Performance Measures for The Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza
By David Zuckerman Master of Public Policy Candidate University of Maryland, College Park
Produced for Reemberto Rodriguez Director of Silver Spring Regional Service Center May 7, 2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTIONS Table of Contents
I. The Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza A. The Redevelopment Plan B. What Are the Civic Building and Plaza?
3 3 7
II. Organization and Management of the Center and Plaza A. The Silver Spring Regional Service Center B. The Community Use of Public Facilities C. Round House Theatre D. Silver Spring Town Center, Inc. E. Other Stakeholders
8 9 10 11 12 13
III. Program Theory and Logic Model A. The Program Theory B. Year One Accomplishments
14 15 17
IV. The Need For Performance Measures A. Methodology B. Limitations: Cost Restrictions
19 21 21
V. Silver Spring Civic Building and Plaza Performance Measures A. Program Outputs – Reasoning and Implementation B. Program Outcomes – Reasoning and Implementation
22 23 30
VI. Conclusion: Positioning for the Future
FIGURES Figure 1: Silver Spring Central Business District Figure 2: First Four Steps of the Logic Model Figure 3: Last Four Steps of the Logic Model Figure 4: Output Categories and Performance Measures Figure 5: Project for Public Spaces’ Place Diagram Figure 6: Outcome Categories and Performance Measures Figure 7: Downtown Silver Spring’s Lease Plan (December 3, 2010)
PAGE 6 16 20 24 30 31 37
I. The Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza The Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza (Civic Building and Plaza) opened on July 8, 2010 as another successfully completed project in the multi-decade process to redevelop downtown Silver Spring. However, the Civic Building and Plaza have a unique role in the successful revitalization of the downtown area, having already become the center of community activities in Silver Spring. As the milestone one-year anniversary approaches, this report examines the background of the Civic Building and Plaza in order to develop performance measures that can evaluate the Civic Building and Plaza’s effectiveness in accomplishing their mission. These performance measures are essential to connect the everyday activities and events conducted by multiple stakeholders to the long-term impacts that the Civic Building and Plaza hope to achieve within the community. These recommendations have been proposed within the context of a tight budget environment in which resources for data collection are limited. However, this fact does not diminish the importance that this information will have in guiding the operations and strategy of the Civic Building and Plaza in the future.
A. The Redevelopment Plan Silver Spring’s prosperity that originated after World War II and continued through the 1970s began to disappear in the 1980s when the major department stores such as Sears, J.C. Penny and Hecht left after several decades of residence. The mall that took over the Hecht site was called City Place but because it could not secure prominent
anchor retailers, the decline of the area continued through the mid-1990s.2 During this time efforts began to significantly revitalize the downtown area; County Executive Doug Duncan convened the Silver Spring Redevelopment Advisory Committee to seek community input since nearly $400 million was being discussed for this massive redevelopment.3 Originally, Triple Five Group of Companies (Triple Five) was the unanimous choice of a 14-member, county executive appointed panel to construct a 1.25 million sq. ft., enclosed mall in downtown Silver Spring on land that had been public land or had become public land through eminent domain.4* The Silver Spring community reacted harshly to this proposal and a new approach to the revitalization of downtown Silver Spring began; a request for a new developer was issued after Triple Five could no longer secure financing for the project and Folger Pratt was then brought in.† This new approach involved creating sector plans in which Folger Pratt worked with the community to incorporate their voice.5 Initially, the Silver Spring community strongly sought to preserve the old Silver Spring Armory, which had been constructed in 1927, because of its historical significance and its importance as one of downtown Silver Spring’s main community spaces.6‡ However, the developers believed that the space where the Armory stood was vital to the overall redevelopment project. Although nearly thirty civic organizations provided community input that the Armory should be protected, the Armory was not included in the final plan. In its place, the sector plan proposed the Civic Building and Veterans *
Triple Five Group of Companies was minority partner in Mall of America and lead developer in what was then the world’s largest mall in West Edmonton, Alberta. † Folger Pratt is a prominent construction, development, and management organization in the Washington, D.C. region. ‡ The site of the Silver Spring Armory is now the Wayne Avenue Parking Garage.
Plaza. However, despite this departure from what the community had advocated for, within a very short period of time, a large majority of the community and veterans supported this compromise. Many felt that it would adequately replace the lost public space and pay homage to local Veterans, who had an important connection to the Armory, while not prohibiting the redevelopment project.78 The result was that at the beginning of the 21st century, nearly $1 billion in public and private funds were injected into the downtown area with a strong focus on arts and entertainment. The American Film Institute rejuvenated the old Silver Theater and Discovery Communications (home to the Discovery Channel) opened its new headquarters. New restaurants, Whole Foods and an open-air mall “anchored” by a 20screen megaplex Regal Cinema and a Borders Books and Music soon followed. Intermixed in all this development were several fine dining and retail establishments. Finally, just last year in 2010, the Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza opened its doors and the Fillmore-style music hall is expected to follow suit this year in the historic J.C Penney building.9 By June 2010, Montgomery County had invested approximately $188 million into the redevelopment of downtown Silver Spring and an additional $262 million in other public investment, such as the District Courthouse, Montgomery College, Fire Station, Housing, and Streetscape, etc. From private investment, there has more than $1.2 billion financing 29 real-estate projects, including 2,550 units of housing, 336,000 sq. ft. of offices, and over 600,000 sq. ft. of retail. The redevelopment plan also contains future projects, including more than 3,500 units of housing and 3 proposed offices projects.10
Figure 1: Downtown Silver Spring is bordered by 16th Street and Eastern Avenue to the west, Spring Street and Cedar Street to the north, Grove and Fenton Streets to the east, and Jessup Blair Park to the south. The Civic Building and Plaza are both labeled 37 and marked in green and blue at the intersection of Veterans Place and Ellsworth Drive. Â
B. What Are the Civic Building and Plaza? The Veterans Plaza’s primary use is as a large public open space that can be programmed for festivals and concerts. Examples of this include the annual Silver Spring Jazz Festival, which is held under the portico at the front of the Civic Building, and the pavilion on the plaza where the Silver Spring Swings summer concert series is held.11 During the winter, the pavilion area is for a seasonal ice skating rink. In addition, the Plaza is open to the community for daily use and smaller events that may occur on a regular basis, such as the new “Plaza Evenings” and the Fenton Street Market on Saturday mornings.12 The name carries on the legacy from the old Armory that was torn down to allow for the current redevelopment. However, the name has another meaning too, helping to contribute to the sense of space by representing how the community has strived to make the plaza a “dignified place to gather, a place to honor our veterans, and a place for civic discourse.”13 As such, Veterans Plaza will include a memorial commemorating the service of veterans of Silver Spring and Montgomery County. 14§ The other component of this public space is the Silver Spring Civic Building, which has emerged as one of main centers of community activities in Silver Spring. Private businesses, community organizations, local residents or County officials can rent the different rooms in the building through Community Use of Public Facilities, which sets the rates. The largest space is the Great Hall, which can hold a maximum of 725 people and be subdivided into multiple spaces and can be rented for banquets, §
The memorial will be a free-standing sketched glass art piece by Toby Mendez, a Frederick County artist who created the Thurgood Marshall Memorial at the State Capitol.
