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Laguna Gloria Site Assessment & Natural Areas Management Guidelines Produced for AMOA-Arthouse by Siglo Group, June 2013

Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Project Team: Jonathan Ogren, Daniel Dietz, Johanna Arendt, Matt Fougerat, Cullen Hanks, and Juliet Whitsett, 512.699.5986 Integrating Land Use and Natural Systems: Siglo Group uses the power of geographic information to help our clients integrate land use with natural systems. We specialize in conservation planning, regional analysis, site assessment, cartography, and spatial analysis. Our work has contributed to land being set aside in perpetuity for conservation, policies and projects that work towards more sustainable land use, good development, and a greater understanding of the attributes and values of land.

Numerous individuals gave input into this report. Their help is greatly appreciated. Contributors included: Judith Sims (AMOA-Arthouse), Louis Grachos (AMOA-Arthouse), Terry Quinn (AMOA-Arthouse),Danielle Nieciag (AMOA-Arthouse), Aaron Lovell (AMOA-Arthouse), Cassandra Smith (AMOAArthouse), Jill Nokes (Nokes Landscape Design), Jason Singhurst (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department), Mateo Scoggins (City of Austin), Andrew Clamann (City of Austin), Mary Gilroy (City of Austin), Kathryn Murray (City of Austin), Clay Bales (Texas Forest Service), Jim Rooni (Texas Forest Service), Chris Yanez (City of Austin), Matt McCaw (City of Austin), Keith Olenick (Landmark Wildlife Management).

Siglo Group


Table of Contents

ECOLOGY, 5 Topography, 6 Hydrology, 6 Geology, 7 Soils, 8 Vegetation And Ecological Classification, 9 Historic Land Use Changes, 14 Trees, 16 Wildlife, 17 Potential Wildlife List, 18 Plant List, 19

NATURAL AREAS MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES, 21 Balancing Natural Resource Objectives with Visitor Needs, 22 Off-trail Recreation, 22 Invasive Plants, 23 Invasive Plant Control Methods, 24 Native Plantings, 25 Invasive Species Control Guide, 26 Poison Ivy, 31 Zonal Approach, 31 Zone A: Slope Woodland, 31 Zone B: Floodplain Forest, 34 Zone C: Path to the Point, 36 Zone D: Meadow, 37 Monitoring Progress, 39 Involving The Community, 41 Budget, 41 Schedule, 41 Monitoring Locations, 44 Photopoints, 47

SITE ASSESSMENT, 63 Water Quality Buffers & Floodplain, 64 Critical Environmental Features, 64 Zoning, 64 Historic Designation, 65 Infrastructure. 65 Stormwater Retention, 66 Boardwalk and Docks, 66 Parking, 67 Impervious Cover, 67 Concepts for Future Development, 68 Net Site Area & Allowable Impervious Cover, 69 City Contacts, 69

VISITOR EXPERIENCE, 71 Orientation, Wayfinding, & Interpretation, 72 Pathways, 73 Gathering Places & Services, 74 Scenic Views & Vegetative Buffers, 76 Accessibility, 78 Entry Sequence, 79 Programming, 80


1 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

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Laguna Gloria & Mayfield Park

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Driscoll Villa

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Temple of Love Birder’s Point 300’ 0 Sources: COA, Travis CAD Property Boundaries

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Introduction Laguna Gloria is an incredible place to experience art and nature. This report provides baseline information about the property for future designers, staff, stakeholders, and board members of AMOAArthouse to use as they re-envision Laguna Gloria as a renowned art experience in a natural setting. The report is broken up into five sections: Ecology, Natural Areas Management Guidelines, Site Assessment, Visitor Experience, and Birds and Birding. Each of these sections builds on and complements the others. The end result is a guide that gives artists, curators, and designers a framework through which to envision the future of the site. This should be thought of as a dynamic document that is added to as new information comes to light. The report is grounded in concepts of ecology, restoration and sustainable land management. It incorporates information from previous studies, field observations (from January to May of 2013), relevant city codes and ordinances, as well as data from federal, state, and local databases. It is not meant to be a survey or fully comprehensive, but rather provides a snapshot of various aspects of the site that need to be considered as future plans are formed and implemented.

The Laguna Gloria site comprises approximately 12 acres on the eastern bank of Lake Austin in Austin, TX. This report focuses on the natural areas of Laguna Gloria, including more than 2,900 feet of Lake Austin waterfront. Where appropriate, it also looks beyond the site's borders at interactions with the adjacent Mayfield Park and Preserve, which is approximately 23 acres, and with Lake Austin itself. The site is part of the Edwards Plateau ecosystem and is an ecological refuge, holding numerous and diverse plant and animal communities that are now hard to find in the urbanized Austin Area. Habitats range from floodplain forest and marsh to oak savanna, open meadow and sloping woodland. The site is made up of two major terraces, with the lower terrace only a few feet above the water level of Lake Austin. The upper terrace contains the historic Driscoll Villa area (approximately 2 acres), the art school area to the east, and associated parking and grounds. The terraces are joined by steep slopes, with a ridge running down to the Temple of Love. The site's ecological significance is showcased by the majestic oak woodlands in the upper areas, the floodplain forest on the shore of the lake, the marsh, and the over 210 bird species recorded at the site, which have made

Laguna Gloria the third most birded site in Travis County. While the 2-acre historic area containing the Driscoll Villa and its grounds is of great significance to any design going forward, it is not covered in detail here. It has been well assessed by O'Connor and Levin (1999). Their compelling retelling of the site's history includes its ownership by Stephen F. Austin from 1832 to 1836, two archeological sites on the property with potential human activity as far back as 5,000 years, and the story of Clara Driscoll's vision, design, and development of the property. This report echoes Driscoll's vision of maintaining the natural elements of the site and providing a place for visitors to experi-

Laguna Gloria Context


4 miles


3 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines The spaces created naturally by the site's plant communities can be seen as rooms of a gallery in which art pieces are displayed. As with any gallery, and perhaps especially in this case, the space itself can become integral to the exhibit. The recognition of the site's unique natural characteristics and the coordination of natural areas management with design, exhibit curation, and art creation will optimize the overall use of the site.

Aerial image of the Laguna Gloria. Source: Bing ence art and nature together. In the Natural Areas Management Guidelines section, a five year plan is outlined for improving the ecological health of the property. The management guidelines are based on the concepts of ecological restoration, which is the process of improving of the site’s natural ecological functions such

as holding and creating soil, filtering water, providing habitat for native wildlife, and maintaining vibrant native plant communities that include trees, understory, forbs and grass species. The management guidelines are meant to improve ecological functions and enhance the visitor experience in majestic, healthy native plant communities.

The Natural Areas Management Guidelines section discusses potential management challenges and recommends a path forward using a zonal approach based on the property's distinct ecological areas: §Zone A: Sloping Woodlands, found around the historic area; §Zone B: Floodplain Forest, located next to the water's edge, and likely the area most sensitive to human disturbance; §Zone C: Path to the Point, the historic walk through the woods that connects the Villa to the Temple of Love; §Zone D: Meadow, a highly modified component of the lower terrace that offers the most opportunity for change in the future. For each of these areas, treatments are recommended throughout a five year period including invasive species control, restoration, and adaptive management techniques such as regular monitoring. Information is provided in both narrative and tabular formats, and is accompanied by a summary

Siglo Group of treatments and a work schedule. For this plan to be successful, it will require the ongoing involvement of professional consultants, AMOA-Arthouse staff, resource allocation, and ongoing management. Moving forward, numerous regulatory and physical issues will need to be considered as well. In the Site Assessment section, this report looks at water quality buffers and floodplains, critical environmental features, zoning, historic designation, infrastructure, boardwalks and docks, impervious cover, net site area, and concepts for future development. There are various challenges including required building setbacks (because Lake Austin supplies drinking water to the city), environmental features, substantial slopes, the site's single-family residential zoning, its State Archeological Landmark, its partial historic designation, the risk of flooding, and the fact that no new impervious cover is allowed. However, there are new technologies to reduce impervious cover, and this site assessment also confirmed that there is substantial opportunity to increase visitors' access to Lake Austin. In all cases, because of the uniqueness of the site within the regulatory framework, developing and implementing a new design will likely entail detailed dialogue and cooperation with the City of Austin regulatory departments. The integration of the site's ecology, management, and design will define the visitor experience into the future. In the Visitor Experience section, the four management

zones are assessed to understand the movement of individuals through the site, their potential impacts, and general opportunities for design into the future. This assessment should not limit design ideas, but rather support them by providing information about the existing and future needs of the site and its visitors. This section looks at the site's entry sequence, visitor orientation, wayfinding system, pathways through the site, gathering places, scenic views and vegetative buffers, mobility issues, connectivity, water access, and potential programming. Analyzing the natural area management needs and the visitor experience together allows the two to inform each other and to illuminate mutually beneficial opportunities that might not have been evident otherwise. This report touches on key elements to consider while re-envisioning and designing the future of the site. The natural structure of the site offers a framework in which to integrate land management, design, and the visitor experience. It is the goal of this report to support the creation of a place-based art museum showcasing nationally and internationally acclaimed artists with a robust visitor experience that seamlessly combines art and nature.


