SHIYU LIU PORTFOLIO 2015 - 2019
Bachelor of Architecture, Tsinghua University Apply for MA Architecture program at London Metropolitan University Application ID number: 20005607
FIELD We are where we are. It is an old saying in my hometown. I believe when architecture resonates with its place, time, people, and culture, a kind of power called Field appears and gives impact on everything within it.
SHELTER - Public Welfare School
Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
ISLE - Community Center Renovation
CO-CAVE - Yaodong Village Cultural Complex
ANCHOR - Ocarina Studio by the Sea
INNER WOODS - Pavilion in Woods
SHELTER Public Welfare School in Sri Lanka
Location: Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka Type: Pro bono / Team Work Date: 2016/12â€” 2019/09 Team: Shiyu Liu, Bowen Lei, Shiyu Guo, Le Lee, Cheng Chen, Qixu Xie Contribution: analysis, design, drawing, model Supervisor: Professor Xiaodong Li Photographer: Haowen Bai
Anuradhapura is a city in Sri Lanka with an abundant history of 2000 years, where Shi-hara origins from. These years, sexual abuse cases are common in this area, and the drop-out rate of local schools is high. By cooperating with a local NGO, we designed and built a welfare school for the kids. Two rectangular volumes, one with classrooms and a library, and the other with office and restrooms are arranged in the middle of the narrow field. To cope with tropical rain climate, we enlarge the roof space into a second floor to form a thermal insulation layer. As a library, this space also responds to the psychological needs of orphans and provides a religious atmosphere. 01
GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT Located in the northern part of Sri Lanka, Seppukulama is a small village surrounded by natural lake and swamp. The tropical climate allows flourish in vegetation and builds a close relationship between people and nature. However, extreme torridity can also threaten people's lives.
6° N 79° E
Swamp Lake 5KM TO TOWN
1948 Independence of Sri-Lanka Seppukulama has multiple religions and cuiltures.
1983-2009 Civil War
2014 Abuse of Kids NGO Intervention
War made damage Poor education on economy and led to abuse of kids and drop out education.
CED intervened to provide help to local kids.
Being Put into Use
Students were invited to design and build a shelter
A public welfare Kids and women can school was built to get free education provide shelter. and aid here.
SOCIAL CONTEXT: NEED OF SHELTER FOR KIDS
Due to the impact of civil war and weak economy, children here suffer from three major threats: extreme climate, high drop-out rate from school, and abuse from family. CED, a local non-government organization, has intervened since 2014 to provide protection and educational aids. Thus, the need of a building acting as a shelter arose.
EXTREME CLIMATE EXT REM E TO RRID STRO ITY NG S UNLI GHT DISAST ERS
TH R E A T
S O N KI D
architecture design field study construction control project organization
SH ELTER INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE
CIVIL WAR IMPACT
construction process material access construction organization
PO OR H IG EC HR ON ATE OM O Y L AC F CRI K OF ME TEAC HER LEGAL S ABSEN CE RURAL CU LTURE
ULTS L A SSA Y SEXUA BILIT E CT A E T RAT RO UT LF-P E O K S OF OR ROP L A CK R W ES HD G O I C B H A UR ANS DL O E S RC PH RE FO AL OR N F O TIO ER CA B U M ED NU OF E K C RG LA LA
LOCAL WORKERS wood structure making occupation access local material access
LOCAL NGO school operation land permission communication social study propaganda advice on design course design
REALIZATION VIA MULTI-PARTICIPATION In 2017, CED invited a group of architecture students to design the shelter. Later, international enterprise CCDG joined and sponsored the whole construction. Together with the help of local government and villagers, the shelter finally came into construction in 2018 and came into use in May 2019.
construction in community poor education
STUDY OF BODY MEMORIES We hope that the new shelter will be closely connected with the culture and memory of local children. In a year-long survey, we found that four elements have become the key to children's living environment: spiritual spaces, learning spaces, climate and materials. Our design starts with responding to these four aspects and explores the physical and psychological intimacy of space and people.