performances and other meetings and presentations. Additionally, there are five other community use rooms and a gallery space that houses both local art or small museum exhibits. There is also a warming kitchen and indoor Courtyard. Other amenities include free wireless Internet access and “state of the art” multi-media capability.15 Although most of the space needs to be rented in order be used, the public does have access to the building itself when it is open and the atrium area when it is not rented. In these spaces there are couches and chairs that can be used by the community. Additionally, located on the upper floor of the Civic Building is the Silver Spring Regional Center, while Round House Theatre has administrative offices and a practice space on the lower level of the Civic Building.16
II. Organization and Management of the Center and Plaza Although the Civic Building and Plaza are considered County Facilities, operation and management of the entities are diffused among a variety of stakeholders. As such, the County has taken a “collaborative, cross agency approach” that includes the Silver Spring Regional Service Center, the Community Use of Public Facility, the Department of General Services, and the Department of Police.17 At the same time, community entities also have a principal role in managing and programming the space. For instance, Round House Theatre is housed in the lower level of the Civic Building, and Silver Spring Town Center, Inc. is striving to take a more active role in programming events for the space. Therefore, in order to better understand the Civic Building and Plaza, it is imperative to understand the important players who activate the Civic Building and Plaza through a variety of activities.
A. The Silver Spring Regional Service Center One of five regional service centers located throughout Montgomery County, the Silver Spring Regional Service Center (Regional Center) was originally formed in 1975 as the Silver Spring Government Center. Since many large urban areas within Montgomery County are unincorporated, the County Council created these regional service centers because they “ascertained that coordination of community needs with government services in Silver Spring could best be accomplished through this expansion.”18 Housed within the original Regional Center in a high-rise office building several blocks away from today’s Civic Building and Plaza was a multitude of government services, including the Housing Opportunities Commission, Office of Landlord Tenant Affairs, Recreation Department of Motor Vehicles hearing Examiner, Print Shop, and the Administrative Office.19 Today, the Administrative Office, which represents the County Executive's Office in Silver Spring, is all that is located in the current Civic Building, as the role of the Regional Center has evolved over the years. Its principal mission today is to help connect individuals in Silver Spring to Montgomery County government through “effective and timely liaison.” The staff works with residents, community groups, businesses, regional Citizens Advisory Boards, and other public agencies to identify, assess and help find solutions to regional problems or issues by catalyzing “cooperative efforts, including public private partnerships.”20 Changes to the regional service centers are ongoing, especially in the current tough fiscal environment in Montgomery County; the most recent budget makes significant changes to the current structure. As part of a significant reorganization, “the
Office of Community Engagement will be created in FY2012 by consolidating the staffing of the five Regional Service Centers, the Office of Community Partnerships…, the Gilchrist Center…,the office of Human Rights, and the Commission for Women.”21 The goal of this reorganization is to produce savings for the County and create a more “effective model for engaging the community.”22 Overall the budget for the five regional service centers has declined from 29.6 work years in FY2009 to a proposed 7.1 work years in FY2012.2324** At the same time that the Regional Center is facing this restructuring, it is the primary County entity “intentionally activating” the Plaza.25 In order to manage this responsibility since the resources do not exist to provide programming all of the time, the Regional Center is taking a two-prong approach that includes “(a) instituting a ‘Plaza Evening Series;’ and, (b) bringing the Fenton Street Market to the Plaza every Saturday.” Both of these approaches are low-to-no cost activities that will allow the Regional Center to successfully engage the community.26
B. The Community Use of Public Facilities The Community Use of Public Facilities (CUPF) “provides a centralized point of entry for community use” of public schools, libraries, athletic fields, regional service centers and other county facilities.27 With one of its three offices in the Civic Building, CUPF is the scheduler of all rental space events that occur in the Center or on the Plaza on a first come, first serve basis. It makes no judgment regarding the type of the event; for example, a non-profit or county event would not receive preference over a private **
One work year equals the amount of work done by one full time staff person. It could also represent that amount of work done by multiple part time staff members.
affair if it had already been scheduled.†† Furthermore, since CUPF receives no monies from the County General Fund, “user fees are its sole source of funding for the operating budget.”28 Prices for the different spaces are annually reviewed and differ based on the type of organization using the space. “Commercial & Out-of-County” rates are the highest, whereas “Community Service” rates are the lowest. “Personal & Small Enterprise” are only slightly more than “Community Service.” These rates created controversy when the Civic Building and Plaza first opened, which still exists to some extent, as many community members believed that the prices were too steep and would price out many of the community organizations that hoped to use the space. However, CUPF’s role is to maximize revenue intake for the Center and Plaza through space rentals and decisions to approve the rates came after an “in-depth analysis of what comparable county buildings are charging.”29
C. Round House Theatre Round House Theatre (Round House) is the third primary entity housed within in the Civic Building. Originally called Street ’70, as a program of Montgomery County’s Department of Recreation, Round House separated and became a formal non-profit in 1993. At that point, it became an independent professional theatre company with productions at a 200-seat theatre in Silver Spring. In 2002, Round House opened a 400seat theatre in Bethesda and, the following year, it opened a 150-seat black box theatre in
There is; however, a rank priority order for forms received simultaneously based on type of organization and place of residency (CUPF, Policy and Procedures).
downtown Silver Spring. Finally, in 2004, Round House’s new education center opened in Silver Spring, also.30 Although Round House receives “major support” from Montgomery County, the Maryland State Arts Council (an agency funded by the State of Maryland and the National Endowment for the Arts), and the Arts and Humanities Council of Montgomery County, the theater is independent from the County, and as such, its status within the building has not occurred without criticism from the community.31 When County Executive Doug Duncan was handling the redevelopment, Round House was promised free space in the new Civic Building because the “county needed a reliable tenant to occupy the building's basement.”32 The County has leased two rehearsal spaces and several offices to the theatre company free of charge, in addition to its other locations in Montgomery County in which it does not pay rent.‡‡ In return, the theatre would provide a cultural anchor for the new building by providing “arts and entertainment services to a redeveloping Silver Spring.”33
D. Silver Spring Town Center, Inc. Although there are many community organizations actively working to engage the Civic Building and Veterans Plaza as part of their larger goals, Silver Spring Town Center, Inc.’s (SSTCI) primary mission is to activate the Civic Building and Plaza area and to create a “community gathering place that enriches the lives of residents of the Greater Silver Spring area” through encouraging and supporting local arts, fostering civic engagement opportunities, and marketing and promoting programs and services that are ‡‡
After outcry from upset community members to both the County and theatre company, Round House gave up its plaza-level rehearsal space in order to appease residents by increasing the amount of space available to the community (Der Bedrosian, Jul 21, 2010).
happening.3435 At the same time that Round House relinquished the additional practice space, there were many questions regarding what would happen to that area. Certain community members voiced that this space should be turned over to SSTCI so that it could host community programs, and actually achieve a space that would be “dedicated to the community at a very low-bar rate.”36 Although that space was eventually reincorporated into rental space and not allocated to SSTCI, they are still working to create an arrangement that would allow them to better achieve their mission of activating the Civic Building and Plaza.