5 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Topography d ll R ne on tB M

Driscoll Villa

Laguna Gloria

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300’ 0 Sources: COA, Travis CAD Property Boundaries Slopes 15 to 25% Slopes 25 to 35% Slopes Greater than 35% 2’ Contours

Siglo Group

Ecology The ecological characteristics and history of Laguna Gloria add up to make the site we see today. From the creation of the Hill Country limestone over 200 million years ago and the rise of the Balcones Escarpment over 12 million years ago to the initial damming of Lake Austin in the 1890s, events have woven together to make the literal bedrock, soils, vegetation communities, and wildlife of Laguna Gloria. Understanding the elements mentioned here provides us with the background to make informed decisions about natural areas management, design, and the visitor's experience. TOPOGRAPHY The Laguna Gloria site consists of two relatively flat terraces connected by steep slopes. The highest part of the site is the historic area, which has an approximate elevation of 524 feet above mean sea level (msl). The property slopes from there down to the west to the lower terrace, which includes the meadow and floodplain forest, which has an approximate elevation of 495 feet above msl. A single ridge, ranging from 502 to 506 feet above msl, extends down the eastern side of the peninsula to the Temple of Love. The lowest elevation on the site is

approximately 492 feet at the edge of Lake Austin. While much of the site is flat, the slopes that do exist are very steep. Significant slope percentages include: a 37% rise at the stairs west of the Driscoll House, 25% near the amphitheater, and 20% to the west of the Temple of Love and slopes over 60% behind the art school. These slopes are significant when thinking about the risk of erosion and about human accessibility, especially if new improvements are added. Elements of interest within the topography include the rock outcrops found from the eastern edge of the property's waterfront to the Temple of Love area as well as the rim rock found behind the art school. The floodplain forest features microtopography, small undulations of the forest floor created through natural forest processes and historic manipulation of the environment. In addition, the slopes bordering the southern and western sides of the historic area that have been historically altered provide opportunities for views to the lake and through the property.

The topography at Mayfield Park is surprising and dramatic. Similar to Laguna Gloria, the historic homestead is on a flat terrace with a high elevation of 546 feet. Moving deeper into the site, sheer cliffs drop down to Taylor Slough in the interior of the property. In addition to these cliffs, there is undulating topography that can comfortably bring a hiker down to the water's edge. The connection between Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park is part of the upper terrace and is relatively flat until it gets to the water's edge where there are substantial slopes and rock outcrops that drop steeply 27 feet to Lake Austin. HYDROLOGY Laguna Gloria is located north of the lagoon formed by the juncture of Taylor Slough and Lake Austin. The entire property drains into Lake Austin and is part of the Lake Austin watershed. It is important to note that Lake Austin is the drinking water source for Austin and the two water treatment plants currently providing the city with water are very close to Laguna Gloria. The intake for the Albert R. Davis plant is only 840 feet upstream and the intake for the Albert H. Ulrich plant is less than a mile downstream.


7 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Based on soils found in the Floodplain Forest, it is likely that the peninsula and lower slopes of Laguna Gloria experienced flooding prior to the initial damming of Lake Austin in 1890, but the soils were not perpetually inundated by water as they are today. Tom Miller Dam, built in 1940 after two previous dams failed, has created a constant level lake that does not rise above 492.8 feet and is typically kept at 491.7 feet (LCRA 2013). The raised water table has


increased the possibilities of what can grow and sustain itself at the Laguna Gloria site, from open water, to marsh, to floodplain forest.

relatively small sites such as Laguna Gloria where the museum and buildings sit atop a flat “balcony,” which then descends sharply to the floodplain forest below.

GEOLOGY The signature “stair-step” topography of the Balcones Canyonlands lent this region its name when early Spanish explorers described the bluffs as looking like a series of balconies rising up through the hills. This regional character can be seen in even

The underlying geologic layer causing this terracing at Laguna Gloria is the Fredericksburg group (Kfr). This complex group includes Edwards Limestone, Bee Cave Marl, and Comanche Limestone. This is the same layer that is found at the surface of the Barton Springs Aquifer recharge zone and that tops the aquifer on the Jollyville plateau (Barnes 1974).

Kgr (u)

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The Fredericksburg group is famous for having numerous karst features (caves or sinkholes), although no such features are known to occur on the property. While one may assume that the limestone underneath Laguna Gloria has fractures that make the rock permeable, it is not connected to an aquifer system, being cut off from the Barton springs segment by the Colorado River. It is likely that any water that enters the limestone underneath Laguna Gloria flows directly into Lake Austin, which makes water quality protection measures on the site especially important. This is discussed in more detail in the Site Assessment section.

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Laguna Gloria

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Kfr-Fredericksburg Limestone Kgr(u)-Glen Rose Limestone Kdr-Del Rio Clay

Laguna Gloria sits at the heart of geologic activity in the area where the Balcones Faulting occurred somewhere between 12 and 27 million years ago. This uplift,

Siglo Group

Tef (18-40% slopes). Approximately 27% of the property is part of this map unit. It is

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Lu (Less than 1% slope, occasionally flooded). Approximately 46% of the property is within this map unit, which includes all low areas on the peninsula. Lu is composed primarily of Gaddy soils. This excessively drained sandy alluvium has been deposited by the Colorado River in the last 10,000 years. It typically consists of loamy fine sand up to 17 inches deep, which is underlain by fine sand. This soil is characteristic of floodplains and is in fact found in the floodplain forest at Laguna Gloria. It is not found anywhere at Mayfield Park.



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SOIL According to map and soil data obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, three soil map units containing three different soil series occur within the site's boundaries.


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running northeast and southwest through Austin, raised what is now the Hill Country to the west and lowered what is now the Blackland Prairies to the east for a net difference in elevation of over 1,000 feet. It is believed that the faulting occurred over a geologically short period of time. The Mt. Bonnell fault is the most dramatic of these faults with movement of more than 700 feet (McGlamery and Dietz 2008).


Lu Scenic Dr





Sources: USDA-NRCS

TeF-Tarrant Lu-Gaddy UuE-Brackett VuD-Volente BrF-Brackett

found on the steep south facing slopes in the eastern portion of the property. Tef is composed primarily of the Tarrant soils series, which was formed from the residuals of weathered limestone. This well-drained soil has very low water holding capacity and a basic ph. A typical soil profile will consist of very stony clay as deep as 6 inches, with bedrock often found within the first foot. At both Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park, the Sloping Woodland is found in Tef.

UuE (1-12% slopes). Approximately 27% of the property is part of this map unit. This area includes the higher portions of the property where the buildings are located, as well as the land directly adjacent to the trail that leads to the Temple of Love. 40% of this map unit is classified as urban land with miscellaneous soils, and 35% of UuE is classified as Brackett soils, with minor components making up the remaining 25%. The Brackett soil series is well drained with very low water holding capacity and a basic


9 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines ph. It is a clay loam until bedrock is reached. Because of the Laguna Gloria infrastructure, much of the UuE map unit has been manipulated over time, but it is the primary upland soil at Mayfield Park, and its natural expression can be observed there. VuD (1- 8% slopes). This map unit is found at Mayfield Park in the valley floor formed by Taylor Slough. It consists of about 45% Volente soils, about 20% Urban land, about 25% other soils, and about 10% Rock

outcrop and Mixed alluvial land. The Volente soil has a surface layer of dark grayish-brown calcareous clay loam about 22 inches thick. The next layer is brown calcareous silty clay that extends to a depth of about 46 inches. The underlying material is reddish-yellow calcareous clay loam. VEGETATION AND ECOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Laguna Gloria resides within the Balcones Fault Zone, which is at the far eastern edge of

Plant Communities d ll R ne on tB M

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Sources: TPWD, Field Observation

Floodplain Forest Limestone Savanna & Woodland Dry-Mesic Slope Woodland Disturbed Vegetation Riparian Mixed Deciduous Forest

the Edwards Plateau ecoregion, less than 1 mile from the Blackland Prairie ecoregion to the east. The Edwards Plateau is one of four areas in the United States recognized as a center of plant diversity for both richness and rarity (Davis 1997). The Edwards Plateau is characterized by Cretaceous era limestone bedrock that supports a mosaic of vegetation ranging from live oak/ashe juniper savannas to mixed juniper oak woodlands and deciduous riparian areas. The vegetation in the region has been modified extensively by livestock grazing and urbanization. Ecological communities have been mapped on the property based on the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department's Ecological System Classification database, and were refined based on field observations. The ecological systems and vegetation types below represent the current expression of vegetation on the property. They are subject to change over time due to management practices, changes in site conditions (such as climate change), or the passage of time since the last major disturbance (succession). Vegetation communities found at Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park include: floodplain forest, limestone savanna and woodland, dry-mesic slope woodland, disturbed vegetation, and riparian mixed use deciduous forest. In addition to this broad scale examination of vegetation, a list of individual plant species was created based on site visits during the

Siglo Group 10 late winter and spring of 2013 and a midspring site visit by Noreen Damude in May 2011 as seen on pages 19 and 20. This list is not exhaustive, especially concerning plants that are dormant or out of season during late winter and spring months. Vegetation communities are not just associations of plant species, but also include the disturbance patterns with which they evolved and that help maintain them. In the floodplain forest, floods would have played a significant role in depositing sediment and selecting against plants that are not water tolerant. In the upland woodlands, wind and ice storms promote diversity by creating light gaps and depositing woody debris when trees are uprooted or large branches break. Understory fires reduce leaf litter and allow more light to penetrate to the ground, which increases Spanish oak recruitment, but reduces ashe juniper seedling abundance. Drought impacts all of the plant communities. Finally, human management, mostly in the form of selective species removal and the planting of non-native species, has played a substantial role in Laguna Gloria's landscape. Floodplain Forest: This vegetation type is found in the broad valley bottoms of large rivers in Texas. It is characterized by deep alluvial soils and a rich variety of deciduous hardwood species that are not found in upland areas. At Laguna Gloria, this system

Floodplain Forest is found on the shore of Lake Austin and along the entire peninsula except for the ridge where the Temple of Love is located. Laguna Gloria has a rich diversity of overstory trees in the floodplain forest including

bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) and cottonwood (Populus deltoids). However, pecan (Carya illinoinensis), green ash (Fraxinus Pennsylvania), and box elder (Acer negundo) are also common, as are the non-

11 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines native invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) and chinaberry (Melia azedarach). The sub-canopy woody plant assemblage is equally diverse with dwarf palmetto (Sabal minor), cherry laurel (Prunus caroliniana), roughleaf dogwood (Cornus drummondii), possumhaw holly (Ilex decidua), Carolina buckthorn (Frangula caroliniana), and Mexican plum (Prunus mexicana) all present. Unfortunately, the non-native glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) is becoming the dominant small tree/large shrub in much of the area. The herbaceous layer is relatively sparse, with some patches of wood oats (Chasmanthium latifolium), Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis), spiderwort (Tradescantia sp.), and horseherb (Calyptocarpus vialis) found on the peninsula. More often, the groundcover consists of vines with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) being the dominant native in shaded areas and mustang grape (Vitis mustangensis) and trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) found in sunny openings. Non-native vines are abundant too, with the principal ones being catclaw (Macfadyena unguis-cati), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), English ivy (Hedera helix), and bigleaf periwinkle (Vinca major).

