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Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 1

The internet and other addictions Vocabulary

                 

Surf: surfing the internet or browsing means searching notes on the internet. Engaging in: when someone participates in a situation Turning each other in: Devoting: giving or using something for a purpose like time or effort Compulsiveness: inability to control certain behavior Therapy: treatment of problems by about them Putting together: organizing Support groups: people who meet to help each other with a problem they all share Present with: show signs of an illness by having a type or behavior or condition Coming out: becoming publicly known Fulfillment: personal satisfaction Turn into: become (something different) Shaping: influencing in a particular way Overwhelmed: upset or strongly affected. Went through: experienced Going on: happening Went on a binge: began to overdo something Clean slate: fresh happening


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Ingles IV

Grammar Present and future

1. I wish would be my friend 2. I wish could come tomorrow

Use wish + would or could Present wish

1. I wish he knew me better 2. She wishes he loved her more

Use wish + past form of the verb Present wish (verb to be)

1. I wish they weren´t so cheap. 2. If they were more expensive

Use past form: wish + were Past wish

1. I wish I had finished my carrier 2. I wish she had eaten more protein 1. I wish I could have for say that.

Use wish + had + past participle Past wishes: could Use wish participle

+

could

have

+

past


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 2

Honesty is the best policy o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Pervasive: existing or spreading everywhere Trivial: unimportant or with little value Tattling on each other: tell something bad that another person has done Mislead: make someone believe something that is not true Veneer: a cover that hides the way someone or something really is Relentless: continuing without stopping or losing strength Finely honed: sharpened or perfected Conceal: hide something carefully Intrusive: affecting someone’s private life in an annoying way Inflated: exaggerated, overly important Fudge: manipulate something Bluffing: to lie Slippery slope: like a snowball Fess up: admit it or face the true Whopper: lie Deceptive: person with double face Mull over: think carefully Put over: deceive


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar

Present

must

Past must + have + past participle Present/future Can´t/couldn´t

Past

can´t/couldn´t

Future

should/ought to

Past participle

Should + have + past

Present/future

Past

could/may/ might

could/may/might

1. She must be the new principal 2. She must have been the new principal last year. 1. His excuse for missing the exam due to illness can´t possibly be true. I just know he is telling a big, fat whopper. 2. I´m shocked. The university´s president couldn´t have committed plagiarism in his speech. He is known for his impeccable integrity. 1. Due to improvements in technology, brain scans should soon be able to help us detect liars and cheaters more accurately 2. He should´ve read the university´s honor code by now. All first-year students do. 1. The final grades in the professor´s class look a bit inflated. He might be fudging them to make himself look like a better teacher. 2. Walt has always been so honest, but he might have cheated on the exam because of the intense competition and the pressure from his parents.


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Unit 3

The bold and the bashful Grammar o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Reticent: unwilling to talk Phobia: very strong fear Merit: value Extroverted: very sociable Adverse: negative Syndrome: condition Chronic: continual (medical term) Kindred souls: people having similar traits Misattributions: false assumptions Handicap: disadvantage Aloof: distant Condescending: treating others as inferior Go through the roof: become upset Open the floodgate: to make it happen Turn the tide: change the course Reluctant: reject Grouchy: morose Killjoy: party pooper Bashful: shy

Ingles IV


Silvia Bonilla A

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Identifying adjective clause An identifying adjective clauses:  Has a subject and a verb  Modifies specific nouns and pronouns  Can be introduced by who, whom, which, that, whose, where and when  Is not set off commas  Is essential the meaning of the sentence Nonidentifying adjective clauses A nonidentifying adjective clauses:  Has a subject and a verb  Is used with the relative pronouns who, whom, which and whose. It is also used with where and when and cannot be used with that.  Must describe a specific person or thing  Is set off by commas  Is not essential to the meaning of the sentences and may be omitted.

Quantifying expressions Nonidentifying adjective clauses often contain expressions of quantity such as many of, most of, some of, none of, two of, several of, half of, all of, each of, both of and a number of Use the structure: quantifies+preposition+relative pronoun (only who, whom, where, when or which)

Ingles IV

1. We are losing the social lubrication that´s essential for people to feel comfortable in the presence of others. 2. Consider the division between those who always see the bright side and those who´d rather wallow in their misery.

1. Our research which we´re been conducting since 1972, focuses on adults. 2. Dr. Lynn Henderson, who is codirector of the shyness clinic, says nearly everyone experiences shyness.