E. Other Stakeholders There are many other stakeholders that have important roles in helping activate this public space. The Silver Spring Citizen Advisory Board (CAB) and its many subcommittees use the space on routine basis. CAB represents residents living in eleven square miles in North Silver Spring, West Silver Spring, East Silver Spring, Four Corners, Takoma Park and the Central Business District. Appointed by the County Executive and confirmed by the County Council, the 18-member board serves as a link between the community and the County, helping to identify neighborhood and business concerns and making recommendations to county officials. Additionally, it provides advice to the Regional Center’s director “on area needs and priorities” such as economic development, transportation, housing, education, human services and downtown redevelopment.37 Additionally, the Department of General Services is responsible for maintaining the premises, providing a clean, working environment for those entities housed in the
Civic Building and those community members and organizations that are utilizing both the space inside the Civic Building and outside on the Plaza.38 Funded through a variety of methods, including an Urban District Tax, Parking Lot District fees collected by the County, maintenance charges on optional method developments, transfers from the General Fund, and other miscellaneous revenue such as contributions and charges for services, the Silver Spring Urban District also works to maintain a “clean, safe and attractive manner” in the downtown Silver Spring area.3940 Its services include security, streetscape maintenance, tree maintenance, sidewalk repairs, marketing, and promotions and events.41 Although more of its focus is the commercial district (Downtown Silver Spring), its operations extend to the Plaza. Furthermore, the Montgomery County Department of Police also provides security for the Plaza and surrounding area, and has at times, provided overtime officers specifically for this purpose. There are also other community actors that work to engage the space, including the many non-profits in Silver Spring, private businesses, other County activities, and community residents. All of these groups contribute to the long-term impacts that the Civic Building and Plaza will have on the Greater Silver Spring community.
III. Program Theory and Logic Model “Logic models are written or graphic representations that describe how a program or policy is expected to bring about the desired immediate outcomes and longer-term impacts, that is, they articulate the links between program activities and what they are expected to achieve” through a “preestablished format.”42 The performance measures this report proposes are derived from the outputs and outcomes that are part of this model. It
is therefore useful to understand some of the earlier steps in this model in order to understand how these outputs and outcomes were developed.
A. The Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza’s Program Theory In order to move forward with the redevelopment of downtown Silver Spring, the old Armory needed to be torn down. The Armory had been the center for gathering and community activities, and Silver Spring residents demanded a new public space to replace what would be loss. The Civic Building and Plaza served as the compromise; although many residents thought it be one of the first projects to be constructed during the redevelopment, it took nearly a decade. Following in the footsteps of Armory before it, the Civic Building and Plaza’s mission is multi-layered because it is drawn from the many stakeholders – explored in the previous section - that are responsible for managing and operating the space. From these different groups’ activities and their stated goals, the program theory for the Civic Building and Plaza is developed. If the Civic Building and Plaza can be effectively activated by a variety of stakeholders including the county and the community, then the Civic Building and Plaza can improve community cohesion through community engagement, act as a catalyst for local economic development, and be a sustainable revenue generator.
Figure 2: First Four Steps of the Logic Model for the Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza
How to effectively replace the Armory as the community’s center while sparking economic Problem development as part of the overall redevelopment of downtown Silver Spring. Identification
If the Civic Building and Plaza can be effectively activated by a variety of stakeholders including the County and the community, then the Civic Building and Plaza can improve community cohesion through community engagement, act as a catalyst for local economic development, and be a sustainable revenue generator.
Through a collaborative, cross agency approach that includes the Silver Spring Regional Service Center, the Community Use of Public Facility, the Department of General Services, and the Department of Police, the county will manage the Civic Building and Plaza, while partnering with community groups, such as Silver Spring Town Center, Inc, and Round House Theatre, to develop ownership over the space.
Direct inputs include: • Civic Building and Veterans Plaza • County funding • Staff from Silver Spring Regional Service Center, Community Use of Public Facilities, Department of General Services, Department of Police, and Round House Theatre. • Rentable spaces, free wireless internet, a warming kitchen and public space Indirect inputs include: • Silver Spring’s downtown commercial district • Access to public transportation (both metro and buses)
Community Inputs Direct inputs include: • Volunteers at programmed events and at the front desk • Volunteers for the various Advisory Boards • Non-profit and business resources for various events and programming
B. Year One Accomplishments As the Civic Building and Plaza approach their one-year anniversary, recent activities by the community and County stakeholders help demonstrate elements of the program theory. The Civic Building continues to be rented for private activities at a “brisk pace”, helping the facility meet its revenue projection. Additionally, the facility is also being used extensively by County agencies and committees, including code enforcement public hearings, advisory board meetings, town halls with elected officials, etc. Furthermore, there are an increasing number of “public, community engagement activities that provide opportunities for community members to connected;” in March 2011 alone, some of these included: a local church public event on the Plaza; IMPACT Silver Spring's awards program; a highly successful youth job fair (41 employees and nearly 1,000 youth attending); and, a Vietnam Veterans Welcome Home event.43 Also unveiled was the new Arts & Humanities exhibit at the Betty Mae Cramer Gallery, "Between Fences" and some of the public affairs programming highlights for April 2011 include: Gilchrest Center's movie night; youth Freedom School; Muslim Women in the Arts; a housing forum (hosted by DHCR); an urban planning conference (hosted by the University of Maryland and the Planning Department); and the season start of the Fenton Street Market at Veterans Plaza on Saturday mornings.44 An Economic Impact Report conducted in June 2010 reported that market traffic as a result of the Fenton Street Market helped generate an additional $338,600 in revenue for businesses in the vicinity.45 For May 2011, two public official events have just been finalized - one with Congresswoman Donna Edwards, and the other with Congressman Chris Van Hollen. In
addition, the Regional Service Center is experimenting with "no cost, community driven Plaza Evenings" for Sunday through Thursday nights. According to Director Reemberto Rodriguez, “The purpose of these small, organic, self-started gatherings is to intentionally establish Veterans Plaza as welcoming of all community members not only as a 'special events' place, but a true public square where people come by chance and by choice. While the Plaza (and downtown Silver Spring in general) has become 'the place to be' for the younger generation - particularly on Friday and Saturday nights - it is critically important we establish this public space as family friendly for all community members. It is towards this end that we are experimenting with these "Plaza Evenings".46 The line-up consists of Sunday Drum Circles; Monday Conversations, Tuesday Exercise, Wednesday Games, and Thursday Performances. In order to be successful, these events require both community buy-in and community initiative.47 Additionally, potential staff changes for FY12, most likely related to budget cuts, have prompted County staff to transition the Civic Building’s Welcome Desk to 100 percent volunteer-operated more quickly than anticipated. Additionally, staff are providing advanced training for volunteers and increasing their recruitment efforts in nearby senior communities. Customer Satisfaction Surveys will hopefully provide some valuable information regarding where improvements are needed as well as information for marketing purposes; “the data clearly indicates by far that [the Civic Building and Plaza’s primary referral source is from word of mouth.” The most common criticisms relate to staff shortages.48 All of these activities are in line with the inputs and activities highlighted in the logic model above. Many of them are working towards the long-term vision that the program theory hopes to realize. As Rodriguez further explains,
“Indeed, as we close 'year one' of operations, we feel increasingly comfortable that we have established this facility as a well run, marketable, fiscally responsible, and community serving facility. The strategic direction for 'year two' will be to position this facility as a 'community engagement hub', intentionally connecting programmed events and organic 'happenings' to our traditional and non-traditional civic infrastructure. Practically, this means simple things like sharing marketing efforts among event sponsors; capitalizing on the growing list of renters for promotional purposes and civic engagement opportunities; and, engaging participants of public affairs programming more intentionally with information about what else is going on in the facility and Silver Spring in general. At the same time, we will focus more on the economic impact of the facility. It is critically important that this facility realizes its full potential as a spark for economic activity in downtown Silver Spring. This means being more proactive in ensuring people coming to the facility know of the wonderful culinary, art, entertainment, and other opportunities within easy walking distance of the facility.”49 IV. The Need For Performance Measures During this first year of operations, the focus has been on introducing the Civic Building and Plaza to the wider community. Housed within this building, the Regional Center has worked hard to activate the space so that it can help build community while beginning to generate economic development in downtown Silver Spring. Helping to connect the activities performed on a daily basis by the employees of the Regional Center and other community and County stakeholders and the long-term vision is necessary to ensure that these activities are the right ones to realize the long-term goals of the Civic Building and Plaza. The part of logic model illustrated below shows how performance measures fill this gap; between the daily activities and the distal impacts are outputs and outcomes that are vital steps in ensuring that the Civic Building and Plaza are successful in accomplishing their mission and realizing the program theory.