Dry-Mesic Slope Woodland

Previous floodplain forest that has been filled and mowed

Portions of the floodplain forest have been transformed through clearing and filling to become the meadow area later discussed in the Natural Area Management Guidelines section. In this area, extending north to

Siglo Group 12 (Styphnolobium affine), Mexican buckeye (Ungnadia speciosa), coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus), and hackberry (Celtis laevigata) are also present. Like in the floodplain forest, the herbaceous layer is sparse in many areas, having been overtaken by English ivy and catclaw vines. Where not overtaken, native species in the herbaceous layer such as dewberry (Rubus trivialis), Turk's cap (Malvaviscus arboreus), snailseed (Cocculus carolinus), frostweed (Verbesina virginica), woodoats, and Canada wildrye are good food sources for birds and butterflies. Limestone Savanna & Woodland south from the lower entrance from 35th street to the end of the peninsula, a lawn has been maintained in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), although Texas wintergrass (Nassella leucotricha), rescue grass (Bromus catharticus), and an unidentified paspalum are also present, along with some native wildflowers. Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), and giant reed (Arundo donax) are two large invasive grasses found in sunny areas near pathways and openings that provide light. Limestone Savanna and Woodland: This ecological system is found throughout central Texas on Cretaceous limestone soils in level to rolling topography. At Laguna Gloria, this ecological site is found chiefly on the path from the main building to the

Temple of Love, and the area above the amphitheater that is not part of the formal historic area. At Laguna Gloria, this ecosystem is dominated by large live oaks (Quercus virginiana), although Spanish oak (Quercus buckleyi), ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), and glossy privet also are common. The subcanopy contains a large number of nonnative species such as Carolina jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens), heavenly bamboo (Nandina domestica), golden bamboo (Phyllostachys sp.), and bridal wreath spirea (Spiraea prunifolia), although natives such as Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), possumhaw holly, cherry laurel, Te x a s m o u n t a i n l a u r e l ( S o p h o r a secundiflora), Eve's necklace

Dry-Mesic Slope Woodland: This system is found on steep limestone slopes throughout the Hill Country and in larger patches in western Travis County, and it provides habitat for the endangered golden-cheeked warbler. Laguna Gloria does not have the correct structure or patch size to support this endangered species, but this ecosystem does provide further habitat diversity for the property. It is found on the steep hill just below the developed area. It is principally found on the slopes to the east of the amphitheater and below the art school. The dominant trees in this area include live oak, cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), ashe juniper, Spanish oak, and some extremely large glossy privet. In some areas, the sub-canopy is almost exclusively Japanese honeysuckle, but in the more eastern areas, mountain laurel, Texas persimmon, wax myrtle

13 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines



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Siglo Group 14 (Morella cerifera), and Mexican buckeye are the principal shrubs. In the herbaceous layer, Turk's cap, frostweed,boneset (Ageratina havanensis) and cedar sedge (Carex sp.) are found.

the peninsula are in marsh, and much of the lower terrace appears to have little woodland. While it is not clear, it does appear that layout of the formal grounds around the Driscoll Villa has been completed.

installed, along with a road leading to 35th street. The lower terrace seems to be covered generally in woody species, with the areas to the southwest of the Temple of Love remaining in marsh.

Riparian Mixed Deciduous Forest: This ecological system is common along creeks in western Travis County and all along the Balcones Fault Zone on the eastern end of the Hill Country. Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) and plateau live oak (Quercus fusiformis) are the frequent dominant trees of this mixed forest. Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and sugar hackberry (Celtis laevigata) are also common.

1958: Water-loving vegetation has adapted to the lake levels, defining a visible shoreline on the property and the island to the south. One can see that the boat ramp has been

1975: Major development has occurred in the area, with the subdivision being built across the lagoon and a parking lot added to Mayfield Park and Preserve. We also see

HISTORIC LAND USE CHANGES Historic records and aerial photos can show us some of the major events that shaped the ecology of the site we see today. Here we have images looking over seventy years into the past. 1940: The completion of Tom Miller Dam in 1940 and consequent creation of Lake Austin had a substantial impact on the land. In this photo, the shoreline as we know it today is not defined, the southern portions of

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This system is found along Taylor Slough in Mayfield Park, but is not found on the Laguna Gloria site.


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15 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines


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250’ 0 Cypress Mulberry American Elm Green Ash Live Oak Cedar Elm Pecan Oak Elm Cottonwood White Oak Box Elder Willow Palm Hackberry Sources: Bury, Field Observation Cedar

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2009: This aerial is used throughout this study to represent existing conditions. In it we can see the completed school complex on the upper terrace and the further reduction of woody species in the northern portions of the lower terrace. In addition, the marshy area at the southern end of the peninsula appears to be expanding further into the lagoon and Lake Austin. These snapshots of the past allow us to see some of the major issues that have helped to shape the site's existing vegetation. They show a dynamic system that can change substantially given enough time. TREES The diverse trees of Laguna Gloria are a significant part of the visitor's experience, from the majestic cypresses by the water's edge to the heritage live oaks around the historic buildings. In 2000 and 2006, tree surveys were completed by Bury+Partners on the upper grounds, the Temple of Love

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1980: Infrastructure improvements can be seen on the property including the paved road in the lower terrace (built in 1979) and the components of the school complex.

Heritage Trees

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that the lower terrace of Laguna Gloria has been substantially altered. In the center of the peninsula from north to south, the marshy areas have been filled in and woody species removed.

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ridge, and on a small portion of the lower grounds. In 2013, Siglo Group used general evaluation methods to look at “significant” trees on the lower grounds that were not captured in the Bury surveys. The goal of this evaluation was to record the type and size of native trees in that area. Siglo's evaluation included 144 trees ranging from a cedar elm that was 8” in diameter at breast height (dbh) to a bald cypress that was 55”



dbh. Bringing together all of the resulting data, Siglo was able to define the size and species of a majority of the trees on the property. It is important to note that some of the trees in the 2000 and 2006 surveys have died, and that was not taken into account in this study. However, the Bury surveys and the additional data collected by Siglo will provide

17 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines some guidance for property management and improvement projects into the future. Looking at trees throughout the entire site as shown in the map on, one can see the importance of live oaks and cedar elms within the historic and art school areas. At the bottom of slopes, pecan trees become more significant, and moving out into the floodplain forest, there is a bald cypress canopy with ash, elm, box elder, willow, and cottonwood. There are a total of 526 native trees recorded on the site over 8� dbh. Of those, 147 are considered to be heritage trees. These trees are over 19� dbh and have special protections from the City of Austin. In order to cut one down, a City permit is required, along with the approval of a licensed arborist. Of note are some of the gaps of native tree cover in the floodplain forest. These areas are predominately invasive species with Chinese tallow dominating much of the area. In the southern portions of the floodplain forest, there are also numerous ligustrum and chinaberry trees. Using the natural area guidelines here and in other professional resources, Laguna Gloria can cautiously move forward on a multi-year plan to reduce non-natives and increase the recruitment of young native species. It should also be noted that the oaks within the historic area are

aging. While the Natural Areas Management Guidelines within this report do not deal specifically with the formal areas, the propagation of young trees should be considered with the understanding that this site will outlast many of the beautiful trees found there now. WILDIFE A formal wildlife survey was not performed during the site visits. Wildlife characteristic of the Edwards Plateau ecoregion is expected to be on the property, although larger predators such as bobcats and coyote are unlikely to be present. Even evidence of common large omnivores and herbivores such as feral hog and white-tailed deer were not observed on the site. Neighborhoods near Mt. Bonnell have high deer densities and this species is likely to visit Laguna Gloria, even if they are not found there in daylight hours. Other species that are common to Central Texas and may be on the property are listed on the following page. Bird species are listed in the Bird and Birding Section.

Siglo Group 18

Potential Wildlife of Laguna Gloria white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana eastern cottontail, Sylviagus floridanus eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger hispid pocket mouse, Chaetodipus hispidus fulvous harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys fulvescens plains harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys montanus Texas mouse, Peromyscus attwateri deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus white-ankled mouse, Peromyscus pectoralis hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus common gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus common raccoon, Procyon lotor striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis couch's spadefoot, Scaphiopus couchii Blanchard's cricket frog, Acris crepitans Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysocelis green treefrog, Hyla cinerea gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarkia Stecker's chorus frog, Pseudacris feriarum feriarum eastern green toad, Bufo debilis debilis red-spotted toad, Bufo punctatus Texas toad, Bufo speciosus Gulf coast toad, Bufo valliceps valliceps Rio Grande frog, Rana berlandieri great plains narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne olivacea common snapping turtle, Chleydra serpentina serpentina yellow mud turtle, Kinosternon flavescens flavescens

ornate box turtle, Terrapene ornata ornata green anole, Anolis carolinensiseastern collared lizard, Crotaphytus collaris collaris Texas earless lizard, Cophosaurus texanus texanus Texas spiny lizard, Sceloporus olivaceus southern prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulates consobrinus eastern tree lizard, Urosaurus ornatus ornatus short-lined skink, Eumeces tetragrammus ground skink, Scincella lateralis Texas spotted whiptail, Cnemidophorus gularis gulariss six-lined racerunner, Cnemidophorus gularis gularis plains blind snake, Leptotyphlops dulcis dulcise eastern yellowbelly racer, Coluber constrictor flaviventris great plains rat snake, Elaphe guttata emoryi Texas rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta lindheimerii eastern hognose snake, Heterodon platirhinos Texas night snake, Hypsiglena torquata jani western coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum testaceus broad-banded water snake, Nerodia fasciata confluens diamondback water snake, Nerodia rhombifera rhombifera rough green snake, Opheodrys aestivus bullsnake, Pituophis catenifer sayi Taylor's ground snake, Sonora semiannulata taylori Texas brown snake, Storeria dekayi texanaflathead snake, Tantilla gracillis eastern blackneck garter snake, Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus checkered garter snake, Thamnophis marcianus marcianus

redstripe ribbon snake, Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus Texas garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis annectens lined snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum rough earth snake, Virginia striatula Texas coral snake, Micrurus fulvius tener broad-banded copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus western cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

