Page 1

modern/ traditional LOST NUANCES? Nils Somby, photograph Trond Trondsen/Nordkappfoto


The meta condition of monumentality/typology “Identifikasjon av typer beror i det hele tatt på at visse velbrukte former har nådd en slags inert tilstad der de ikke lenger utvikles for å svare på endrete behov.” “Typeformene ses med nye øyne, distansert fra opprinnelige funksjoner og isolert fra livssammenhengen de inngikk i. Typeformene har fått museal verdi, som formidlere

av fortida” (Haugdal, 2007).

In order to maintain a historical continuity the typology is transmitted into the monumental, institutional architecture. Typology, specificly the lavvo/nomadic type, may in this respect be seen as a meditator of the past, but the representation of a culture should contain more, and gain actuality. Like Norberg-Schulz argues “Typebildet synliggjør stedet og skaper kontinuitet i tida. Det bærer med seg en historie og gir mennesket ‘fotfeste

tiden’.

“Tapet av sammenheng mellom funksjon og form er, i følge Norberg - Schulz, symtomatisk for en mod-

i

erne tilstand, et stedstap” (s.136, Haugdal, Elin Kristine, 2007, Ny monumentalitet). Do the technology i phone based society suffer from a stedstap (loss of belonging to a place) and a collective memory; the relation to who we are, our origin, and reasons of why we exist? How can aspects of the Sami culture be translated or pursued into a modern context, without repeating the obvious cultural and monumental symbolism and create a more reliable and honest showing according the multilayered cultural constructions - to themselves and to the visitor? Not seeing the modern and the new as separate forces, but constant modifications of the concept of what the culture imply, according to an interrelation of time and space. Tendencies of reduced immediate connection to the ‘landscape of origin’ due to the altered conditions within this area are to demand updated formulations of Sami culture. Both to corroborate a cultural establishment and it’s adaptability. Taking in consideration the tendency of Sami people as a minority group and immigration into big cities, what happens when the culture no longer have a in situ connection?

What is the cultural

typebildet, in the awareness that ‘the’ culture could never be percieved as one whole agreed upon, but several entrypoints.


resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge the simplified/adapted ‘visitor - culture’


things and significance ‘To him, the physicality of materials can involve an individual with the world, evoking experiences and texturing horizons of place through memory’ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Zumthor, interpretation of Zumthor’s chapter: “A way of looking at things”). Are things instruments to placing yourself in a contextual meaning?

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


Sisti, processed leather (treated with hemmabark), is a base material of the traditional duodji, Sami arts and craft. Other materials are bone, textiles (http://duodjikonsult.com/horn.html). Tendons (sener) from the reindeers are made into threads.

Venison and fur are often dried outside the private properties, and create what Sunniva Skålnes calls ‘improvized architecture’.

Tæger (selje, gran furu, bjørk, vier) are wooden materials that construct dense knitting tecniques. They must have been growing straight, and in sandy or wet ground.

The making of Sami use objects (bruksgjenstander) carry a social space. Badjelgorži

Sennagress is often cut late summer. There are processes to tapping and drying it before it can be used in the footwear, skaller. The composition of different directions of the fur create a firm grip to skallene.

Norsk: Foss i Olmmáiváteatnu (Manndalselva). Her var en svær stein i elva, Geađgi, som ble brukt til ferdsel over. Den ble sprengt bort av ukjent grunn. Badjel betyr over, gorzi betyr fossen. Norsk: Øvre Fos

-

Kvann and syregress as spices and source of vitamins and as medicine (http://ndla.no/nb/node/3825).

Vier, lyng, bjørk, etc. - plant dyeing of yarn (http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantefarg er). Skallebånd and bands to kofter have particular patterns with geographical and ‘stage -in - life’ referencecs.


or

etc....

Two ways of processing natural resources. One short. One long.


time perception The sami calendar and the namings of the months are based on the rythm of the nature and the reindeer management (http:// www.samer.se/1077). Our division of seasons contains 4 articulations, while the Sami culture rely on 8 seasons and a nuanced view on the environment in constant, cyclical change.