Figure 3: Last Four Steps of the Logic Model for the Silver Spring Civic Building and Veterans Plaza Activities
Immediate/ Mid-range Outcomes Distal Impacts
Silver Spring Regional Service Center • Anticipate, identify, and assess community problems and needs and suggest solutions to County departments and offices • Act as liaison between community and County Executive • Provide information and connect services and programs offered by departments and offices to community needs. • To fill service gaps, and where possible, facilitate partnership between departments/communities/businesses. • Create an effective model for community engagement Community Use of Public Facilities • Schedule rental space on first come first serve basis • Generate revenue through rentals Round House Theatre • Provide arts and entertainment services to the Greater Silver Spring community • Act a reliable tenant to cultural anchor the new Civic Building • Contribute it services to help a redeveloping downtown Silver Spring Silver Spring Town Center, Inc. • Activate the Civic Building and Plaza area • Create a community gathering place that enriches the lives of residents of the Greater Silver Spring area • Encourage and support local arts, foster civic engagement opportunities and market and promote programs and services that are happening Silver Spring Citizen Advisory Committee and Subcommittees • Link community and County by helping identify neighborhood and business concerns • Provide advice to Silver Spring Regional Services Center “on area needs and priorities” such as economic development, transportation, housing, education, human services, and downtown redevelopment Department of General Services • Maintain the premises, providing a clean working environment Silver Spring Urban District • Maintain a clean, safe and attractive manner in the downtown Silver Spring area through security, streetscape maintenance, tree maintenance, sidewalk repairs, marketing and promotions and events Department of Police • Provide security for the Plaza and surrounding area Other Community Residents, Private Businesses and Non-Profit Organizations • Activate the Civic Building and Plaza through rentals and programming Outputs include: • Operations and Management • Financial Operations • Community Involvement Outcomes include: • Improved “Access and Linkages” • Improved “Comfort and Image” • Improved “Uses and Activities” • Improved “Sociability” Distal impacts include: • A self-sustaining Civic Building and Plaza through revenue generation • A Silver Spring with greater community cohesion and standard of living • A vibrant, thriving downtown Silver Spring and commercial district • Individuals and businesses viewing the Center as public, community asset
A. Methodology Research for this project consisted of three months working as an intern at the Civic Building for the Regional Center. During this time, interviews with community members, literature review, and the time spent observing those working in the Civic Building provided the foundation for the proposed performance measures in this report. Many of the community members interviewed are involved or part of the County or community stakeholders that provide the activities for the Civic Building and Plaza. The literature review focused on work by planners, academics, and non-profits in their efforts to create successful public spaces. Finally, the time spent in the Civic Building and Plaza contributed to understanding how the spaces are being used on a daily basis.
B. Limitations: Cost Restrictions The primary limitation to collecting this data is the cost associated with it. In an environment, of “shrinking government” and overall consolidation and redeployment of resources, data collection that involves the spending of additional resources is difficult to justify. Other times it is simply not possible because the resources simply are not available. This report recognizes these limitations to data collection when proposing the following performance measures. Even though cost does restrict some of the measures that can be proposed, the outputs and outcomes provided in this report help those working towards realizing the Civic Building and Plaza’s mission begin to connect the daily activities to the long-term goals they hope to achieve.
V. Silver Spring Civic Building and Plaza Performance Measures Performance measures are divided into two categories – outputs and outcomes. Outputs refer to what is directly produced from the program’s activities. In this case, outputs were created to measure different elements that were accomplished based on the different groups who sought to activate the plaza. Additionally, the outputs should relate to the program theory and help connect the activities to the outcomes. Outcomes are the immediate changes that occur as a result of the program’s activities, and the outputs that those activities produced. In this report, outcomes will refer to both immediate and mid-range changes. Mid-range changes are sometimes called proximal impacts as they require more time before they can be observed. If the desired changes do not appear then the program theory or design should be reevaluated, as it is unlikely that the long-term impacts will happen. Outcomes also require a counterfactual – a comparison to what would have occurred if the Civic Building and Plaza did not exist. During the research stage of this report, the author encountered questions about the purpose of performance measures because it seemed to some individuals that the impacts of the Civic Building and Plaza were not disputed. This author believes that the research shows that impacts in downtown Silver Spring and the Greater Silver Spring area would be different had the Civic Building and Plaza not been built; however, it is these outcome indicators that will help demonstrate these changes over time through an empirical process. With some of these indicators it is not possible to compare them to the situation before the Civic Building and Plaza were created; in these cases, the counterfactual will often be represented by
different time periods. For instance, comparing data collected from year two to year one, in order to better evaluate the overall success or failure of specific strategies used to activate the Civic Building and Plaza. The data for output and outcome measures should be collected separately for the Civic Building and Plaza because they are separate entities with specific nuances and characteristics. However, they are both part of a larger program theory that hopes to achieve specific long-term impacts. So while the data collection method for the Civic Building and Plaza may vary for each indicator, the performance measures themselves are the same for the Civic Building and Plaza. If the data collection method differs between the Civic Building and Plaza for a specific measure, then it will be noted under that measure in the following section.
A. Program Outputs – Reasoning and Implementation In following the logic model outlined earlier, the outputs in this section will be divided into three categories – operations and management, financial operations, and community involvement. Each of these categories is an essential output from the activities done by the different stakeholders who activate the Civic Building and Plaza.
Figure 4: Recommended Output Categories and Specific Performance Measures
Operations and Management
PERFORMANCE MEASURES •
Percentage of total hours rented
Number of hours of security provided
Number of hours of maintenance completed
Ratio of building revenue to operational costs
Revenue generated as a percentage of maximum
Percentage of totals hours rented that are nonrevenue generating hours
Number of activities organized
Number of volunteers
Average hours per volunteer
Operations and Management The following indicators reflect the outputs from activities relating to the operations and management of the Civic Building and Plaza. Percentage of total hours rented This output measure captures a variety of relevant information – most importantly, the level of demand for this space in the community at the current price. There are lot of variables that affect this number including rental prices, knowledge about
the space, and overall general interest to use either the Civic Building or Plaza. Since both the Civic Building and Plaza are evaluated separately, this indicator provides useful data about how the two spaces compare. Both the Civic Building and Plaza have unique qualities that attract different uses but, overall, the goals for the both spaces are the same. Therefore, if there was a significant difference between the two in terms of percentage of total hours rented, those assessing the data can look to the factors mentioned above to understand why this may be happening and how to change specific activities or restrictions in order to better achieve the desired goal.