Spiritual Space pray under the roof
Learning Space learn under the banyan
Climate Response play in yard and corridor
Material build from nature
Spiritual Space pray under roof structure church and temple reference
Learning Space formal spaces: classroom unformal spaces: under trees,under roof, in the courtyard
SITE STRATEGY: MINIMUM INSERTION-MAXIMUM ACTIVATION
Aerial view, in construction
Simplicity to Richness
Street 30 m
Climate Response thermal insulation layer ventilation window system inner courtyard and extended roof
A piece of land on the edge of village surrounded with woods was offered by local government. A simple volume is preferred due to limited budgets and undecided additions in the future. With main building stepping back from the street, three layers of outdoor spaces are defined, creating dialogues with nature and activating public activities from the street.
Material local wood trusses tiles and bricks hand-made window and door
MICRO-CLIMATE DESIGN To cope with the tropical rain climate, we enlarge the roof space into a second floor to form a thermal insulation layer. As a public library, this space also responds to the psychological needs of orphans and provides a religious atmosphere. The rainwater will gather from the sloping roof to the pots, which can adjust the microclimate. High temperatures and rainfall
GROUND FLOOR- OPEN BOXES IN NATURE
View of Classroom
IN-BETWEEN SPACE- SHELTER FOR BODY AND SPIRITS
View of Second-floor Library
Indirect light - Green reflection Library under roof structures becomes a spiritual space for this school, recalling the body memory of kids and creating a sense of shelter and hope for them.
Detail Section of Wooden Roof
View of Staicase and Bookstorage
Filter - Doors and windows Classroom doors and windows use a traditional local wooden grille that allows wind and reflected light to enter, blocking rainwater and excessive direct light.
rain direct light wind indirect light
View of Classroom
Detail Section of Classroom
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1. local-made pottery tile 2. wooden tile batten 3. drain pipe 4. wooden beam 5. wooden window frame 6. glass 7. grille window 8. bar window 9. plaster 10. terracotta brick 11. concrete beam 12. concrete column 13. grille door
6 4 8 9 10
11 12 13
Construction and Material Drawing
1-20 Detail Model
COMBINATION OF MANUFACTURE AND CRAFTSMANSHIP To revive community culture, we brought local materials and craftsmanship into modern concrete techniques and engaged local carpenters into the roof construction. Concrete foundation and frames become the skeleton of the building and local materials, such as pottery tiles and wooden grille window, filled it with blood and flesh.
STEP 1 Concrete foundation
STEP 2 Concrete frame
STEP 3 Wood trusses
STEP 4 Enclosures
View from Entrance Yard
ISLE Community Center Renovation
Location: Shanghai, China Type: Competition / Team work Date:2017/08-2017/09 Team: Shiyu Liu, Keming Yang, Haosheng Huang Contribution: design, drawing, Model Supervisor: Bo Li Prize: 2nd Prize of TEAMZERO Award Architecture Design Competition
Lilong, a typical housing typology in central Shanghai since the 1850s, has been faced with a series of problems in the process of urbanization. Focusing on an abandoned market in one of Lilong districts, we try to revive the old community with a micro-update of its public space. By converting the formerly closed courtyard into an open living room, we create a knot in the narrow alley, which connects different parts of the community and activates the street life. Multiple layers of boundaries are used to define the central space, recalling poetic experiences in Lilong spaces. Standing as a pavilion in the center of Shanghai, it provides a unique perspective of the city about both the old and new, the light and heavy. 08
CONTEXT: SILENT LILONG IN CENTRAL SHANGHAI In the central part of Shanghai, more than 20% of the housing area locates in Lilong, a typical housing district formed since the 1850s with dense residences and narrow alleys. These years, more and more skyscrapers have risen in the city center and left Lilong districts under shade and neglect.
Formed in concession areas from the 1 Crowded housing units leave little spac identity. Thus, renovation for public sp
1:500 Urban Model
SITE MEMORY: DECAY OF FORMAL MARKET The site locates on Jiangyin Road, a typical Lilong district in central Shanghai. It was once a famous flower-and-bird market from the 1980s to 2010s. In recent years, it has been neglected and has decayed into ruins. Thinking of sparse public spaces in Lilong, we propose to convert it into a community center to contain new public life for people here.
