CONSTRUCTION LOGBOOK Simmon tran 699167

2014 construction

CONSTRUCTION LOGBOOK

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3 structures

WEEK 1 SUMMARY 

3 structures:

1. 2. 3. 

Column and beam Mass construction Fabric tensile Week 1 focuses on mass construction and the types of forces which are considered and utilised. forces The types of steel structures implemented during the building process and why they are used Small module vs large module construction Mass construction tower activity analysis and flaws

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Ching 02 ‘forces’ 2.08

1. Column and beam 2. Mass construction 3. Fabric tensile Mass construction This type of method integrates highly dense masonry materials and techniques to build structures which are able to withstand compression and tension through load paths. The main materials used for this process are; 1. masonry/concrete 2. steel 3. timber All of these materials are sturdy and are able to withhold against internal as well as external factors including wind.

BUILDER BILL ‘CAVITY BRICK CONSTRUCTION’ http://www.builderbill-diyhelp.com/cavity-wall.html

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FORCES Through the lecture 1 activity we were able to establish that the more total surface area a material has, the more compression force(load) it is able to withhold. These include live(moving) loads and dead(stationary) loads, which are factors taken into consideration whilst construction. The most effective model presented was that of a circle due to its even weight distribution, making it possible to withstand the weight of a brick. During mass construction the foundation of the structure must be able to withstand the pressure of everything it holds. To enable this, the load must be evenly distributed over a large area, proving why the base for most large scale structures is larger than the rest of the building.

STEEL STRUCTURES AND SCALES UC: COLUMN UB: BEAM PFC: CHANNELING CHS: CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION SHS: SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION SHS: SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION RHS: RIGHT ANGLE HOLLOW SECTION The list above represent the key terms of each cross section of steel which are used during construction on a large and small module scale. The scales used for construction are mms and ms only, with the common ratios being for 1:100(plan scale) and 1:5(key precise drawings) ‘Forces’ http://www.explainthatstuff.com/howbuildingswork.html

Dead weight upon a structure, causing it to deform

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CONSTRUCTION LOGBOOK SMALL MODULE VS LARGE MODULE Small module construction involves the usage of key materials such as bricks and wood, to be able to build structures with the capability to create patterns and shapes. This type of construction is heavily criticised on the large scale due to its high cost and lower quality. However due to the fact that this process uses smaller components, more patterns and shapes are able to be produced with less structural concerns. Large module construction involves building structures at a much greater scale compared to small module. For example large module construction uses precast concrete usually 10 tonne slabs to build skyscrapers. This is more cost effective and consistent in quality compared than small module construction due to its larger area cover and complexity.

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Small module construction design, part of brick construction tower activity.

CN TOWER TORONTO CANADA. http://www.concretecontractor.com/co ncrete-construction-projects/cn-tower/

Displaying large module construction, this structure is able to withstand against compression due its larger base and support. The more edges the structure has the more stable and stronger it will become due its more even distribution of force.

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CONSTRUCTION LOGBOOK Step 1. Rough design

Step 2. Laying down the foundations

ACTIVITY ONE: (Compression) MASS CONSTRUCTION TOWER The aim of the activity is to combine our knowledge of loads and forces, to create a large tower made of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bricksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. This structure had to withstand the compression caused by the amount of bricks stacked on top of each other. There had to be an opening so that an object is able to enter and exit at the base of the model, which will change the direction of the force pathway from growing straight to the ground to that of a more triangular route. After the construction process, a number of bricks had to be removed to test the structures ability to withhold loads and forces. Failure points appeared after too many bricks were removed at the base causing the structure to tilt. The approach taken by the group to decrease this probability involved using a stretcher and header arrangement. This allowed them to construct a taller model, due to its strength without using a very large base.

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Step 3. Building upwards

Force dispersion in triangular path

Weak spot. Removal of too many bricks on this side of the structure caused it to tilt and consequently collapse.

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ACTIVITY ONE: MASS CONSTRUCTION TOWER

Step 4. Comparing models

The group initially started off with a square base design but soon realised the amount of blocks and time consumption was much too high. Instead we manipulated our design to be much like a bridge with an arch center. This allowed us to reduce the amount of blocks used as well as achieving our goal of having an entrance at the base. The clay bricks that were also given to us were not used but couldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been utilised to become a stronger base foundation for our structure. The triangle shape structure along with the brick layout allowed the weight of the bricks to be dispersed evenly through force paths straight down to the ground. All groups had different designs with most going for a circular external structure, as seen in the pictures.

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WEEK 2 SUMMARY 

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Function of each structural system; 1. Solid systems 2. Skeletal systems 3. Membrane system 4. Hybrid system ESD and selecting materials for construction. Common ESD practises Lecture activity Decision making critera Structural connections Beam and column Hot rolled and cold formed steel Force pathways Balsa wood weekly activity

STRUCTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS A solid system involves the bricks and stones, also known as masonry to complete a structure that can withstand compression forces. The skeletal system which include sbeams and columns are necessary to transfer loads and balance a structure. Hybrid systems includes the structural frame as well as the cladding. These systems combined with the membrane system complete the structure of a building. The structural system as well as the envelope system was made up of the enclosure and service systems.