Number of hours of security provided Security obligations are divided among a variety of stakeholders. With regard to the Civic Building, it refers to the amount of hours provided by the security guard. When referencing the Plaza, security hours by both the Urban District and Montgomery County Police Department are important to count. The security services provided by these three different groups are instrumental to the operation and management of the Civic Building and Plaza; therefore, the total number of hours should be considered, especially as resources for these services are cut or expanded.
Number of hours of maintenance completed Similarly to the number of hours of security provided indicator, this measure is useful in illustrating the amount of time and resources needed to create a Civic Building and Plaza that are marketable and desirable to the community. If these services are
overlooked or underfunded, this indicator will help capture whether a decline in use can be attributed to the decrease in this output.
Financial Operations The following indicators reflect the outputs from activities relating to the financial operations of the Civic Building and Plaza. Ratio of building revenue to operational costs One of the primary goals of the Civic Building and Plaza is to at least generate sufficient revenue to cover their costs. A ratio that compares building revenue to operational costs would provide a useful, concise measure that captures this fundamental obligation. It will provide essential information regarding the effectiveness of the current strategy to activate the Civic Building and Plaza and whether it should be reevaluated.
Revenue generated as a percentage of maximum possible The indicator for ratio of building revenue to operational costs helps provide information regarding the ability for the Civic Building and Plaza to cover costs; this indicator helps characterize the potential that the Civic Building and Plaza have to generate additional revenue. Together these indicators work together to create a more robust picture. For instance, if the previous indicator demonstrates that revenue exceeds costs and this indicator demonstrates additional revenue generation capacity, then this data may influence a strategy that involves lowering costs so that the community can better access the facility. However, if the alternative is recorded, then a different strategy
has to be developed that increases prices because covering costs through additional rentals would not be possible in this scenario.
Percentage of totals hours rented that are non-revenue generating hours Since one of the primary goals of the Civic Building is that it generates sufficient revenue, it is important to capture to what extent revenue is not be collected because of rentals by public officials or committees. For instance, the percentage of total hours rented indicator may show that the Civic Building and Plaza are at close to 100 percent capacity. However, if the revenue generated as a percentage of maximum possible shows that only 50 percent of the maximum possible revenue is being collected, this measure would explain the difference because the loss of revenue is a result of distribution of space within the building to those who do not pay for the space, such as public officials, advisory committees, or non-profit entities that have free access to the space. This measure helps provide context for the difficult question over how to balance revenue generation and community and County access to the space.
Community Involvement The following indicators reflect the outputs from activities relating to community involvement aspects of the Civic Building and Plaza. Number of programmed events organized One of the easiest and most informative measures about how the space is being used is the number of programmed events that are organized. This indicator should be the cumulative sum of all of the events programmed in either the Civic Building or Plaza by
all of the various entities responsible for activating the space; this includes both County and community groups. It is a useful measure of the diverse interest in the space, specifically if this data was collected while noting who was conducting the specific activity. For instance, community organizations such as Silver Spring Town Center, Inc. or Round House Theatre might each activate the various spaces with a certain number of programmed events. However, their use of the space has different implications than if ten different community organizations each utilized either the Civic Building or Plaza for one programmed event. This indicator provides information regarding how extensive the list of stakeholders is that activate the Civic Building or Plaza and the depth of their involvement.
Number of volunteers The Silver Spring community is an important stakeholder in activating the Civic Building and Plaza. Steps are already being taken to transition the Civic Building’s front desk to being staffed by 100 percent volunteers. Noting how many volunteers are being recruited is an important output in demonstrating community input apart from the activities generated by community organizations that hold events in the Civic Building or on the Plaza. Additionally, as certain stakeholders seek to activate the Civic Building or Plaza through low- to no-cost methods, volunteers become more essential to the success of these initiatives, while also providing a tangible demonstration of community “buyin.”
Average hours per volunteer This indicator helps provide additional context to the previous one listed. While the number of volunteers describes the quantity, the average hours per volunteer strives to describe the quality of their involvement. For instance, information that only states that there are ten volunteers or information that states that volunteers on average commit four hours each week does not provide a lot of useful data. However, together, information that says there are ten volunteers who commit on average four hours a week would provide valuable information if the alternative was twenty volunteers who could only commit one hour each week. Together these two indicators provide helpful information regarding the community’s direct output at the Civic Building and Plaza.
B. Program Outcomes – Reasoning and Implementation The outcome indicators recommended below are presented within the context of low- to no-cost measures of the immediate to mid-range impact the Civic Building and Plaza are having on the Silver Spring community. They are crafted with the goal of aiding those from the County and community that are activating the Civic Building and Plaza to better guide its operation and ability to achieve its long-term impacts. Many of these indicators capture “snapshots” in time; in order to capture and measure the actual outcome, it is important to focus on the change in these indicators over a period of time.
Choosing the Categories Improvements in four outcome categories are the best way to evaluate the Civic Building and Plaza: “Access and Linkages”; “Comfort and Image”; “Uses and
Activities”, and “Sociability.”50 Within each of these outcome categories, this report proposes specific performance measures the help illustrate the change that has resulted from these spaces.
Figure 5: “The Place Diagram is one of the tools PPS has developed to help communities evaluate places. The inner ring represents key attributes, the middle ring intangible qualities, and the outer ring measurable data.”51
These four outcome categories were specifically chosen from research conducted from the Project for Public Spaces (PPS), a nonprofit planning, design and educational organization that strives to help people create and sustain public spaces that build stronger communities. Since their inception in 1975, PPS has completed projects in over 2500 communities throughout 40 countries and in every U.S. state.52 In addition, they train more than 10,000 people each year in how to create more successful public spaces. Using a variety of techniques including time-lapse filming, systematic observation, surveys, and town meetings, their research has shown that these four qualities describe successful public spaces; “every great public space has access and linkages, comfort and image, uses and activities, and sociability.53
Figure 6: Recommended Outcome Categories and Specific Performance Measures OUTCOMES
PERFORMANCE MEASURES •
Ratio of unique customers to repeat customers
Amount of traffic through the Civic
Improved Access and Linkages
Change in number of people who ask for information at the Welcome Desk
Change in the number of security incidences
Ratio of number of security incidences during
Improved Comfort and Image
programmed activities versus non-programmed activities •
Percentage of rentals that use services from local businesses
Improved Uses and Activities
Ratio of changes in sales growth for business immediate around Civic Building and Plaza compared to others in downtown Silver Spring
Changes in distribution of types of individuals/groups who rent the rooms (e.g.
non-profits, private business, public officials) •
Changes in distribution of demographics who rent the rooms (e.g. age, race, gender)
Improved Access and Linkages Ratio of unique customers to repeat customers This outcome indicator explains important information about who in the community is using the Civic Building and Plaza. It aims to capture the ratio of new customers to repeated users in a period of time. By collecting this information, a more accurate picture of whether a select portion of the community are the only ones using the space or whether access is spread throughout the Greater Silver Spring area. Since data collected by customer satisfaction surveys demonstrated that knowledge of the Civic Building and Plaza is overwhelming spread by word of mouth, it is probable that those currently using the space are still a small portion of the Greater Silver Spring population. This likelihood has been strongly confirmed by anecdotal questioning of residents who live in Silver Spring but who have little to no knowledge about the Civic Building or Plaza. Over time this indicator can help provide support for or against advertising and other outreach efforts based on the information it provides. Data collection of this information is relatively simple. An additional question can be added to CUPF’s rental applications, asking whether that individual or organization is a first time user or a return customer.