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


bulls unattended while grazing during summer navit

counting, marking, vaccinating, saw off huge antlers

SUMMER

selected animals slaughtered

SPRING

AUTUMN

making of dried venison and hide

towards summer pasture

WINTER

General time perception? slow walk in melted, deep snow

towards winter pasture

calve arrival

the bulls are kept inside fences making of dried venison

winter slaughting

the reindeer group split in smaller groups to improve grazing efficiency

-40ยบc total darkness, samene spread out to cover a vast pasture

aidejavrre


bulls grazing unattendedly counting, marking, vaccinating, saw off huge antlers

towards summer pasture calves gaining weight

slaughting

calve arrival

towards winter pasture making of dried venison winter slaughting big bull group many same - teams

collecting bulls in fences smaller herding groups

-40ºc total darkness survival

SUMMER Giesse

springSUMMER Gidágiesse

autumnSUMMER Tjaktjagiesse

SPRING Gidá

AUTUMN Tjaktja

springwinter Gidádálvve

autumnwinter Tjaktjadálvve

WINTER Dálvve

http://www.samer.se/1077

Sami time organizing.


vocabulary Can the vocabulary of a language/field used within what we define a culture, manifest some truths, attitudes or basic foundations of the culture in the showing of what is more articulated? What do the very detailed apps vocabulary tell about the society we are curretly structuring, the zeitgeist of the time? Can the vocabulary of the Samis reveal a different representative cultural picture? Are the general international/norwegian population opponent to the Sami population through the difference of the i - phone society maneuvering beyond concrete location, and the very direct contact to the local surroundings implemented in the Sami culture?

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


e l v

v a n n

b y g d

F J E L L ≈

s t e d

ája 1) kjelde, 2) bekk, lita elv boatka innsnevring (avsmalning) dearpmi elvemel, bakkekant ved

innsjø, bratt lien bakke

nuorra sund suolu øy, holme vággi 1) dal, stutt dalsenkning ved

eller nær kysten, 2) lita bukt ved sjøen

deatnu, eatnu stor elv fielbmá ei mindre elv som flyt stille,

njárga nes, odde, halvøy vuohppi kjos, lang og smal vik i elv

gorzi foss luoppal utviding av ei elv, liten

vuotna fjord gála vadestad jávri innsjø, vatn gohpi rundaktig vik, brei bukt luokta vik, bukt mohkki krok, sving, bukt, vik sáiva 1) liten innsjø utan (større)

kjos

innsjø som det går ei elv gjennom

guoika stryk i elv njearri grunt sttyk der elva er brei johka elv elv, mindre enn deatnu, eatnu

skáidi landet mellom to elvar som

renn saman

veadji (87) mindre elv, bekk, dal med

liten elv

eller innsjø

tilløp, 2) ferskvatn

álda offerstad barta årestue, hytte bassi heilag stad, heilagdom (og som adj, heilag)

báiki stad, stad der nokon bur, heim badje (stutt) avstand, lengd (som mid-

tledd i stadnamn med tre ledd)

siida 1) reinby, gruppe av reineiere som samarbeider, 2) buplass, heim

sadji stad, plass, rom goahti gamme, telt muvra varde (mur)

m y r

stáhppu smal keile ved sjøen muotki eid, jfr. skáidi

alás det høgste av et fjell beaski 1) fjellklubb (ved kysten, ofte bunden saman med

fastlandet med eit smalt eid), 2) smal passasje over eit fjell

bákti berg, flog barsi knaus, ein kolle som stikk fram ved enden av eit fjell

ávzi trong, djup elvedal med svært bratte sider, skard coaltu rundaktig haug eller topp cohkka (20) fjelltopp, topp dievvá rundaktig eller avlang haug duottar vidde, snaufjell buolza bratt morenerygg, tørr grushøgde (kame) corru langstrakt forhøyning eller rabb (esker) borri fjell med jamne skråningar til to sider cahca vasskilje, overgang mellom to fjell cearru nokså flat og ofte vid høgfjellsstrekning med

lite vegetasjon

s n ø

t i l

k om s t

guovda vasspytt i skog som det veks sennagras rundt juovva ur ur jeaggi myr myr suotnju blautmyr der det veks