1949 Lilong District Formed
Panoramic View from Site
GENERAL NEED FOR PUBLIC SPACES RENOVATION IN LILONG
1850s, Lilong came into being to resolve the extreme shortage of housing and became popular in these areas until the 1950s. ce for public life, and situations get worse in existing Lilong districts today, resulting in low living quality and lack of community paces in Lilong is now crucial in central Shanghai.
er e Riv
Existing Lilong District Concession Aera 1845-1943 Public Spaces in Lilong
Start of Market
Market Moved Out
Future New Public Life
2000s commerce before 1949
residence with shop office residence
KNOT RENOVATION FOR REVIVAL Focusing on one spot in Lilong, we try to provide an approach to the revival of the community through the renovation of public spaces. Concerning urban tissue and site memory, we remain the footprint of the old market, while converting the formerly closed courtyard into an open living room to create a knot in the narrow alley.
Respect original tissue
Relate adjacent alleys
Redefine flowing spaces
Revive community stage
Explosive Axonometric Drawing
LAYERS OF SPACE AND BOUNDARY Two groups of fan-like volumes from outside and inside together define the dynamic public spaces. Multiple layers of boundary create unformal in-between areas with different conditions of light and shadow, recalling traditional spaces in Lilong.
Central Space as public living room
Courtyard and stair towards roof garden
Massive volumes supporting the roof
MEMORY AND MATERIALITY Standing as a pavilion in the center of Shanghai, it provides a unique perspective of the city about both the old and new, the light and heavy. We remained spacial experiences in the past and converted it with different materials. Changes in section redefine the sense of space and activate both the ground space and terrace.
copper panel steel keel concrete structure cement mortar screeding terrazzo slab
planting soil grait layer cement mortar screeding water-proof layer concrete structure cement mortar screeding terrazzo slab
granitic plaster cement mortar screeding concrete structure water-proof layer rammed earth Detail Drawing
View from Front Street
View from Surrounding Residence
View from Backstreet
CO-CAVE Yaodong Cultural Complex
Location: Shanxi, China Type: Academic / Team work Date:2016/08-2019/12 Team: Shiyu Liu, Yuan Yao Contribution: analysis, design, drawing, render Supervisor: Professor Deyin Luo Prize: Gold Prize of Field Research at Tsinghua University
Yaodong cave dwelling is a particular type of living on the Loess Plateau in Shanxi Province. During the process of urbanization, however, those vernacular architecture are facing a sharp decline. Using the typological methodology, we studied how varieties develop from one specific prototype to meet different familiesâ€™ living requirements. Then following the existing typological logic of Yaodong, we proposed a transformation from separate abandoned caveyards into a connected public culture complex, arousing new resonations between Yaodong and peopleâ€™s lives today.
Aerial View of Yaodong Dwellings
Yellow River Satellite Image of the Loess Plateau
YAODONG: A CHINESE CAVE DWELLING river valley
Section of Yaodong dwelling
Yaodong exists on the Loess Plateau, where many gullies were formed due to soil and water loss. Three types of landforms are created as loess tableland, loess slope, and river valley. People here dig into different terrains for dwellings. On the loess ridge, people first dig down the courtyard, and then dig caves around.
PRIVATE LIFE IN CAVE
Yaodong, as a type of living space, is closely related to the lives and customs of local people. It contains two kinds of spaces, yards and caves. The caves mainly carry private living functions, and public activities occur in the yards. The orientation and layout of caves are affected by the Chinese traditional culture, Bagua and Fengshui.
PUBLIC LIFE IN YARD Wedding
DECLINE OF CAVE YARDS IN URBANIZATION With the intensification of urbanization, more and more people choose to move away from the old cave dwellings and build new houses on the ground. We can see from the satellite image that the original dense caves have become more and more sparse. The decline of Yaodong is a worrying phenomenon.
Cave yards Buildings on gound
start of moving from cave yards to houses aboveground
Existing cave yard
most cave yards being abandoned buildings on ground becoming dominant
Aboveground house Abandoned cave yard
SOLUTION: TRANSFORM ABANDONED CAVE YARDS TO PUBLIC SPACES In response to the problems mentioned above, we have proposed a new plan for using abandoned cave yards. By combining the original cave yards into an integrated public space, we intend to relocate the locals back to the yards and caves, creating a new public center in the village.