Amount of traffic through the Civic Building/Plaza Counting foot traffic through the Civic Building and Plaza is essential to understanding whether the community is utilizing the space and whether the spaces are successful. Central to the mission of the Civic Building and Plaza is community usage and activity. This indicator provides information that helps inform about how many
people are showing up during certain periods of day and during certain events. It can provide information regarding whether programmed events are always necessary to draw people during a given time. This data is vital to the success of the space as “public.” Unlike many of the other indicators, data collection of this information is different for both the Civic Building and Plaza. Collecting this information for the Civic Building is easier and less costly. Since there is one main entrance and since traffic is not overwhelming, the person at the front desk with a traffic counter could easily capture the amount of people entering the building. Each hour that person could record in an Excel spreadsheet the amount of people they counted. This system would provide a simple method that would capture most of the foot traffic in and out of the Civic Building, while also allowing for it to be easily sorted and interpreted by time of day and event if so desired. Additionally, during times that the Civic Building is opened for private events, and when there is no one at the front desk, whoever is in charge of watching the entrance and maintaining security could perform this function. Since there are so few staff housed in the Civic Building (many of the Round House employees enter through their own entrance), their movement would not skew the data tremendously; the overall picture about usage of the building would still be intact. Collecting this information for the Plaza is more difficult because of the time and cost required. However, this information is vital to understanding the Plaza’s usage beyond anecdotal reports. Perhaps the most feasible way long-term to accomplish this goal would be to integrate a new security camera that would provide additional surveillance but also be positioned at an appropriate angle to capture a “snapshot” of the entire plaza. Freeze frames could be recorded on a set-time basis. The process for
counting the amount of people in a photo is relatively unscientific but using fairly standard crowd estimation methods could be done by a variety of people.54 Clearly, counting people in large public spaces is not an exact science. However, a perfect number count is not the goal. What is important is whether this indicator provides a useful measure for how the space is used and whether it informs those who are responsible for activating the space about whether their strategies are effective or need modifying. To these ends, it would.
Number of people who ask for information at the Welcome Desk Already being collected, this indicator provides useful information regarding what people are stopping in or calling in and asking about. The overall number illustrates a basic measure of community interest and access to information about these new spaces. What is important, however, is how this number changes over time. Are people inquiring more often about information about the Civic Building or Plaza as the community becomes familiarized with the space. The focus on this indicator should be on the trends being observed. Although it acts mostly as an indicator for the Civic Building, questions regarding the Plaza could be recorded separately in their own column. As has been occurring, the volunteers staffing the desks could continue to collect this data. However, instead of waiting to input this data into a useable form, at the end of each day, the volunteers should input this information into an Excel spreadsheet that would keep an accessible running tally.
Improved Comfort and Image Number of security incidences The number of security incidences that occur at or in the immediate area around the Civic Building and Plaza are an important measure of “Comfort and Image.” A principal goal of the Civic Building and Plaza, along with the entire redevelopment project, is to create a “family-friendly” environment in downtown Silver Spring. The consequences of major security incidences that occur at Center and Plaza, or in the immediate area, have dramatic repercussions for achieving the Civic Building and Plaza’s long-term mission, such as the brutal attack on a 32-year old man who was simply walking by the Baja Fresh restaurant on the Plaza in July 2010 or the large fight that broke out, before the Building and Plaza opened but at the same intersection, in March 2009 after a youth "Stop the Violence" concert.55 Although clearly infrequent, these incidences can ultimately undermine the entire reputation of the space. T. Hill, a Takoma, D.C., resident who witnessed the event, stated to reporters, "I've never seen anything remotely close to this…I'm not going to come here again or walk here again if these punks are harassing people."56 Even though this response is clearly anecdotal, a few security incidences are all that is often needed to create a reputation that would be difficult to change. This measure ensures that those evaluating the Civic Building and Plaza incorporate the importance that security has for a community space. Acquiring this information and using it as a part of an overall evaluation creates no costs for the Civic Building and Plaza because this data is already recorded by the County and is public record.
Ratio of number of security incidences during programmed activities versus nonprogrammed activities In a similar context to the previous measures, this measures provides a more nuanced pictured of when the safety of the space is compromised. Knowing this information can best allow those within the county and community to adapt their approach to activities planning and overall management of the space. For instance, knowing whether security incidences occur more often during programmed activities versus non-programmed activities require a difference response than if the situation were the opposite. This measure provides valuable information with regards to what approach may be necessary to achieving the desired level of security at the Civic Building and Plaza in order to successfully create a “family-friendly” space. Collection of data for this indicator would require someone to categorize whether the security incidence took place during a “programmed” or “non-programmed” activity. However, this information would most likely be noted in the incidence report; if not, it would be easy to compare with the Civic Building or Plaza’s calendar.
Improved Uses and Activities Ratio of changes in sales growth for business immediate around Civic Building and Plaza compared to other businesses in downtown Silver Spring Determining the economic development impact that the Civic Building and Plaza have on the surrounding downtown Silver Spring is difficult because separating out other local factors and larger regional influences on the economic activity of the area requires
large data collection and extensive statistical modeling. However, this indicator is designed to eliminate many external factors by focusing specifically on the businesses immediately around the Civic Building and Plaza and comparing them to other businesses in Downtown Silver Spring. By comparing businesses that are in same private complex, the value of the Civic Building and Plaza as a net plus to the surrounding businesses is isolated. Therefore, a ratio, which compares the percentage revenue increase for businesses in the rest of the complex to those in Section D, or a composite between Section D and Section A if possible (see Figure X below), illustrates the added benefit that the Civic Building and Plaza have in the immediate vicinity. Collection of this data would involve sharing information with Downtown Silver Spring. PFA Silver Spring, L.C. (Peterson, Foulger Pratt and Argo Investments), which manages Downtown Silver Spring, does divide its tenant businesses into sections and track its tenants’ performances on a monthly basis. This indicator would be easy to create with the partnership of Downtown Silver Spring and serve as useful indicator of the Civic Building and Plaza’s economic impact.
Figure 7: Downtown Silver Spring’s Lease Plan (12/3/2010)
Percentage of rentals that use services from local businesses Part of the Civic Building and Plazaâ€™s ability to spark economic activity is represented by the amount of people who use the space and then decide to frequent local businesses, increasing traffic. Isolating this type of economic generation is difficult and costly. However, many of the events that take place in the Civic Building or on the Plaza involve contracting additional private businesses to provide services at their events. These services can range from catered food to party planners. In these instances, it is very easy to capture what affect the Civic Building and Plaza are having on local businesses. An indicator that measures what percentage of room rentals utilize services from local businesses versus businesses outside of Silver Spring would be useful in not only measuring the economic impact of the space but also in helping provide data about whether resources, advertising, and partnerships would be helpful in improving how the Civic Building and Plaza can spark economic activity in this area. Data collection of this information can also be done at little to no-cost by adding two or three short questions to the current customer satisfaction surveys that individuals fill out after they rent a space. Asking whether they used the services of a private business, its address, and the cost would capture the necessary variables.