19 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Plants of Laguna Gloria Aquatic chaff-flower, Alternanthera caracasana water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes,*,++ Forb boneset, Ageratina havanensis Canada wild onion, Allium canadense var. canadense wild garlic, Allium drummondii elephant ears, Alocasia macrorrhizos,*,++ giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifida horseherb, Calyptocarpus vialis shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris,* chile pequin, Capsicum annuum chervil, Chaerophyllum tainturieri water hemlock, Cicuta maculata dayflower, Commelina erecta rainlilly, Cooperia drummondii bearded swallowwort, Cynanchum barbigerum bedstraw, Galium aparine wild geranium, Geranium carolinianum water-pennywort, Hydrocotyle yellow flag iris, Iris pseudacorus,*,++ water willow, Justicia americana wild lettuce , Lactuca ludoviciana lantana, Lantana horrida smooth pepperweed, Lepidium virginicum Texas bluebonnet, Lupinus texensis turk's cap, Malvaviscus arboreus var. drummondii

least burclover, Medicago minima,* Roemer's sensitive briar, Mimosa roemeriana banana, Musa sp.,* yellow wood sorrel, Oxalis dillenii Drummond's wood sorrel, Oxalis drummondii rock pellitory, Parietaria pensylvanica marsh fleabane, Pluchea sp. smartweed, Polygonum sp. Mexican hat, Ratibida columnifera pigeonberry, Rivina humilis wild petunia, Ruellia sp. silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium sow thistle, Sonchus sp. ,chickweed, Stellaria media,* dandelion, Taraxacum officinale,* ballmoss, Tillandsia recurvata sockbane, Torilis arvensis,* spiderwort, Tradescantia sp. southern cattail, Typha domingensis broad-leaf cattail, Typha latifolia frostweed, Verbesina virginica plateau goldeneye, Viguiera dentata common primrose, Vinca minor,*,++ Grass purple threeawn, Aristida purpurea giant reed, Arundo donax,*,++ King ranch bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica,* silver bluestem, Bothriochloa laguroides ssp. torreyana Japanese brome, Bromus arvensis,* rescuegrass, Bromus catharticus,*

cedar sedge, Carex planostachys wood oats, Chasmanthium latifolium Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon,* Scribner panicgrass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. scribnerianum crabgrass, Digitaria sp.,* Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis Virginia Wildrye, Elymus virginicus inland rush, Juncus interior Texas wintergrass, Nassella leucotricha switchgrass, Panicum virgatum hairyseed paspalum, Paspalum pubiflorum bamboo, Phyllostachys aurea,*,++ ornamental bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra,*,++ little bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium three square bulrush, Schoenoplectus americanus southwestern bristlegrass, Setaria scheelei johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense,*,++ St. Augustine grass, Stenotaphrum secundatum,* Shrub/ Small Tree prairie acacia, Acacia angustissima huisache, Acacia farnesiana roughleaf dogwood, Cornus drummondii Texas persimmon, Diospyros texana oleaster, Eleagnus sp. loquat, Eriobotrya japonica,* kidneywood, Eysenhardtia texana elbow bush, Forestiera pubescens Carolina buckthorn, Frangula caroliniana Lindheimer's silktassel, Garrya ovata ssp.

Siglo Group 20 lindheimeri Gelsemium sempervirens possum haw , Ilex decidua yaupon holly, Ilex vomitoria waxleaf ligustum, Ligustrum japonicum,*,++ glossy privet, Ligustrum lucidum,*,++ Chinese ligusturm, Ligustrum sinense,*,++ agarita, Mahonia trifoliolata wax myrtle, Morella cerifera heavenly bamboo, Nandina domestica,*,++ prickly pear, Opuntia engelmannii Chinese photinia, Photinia serratifolia,* pittasporum, Pittosporum sp.,* cherry laurel, Prunus caroliniana pomegranite, Punica granatum,* firethorn, Pyracantha sp.,*,++ evergreen sumac, Rhus virens rose, Rosa sp. ,* dwark palmetto, Sabal minor Texas mountain laurel, Sophora secundiflora bridal wreath spirea, Spiraea prunifolia,* eve's necklace, Styphnolobium affine coralberry, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Mexican buckeye, Ungnadia speciosa chaste tree, Vitex agnus-castus Tree boxelder, Acer negundo pecan, Carya illinoinensis sugar hackberry, Celtis laevigata var. laevigata netleaf hackberry, Celtis laevigata var. reticulata

redbud, Cercis canadensis sandpaper tree, Ehretia anacua green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Texas ash, Fraxinus texensis Arizona walnut, Juglans major black walnut, Juglans nigra Ashe juniper, Juniperus ashei crapemyrtle, Lagerstroemia indica,* Chinaberry, Melia azedarach,*,++ mulberry, Morus alba ,* retama, Parkinsonia aculeata cottonwood, Populus deltoides Mexican Plum, Prunus mexicana escarpment black cherry, Prunus serotina var. eximia Spanish oak, Quercus buckleyi plateau live oak, Quercus fusiformis shin oak, Quercus sinuata var. breviloba live oak, Quercus virginiana Mexican palm, Sabal mexicana,* black willow, Salix nigra western soapberry, Sapindus saponaria L. var. drummondii gum bumelia, Sideroxylon lanuginosum bald cypress, Taxodium distichum Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera,*,++ American elm, Ulmus americana cedar elm, Ulmus crassifolia Vines peppervine, Ampelopsis arborea trumpet creeper, Campsis radicans unidentified leatherflower, Clematis sp. Carolina snailseed, Cocculus carolinus

English Ivy, Hedera helix,*,++ Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica,*,++ catclaw vine, Macfadyena unguis-cati,*,++ green milkweed vine, Matelea reticulata snapdragon vine, Maurandella antirrhiniflora Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia yellow passionflower, Passiflora affinis yellow passionflower, Passiflora lutea dewberry, Rubus trivialis greenbrier, Smilax bona-nox eastern Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. eximium eastern Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans Spanish grape, Vitis cinerea var. helleri mustang grape, Vitis mustangensis * non-native ++ invasive

21 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Management Areas

h St W 35t

Mayfield Park & Preserve Driscoll Villa

L a k e A u s t i n

Laguna Laguna Gloria

Art School




250’ 0 Sources: Field Observation Zone A: Sloping Woodland Zone B: Floodplain Forest Zone C: Path to the Point Zone D: Floodplain Forest

Siglo Group 22

Natural Areas Management Guidelines When Clara Driscoll donated her property to become a museum for the people of Austin, in addition to the historic buildings and gardens, she also donated the beautiful natural areas that surround them. AMOAArthouse is the steward of this rich natural heritage. The guidelines given below, grounded in ecological restoration principles, recommend management techniques that will further support ecological processes on the site, increase the native vegetation, reduce invasive species, improve bird and wildlife habitat, and enhance the visitor's experience. In addition to these many stewardship issues, this section also discusses the need for ongoing staff, capital, professional, and community resources to maintain the natural areas. As described in the Ecology section, Laguna Gloria has incredible ecological value, with numerous habitat types that result in a diversity of flora and fauna. This diversity is threatened by substantial invasive species as well as informal off-trail hiking. This section breaks the property into zones and recommends management practices for each area, providing a five year restoration and maintenance schedule and looking at potential costs. It is important to remember that natural

areas are not static communities. They are ever changing and will respond differently at different times to the same treatment. For that reason, all information here should be looked at through an adaptive management lens—if a technique is not working, first adjust it to see if it can be made more effective, and then try something different if it is still not working. The recommendations here are based on established best practices, but each site is unique. Adaptive management is an iterative process, which allows the land manager to learn about the particular site over time, and to be aware of changes as they happen, adjusting his or her methods accordingly. BALANCING NATURAL RESOURCE OBJECTIVES WITH VISITOR NEEDS It is important to balance the desire for a healthy ecosystem with the needs of the site's principal users and AMOA-Arthouse's mission to stimulate appreciation for art. It may be desirable to not remove all the invasive plants at once as the control work will be highly disruptive. The trampling and cutting required may not be aesthetically pleasing to hikers who are seeking a natural experience. In areas with a high density of invasive plants, removing them all may simplify the vegetation structure,

potentially resulting in a temporary loss of bird diversity until native shrubs grow in to provide habitat (Wiens and Rotenberry 1981). In addition, the existing vegetation serves to segment the site into different areas, each with its own character. For example, a visitor can walk down the Path to the Point, through the Meadow, and into the Floodplain Forest and have unique experiences in each, partly because the vegetative barriers between them have remained intact. Removing all the invasive species from some of these areas would reduce AMOAArthouse's ability to create a robust experience throughout the site. To insure that there is not too great an impact to the visitor experience, and to allow for focused attention on specific areas, the schedule recommended here staggers work over multiple years. OFF-TRAIL RECREATION Off-trail hiking is occurring throughout the property, but is most prevalent in the Floodplain Forest. While other areas have formal trails of crushed granite, concrete, asphalt, or mown footpaths, the Floodplain Forest trails are narrow, soft-surfaced footpaths. Many appear to have been created through repeated foot traffic rather than from an intentional trail design. Where obstacles are currently present or

23 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines have occurred in the past, side trails have been created—this can be seen around the two-trunked bald cypress in the Floodplain Forest. Even informal trails can impact their surroundings through disturbance of vegetation and soil compaction. These primary disturbances may lead to other issues including erosion, a decrease in native species and an increase in exotics. A note of caution, the potential for new informal trails may rise with the commencement of invasive control, restoration activities, and increased visitorship. The disturbance associated with management may make the current trails difficult to find and lead to the establishment of new one. For the purposes of land management as well as the enhancement of the visitor experience, as discussed later in this report, it is important to formalize trails throughout the site, particularly in the Floodplain Forest. INVASIVE PLANTS Invasive plants are the primary threat to the natural areas of Laguna Gloria. In order to restore the landscape and prevent further damage, invasive plants will need to be removed and replaced with native plant communities. The official definition of an invasive plant is one that did not evolve within the native ecosystem, and whose presence is likely to cause economic and/or ecological harm. Their aggressive growth and spread may cause them to crowd out and replace native plants, or may lead to a disruption of natural processes. The impact of invasive species can be very dramatic, and alien species rank second only to direct

