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Simran Tomar Virtual Environments Student No:643692 Semester 2/2013

Group 6


The process i went through to get my measure drawing of the folding fan, was stimulated by the Heath et al (2000) reading,which displayed a technique of taking apart each component of the object to draw, hence the fan, then photocopying each part, tracing the images of each component/part and then scanning them onto the computer. I also used Illustrator to edit the images for more accuracy and detail.

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Using the software; Rhinoceros interlinked with the reading Inside Rhinoceros 4 (2008) by Cheng, assisted in creating an model of the folding fan, which was a very helpful task, expanding the range of skills, which made it easier for the whole semester. To create the folding fan, commands such as the PictureFrame command, curves, creating panel curves, extruded curves and more were used. Also learning how to take screenshots from a range of views helped show the volume of the folding system of the fan. I first made the bamboo sticks which are the main structure of the fan. I traced one, by using the PictureFrame command, then after that I mademultiple copies and constructed the open fan, and then the fans top surface, or as known as the panel.

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The notion was to explore the volume of the item we were using. Thus, I took apart the folding fan, and assembled a cylinder type of form, which had produced volume within. This task allowed us to understand that one item can produce various types of volume.

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IDEA ONE- WINGS This design uses the material system similiar to the folding fan, as the wings can fold out and back in. The panels are the surface/top of the wings, and they are also folding in and out, to creat various volumes.

By reading Sommers (1969) Personal Space, the importance of personal space is introduced, although it made me understand that the head and face is the part of the body which people want to protect the most, they do not others near their faces. Therefore I developed a design of a head wear type of second skin, which protects the head from others and hides the face for the users benefit.

IDEA THREE- COVER I used the shape of the open fan, as a type of panel for this design idea. I also referred to the skin of a turtle, which is hard, and has a curved panel surface which protects it and gives it shelter.

This design uses the panel & fold system, as the material covering the head, is continously folding andcreating this pattern with the panels.

This second skin design creates a type of armour, which is a type of covering from any damage being inflicted, or individuals who may enter the personal space.

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M2/DESIGN IDEA DEVELOPMENTS Our group liked the idea of personal space including another human, instead of just one. This was due to the fact, the other member may make one feel more comfortable instead of the person being alone. We therefore developed designs of wings, which were inclussive of two members. The Drop by designer Olivia Decaris (Image 01), which was shown in Lecture 4, was a good example and inspirational of inclusive space, which we drew upon in our idea development stages.



Sketching, Glen George, 2013


In reference to our panel and fold system, we agreed that it depends greatly on extension and retraction, which the wing system, in a literal sense would highlight; the extension of the wings.

The modelling design of the wings (Image 04), interlined with panelling tools in Rhino and 123D Catch work, displays the inclusive personal space which our group had decided on;the interaction of two humans within the second skin. There is a surface on the wings, however that could be removed, or a type of transparent material, so the people within the wings could see what is outside Another Rhino model (Image 05), developed by group member Alex, basically changed the form of the folding fan she created for Moudle 1, using to Twist command, and in return, she created a wing like form. Although we decided that this design was far too literal, and we wanted more complexity.



Rhino Wings,Alex Mackie, 2013

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M2/DESIGN IDEA DEVELOPMENT- CONCEPT FIGURATION Instead of continuing with our wings concept, we decided to redefine our personal space and its boundaries, in relation to the two bodies inside the second skin. This was due to the fact that we agreed that the wings concept was too literal, and not unique enough for this design brief, as it was just typical wings that would be designed. We figured that the most common area of the body that is given the most attention to is the human head, eyes and face, therefore for our design should draw focus/attention to these upper sections of the body.

Sketching, Glen George 2013

Since all our focus was on the human eyes and head, we came up with the idea of doing a eye tracking/movement test, which would help us understand where someone looks when speaking or being directly infront of another personal within a reasonably close distance. This would help with the design of the second skin, as we could minimise the ‘awkwardness’ of too much closure, but still having that personal space, by interweaving transparent areas which users could look through, instead incessantly having direct eye contact. This resulted in most responses of people looking down continuously or straight into the other person’s eyes.


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Veasyble Photography,Luca Nelli

The Privacy shell by Veasyble is an inspiration and relevant example for the panel and fold material system. It also gave our group inspiration to further expand on our ideas of personal space, as we had thought from the start, that we wanted the space to be inclusive- interaction of two people, rather than just one, like the privacy shell itself. I like how the privacy shell is first just a simple shoulder bag, but it beautifully folds out into a shell, which can enclose the heads of two humans, and give them privacy from the outside world. This was inspirational, as it gave us ideas to focus mainly on the areas where two people usually look at each other- the face is the main part of the body the eyes refer to and where the most connection with another body. Veasyble Photography,Luca Nelli

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These were my attempts of making one of the ideation designs in Rhino. Making a semi sphere, then using panelling tools to make the hexagon panel surface

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The formation of the first prototype was a very important process, as it was the foundation of our design. Inspired by origami paper folding, I made a simple shape, which formed into a flexiable and conceptual design. Using standard paper, I created the shapes, and joined all the pieces together with sticky tape to get the final form. Then i cut into the origami shapes, individually, so there was a transparent/ holes, from which users could look out from, as our group discussed we didnt want to design to be too enclosing of the two users. These images show the process of the prototype, and how its structure is flexible- can be compressed into a smaller volume, or expanded to a larger volume.

