Ancient, Medieval, Modern (17th-18th century) Philosophical Conceptions Aristotle
God (as ultimate object) Revelation Authority
Relationships (spatio, temporal, causal, etc.) Empirical-Mathematical Correspondence-Coherence
Object: Essences Method: Syllogistic Criterion of Truth: Self-Evidence
Scope: Change: Matter: Divisions:
Everything Natural v. Supernatural Purposive (Teleological) Creation Animate (Hylozoistic - matter is 'alive') Hierarchically Ordered
Place: Position: Nature: Ends:
Part of Natural World Central Rational Happiness (within the State)
Part of the Natural and the Supernatural WorldPart of the Natural World (other world?) Focus of Value Relatively Insignificant Rational-Believer Rational with Limited Understanding Salvation (within the Church) Freedom-Individuality (anti-institutional?)
"Lege, Labora, Ora" (Read, Work, Pray)
Physical Mechanistic Inanimate Quantatively ordered
"Calculate, Experiment, Act"
Changing historical views on nature, knoweldge, humans...