Ching 2.02 structural and substructure systems

Design by juan carlos, structures and forces. http://www.petervaldivia.com/technology/materials/buildin g-structure.php

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LECTURE ACTIVITY Stabilising a weight upon a model made of a plastic cup as well as straws(columns). This activity was designed to show the dispersion of pressure. Failures: Were predominantly due to imbalance during construction. Some models were angled outwards, causing the force to go directly outwards, collapsing the container. Possible enhancements: double the pins which hold the straws, more folds in straws, doubling the thickness of each straw and triangular structure with pin joints. By using more straws tied around eachother, the amount of weight of which each straw could hold was multiplied by a factor of the number of straws used. E.g 1 straw = 500n 2 straws= 1000n

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Environmentally sustainable designs

Image by paul james, part of melbournes sustainability throughout 4 domains. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Circles_of_Sustainability_image_(assessment__Melbourne_2011).jpg

In lecture activity, which involved using straws as columns to hold up a plastic box and weight.

Environmentally sustainable designs(ESD) involves integrating an ethical approach in the creation of a buildings plans. These practises include;  Using local materials  Material effiency  Taking into account thermal mass  Solar and wind energy  Cross ventilation  Smart sun design  Water harvesting. These and many more examples are used to reduce usage of embodied energy. Performance making criteria;  Performance requirements  Aesthetics qualities  Economic efficiency  Environmental impact.

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EMBODIED ENERGY

JOINTS AND FORM

Embodied energy is the combined total energy used during all states of a materials life. This includes the all stages of its life cycle, from extraction of raw material to disposal of waste product. Common ESD practises are implemented to reduce the embodied energy and therefore lower the carbon footprint. Common excessive uses of energy can be found in producing portable water, raw materials, carbon dioxide, energy and electricity. The ESD plan is an essential method in reaching the decision making criteria.

Joints are connections made between two separate objects. In construction there are 3 types of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;structural jointsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; known as the roller joint, fixed joint and pin joint. Roller joints are able to withhold against vertical loads but not horizontal force. Pin joints are regularly used on the construction site as it is capable of handling horizontal and vertical loads. Fixed joints are able to withstand all forces and are very strong.

CSIRO MMT Brochures - Technologies Embodied Energy. Embodied energy in resource production.

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The point and plain approach allows a framework of a design to be able to fuse into a form, inheriting volume and strength. Columns and walls are common point and plain examples as these are connected through cross vaults which hold them together.

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HOT ROLLED AND COLD FORMED

COLUMN AND BEAM Is one of the 3 main structures used in the construction process along with mass production and fabric tensile. Column and beam make up the skeletal structure which supports the weight of the roofing and walls. Beams are used across a roof in the shortest direction possible to maximise strength and minimise cost. A large beam would be more vulnerable to the weight fail factor as well as cost more to support properly with trusses and studs.

Ching 2.13 columns failure due to buckling rather than crushing

Hot rolled steel is when steel is bent and shaped at a high temperature. Steel shapes made for construction are the beams and columns. Cold formed steels are stronger and can be thinner due to its production at room temperature, giving it time to harden. Cold formed steel is more economically friendly and can be produced as small thin yet strong supports. Cold formed; câ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, zâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, shs, chs and rhs. (1.2mm) Hot rolled: ub and uc (10mm)

Types of beams used for roofs, dispersing the load over means cross sections. SIMMON TRAN 699167

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FORCE PATHWAYS Force pathways are the direction in which the weight force of loads takes to reach the ground. These pathways will help determine where the critical stress areas are on a structure and if it needs to be supported. If the pathway is not taken into consideration the loads might be too heavy or unbalanced, causing the whole structure to be unstable and unsafe. Without proper reinforcement the columns which most the force goes into to reach the ground will curve and bend due to the pressure. In reference to the illustrated image, the green pathway shows the direction of which the load has zero to minimal affect on the structure. The side on which the load is on shows equal and opposite reaction forces in its columns due to the weight force applied onto them.

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(force pathways) showing equal and opposite reactions. The loadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s weight force travels along the beams and down the columns to the ground.

Ching 2.12, complete system of applied and reactive forces to retain equilibrium in structure.

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BALSA WOOD ACTIVITY The Balsa wood strip given to the class was 10cms by 60cms. The challenge was to design and construct a tower which is able to stand and touch the ceiling with that very small thin piece of wood. The design had to integrate factors such as stability and dispersion of weight as expressed in the previous weeks. The groups design, was that of a triangular structure, starting with a large base and working all the way up. With the single piece of Balsa wood, the group managed 180cm(roughly) in height. The structure was able to keep its shape at this height by forming triangular trusses between the wooden columns, keeping it in place. These trusses were put in place to remove horizontal force factors which might bend and reshape the design. 1. DESIGN. Triangle used because of its ability to be

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2. Construction with cardboard triangles acting as base and levels. Glue used to stick each length together, wedged between 2 smaller pieces

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BALSA WOOD ACTIVITY RESULTS AND SUMMARY With more materials being handed out during the activity, the group was able to reach the very top of the ceiling by using a tripod which clanged to the top, however due to its lack of support and heavy weight, the tripod eventually snapped the top section of the tower. Instead of using the tripod design, the group could’ve made straight column upwards, decreasing the weight and imbalance in weight. The support could’ve also been improved to maximise stability and bending. There were not enough rigid corners to help provide strength to the structure. At an increased height, the tower seemed to concave within itself, revealing that the force was too much for the columns. More bracing and a larger base would’ve solved this problem as there is more force dispersion. Different types of structures made by the tutorial groups, all using triangular pattern allowing them to create a strong structure with minimal resources used.

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Construction logbook

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