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Rhino model- finalised form process Alex Mackie, 2013




Digram of Colour Mapping, Alex Mackie, 2013


In reaction to our analysis, we were able to create a shape which represented out the sections of most frequently looked at, and wanted to have these areas as white, with the rest of the design black. We chose white & black, as white is a bright colour which tends to entice the eye, whereas black, symbolic of the lack of light. Together these would attract attention, and create different moods for the users and people on the outside.

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M3/ FABRICATION CREATING FORM In response to the eye tracking analysis, we were able to create a Rhino model which drew out the key pathways users have a habit to look towards, and ended up with this shape for the form, when it is not being altered and moving, as it is a dynamic form.

As a group, we decided to create a form which continued with our main idea of having a personal space, that is inclusive of another person and as an interactive space. A space which is dynamic and easily changable depending on the people using the skin.

Rhino screenshots of form, Alex Mackie, 2013

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Another idea we explored with our design and form, was it’s rigidility. Wondering if the model would hold better if it had ‘bone structure’ (displayed in the images on the right), being more rigid. Although we realised that if this occurred our design would loose its dynamic quality, which is what we intended to have in our design from the start. Allowing the form to be dynamic is important, as users can alter the shape for their benefit. Although when the shape is not altered, it creates a space which allows users to also be comfortable, as they can look in different places, instead of the person they are with.

Rhino Models of potential bone form, Alex Mackie, 2013

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02 03 Images 01,02,03-Rhino 3D Panelling of Final Design Alex Mackie, 2013

After finalising the form, we moved on to intellectualising the final product, with the identical origami rectangular folds used in the original prototype. At first, it was puzzling to digitally replicate the same shape made in the previous prototype, but finally by creating one of the panels, we were able to use panelling tools, which repeated them across our designed form, and created our panel surface. The Rhino images above show this, our final form with panelling.

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Fab Lab submission file

The procedure of creating our second skin, was first to create and send a template of the panels to FabLab, and then cutting out the pieces, forming them, and attaching them altogether, to create the form, which was flexible but still strong due to the card being attached together. We were able to compress the paper, like our first prototype and it portrays the key mechanisms of the panel and fold system. We noticed that the creation of tabs was a great way of resolving issues we had with our prototype, both visually and structurally.

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When looking back to the start, the final design has elements which represent key conceptual ideas from our sketches and ideas. The model is dynamic, therefore can extend around the head. Also the final model has similarities with the final Rhino model too, displaying the correct static form and the panelling of the surface.

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M4/ REFLECTION Throughout the design process of the second skin, there were many issues that were faced, but solved through design decisions. The lectures and readings were useful tools which helped the way to deal with obstacles and also come up with ideas and concepts for our own second skin. Focussing on specific properties given to us, such as ‘panel and fold’, allowed interesting design concepts to be thought of, which integrated these properties, therefore a real process from start to finish is visible. Applying tools, such as digital technology; the use of Rhino, helped achieve accurate and clean models, and also assisted in viewing how design ideas potentially could look by, without actually making the model itself. Also by using the card cutter, it shortened the length of time taken to translate our models to digital to physical. Although it was a sometimes an uneasy procedure, as we had a few issues with the Fab Lab. Although, the card cutter made our design look visually appealing and our job a little easier. It was a valuable skill to learn for the future. The perception of craft has changed due to the introduction of digital design. Technology has increased efficiency, and as Building The Future (2008) suggests, humans are relying on technology more than ever, especially in construction and design. To minimise time, architects and designers use digital processes to define detailing on designs. Risks are also minimised, as technology has a ‘high amount of certainty’ (Marble,2008, p3). For example, using Rhino it was easy to change mistakes in our 3D model or templates, such as adding tabs. Working in a team was a great experience. Having others to assit in the design process and having other perspectives of ideas and design was really good learning experience. When design issues occurred between us group members, they were solved easily through discussion, this also made me understand that we all care about the outcome.

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Photographs, Rhino Models, Sketches: Combination of group; Simran Tomar, Alex Mackie, Glen George Precedent reading: VEASYBLE. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 1 Nov 2013]. Readings: Heath, A, Heath, D & Jensen, A 2000, 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700-2000 Watson-Guptill, New York, Selected Extracts Marble, S 2008 ‘Imagining Risk’ In P Bernstein, P Deamer (eds). Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, pp 38-42 Sommer, R 1969, ‘ Spatial invasion’ in Sommer, R, Personal space : the behavioral basis of design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J, pp. 26-38

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