Improved Sociability Change in the distribution of types of individuals/groups who rent the rooms (e.g. nonprofits, private business, public officials) The distribution of the types of organizations that use the Civic Building and Plaza explain a lot about how the community will perceive it. If the space is primarily used by
private businesses for regional conferences or by County officials, residents will view the space differently than if it used primarily be community organizations and non-profits. Exactly what balance is the right breakdown needs to be part of the strategy of those activating the Civic Building and Plaza spaces. However, what is important to observe is whether the outcome – the change towards the desired distribution - is occurring as a result of how the Civic Building and Plaza are being activated.
Change in the distribution of demographics who rent the rooms (e.g. age, race, gender) Demographically, Silver Spring has changed dramatically over the decades. Just this year, Silver Spring became a majority-minority city with Whites representing 46.6 percent, African Americans 28 percent, and Latinos 22 percent of the population. These shifts create both challenges and opportunities for the Civic Building in achieving its vision of actively engaging the community and creating a “community” for all. As Regional Center Director Reemberto Rodriguez noted in his blog, Silver Spring Speaks,’ first posting, “let’s not forget that what we are trying to do here in Silver Spring has really never worked before…Where else is there a community where all are welcome – and all are at the table - regardless of background, ethnicity, or economic status?”57 Consequently, an important indicator would be whether over time the demographic information for those who utilize the space reflects the demographic composition of the community. This indicator helps identify what community members are actively renting the space, while over time noting the change in these demographics. This change is the important element, helping illustrate whether strategies employed to
engage the community and create a better sense of community within Greater Silver Spring are successful. Adding questions regarding demographic information to the anonymous customer service satisfaction surveys for those who use the rental space at the Civic Building or Plaza would be best way to collect this data, while still protecting the identity and privacy of those customers and community members.
VI. Conclusion: Positioning for the Future As the first year of operation comes to a close, it is critical to understand the Civic Building and Plaza’s accomplishments. This report has provided background about the history and different entities that are responsible for activating the Civic Building and Plaza, and how these performance measures will provide empirical data that will help clarify long-term impacts, confirm the program theory, and provide useful information regarding future strategies. In addition to these outcomes, this report recommends that those County and community-based organizations that are activating the Civic Building and Plaza strongly consider utilizing opportunities to achieve additional outcome and impact information, specifically relating to community-engagement, that requires resources to properly collect – mostly through extensive interviewing and surveys. Although the Civic Building and Plaza are operating within an environment of limited resources, the stakeholders who help activate this space should seek partnerships with other anchor institutions and community entities to maximize their capabilities.
Reaching out to the plethora of research institutions in the area may provide opportunities to partner with academics also interesting in evaluating public spaces. Examples of this kind of research include evaluations of Patterson Park in Baltimore conducted by the Urban Studies and Planning Program at the University of Maryland and Democracy Plaza at Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis by Johnny Goldfinger of the Department of Political Science at that campus.5859 These opportunities to collect additional outcome data that gauge changes in community opinion should not be overlooked.
Acknowledgements The author of this report would like to note the following people that provided input and insight through interviews and conversations for this project: Reemberto Rodriguez, Director, Silver Spring Regional Service Center; Professor Doug Besharov, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park; Doug Call, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, College Park; Jewru Bandeh, Program Manager, Silver Spring Regional Service Center; Gwen Haney, Facilities Manager, Silver Spring Regional Service Center; Kathy Stevens, Chair, Silver Spring Citizens Advisory Board; Jennifer Nettles, Chair, Silver Spring Urban District Advisory Committee, and manager, Downtown Silver Spring; Richard Romer, Policy Analyist, Montgomery County Councilmember Valerie Ervin's Office; Sandra Tallant, Montgomery County Department of Park and Planning; Dr. Howie Baum, School of Architecture, Planning & Preservation, University of Maryland; Professor Sidney Brower, School of Architecture, Planning & Preservation, University of Maryland; Alan Friedman, Chair, Silver Spring Arts and Entertainment Committee; Andrew Wexler, Co-Chair; Silver Spring Transportation District Advisory Committee; and Jonathan Bernstein, Member, Seven Oaks Civic Association. 1
Department of General Services Division of Building Design and Construction, Montgomery County Government, 2011. <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/mcgtmpl.asp?url=/content/DGS/DBDC/RegionalProjectPages/Sil verSpringProjects/sscivicbldg.asp>, Photo retrieved on May 6, 2011. 2 Gretchen Cook, “Downtown Silver Spring: Experiencing a Resurgence After a Bumpy History,” UrbanTurf: The DC Real Estate Guide, Jul 21, 2010, <http://dc.urbanturf.com/articles/blog/downtown_silver_spring_experiencing_a_resurgence_after_a_bump y_history/2281#comments>, Accessed Apr 10, 2011. 3 Impact Silver Spring, Our History, Impact Silver Spring, 2007, <http://www.impactsilverspring.org/history.html>, Accessed Apr 10, 2011.
Timothy J. Mullaney, “Canadian developers may build mall, amusement park in Silver Spring,” Baltimore, MD: The Baltimore Sun, Aug 8, 1995, <http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1995-0808/business/1995220138_1_mall-silver-spring-weaver>, Accessed May 2, 2011. 5 Interview with Sandra Tallant, Montgomery County Department of Park and Planning, Apr 18, 2011. 6 Jerry A. McCoy, Robert E. Oshel, and Dana Lee Dembrow, “Silver Spring Timeline – 20th Century and Beyond!” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Historical Society. Apr 2008, <http://silverspringhistory.homestead.com/timeline2.html>, Accessed May 2, 2011. 7 Robert A. Kronenberg, Site Plan Amendment for Downtown Silver Spring: 81999002F, Silver Spring, MD: Montgomery County Department of Park and Planning, Jul 3, 2006, 5. 8 Interview with Sandra Tallant, Montgomery County Department of Park and Planning, Apr 18, 2011. 9 Gretchen Cook, “Downtown Silver Spring: Experiencing a Resurgence After a Bumpy History,” UrbanTurf: The DC Real Estate Guide, Jul 21, 2010, <http://dc.urbanturf.com/articles/blog/downtown_silver_spring_experiencing_a_resurgence_after_a_bump y_history/2281#comments>, Accessed Apr 10, 2011. 10 Initiatives For Development In Downtown Silver Spring, June 2010. 11 Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, “Silver Spring Civic Building at Veterans Plaza,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, 2008, <http://www.silverspringdowntown.com/go/http-and-and-wwwsilverspringdowntowncom-and-silverspring-ci>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 12 Reemberto Rodriguez, “Spring Plaza Evenings: Come Join in!,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Speaks, Mar 7, 2011, <http://silverspringspeaks.blogspot.com/2011/03/spring-plaza-evenings-come-joinin.html>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 13 Reemberto Rodriguez, “Veterans Day. Veterans Plaza Dedication. FREE Veterans Concert” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Speaks, Nov 10, 2010, <http://silverspringspeaks.blogspot.com/2010/11/veterans-day-veterans-plaza-dedication.html>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 14 Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, “Silver Spring Civic Building at Veterans Plaza,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, 2008, <http://www.silverspringdowntown.com/go/http-and-and-wwwsilverspringdowntowncom-and-silverspring-ci>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 15 “Community Use of Public Facilities,” Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Government, Mar 10, 2011, <https://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/apps/cupf/info/sscb.asp#>, Accessed Apr 24, 2011. 16 Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, “Silver Spring Civic Building at Veterans Plaza,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, 2008, <http://www.silverspringdowntown.com/go/http-and-and-wwwsilverspringdowntowncom-and-silverspring-ci>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 17 “Several Questions For Project,” Email Interview with Reemberto Rodriguez, Apr 7, 2011. 18 Montgomery County Government, “Regional Center,” Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Government, Feb 9, 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/mcgtmpl.asp?url=/Content/RSC/SilSprng/RegionalServices/welco me.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 19 Ibid. 20 Office of Management and Budget, County Executive’s Recommended FY12 Operating Budget and FY12-17 Public Services Program, “Section 26: Community Engagement,” Montgomery County Government, Mar 15, 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/ombtmpl.asp?url=/content/omb/fy12/psprec/index.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011, 4. 21 Ibid, 1. 22 Ibid, 4. 23 Office of Management and Budget, Approved FY10 Operating Budget and Capital Budgets And Amendments to FY09-14 Capital Improvements Program (CIP), “Volume 1: Operating Budget: Regional Service Centers,” Montgomery County Government, Aug 7, 2009, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/ombtmpl.asp?url=/content/omb/fy10/appr/psp_toc.asp#top>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011, 3.