Invasive Species of Laguna Gloria Species

Common name

COA rank

AMOA rank


Arundo donax Colocasia esculenta Cynodon dactylon Eichhornia crassipes Hedera helix Iris pseudacorus Ligustrum lucidum Lonicera japonica Macfadyena unguis-cati Melia azedarach Nandina domestica Phyllostachys aurea Pyracantha cocciniea Sorghum halapense Triadica sebifera Vinca minor

Giant reed Elephant ears Bermuda grass Common water hyacinth English ivy Yellow flag iris Glossy privet Japanese honeysuckle Catclaw vine Chinaberry tree Heavenly bamboo Golden bamboo Scarlet firethorn Johnson grass Chinese tallow Common periwinkle

High Moderate Moderate High not listed not listed High Moderate Moderate High Moderate High Moderate High Moderate not listed

Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Low High High High Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low High Low

1,5 1 1, 4 1, 6 1, 7 1 1 1, 3, 7, 8 1 1, 2 1 1 1 1 1,2 1

Impacts: 1) Crowds out native plants, forms monocultures; 2) Alters soil chemistry, changing system; 3) Can girdle overstory trees by wrapping tightly around the trunks; 4) Alleopatic - releases toxins that inhibit growth of nearby plants; 5) May use large volume of water relative to native plants, reducing downstream flow in riparian areas; 6) Reduces dissolved oxygen and light levels in aquatic environments; 7) Grows on other plants and weight may cause stem damage; 8) Aggressive root growth competes with native plants, slows growth of overstory trees.

habitat destruction as the principal threat to rare species, with 49% of imperiled species being negatively impacted (Wilcove 1998). Some of the ways that invasive plants threaten native communities include: §Altering soil or water chemistry; §Altering natural processes such as fire and flooding; §Direct displacement through competition (“crowding out” of native plants); §Changing the amount of light in or below the canopy or sub-canopy.

Invasive plants also impact native animals and insects. Invasive plants tend to crowd out natives, which many birds and other wildlife rely on for protection and food. A 2006 study in Austin found that sites with intact native plant communities had higher species richness and abundance than sites that were dominated by non-natives (Kalmbach 2006). There are sixteen invasive plant species found at Laguna Gloria that are negatively impacting the property. The table above

Siglo Group 24 lists each species and shows whether it is considered a Low, Moderate or High level threat by the City of Austin, as described in their Invasive Species Management Plan. In the next column, “AMOA rank," each species was rated according to how great a threat it is at Laguna Gloria specifically, based on field observations at the site. The invasive plant species that have the greatest potential to negatively impact Laguna Gloria are ligustrum, Japanese honeysuckle, catclaw vine, and Chinese tallow. INVASIVE PLANT CONTROL METHODS Invasive plant control will consist of a mix of mechanical and chemical methods. In some cases, such as in the Floodplain Forest and much of the Sloping Woodland, removal may be all that is required. This relatively passive approach to restoration is less likely to work in areas where invasive plants dominate. Removal may need to be coupled with seeding and in some cases native plantings. Finally, a monitoring protocol is recommended to ensure that improvements in the natural area do not deteriorate over time. Mechanical Control Mechanical control is any method that directly removes the invasive plant without the use of chemicals. Examples include hand pulling, pulling with weed wrenches or other devices that provide leverage, and repeated mowing that does not allow a plant

to go to seed or reproduce. While mechanical control is often preferred in order to reduce the amount of herbicide placed on a property, it also has significant drawbacks. Mechanical control methods usually result in greater soil disturbance than chemical controls, thereby increasing the chance of erosion and/or re-invasion. When mechanical control methods are recommended, care should be taken to minimize soil disturbance. In some areas, erosion control measures will be necessary to slow down storm runoff, and/or to reduce the amount of exposed soil. Chemical Controls Chemical controls (herbicide) are recommended for most of the invasive species discussed below. Please note that all herbicide application must be conducted under the supervision of a licensed herbicide applicator and must follow the EPA's Worker Protection Standards. Applicators should also follow the herbicide label directions and maintain pesticide use records. Application Methods: Foliar spray: the spraying of an herbicide solution on the leaves of plants. Because of the potential for non-target kill through overspray, this method will be recommended primarily in dense monocultures where other methods are uneffective, with arundo or catclaw vine. Wick applications: wiping a highly concen-

Evaluation of the Floodplain Forest for bird habitat and invasive species. trated herbicide solution onto the leaves. Generally not as effective as a foliar spray, but reduces the danger of overspray and non-target kill. Recommended only in areas where highly desirable plants would be negatively affected by a foliar spray. Cut stump: the cutting of a woody plant and applying an herbicide solution to its stump. This targeted approach is highly effective, but often requires considerable labor if the cut portion of the plant must be removed from the site or chipped. Basal bark: the spraying of an herbicide/oil solution on the lower portions of a tree's or shrub's bark. This method may not be

25 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines Controls Recommended control strategies for each species are shown in the table on pages 26 through 30. For many of the species, a combination of mechanical and chemical control measures will be necessary, and control methods will vary based on site conditions and the time of year in which the opportunity for control arises. Dense bamboo just beyond the bridge railing blocks views of the water and hillside below. effective for large trees with thick bark, and should not be used on the water's edge where the oil (which serves to penetrate the bark) may be harmful to amphibians or fish eggs. This method results in a standing dead tree or shrub, which may be beneficial to many forms of wildlife, and does not require the labor of plant disposal, but is unsafe if near a trail or area with human use. Basal bark applications are more effective in late summer and fall. In the spring, large amounts of water moves up the stem to support leaf flush, flowering, and fruit production, making it more difficult for the chemical to reach the roots. Basal frill or “hack and squirt”: cutting into the bark of a tree, usually along the entire circumference, and applying an herbicide solution. This has similar pros and cons to basal bark method, but is safer in wet areas since an oil surfactant is not usually required. Integrating Mechanical and Chemical

NATIVE PLANTINGS In some areas, removal of invasive plant species will likely result in regeneration of native species, but in other areas a mixture of live plantings (container grown plants) and seed sowing is recommended. Many ecological restoration projects require that plant materials come from local sources, often within an adjacent county. Laguna Gloria's natural areas have been manipulated for decades, and so this plan does not require local genotypes. It is likely that seeds procured within the state of Texas, however, will perform better than seeds from out of state, as the parent material will be better adapted to the local climate. The plants recommended in this section were chosen for one or more of the following reasons: §They are listed in the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department's descriptions of the vegetation types found on the property; §They are found at Mayfield Preserve, which serves as a reference site for this project; §They are found on other nearby

preserves with similar vegetation types, such as Wild Basin Preserve and the Balcones Canyonlands Preserve. Special consideration was given to species that are commercially available, but even the ones that are not can still be considered for planting. AMOA-Arthouse can reach out to local chapters of the Native Plant Society of Texas, many of whose members are willing to grow small amounts of unusual plants. Also, commercial growers can often be contracted to grow plants for specific customers. Species not recommended in this section do not need to be ruled out if offered by volunteers, but it is best if the plant is native to this area of Texas. When live planting is necessary, it should take place in the fall to early winter, preferably between late October and late January so that saplings have an opportunity to become established before the heat of summer. For lakeside plantings where water is not a constraint, timing is less important, and planting dates will need to be opportunistic to take advantage of Lake Austin drawdowns. A mix of fast and slow growing trees is preferred, even if some species are considered less desirable, in order to promote diversity and to quickly provide shade for visitors and reduce the potential of invasive re-establishment. Sowing of native grass and wildflower seeds should take place between late October and early March. In general, cool season grasses

Siglo Group 26

Invasive Species Control Guide Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon, High Priority in Zone D, Low Priority in other areas Foliar spray

Foliar spray with glyphosate solution during growing season months. It will not be effective if applied during drought conditions. Repeated application will be necessary.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Zone D (Meadow) April-June/ Sep-Oct Low No High

English Ivy, Hedera helix, High Prioirity in Zone A; Moderate Zone B and C, Low in Zone D Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Winter– It’s Evergreen Moderate to High Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Shoreline Low Lake Levels Low No High (Planting)

Mechanical removal with Remove plants that are 2 inches or less in basal diameter using weed wrenches or other mechanical devices. This is a highly effective method for this plant. weed wrench

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Any Yes No High

For plants greater than 2 inches in diameter, cut down the tree and use a cutstump herbicide application containing triclopyr. Provide for erosion control if in Zones A or C.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Fall Yes Yes High

Combination of cutting Step 1: In areas where English ivy is climbing into a tree, cut at ground level. Allow the top to die; do not attempt to pull it from the tree or shrub. English and foliar spray ivy latches onto plants and bark so damage may result from pulling it off. Step 2: Where English ivy is growing as a groundcover, use foliar spray with triclopyr and a surfactant that is specifically designed to break down the waxy coating of the leaf surface. Avoid contact with both the bark and foliage of desirable vegetation. Dead surface stems will act to hold soil, and should not be removed except for aesthetic reasons in select areas.

Yellow flag iris, Iris pseudacorus, Low Prioirity Mechanical removal

Control of these waterside species should wait until one of the periodic drawdowns of Lake Austin. Attempting to remove them when the lake is full may create significant soil compaction and disturbance. The rhizomes of these plants need to be carefully dug from the ground and disposed of. Leaving even a small fragment may result in them re-rooting. Plant replacement species immediately. Because it is difficult to remove all of the underground rhizomes, it is important to introduce native competition while the plant is weakened. Some people are sensitive to the plant's juices, so long sleeves and pants are preferred.

Glossy privet, Ligustrum lucidum, High Prioirity Hand pulling of new seedlings is required in multiple years until the seed bed is diminished and other plants can fill the niches. Provide for erosion control if working in Zones A or C.

