic - matter is 'alive') Hierarchically Ordered


Place: Position: Nature: Ends:

Part of Natural World Central Rational Happiness (within the State)

Part of the Natural and the Supernatural WorldPart of the Natural World (other world?) Focus of Value Relatively Insignificant Rational-Believer Rational with Limited Understanding Salvation (within the Church) Freedom-Individuality (anti-institutional?)


"Lege, Labora, Ora" (Read, Work, Pray)


Physical Mechanistic Inanimate Quantatively ordered

"Calculate, Experiment, Act"

Differing Philosophical Conceptions: Ancient, Medieval, Modern  

Changing historical views on nature, knoweldge, humans...

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