1. Negative personality traits, most of which are totally false, are often applied to shy, attractive people. 2. The participants, all of whom were adults, met with the therapist twice a week to talk about their problems with shyness.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 4

The tipping Point Vocabulary o o o o o o o o o o o

Mavens: people who know a lot and talk a lot about something Word of mouth: related to people telling people Epidemic: large number of cases of an infectious disease occurring at the same time Got a hold of: contacted, communicated with Consumed by: totally involve in Win over: persuade someone to do something Profiled: described Goes a long way toward: success in Holds: is true Make a splash: get attention A ripple effect: domino effect


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar

Adverb clauses of result are introduced by:  Such + noun or noun phrase + that + clause of result  So + adjective + that + clause of result  So + adverb + that + clause of result So is also used before many, few much and little. So + much/little + uncountable noun + that So + many/few + count noun + that

1. The subways were such a mess that people hated to ride them. 2. The shoe brand became so popular that sales went through the roof in only a few short months. 3. The flu spread so quickly that 50 percent of manhattanities were sick on New Year´s day. 1. Rachel Carson´s book silent spring brought so much attention to the dangers of pollution that the modern environmental protection movement was bor


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Unit 5

Feng Shui Vocabulary: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Frowned upon: disapprove of Hard bitten: tough or experienced Transcendent: beyond the limits of ordinary experience Digression: idea that is unrelated to the topic Aligning: properly positioning Caught off guard: surprised, startled Abundance: a large quantity of something Circulates: moves, flows Quote: repeat what someone else has said or written Skeptically: with doubt Get into: become interested in Sharp: smart, quick Work around: compensate for Rise or fall: success or fail

Ingles IV


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar Discourse connectors are words and expressions that can connect ideas in speaking and writing. We use formal connectors in contrast, moreover, furthermore, consequently, therefore to express the meaning of contrast, addiction and result. In spoken English, we often use more informal connectors to express the same meaning. Contrast

Addiction

Result

But

Plus

So

However

In addition

As a result

On the other hand

On top of that

Expression

Explanation

example

Boy…

Used as an exclamation followed by an inversion, auxiliary then main verb

Boy, did Bruce lee have bad luck

I wouldn´t say…, but I would say

Used to clarify the meaning

I wouldn´t say feng shui is huge in the United State, but I would say it´s becoming popular

…would no more… than

Followed by something obviously unreasonable

I would no more hire a feng shui expert to design my house than I would hire a palm reader to predict my future

Talk about…

Followed by an explanation

Talk about a perfect location! The house was surrounded by lovely streams and beautiful gardens

I´d have to say

Used to emphasize a strong point

Well, since I moved, y desk to the northeast

(unexpected result)

corner, I´d have to say my writing has improved.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 6

Spiritual Renewal Vocabulary o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Prophets: Holy men. Ascetic: Living without any physical pleasures or comforts, especially for religious reasons. Fasting: eating little or no food for a special reason. Divine: Coming from God or a god. Enacted a law: Made a new official rule. Vibrant: Full of energy and life. Hectic: Very busy, full of activity. Replenish: Renew and refill. Well-being: A feeling of being happy, healthy, or satisfied. Refrain from: Not do something you want to do. Will: Determination. Fosters: Develops. Gratitude: Thankfulness. Humility: Not being too proud. Eastern religions: Asceticism. All religions: Anti-materialism. Judaism: Preservation of an ancient tradition. Episcopalianism: Spiritual discipline. Mormonism: Anti-competitiveness. Islam: Spiritual renewal. Quest: Search Trace: Finds the origins of something Took on: Started Notion of: Idea Pull back: Withdraw Draw: make someone willing to talk Over time: Gradually Caught on: Become popular Royalties: Money paid to a writer Enact: Make a rule or law


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar All nouns in English can be divided into two groups

Count nous

Non-count nous

Are those that can be counted and made plural (monasteries, monks)

Can be considered as a mass and cannot be made plural (spiritually, air)

Quantifiers before count nouns 1. A lot 2. Many / a great many 3. Quite a few 4. A bunch of 5. A (large) number of 6. Certain 7. Not many 8. Very few (just a few / only a few) 9. A few / few 10. Fewer

Quantifiers before non-count nouns 1. A lot of 2. A great deal of 3. Quite a bit of

4. 5. 6. 7.

Not much Very little A little / little less


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 7

Workplace privacy Vocabulary o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Employees: people who work for a company or organization. Employer: Person or organization that you work for Keep an eye on: Watch closely and continuously Surveillance: The act of watching carefully or secretly Safeguards: protections Eavesdropping: Listen to secretly Legitimate: Lawful; reasonable A log: An official written record Scope: Range Willy-nilly: Unpredictably, without our choosing Dignity: Respectability, seriousness Demeaned: Insulted Driving: Causing Sinister: Evil Deter: Prevent Racial slurs: Insulting comments about a person´s race


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar Some verbs must always be followed by a gerund (base form of verb + ing). Other verbs must be followed by an infinitive (to + base form of verb). Others can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with no change in meaning. However, certain verbs that can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive do have a change in meaning. Sometimes the change is subtle, sometimes it is very obvious. Look at the verbs forget and stop. Verb Forget + gerund He will never forget having his calls monitored.

Meaning To forget an experience – usually one that is particularly good or bad

Forget + infinitive The manager was fired because he forgot to write a report about his staff´s phone calls

To forget to do something

Stop + gerund She stopped calling her friends during office hours.

To stop doing something for an extended time

Stop + infinitive When she realized how late she was working she stopped to call home.

To stop doing something for a moment in order to do something else.