starr

muotta snø i sin alminnelighet vahca nysnø oppas urørt snø ciegar ”beitet” snø seanas kornsnø (i februar og mars) ceavvi tettpakket snø skávvi tynn skare cuonu ordentlig hard skare cearga snødriv, snøskavle jassa Snødriv på rabbe (snaufjell) sievla snø gjennomtrekt av vann soavli snøsørpe oavlu nesten bare vann i snøen

riehppi dal som det er vanskeleg

r i m

å koma til, med utvida nisjeforma dalbotn

roavvi stad der det har vore skogbrann; langt, ikkje høgt, skogkledd fjell

koma fram, dal stengd i botnen

gorgnehat (40) stad der ein kan ráktu steinhelle, skiferhelle goavdi heller, opning under noko geaidnu veg

fjellside

nibba (60) spiss fjellknatt nurki nov, hushjørne, utstikkar på eit fjell oaivi 1) hovud, 2) avrunda fjell hoanka utoverhengande bergvegg luohkká bakke várdu høgd med vid utsikt várri fjell vadda (80) open slette utan tre, med skog rundt gielas 1) kjøl, 2) lang, smal ås rássa høgfjellsstrekning utan vegetasjon, dekt av små

flate steinar eller ur

moski stad der det ikkje går an å stiga opp (t.d for vinterveg inn på land)

háldi (som fjellnavn): rundaktig, høgt fjell hárji åskam, smal og lang åsrygg (møne) liehppa tverrbratt eller overhengande bergvegg, bratt

bihci rimfrost i sin alminnelighet,

rim på marka

suhci fastfryst isrim på trær ritni rimfrost på trær, særlig nå snøen har falt på suhci

sealli trær fri for rimfrost (om vinteren) suoldni dugg på marka laksi dugg (vatn) på gras, trær og busker

GÀISI Fjelltind geahci ende, spiss gurra skar, kløft, hakk njunni 1) nase eller framende, spiss, 3) bergnase 4) tut,

5) nebb

maras brei høgde i terrenget med forkrøplet bjørkeskog, lav høgde med skog vuopmi skogland (i motsetning til skoglaust høgfjell, duottar)

All words are taken from the dokument Bruk av landskapet - historisk og kulturell forståelse av landskapet Odd Mathis Hætta, autumn conference, NLA, Kautokeino 2009.


Juopmobákti

Norsk: Firkanta stein overfor skoggrensa under Goddegurra, stor som et lite hus. Juopmu er syregress, som man brukte å kokte grøt på. Bákti betyr berg.

Sálorihtá

Norsk: Sted. Salo er mannsnavn, no slektsnavn. Rihtá er felle til fangst av større rovdyr.

Cuoppugieddi

Norsk: Voll. Cuoppu er et lite dyr som lever i myr, gieddi betyr eng, voll. (Cuopposuoidni er en kortvoksende gress-sort som ble brukt som fyll i madrasser.)

The municipality of Kåfjord has collected 2200 names of locations, most of them Sami. These names tell about how the landscape is used and harvested from, and about the local history. These are some examples.

All photos and descriptions are collected from http://www.gaisi.no/hoved.php


Landscape voices Joik can be seen as a communicator (formidler) of the subjective cognitive memory of Sami people. The memory of Sami carries an immaterial understanding of the culture and knowledge related to it. “As long as we continue to joik, we’ll remember who we are” (Jones - Bamman, 1993). Why does joik function so well in establishing a cultural identity? I argue the points below alltogether shape it as a dynamic medium. ◆ Subjective space of interpretation (tolkningsrom) and invilvement (deltagelse) “...Den avspeiler andres subjektive oppfatning av mennesket, eller av dyr eller landskap hvis det er det joiken er betegnet etter” (Jernsletten 1978:110). ◆ Duble subjectivity (the messager and the reciever) creates social interaction (Vansina:1985). ◆ Ethnical/national positioning ◆ Cosmologial positioning “...berättelser talar om vilka vi är. Detta inkluderar ursprung, förfäder, världsbild och kunskaper. Det är en

spegelbild av vårt liv (Kuokkanen 2000:421).”

“...folkloren handlar om i och med att förnippas med en grupp för vilken den är meningsfull” (Arvidsson 1999:21).