People originally live in individual yards
People leave caves to build aboveground houses
Abandoned cave yards are linked for public
People come back to enjoy new life
Public stairs 16
“Tian Yuan Di Fang”, circinal sky and square ground, is a traditional Chinese interpretation of the universe, and this is embodied in the prototype of Yaodong cave dwelling. Variations develop from this prototype to meet different needs. Beginning from the study of interfaces, we summarize those types in five categories and recombine them to create new public spaces, arousing new resonation between Yaodong and people’s lives today.
Scale of Caves
TYPOLOGICAL ADAPTATION FOR PUBLIC SPACE Library
TRILOGY: FROM SKY TO GROUND Three kinds of experiences were created from on the ground to below, retaining the traditional living experience, and brings the possibility of new public life at the same time.
UPPER LAYER GROUND LANDSCAPE On the ground, changes in the landscape imply the existence of the space below.
MIDDLE LAYER CEILING AND SKYLIGHT In between the two layers, through the design of arch-shaped ceiling, the introduction of skylight implies changes in external time.
LOWER LAYER UNDERGROUND SPACE Under the ground, continuous circulation allows people to travel through public spaces.
Layered Axonometric Drawing
Rendering of Courtyard Stage
Rendering of Theater
FLOWING THROUGH EARTH A series of abandoned courtyards are reorganized and connect different new public spaces. They together form a micro-settlement. From outdoor to indoor, various spatial experiences can remind the villagers of their collective memories of living in Yaodong, while new public spaces act as an attractive core to unite them again. Here in this new complex, public life has been redefined.
1 Courtyard 2 Theater 3 Cafe 4 Observation tower 5 Library 6 Lobby hall 7 Gallery 8 Lighting yard 9 Office 10 Activity room 11 Courtyard stage
4 5 B
-1 Floor Plan
Main yard Yard Cave Entrance
1 Centural courtyard 2 Theater 5 Library 9 Office 10 Activity room 11 Courtyard stage 12 Gallery hall
5 2 1
-2 Floor Plan
Skylight in lobby
Linear skylight creates changing light and shadows in lobby, providing interactions between on the ground and below.
Centralized lighting throu hibits in gallery rooms.
Skylight in library
Scattering points of skylights illuminate each unit in the library, with blurred edges creating a gradual change in light.
North sky light falls down skylights, evenly illuminat
Skylight in gallery room
ugh a square skylight highlights ex-
Sectional Sequences with Skylight
SKYLIGHT ADAPTATION IN YAODONG
Skylight in gallery hall
n through lantern-shaped arrays of ting the gallery hall.
Traditionally, Yaodong was lit with sidelight, and it was hard for such cave spaces to get enough light, especially for deep inside. As an underground structure, skylights play an important role in illuminating interior spaces. We create several types of skylights to adapt to different functions: scattering, linear, centralized and arraying. People walking through continuous space sequences can experience various lighting atmosphere. 20
Digging out new caves
Leveling and reinforcing surface
Adding structure inside
rammed earth gunite concrete cement mortar screeding water-proof layer concrete structure insulation layer cement mortar bedding raw soil plastering with wheat straw
rammed earth water-proof layer concrete structure insulation layer cement mortar bedding raw soil plastering with wheat straw
Section Model of Activity Room
New public spaces are constructed based on old private cave yards. Further digging into the ground creates spaces of different scales. New layers of concrete are jointed with the traditional rammed earth bricks and make large-span structure possible.
ANCHOR Ocarina Studio by the sea
Location: Qinhuangdao, China Type: Academic / Individual work Date:2017/03-2017/05 Supervisor: Tiantian Xu
This music studio located by the sea tries to be an anchor of the sea. Like a coordinate origin, it measures the abstract and enormous sea with three axes - a horizontal volume along the coastline, an underground volume close to the sea, and a vertical tower towards the sky. Along with the changes in light, sound, and sight, people can get three different experiences. 22
MEASURE OF ENDLESSNESS Located on the edge of the ocean, this small construction has been faced with an everlasting problem - how to measure the endless sea with a limited construction?
THREE DIMENSIONS, THREE EXPERIENCES
When a person stands by the sea, starting from his point, three relationships with the sea can be established: along the sea, perpendicular to the sea, and vertical to the sky. Walking on these three axes, the positions of people and the sea are constantly changing, forming different experiences. The design starts from this point and uses three linear volumes to establish a measure of the sea.