Note: Some other verbs like this are mean, quit, regret, remember, and try.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Unit 9

Boosting brain power through the arts o o o o o o o o o o o o

Enhance: Improve Proficiency: Ability and skill Abstract reasoning: Ability to understand general concepts that cannot be immediately seen or felt Self-esteem: Confident Underscoring: Emphasizing Neurological: Related to nerves Hallmark: outstanding feature Sequential: In a particular order Interventions: Special activities to prevent bad results Curriculum: List of subject taught Well-rounded: Complete and varied Building blocks: parts, pieces.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Grammar The passive voice is formed by using a form of the verb to be plus the past participle of the main verb. The verb to be can be used in any tense as illustrated below. Subject

Past participle

Complement

The students

Form of the verb to be Are

Given

His self-esteem

Was

Enhanced

Intervention

Will be

Needed

The curriculum The pieces The neurons Spatial reasoning

Is going to be must be Might have been is being

Improved Practiced Stimulated Improved

A well-rounded education By the new arts curriculum If things don´t improve Before the performance

When to use the passive voice The passive voice is used when you: 1. Want to emphasize the object of the action, not the actor. 2. Do not know the actor 3. Want to avoid mentioning who performed the action or to avoid blaming anyone 4. Want to report an ideal or fact Passive causative The passive causative is used to speak about services arrange It is formed by the verbs get or have and the past participle of the main verb. Ms. Diaz is organizing an art exhibition of her student´s work. With special funds collected for this purpose, she had the paintings mounted on special paper. She also had the works framed. Finally, she got the school lobby cleaned and set up.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Essays Addictions An addiction is a state when a person is physical and mentally dependent to a substance. Lets recall that people can be addicted to almost anything not only products that are consumed. Sadly, we live in a century that is full with many types of addictions. Alcohol, smoking, drug, gambling, food, video games, Internet, sex, shopping, and work are the top ten addictions of this century. To overcome some of these addictions experts suggest the following. Firstly, suggest admitting there is a problem and that the person is willing to accept help. Secondly, they recommend the addict to join a support group this way they will get the support they need from people who are going through the same things. Thirdly, attending to a psychology or a psychiatrist. Over many years doctors and psychologist have seek to find reasons why people become addicts. They say the repetition of substances and how the brain and body experiences pleasure when using is what mostly causes our brain and body to become addict to those substances. In other cases substances are composed of certain chemicals that actually cause physical changes in nerve cells making our body depended on the substance. Family members or close friends of the patient detect many of the cases of addictions, due to the fact that addicts change their behavior in a drastic way. It is considered rare the cases when the addict comes clean about his addition and realizes that what he or she is doing is harmful to their body. Doctors can also detect any addiction by using blood tests; this shows whether the substance has been taken recently or not. Stress is every challenge or threat to our wellbeing. When people are overloaded and too much pressure is placed upon them people enter a state of stress. People usually handle stress differently, how they react depends mostly in the individual. For example some might think the best way is to remove your self from stressful situations. Taking breaks and giving yourself time to relax. Others believe doing exercise helps them stay calm and reduce the level of stress they have. People seek for alternatives and try to see the things in a different ways. The reactions that people are manipulated by their personalities. One way to handle stress more efficiently is by doing recreational activities. These activities are the ones people enjoy. When they participate in these activities the person becomes more relaxed. Since they are doing what they love they feel refresh, making a difference from their day-to-day routine. Recreational activities


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

can be playing baseball, volleyball, videogames, and computer games. There are many type of recreational activities. As I did my paper I have learned many things. This would help me have a better relationship with my family and friends. Now that I have a better understanding of stress I could easily comprehend why sometimes the elder people who tend to have more pressure act the way they do. This will not only facilitate me to understand them, but at the same time I could help overcome their problems and frustrations. Relationships with friends and family are very important, they provide support at all times. By understanding and helping them we could make a better connection.


Silvia Bonilla A

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Ingles IV

Xenophobia in the society Definition of xenophobia, "refers to hatred, suspicion, hostility and rejection towards foreigners. The word is also often used in extended form with the phobia of different ethnic groups or people who face social, cultural and political issues�. Xenophobia happens a lot in many countries. Many people are discriminated due to their color. Actually we find a lot of xenophobia in schools (schools, high school, universities), in the works and the society. In the school sometimes the children teaser other children due to their skin. One day in the one school, children discriminate a child for being brute, her out she colored her hair white because her teammates made fun on her. Children should be taught that is not right, we're physically different but deep inside we are all equal, there is difference from one person to another. Sometimes children are very cruel and do not think xenophobia is bad. Victims feel bad due to their different color. At work there is also a lot of xenophobia cases. Different studies demonstrate xenophobia happens a lot due to skin color or nationality. In many jobs people are not hired because of their skin color that cannot be. In Costa Rica many times won´t be hire people because they are Nicaraguan and this should not be like we are all equal and should not discriminate against a person. A Costa Ricans may do a good job a Nicaraguan can too.

In work and in schools there is more xenophobia but where there is in society because we live together and one is related to different people all the time. In society, many people discriminate and hate people of different color and that attitude should not be. Xenophobia is a bad habit of the people and should not exist we should all live together in a society without xenophobia quiet. In conclusion, I think that xenophobia exist in we country because is a bad habit. There that set an example for the children not to discriminate against children of another color or another nationality. Everyone as we for this don’t shows to others person.


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