Office of Management and Budget, County Executive’s Recommended FY12 Operating Budget and FY12-17 Public Services Program, “Section 26: Community Engagement,” Montgomery County Government, Mar 15, 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/ombtmpl.asp?url=/content/omb/fy12/psprec/index.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011, 4. 25 Reemberto Rodriguez, “Activating Veterans Plaza in the Spring, Summer & Fall Routinely and Consistently,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Regional Service Center, Feb 25th, 2011, 1. 26 Ibid, 1. 27 Community Use of Public Facilities, “Frequently Asked Questions Related to Community Use of Public Facilities,” Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Government, Nov 2010, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/cuptmpl.asp?url=/content/cupf/html/info-cupf/news.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011, 1. 28 Ibid, 2. 29 Jeanette Der Bedrosian, “Controversy over Silver Spring Civic Center rental rates,” Gaithersburg, MD: Post-Newsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Jul 21, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/stories/07142010/silvnew201503_32533.php>, Accessed Apr 25, 2011. 30 Round House Theatre, “History and Mission,” Bethesda, MD: Round House Theatre, 2011, < http://www.roundhousetheatre.org/about-us/history-mission/>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 31 Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, “Round House Theatre,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Downtown Arts & Entertainment, 2008, <http://www.silverspringdowntown.com/go/round-housetheatre>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 32 Jason Tornassini, “Silver Spring Civic Building welcomes guests,” Gaithersburg, MD: Post-Newsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Jul 14, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/stories/07142010/silvnew201503_32533.php>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 33 Jeanette Der Bedrosian, “Controversy over Silver Spring Civic Center rental rates,” Gaithersburg, MD: Post-Newsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Jul 21, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/stories/07142010/silvnew201503_32533.php>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 34 Silver Spring Town Center, Inc., “About Us,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Town Center, Inc., 2011, <http://www.silverspringtowncenter.com/about-us/>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 35 Silver Spring Town Center, Inc., “Our Vision,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Town Center, Inc., 2011, < http://www.silverspringtowncenter.com/about-us/our-vision/>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 36 Jeanette Der Bedrosian, “Controversy over Silver Spring Civic Center rental rates,” Gaithersburg, MD: Post-Newsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Jul 21, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/stories/07142010/silvnew201503_32533.php>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 37 “Service Centers,” Gaithersburg, MD: Post-Newsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Sept 9, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/communityguide/story.php?id=253>, Apr 23, 2011. 38 Department of General Services, “Facilities Management,” Rockville, MD: 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/content/DGS/Facility/Index.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 39 Silver Spring Regional Services Center, “Urban District Advisory Committee,” Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Government, Apr 1, 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/mcgtmpl.asp?url=/Content/RSC/SilSprng/BoardsCommittees/urba nadvisorycommittee.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 40 Silver Spring Regional Services Center, “Silver Spring Urban District,” Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Government, Feb 9, 2011, <http://www.montgomerycountymd.gov/mcgtmpl.asp?url=/Content/RSC/SilSprng/redshirts.asp>, Accessed Apr 23, 2011. 41 Ibid. 42 Douglas J. Besharov, “Logic Models,” College Park, MD: University of Maryland, School of Public Policy, Spring 2011, 2. 43 “Several Questions For Project,” Email Interview with Reemberto Rodriguez, Apr 7, 2011. 44 Ibid. 45 Reemberto Rodriguez, “Activating Veterans Plaza in the Spring, Summer & Fall Routinely and Consistently,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Regional Service Center, Feb 25th, 2011, 3. 46 “Several Questions For Project,” Email Interview with Reemberto Rodriguez, Apr 7, 2011.
Reemberto Rodriguez, “Activating Veterans Plaza in the Spring, Summer & Fall Routinely and Consistently,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Regional Service Center, Feb 25th, 2011, 2. 48 “Several Questions For Project,” Email Interview with Reemberto Rodriguez, Apr 7, 2011. 49 Ibid. 50 Project for Public Spaces, “What is Placemaking,” New York, NY: Project for Public Spaces, 2011, <http://www.pps.org/articles/what_is_placemaking/>, Accessed May 2, 2011. 51 Ibid. 52 Project for Public Spaces, “About PPS,” New York, NY: Project for Public Spaces, 2011, <http://www.pps.org/about/approach/>, Accessed May 2, 2011. 53 Fred Kent and Phil Myrick, “How to Become a Great Public Space,” Interview with American Libraries, American Libraries, Vol. 34, Is. 4, Apr 2003, 72. 54 Carl Bialik, “Sizing Up Crowd Pushes Limits of Technology,” New York, NY: Wall Street Journal, Feb 5, 2011, <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704709304576124170146934768.html?mod=WSJ_hps_ RIGHTTopCarousel_1>, Accessed Apr 25, 2011. 55 Jason Tornassini, “15 arrested following downtown Silver Spring assault,” Gaithersburg, MD: PostNewsweek Media, Inc./Gazette.Net, Jul 13, 2010, <http://www.gazette.net/stories/07132010/montnew133011_32583.php>, Accessed Apr 16, 2011. 56 Ibid. 57 Reemberto Rodriguez, “Spring Plaza Common Values,” Silver Spring, MD: Silver Spring Speaks, Dec 29, 2009, < http://silverspringspeaks.blogspot.com/2009/12/silver-spring-common-values.html>, Accessed Apr 27, 2011. 58 Patterson Park: Putting the Pieces Together (Planning Studio, Urban Studies and Planning Program, University of Maryland, 1994); Patterson Park—How People Use It and Feel About It: Overview and Summary of the 1995 Survey (Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks; and Urban Studies and Planning Program, University of Maryland, 1996); Sidney Brower and Erica Todd, Community Participation in the Plan for Patterson Park: An Assessment (Urban Studies and Planning Program, University of Maryland, 1998); and Sidney Brower and Nkechi Hislop, User Survey of Patterson Park 2008 (Urban Studies and Planning Program, University of Maryland, 1998). 59 Johnny Goldfinger, “Democracy Plaza: A Campus Space for Civic Engagement,” Indiana UniversityPurdue University-Indianapolis, IN: Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 34, 2009, 69-77.