Cutting and Painting

27 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Invasive Species Control Methods (continued) Giant reed, Arundo donax, Moderate Priority Step 1: Foliar spray with Imazamox solution no earlier than mid-June. Step 2: Foliar spray, Imazamox If arundo is not mixed with desirable vegetation, then spray it with an Imazamox and glyphosate solution. Step 3: Wait until the stems have completely died before cutting and removing the vegetation, which may be several weeks. Step 4: Repeat as necessary. Note: do not cut arundo for at least a year prior to using this method, or effectiveness will be greatly reduced.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Summer Moderate Yes Low to Moderate

Frequent mowing

Frequent mowing may eventually cause roots to lose enough reserves that nearby Bermuda grass and other turf plants are able to take over the area. The first mowing should take place when the giant reed is in flower so that as much of its energy reserve is aboveground as possible. The area must be mown at least several times a month, because arundo grows very aggressively. The area on the shoreline will likely be too muddy and soft to use this method.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Areas to Turf Growing Season Low No Moderate

Digging and root removal

Step 1: Cut and remove tops of plants. Step 2: Dig and remove as much of the roots as possible. Even the smallest stolon left in the ground may take root and grow. Step 3: Wait for new sprouts to show and dig a second time. Digging will cause massive soil disturbance and open the area to erosion. Step 4: Install restoration plantings as soon as possible.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Immediate Need Any Low No High

Wick or drip chemical application

Step 1: Using a wick applicator, wipe a glyphosate-based herbicide mixed with surfactant that aids herbicide penetration of leaves. This will allow for application on the giant cane without any herbicide touching the restoration plantings. OR, cut individual stems and squirt a glyphosate solution into the stem cavity. If near a shoreline, the product should be labeled for use in wetland or aquatic environments.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

After Digging/Mowing Summer Uncertain Yes High

Elephant ears, Colocasia esculenta, Low Priority Mechanical removal

Control of these waterside species should wait until one of the periodic drawdowns of Lake Austin. Attempting to remove them when the lake is full may create significant soil compaction and disturbance. The tubers of these plants need to be carefully dug from the ground and disposed of. Leaving even a small fragment may result in them re-rooting. Plant replacement species immediately. Because it is difficult to remove all of the underground tubers, it is important to introduce native competition while the plant is weakened.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Shoreline Low Lake Levels Low No High

Foliar spray

During growing season months, spray foliage with an aquatic approved glyphosate solution. Repeat several times throughout growing season as the herbicide label dictates. Plant replacement species in late fall. Planting is essential to prevent shoreline erosion due to wave action.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Shoreline April to October Low Yes High (Planting)

Siglo Group 28

Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica, High Priority in Zone B; Moderate to Low elsewhere Step 1: Cut Japanese honeysuckle that is growing into trees at head height. Step 2: Spray with glyphosate solution. Take care to avoid herbicide contact or drift onto desirable vegetation.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

When Monoculute Late Fall to Winter High Yes Low to Moderate

Cutting followed by foliar Cut Japanese honeysuckle at ground level, and remove aboveground biomass from the site. Where the vine is tangled in overstory trees and cannot be pulled spray

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Non-monoculture Cut Spring/Spray Winter Moderate Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

When Monoculture Non-Drought Unclear Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Non-Monoculture Non-Drought Unclear Yes Moderate to High

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Fall Preferrable Moderate Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

No Trail Danger Small Fall Preference Moderate Yes Low

Foliar spray

down without damaging native tree branches, cut it at head height and allow the vine in the upper branches to desiccate and fall. Step 2: Allow Japanese honeysuckle to re-sprout from roots. Step 3: When it is 2 feet in height/spread, use foliar spray with herbicide solution that contains glyphosate.

Catclaw vine, Macfadyena unguis-cati, High Priority Combination of cutting Step 1: Where catclaw is tangled in overstory trees and cannot be pulled down without damaging native tree branches, cut it at head height and allow the vine and foliar spray in the upper branches to desiccate and fall on its own. Step 2: Use a foliar spray with an herbicide solution that contains glyphosate and triclopyr.

Cutting followed by foliar Step 1: Cut catclaw at ground level, and remove the aboveground biomass from the site. Step 2: Where catclaw is tangled in overstory trees and cannot be spray pulled down without damaging native tree branches, cut it at head height and allow the vine in the upper branches to desiccate and fall on its own. Step 3: Allow catclaw to re-sprout from underground tubers. When it reaches 2 feet in height/spread, use foliar spray with an herbicide solution that contains glyphosate and triclopyr.

Chinaberry tree, Melia azedarach, Moderate Priority Cut tree down, providing for safety first. Paint the top of the stump with a Cut stump triclopyr-based solution immediately, taking care to cover edges.

Basal spray

Spray the base of the tree with a triclopyr and oil solution.

29 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Invasive Species Control Methods (continued) Chinaberry tree, Melia azedarach, Moderate Priority Cut tree down, providing for safety first. Paint the top of the stump with a Cut stump triclopyr-based solution immediately, taking care to cover edges.

Basal spray

Spray the base of the tree with a triclopyr and oil solution.

Nandina domestica, Heavenly bamboo, Moderate Priority Step 1: Foliar spray with a solution containing both glyphosate and triclopyr. Foliar spray Step 2: Once completely brown, cut and remove the vegetation. This is an aesthetic consideration rather and an ecological one.

Cut stump

Step 1: Cut all the stems of the shrub clump. Step 2: Drip or paint a triclopyr solution OR a glyphosate solution on the cut stump. Step 3: Remove cut stems.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Fall Preferrable Moderate Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

No Trail Danger Small Fall Preference Moderate Yes Low

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required:

Lack of Labor Growing Season Moderate Yes

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

With Abundant Labor Small Fall Preference Moderate Yes Moderate

Golden bamboo, Phyllostachys aurea, Moderate in Zones A and C. Low in Zones B and D Step 1: Cut bamboo near ground level and remove the biomass. Step 2: Allow Where Appropriate: All Areas Foliar spray bamboo to sprout from its base and reach a height of approximately 2-3 feet. Step 3: Apply a foliar spray of glyphosate. Step 4: Allow bamboo to become completely brown before removing the dead foliage.

Pyracantha coccinea, Scarlet firethorn, Low Priority Pull by hand or with weed wrench. Only a few sites. Mechanical removal

Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Cut Winter/Spray Late Spring or Early Fall Moderate Yes Moderate

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

All Areas Anytime High No Low

Siglo Group 30

Johnson grass, Sorghum halapense, Moderate Priority in Zone D, Low all other Zones Foliar spray

Foliar spray with glyphosate based herbicide prior to adding plants into the wildflower meadow.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Anytime Spring or Fall High Yes Low

Wick application

In areas with desirable groundcover underneath Johnsongrass, apply glyphosate based herbicide with a wick applicator. This method tends to actually use more herbicide product, but avoids non-target kill.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Anytime Spring or Fall Moderate Yes Moderate

Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, High Priority in Zone B, Moderate in Zone D, Low in other Zones Basal bark

Use a basal bark herbicide application using a triclopyr based herbicide or Imazamox (Clearcast) mixed with mineral oil (not diesel). The standing dead snag will be excellent habitat for many insects and birds. Preferred when tree height is shorter than the distance to the nearest trail.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Away from Trails Slight Fall Preference High Yes Low

Cut stump

Step 1: Cut stem. Step 2: Paint entire cut of the stump with a triclopyr based solution or Clearcast.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Near Trails Slight Fall Preference High Yes Moderate

Foliar spray

Foliar spray of Imazamox solution. This herbicide is very specific to Chinese tallow and should not harm bald cypress, green ash, hackberry or American elm if some of the chemical should drift onto their leaves. Be patient. It may take several months for Chinese tallow to show damage.

Where Appropriate: Optimal Time of Year: Effectiveness: Applicator Required: Labor Intensity:

Trees under 10’ Growing Season High Yes Low

Where Appropriate: Optimal time of year: Effectiveness: Applicator required: Labor Intensity:

Any Any Low Yes Low

Common periwinkle, Vinca minor, Low Priority Foliar spray

Foliar spray on small patches growing in Zone A and Zone B. Spray at the same time that English ivy is being treated (it requires the same surfactant that English ivy requires). Not enough of a threat on its own.

31 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines and spring wildflowers will do better if sown in the fall, while warm season grasses and fall wildflowers may be planted in late winter. Planting rates are usually measured in pounds per acre, and this may be appropriate for the wildflower meadow, but in general a more creative approach is necessary at Laguna Gloria. Pockets of bare ground will be apparent upon the removal of invasive vines and groundcover, and areas between a few square feet and thousands of square feet will need to be hand-seeded. Achieving good seed-to-soil contact is the most important aspect of seed planting. In general, it is recommended that an area be lightly raked, hand-seeded, and then lightly raked a second time. However, if volunteer groups offer to provide seed balls or other more labor intensive planting methods, they should not be dissuaded. POISON IVY Poison ivy is common throughout the property and is abundant in the Floodplain Forest. While it is not acceptable in areas with high amounts of human use such as trail edges and should be cut back or removed in these locations, Laguna Gloria should avoid large scale eradication. Poison ivy is common in riparian areas and floodplains throughout eastern and central Texas, and removing it will open areas to non-native plants. Poison ivy benefits the site in many ways. It is a beautiful native plant with bright red foliage in fall. The berries are a good food

source for birds, and it provides erosion control when it grows as a groundcover. It is also the primary competition on the site for Japanese honeysuckle and catclaw vine. Its removal would benefit these invasive vines. If possible, simply cut the vine aggressively away from the trail and avoid using herbicides, which may kill the whole plant. If necessary, a glyphosate foliar spray will usually be effective for temporary control. All workers need to know how to identify the plant, wear long sleeves and pants, wash with Technu or another poison ivy removing soap directly upon finishing work, and wash clothing separately if acutely sensitive. These precautions are especially important when working in the Floodplain Forest. ZONAL APPROACH The natural areas at Laguna Gloria have been divided into four zones to help prioritize and guide land management. This approach recognizes the differences between the zones in regards to natural communities, restoration plantings, site use, user needs, and invasive plant density. Initially, control and restoration efforts could focus on highly visible areas in order to engage the public, build support for the project and recruit volunteers. Next, areas with high ecological integrity or unusual ecological systems should be worked on to prevent their further degradation. Both the prioritizations and the schedules