Horizontal along the sea
Perpendicular to the sea
Vertical to the sky
The tower becomes a landmark in this horizontal landscape. The horizontal volume opens to the beach, inviting people to enter. And the underground volume interacts with the shore through the skylight and implies the changes of depth. 23
Y Explosive Axonometric Drawing
CONTAINER OF THE SEA Inside space of the three volumes has become a container for various senses to perceive the sea. Light and wind travel between the three volumes and the sound of the waves converge through the reflection of the horizontal curve volume. During the day, different experiences are formed inside the building as the sun, sea, and wind change.
1:50 Section Model
1:25 Model of Tower
1. Entrance 2. Ocarina showroom 3. Ocarina studio 4. Ocarina stage 5. Skylight 6. Tower 7. Ocarina-making space 8. Restrooms 9. Visitor passage
7 8 9
Slowly sinking roofs and long windows guide people's eyesight to the sea.
The connection between the ground and the underground becomes a small theater. Walking down the stairs, people can see the process of making the Ocarina. 25
INNER WOODS Pavilion in woods
Location: Nanjing, China Type: Academic / Individual work Date: 2019/ 08 Supervisor: Pascal Flammer
How to create human-made woods inside the natural ones, with the sky, the earth, and the trees? Relations between woods outside and inside keep changing with people moving on a sphere 1.5 meters below ground - from close but protected, to open while isolated. Different levels of intimacy and publicity are thus created in a shared flowing space.
The arrangement of pillars suggests experiences like walking through the woods. The slightly curved section and horizontal line of furniture intimately associated human bodies with the huge spherical surface.
Other Work 01
STRING Sports Center Location: Beijing, China Type: Competition/ Collaboration with structural engineering students Contribution: Architecture design, model making Prize: Best architectural design award of structural competition 2017 Structure and landscape are the core issues in this project. A flexible structural system with a roof hung on the curved beam through the tension bar follows the ground fluctuation. The roof is raised toward the street for more skylight and pressed down toward nature in the park.
roof flexible rubber bellows steel link allows for lateral movement vertical steel tube mullions
Other Work 02
BRIDGES ON THE LAND Exhibition and Research of Traditional Footbridges in Guilin Location: Guilin/ Beijing, China Type: Research and exhibition / Team Work Date: 2018.04-2019.09 Contribution: Team leader & Co-curator Through field mapping, records, and structural tests, we conducted a comparative study on more than 50 pedestrian bridges in two drainage basins in Guilin. We presented our findings in a 16.8m*1.8m watershed model. An exhibition was held at Tsinghua University and was invited to the 2018 Beijing Design Week and Huaqiao Gallery.
Exhibiton in Guilin, 2019 credit to Yiyuan Shi
Wooden Bridges in Ping River Basin Ping river basin is located in the valley landform. Traditional pedestrian bridges are mostly wooden bridges, with eaves to shelter the wind and rain. At the same time, it becomes a place for villagers' public life.
Fengyu Bridge, credit to Yiyuan Shi
Bridges Surveyed in Ping River Basin
Drawings of Fengyu Bridge credit to Lin Tang
Stone Bridges in Yulong River Basin Yulong River is located in the Karst landforms. The bridges here are mostly stone arch bridges, which can resist the erosion of the flood. Lush trees on two sides make it a space for commercial gathering.
Fuli Bridge, credit to Bowen Lei
Bridges Surveyed in Yulong River Basin
Drawings of Fuli Bridge credit to Shiyu Liu
Other Work 03
PIPE PAVILION Construction Location: Beijing, China Type: Construction / Team Work Date: 2015. 08 Contribution: Team leader, design, construction In this construction project, we were asked to make a 2.4m*2.4m pavilion using cheap materials. As the project leader and principal designer, I, with 15 classmates, explored the material of PVC pipes. The structure uses sling knots and units in series to realize the interaction between the pavilion and people.
Other Work 04
BODYSCAPE Photography and Exhibition Location: Huajiu Gallery, Beijing, China Type: Art / Individual Work Date: 2019.06-08 In a recent art experiment, I sought to catch the sense of landscape on our body by photography. As our initial dwelling, I think that our bodies have some similarities with the topography. We not only inhabit the mountains and lakes but also shape it on another scale.
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