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


Joik lydklipp

Joik lydklipp

Joik lydklipp


visitors How is the Sami region communicated to a visitor today? Can the Sami institutions, desentralized, but as a whole, with their present ‘architectural’ character be seen/valuated as a museum of Sapmi? It might look like, in fear of not remembering/claiming the importance of these institutions, they have been compensated with a spectacular architectural response. I would ask if this ‘response’ contribute in maintaining the museum (read: the Sapmi culture read as a tourist) as ‘another place’, that differ from the real genius loci/character of the place. This meaning as a visitor of Inner Finnmark and in the meeting of the institutions that welcome them, in reality the visitors do not travel to Sapmi and the authentical vernacular state, but what the Sami people themselves regard upon as ‘another place’. Welcome to another place-

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


oil, gas and wealth spectacular, authentic cultural symbols

OH YEAH, this is exactly what I expected!


“It appears that people react to environments in the terms of the meanings the environments have for them. ...Environmental evaluation...is more a matter of latent that of manifest function, and it is largely affected by images and ideals� (Rapoport, 1977:60).


tradition/instant In what context is knowledge placed? Individ - family - neighbourhood - municiplity - country - world

Individ - world

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


http://saamiblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/pre-christian-sami-religion-and-gods.html

line of knowledge

instant knowledge

app ‘still in use’ in time after download, subject: 30 mill. downloads of an app

%

100 80

The industry of domesticating reindeers is traced back t the 18th - 19 th century, but according to rock carvings the people of the Sami region has benefited from wild reindeers. Other Sami traditons can be traced back to ancient generations.

60

40 20

DAYS 0

30

60

90


sami monument How is the contemporary Sami region communicated to a visitor? Jean - François Lyotards definition of monumensjon: ‘I monumensjon legges “den simple kendsgerning, at et hvilket som helst stykke, hvor ubetydelig og trivielt det end måtte være [...] i samme øjeblik som det indføres i museet og forsynes med sin identifikationsmærkat, forvandles til et monument” ‘Likefullt, i et akvarium blir selv fisken til et kulturelt objekt. Hentet ut fra sin naturlige sammenheng, satt inn i menneskeskapte rammer - i det arkitektoniske rommet - gis fisken en kulturhistorisk betydning’ (Haugdal, 2007, about the Lofot aquarium) It is the architectural framing and how it is exalating the object displayed (here: the fish), creating den museale monumensjon. Can the Sami institutions (desentralized, but considered as a whole cultural region) with their present ‘architectural’ character be valuated as objects of a museum feature of Sàpmi, like a museal monumensjon? It might look like, in fear of not remembering/claiming the importance of these institutions, they have been compensated with a spectacular architectural response. I would ask if this ‘response’ contribute in maintaining outsider’s view of cultural attributes as museal, inert displays, a fixation of a cultural image that visitors want to put themselves into, expanding their ‘globetrotter repertoire’. As a way of showing wealth and high social ranking . The construction of such image potentially obscure the existing variations of the spaces. If this is the case, as a visitor of Finnmark you don’t travel to Sapmi and it’s authentical vernacular state, but what the Sami people themselves regard upon as detached from their familiarity.

resource (nytte) landscape travelled/lived landscape Ways the Sami look upon the landscape landscape of orientation/knowledge meta - landscape Collosion traditional/modern? a visitor’s cultural consumption Visitors meeting Sàpmi

lifespan of knowledge


Stortinget agreed on the Sami law in 1987, which constituted Sametinget (http://www.samediggi.no/artikkel.aspx?MId1=337 7&AId=3645&back=1&MId2=3483). Their independence asked for a new serie of architecture to accomodate their management.

+

majavatn hotell

àrran lulesamisk senter

samelandsenteret, karasjok buletjàvri turistsenter

kautokeino kulturhus kautokeino fjellstue

tana bridge lujavri samesenter russland

màze kro

bulet eco siida

samediggi karasjok ‘improvized architecture’ (skålnes, sunniva, Arkitektur n, nr.. 3 2008)

extrovert monumental Symbolism?

introvert vernacular Functionalism?


Lost nuances?  

In cultural representations the more accessible image is detached from the existing complexity

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