Aquatic invasive plants in the lagoon area in Zone A. Above: elephant ear. Below: yellow flag iris. listed at the end of the chapter should be viewed as flexible. The important thing to remember is that each of these zones has its own attributes that will determine the approach taken. This plan calls for a portion of at least one zone to be addressed each year, but if financial capacity is higher, multiple zones can be tackled in one year. A zonal approach, however, should prevent staff from overextending themselves by providing a way to strategically focus efforts and resources. Restoration is not an event, but

Siglo Group 32 an ongoing process. ZONE A: SLOPING WOODLAND Zone A is the area that is primarily dry-mesic slope woodland between the developed area and the shoreline in the eastern section of Laguna Gloria. Zone A is a highly visible area, moving from the formal historic area to the naturalistic Path to the Point and lower terrace. Depending on the final design, this area may have more formal native plantings that transition into the more natural portions of the property. As invasive species control begins, it will be important to consider erosion prevention on the steep slopes, including temporary erosion mats or long term stabilization. Because this area is highly visible, could have erosion issues, and has a substantial amount of invasive species, it will likely be appropriate if not necessary to use native plantings in Zone A rather than relying on native regeneration or seeding. This may also result in the need for temporary irrigation in some areas. Invasive Plant Management The main invasive threats in this zone are ligustrum and catclaw vine, with the heaviest infestation being near the amphitheater. Additional invasive species on the slopes include English ivy, bamboo, and chinaberry. Along the shore, elephant ears, yellow iris and water hyacinth are all present. Removal work in this zone should be

Example sign from Mayfield Park informing visitors of the restoration work being done. accompanied with signs, whether permanent or temporary, explaining the work that is being done and listing contact information so that the public knows how they may become further involved. An example of such a sign from the City of Austin is shown above. Invasive control work should begin to the west of the amphitheater. Catclaw vine control will be the number one priority followed by English ivy and ligustrum. Bamboo, nandina, and other invasive species are having less of an impact currently, but

should be controlled as well. Control work along the shores of the lagoon should be attempted last as both elephant ears and yellow flag iris are difficult to control and success will be less likely. Cut Material and Prevention of Erosion Zone A is relatively close to the museum parking lot. Material should be hauled and stacked in this area. Woody material such as ligustrum should be chipped on site, preferably into a rented dumpster or into a pickup truck so it can be hauled to Zone D. Vines and bamboo may be thrown directly

33 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines into the dumpster. Erosion control is essential in Zone A: Option 1: On steep slopes where extensive ligustrum and other woody species removal is necessary, dead branches should be stacked along contour lines to slow storm runoff and reduce erosion. Branches should be 2 feet in length or longer and all berries and seeds should be removed. The mounds of branches do not need to be more than a foot in height, but it is essential that they be compacted onto the ground. Option 2: Use a natural fiber erosion control blanket that is rolled along the contours of the land and stapled to the ground with metal staples. These must be accompanied with restoration plantings. The fibers decompose over time, so it is essential that a

robust herbaceous cover is established before this occurs.

and in areas where catclaw and English ivy removal has taken place.

Restoration Plantings and Seeding Zone A may require more intense restoration plantings than any other zone due to aesthetic concerns and its adjacency to the historic site, as well as the need to reduce the probability of erosion on the steep slopes. Plantings are made more feasible in this area by the close proximity to irrigation water.

Live planting is also recommended along the edge of Lake Austin where elephant ears and yellow flag iris have been removed, although this planting should consist of large herbaceous species and shrubs rather than trees.

Restoration plantings should be a mix of live plantings and seed dispersal. Planting will be more necessary where large areas have been cleared of invasive species. Where plantings occur, a drip irrigation system is recommended. Grass and wildflower seed planting is necessary between the planted trees and shrubs in the Sloping Woodland

Sloping Woodlands south of the Driscoll Villa, overlooking the lagoon, with substantial catclaw invasion that has been partially cut back from the trees. This is also the site of vegetation plot 3.

The windrows of plant materials in the Sloping Woodland should slow rain runoff enough to prevent seeds from being washed away. However, if this assumption proves to be false, Laguna Gloria can consider using erosion control blankets. The seeds get placed upon the bare dirt and are then covered with an erosion blanket that is stapled to the earth with metal brackets. Holes may be cut into the blanket to allow for the planting of live trees and saplings. Some erosion blankets are sold with seeds already enmeshed in them, but these should not be used, as the seeds are generally nonnative and some are invasive. Achieving Balance Laguna Gloria should consider not removing some of the larger ligustrum trees to the east of the amphitheater for several years. They dominate the over-story and their removal would denude the area of shade trees. While conventional wisdom says that the removal of large seed-producing invasive plants is a top priority, their removal may drastically reduce the area's enjoyment by the public. Instead, the ligustrum should be thinned so that more light reaches the ground, and native trees should be planted in the newly

Siglo Group 34 created openings. Once the natives reach a height of 10 to 15 feet, then the larger ligustrum can be removed.

seed, especially if an erosion control mat is used. However, interspersing a few live plants will hasten their establishment.

Recommended Species-Live Plantings in Uplands: Trees: The following trees will eventually grow to provide some shade and can be planted in either sun or shade. Live oak and Spanish oak are the most natural choices as they are already abundant on the site, but they are susceptible to oak wilt. It is important to increase the number of trees that are not susceptible to oak wilt, such as: shin oak, Quercus sinuata var. breviloba Texas ash, Fraxinus texensis cedar elm, Ulmus crassifolia escarpment black cherry, Prunus serotina var. eximia hackberry, Celtis laevigata

Grasses in sun: little bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium green sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia side oats grama, Bouteloua curtipendula tall grama, Bouteloua hirsuta var. pectinata Lindheimer's muhly, Muhlenbergia lindheimeri

Shrubs to small trees: elbowbush, Forestiera pubescens Lindheimer's silktassel, Garrya ovata ssp. Lindheimeri, Carolina buckthorn, Frangula caroliniana evergreen sumac, Rhus virens aromatic sumac, Rhus aromatic Mexican plum, Prunus mexicana Texas redbud, Cercis canadensis Eve's necklace, Styphnolobium affine Mexican buckeye, Ungnadia speciosa Texas persimmon, Diospyros texana rusty blackhaw viburnum, Viburnum rufidulum wafer ash, Ptelea trifoliata Most of the grasses should be planted by

Grasses in the shade: Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis Virginia wildrye, Elymus virginicus wood oats, Chasmanthium latifolium ZONE B: FLOODPLAIN FOREST Zone B contains the Floodplain Forest in the western part of the peninsula. It is bounded by Lake Austin to the west and the road and Meadow area to the east. Zone B is a complex forest environment with bald cypress, ash, willow and cottonwood, which has been heavily invaded by Chinese tallow and Japanese honeysuckle. This area should be managed in a manner that has the lightest touch possible, while still allowing for a robust visitor experience. Invasive control in this Zone is daunting, but possible, and native trees will be planted to speed the replacement of the Chinese tallow. Finally, the informal trail should be formalized and informal spur trails decommissioned.

Two bald cypresses in the Floodplain Forest with young Chinese tallow and palmettos. The Floodplain Forest in this area has tremendous woody plant diversity in spite of the high number of invasive plant species. Large river floodplain forest examples are rare in the Austin area where the shores of Lady Bird Lake and Lake Austin are highly developed. Maintaining and improving this community is a high priority, even though invasive plant control will likely be difficult. Invasive Species Management Invasive plant species that are highly problematic in this zone include: Chinese tallow, Japanese honeysuckle, catclaw vine,

35 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines result in substantially more sun reaching the forest floor. That could cause an explosion of growth in the shrub and herbaceous layer, which is predominantly made up of invasives. It is essential that removal of individual Chinese tallow trees be accompanied with control of Japanese honeysuckle, arundo, and any other invasive plants underneath the cleared tallow. Because of the intensity of the invasive species control needed, it is recommended that initial controls be limited to 1 acre of the 2.5 acre zone, and that the results be assessed before control work continues. The initial area should include vegetation plot 2.

and ligustrum. English ivy and giant reed are also present in this area or around its border. The removal of Chinese tallow should be the highest priority, since research suggests that its presence has the ability to alter soil chemistry. The invasive vines are the next highest priority.

Control work may initially make the area appear to be in worse condition, and special accommodations for visitors may be helpful. The site will be trampled during the invasive plant removal, but it should grow back quickly. Unless a formal trail has been established, AMOA-Arthouse may want to close down portions of the forest trail during portions of the control work to reduce further informal trail creation.

Not all the invasive plants should be removed at once due to both ecological and aesthetic concerns. From an aesthetic perspective, opening up too much of the Floodplain Forest to the Meadow (Zone D) would affect the intimate experience currently found in the Floodplain Forest. This would also happen if too much vegetation was removed internally from the forested area. Chinese tallow’s abundance in Zone B means that total removal would

Disposal of Cut Material Cut vegetation in Zone B may be left on the ground to rot, used to block unwanted trails, or chipped on site. Downed woody debris is common in a healthy, functioning forest. It provides excellent habitat for insects, reptiles, and soil fungus. Large stems, roughly greater than 6 inches in diameter, can be left where they have fallen when they are not blocking the main trail. Some stems may be stacked to block access along

Informal path through the Floodplain Forest in Zone B.

informal trails that staff would like to decommission. Smaller stems and vines can be hauled away for disposal and, in the case of stems, chipping. Chipped material can be used to create a more formalized trail with the understanding that it will wash away with future rains. Restoration Planting Zone B's woody plant assemblage is rich, so restoration plantings will focus not on increasing diversity, but on increasing abundance and replacing the Chinese tallows as quickly as possible. Increasing the herbaceous cover and the number of native trees per acre will help prevent the return of invasive plants by shading the soil and providing competition. While it is possible that numerous native tree species will establish themselves without live planting, because of the intensity of the invasive problem in this area, Chinese tallow’s known ability to rapidly colonize an area, and the effort required to remove invasives, it is recommended that live plantings be used as soon as possible after invasives have been removed. It is recommended that restoration plantings be done without the aid of irrigation. The installation of an irrigation system would create a large disturbance and possibly cause more harm than benefit. Instead, tree and shrub plantings will be denser due to the expectation of higher tree mortality. The USDA's Natural Resources Conservation Service recommends a tree density of

Siglo Group 36 200 stems per acre when restoring riparian woodlands, and this tree density is also required by the Army Corps of Engineers for the restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in wetland mitigation banks. Based on vegetation plot data from Laguna Gloria, the Floodplain Forest currently has a density of 70 large (>5� dbh) native trees per acre. Allowing for a 20 foot buffer with Zone D where control work will not be undertaken in order to leave a screen of plants to block the road's view, this leaves approximately 2.5 acres to be planted at some point, requiring a total of 325 trees.

can Seed. Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis Virginia wildrye, Elymus virginicus wood oats, Chasmanthium latifolium eastern gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides switchgrass, Panicum virgatum pigeonberry, Rivina humilis goldeneye daisy, Viguiera dentata American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana blue curls, Phacelia congesta golden groundsel, Packera obovata white avens, Geum canadense frostweed, Verbesina virginica

Trees can be contract-grown in tree tubes, and planted only after initial invasive control has taken place. Since only one acre of invasive control work is recommended at present, only 130 trees should be ordered. Once the success of the restoration is determined, both control work and tree planting can be expanded.

Tree Saplings: live plantings contract-grown in tree tubes. pecan, Carya illinoinensis bald cypress, Taxodium distichum American elm, Ulmus americana bur oak, Quercus microcarpa sycamore, Platanus occidentalus green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica cottonwood, Populus deltoides willow, Salix nigra

Seeding of herbaceous cover is also important. Zone D lacks many of the floodplain grasses that one would normally find there, such as wood oats and Canada wildrye. Both live plantings and seeding will be opportunistic. Areas with dense native vines and trees will be avoided, while areas formerly covered with Japanese honeysuckle or Chinese tallow will be heavily planted. Recommended Species Herbaceous layer seeding: seed in great quantity will be difficult to find. The following are available from Native Ameri-

ZONE C: PATH TO THE POINT Zone C, referred to here as the Path to the Point, contains the limestone savanna and woodland that is on the eastern portion of the peninsula on the small ridge between the road and the water. There are a number of large live oaks and a fair amount of native shrub diversity. Zone C has is well used and has the most formal visitor experience in the natural areas. The historic Path to the Point Trail winds through Zone C, ending at the Temple of Love. Land management in Zone

Invasive catclaw and nandina dominate the understory at Photo point 11 in Zone C. C should focus on retaining its historic, natural feel while removing invasive plants and establishing more native flora. Invasive Plant Management The principal invasive plant threats in this area include catclaw vine, nandina, and ligustrum. While the slopes in Zone C are shorter than in Zone A, they are just as steep, and invasive control work will need to take this into account. In a few areas, it may be necessary to create small berms or windrows with cut invasive plant branches to prevent erosion. As in Zone B, invasive species serve an important role by helping to create a vegetative buffer between the Path to the Point and the Meadow area, as discussed in the Visitor Experience section. Mindfulness will be necessary when controlling invasive plants to the west of the granite path so that the maximum number of invasive plants can

37 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines be removed without compromising the visitor experience. Disposal of Cut Material Material cut in Zone C can be dragged or hauled to the asphalt road that runs down the center of the peninsula, where it can be chipped and either used as trail base or removed from the site. It may be desirable to leave some large stems on the ground to make foot travel more difficult in order to dissuade off-trail use. Much like in Zone A, branches can be stacked in small rows along the contours in steep areas to slow down water runoff and prevent erosion. Restoration Planting The restoration planting for Zone C can likely focus entirely on planting seeds to increase diversity and coverage in the herbaceous layer. With the herbaceous layer

currently dominated by catclaw in many areas, it will be important to introduce native plants that will fill that niche once the catclaw is managed. In a few areas where catclaw is dense, live planting could be an option. In the case of live planting, irrigation may be a concern.

the northwest shoreline. Large turf grass areas are found at the northern and southern ends of the Zone and an asphalt road runs most of its length. The road forms a loop in the central portion of the Zone and there is a vegetated island with native and exotic trees at the center of the loop.

Recommended Species (seeds only) Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis Virginia wildrye, Elymus virginicus wood oats, Chasmanthium latifolium cedar sage, Salvia roemeriana American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana pigeonberry, Rivina humilis blue curls, Phacelia congesta golden groundsel, Packera obovata

Because of the highly manipulated characteristics of Zone D and the challenge of restoring a native meadow, land management practices in this area should focus on programmatic needs and future design ideas while including the preservation of specimen trees throughout the Zone. Invasive species control in this area can result in niche or large scale gallery spaces for displaying art and increasing views. As discussed previously and in more detail in the Visitor Experience section, caution should be used when clearing invasive species between the Meadow area and the Floodplain Forest as well as at the Path to the Point. If too much clearing is done, the individual integrity of these three zones may be lost, thereby decreasing the complexity of the visitor experience.

ZONE D: MEADOW Zone D is the highly modified area in the central portion of the peninsula and along

Temple of Love at the southern end of the Path to the Point in Zone C.

Invasive Plant Management Ligustrum is common in the edge of the meadow, along with chinaberry and Chinese tallow. Giant reed is found in four areas including two stands in the northern portion, one partially cleared in April 2013, one in the road island, and one near Birder’s Point. Bermuda grass is the main turf grass. Johnson grass is sporadic in sunny areas.

Siglo Group 38 Control of invasive woody species in Zone D can selectively open up areas along the meadows and in the road island for programmatic and art exhibit needs. Because this area will focus on programming and art display, it may be that in some cases smaller native plants are also removed. Bermuda grass control is essential if the southern peninsula is to be transformed from a turf-grass area to one dominated by wildflowers and native grasses. This challenging task will require that the areas with Bermuda grass be sprayed with a glyphosate herbicide up to 3 times over the course of a year, and it is likely that at least some of the roots will survive this substantial treatment. Disposal of Cut Material Because aesthetic concerns are paramount in this Zone, none of the cut material should be left on site. All cut woody material can be stacked at a central location along the asphalt road and eventually chipped into mulch. This mulch may be used to create a trail through the Floodplain Forest, or the plants can be chipped directly into a dumpster and removed from the property. Cut giant cane should be stacked in a central location and eventually placed in a dumpster for removal from the site or chipped once dried. Restoration Plantings Restoration plantings are recommended where future design dictates, where giant cane is removed, and where clearing occurs along the shoreline. The removal of giant

cane will create large bare areas that are likely to be filled by invasive plant species if natives are not re-established. Along the shoreline, live plantings of herbaceous grasses and small shrubs are recommended, with a seeding of native grasses and forbs between them to stabilize the shoreline, increase diversity, and create an aesthtically appealing transition to the aquatic environment. In areas away from the shoreline, native grass and forb seeding is recommended. Alternatively, buffalo grass sod could be laid over these bare areas if the area is to be continuously mown in the future. Potential Wildflower Meadow Establishment The vision for the wildflower meadow is a buffalo grass dominated area with seasonal wildflowers and select native grasses that require little maintenance and provide visual interest throughout the year. While the

work required will be extensive, the area is only 0.25 acres in size. Some of the steps required include: ยงSite preparation: Bermuda grass removal as described above. ยงPlanting: Buffalo grass sod will be planted by outside contractors. Holes will be cut into the sod in order to plant tall native grasses. Plant these native grasses in groups of 3 to 5 in a total of 7 to 11 areas around the edges of the meadow. They will soften the height difference between the wildflower meadow and woodlands. Cut holes cut into the sod for live planting of perennial wildflowers to ensure that at least some become established. Seed native wildflowers into the buffalo grass sod. ยงIrrigation: lay temporary pipe from the main building area down the asphalt

Zone D (Meadow) looking south from the northern portion of property.

39 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines grasses and wildflowers. buffalo grass sod, Bouteloua dactyloides little bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium Lindheimer's muhly, Muhlenbergia lindheimeri eastern gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides mealy blue sage, Salvia farinacea Englemann's daisy, Engelmannia peristenia winecup, Callirhoe involucrata Maximillian sunflower, Helianthus maximiliani gayfeather, Liatris pycnostachya

Grass area to become native wildflower meadow. road to the wildflower meadow. Set up a temporary sprinkler system with aboveground pipe. Once established, the wildflower meadow will not require irrigation, but without supplemental water for at least the first summer, the buffalo grass sod is likely to perish. ยงMaintenance: mow the wildflower meadow only once a year, in late winter, at a height of 3 inches or higher. Supplement wildflower seed as necessary. Recommended Species Live plantings: in addition to the sod, 4 inch or gallon containers of select perennial

Seeds: Texas bluebonnets, Lupinus texensis Indian paintbrush, Castilleja indivisa black-eyed susan, Rudbeckia hirta Indian blanket, Gaillardia pulchella horsemint, Monarda citriodora plains coreopsis, Coreopsis tinctoria var. tinctoria prairie verbena, Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida MONITORING PROGRESS Monitoring is an important step in judging the effectiveness of management. Three types of monitoring are recommended for the Laguna Gloria site: qualitative, quantitative, and early detection. Qualitative monitoring involves periodically taking photos at specific points at the same time of year in order to detect change over time. Qualitative data is relatively quick to obtain, but is subject to multiple interpretations. The quantitative monitoring takes the form of 0.1 acre study plots where woody plant

stems were counted and groundcover densities estimated. These plots are permanent and future monitoring can determine if there has been a change. While quantitative monitoring has the greatest ability to measure change without observer bias, it is also the most time consuming data to collect. Early detection monitoring will take the form of staff, professionals, and trained volunteers traversing the property and observing if any new invasive species are taking root. Early detection is quick and is not designed to measure change over time, but to alert staff to new threats. Qualitative: 22 photo points were established at Laguna Gloria on March 16 and April 9, 2013. The photographs and descriptions for those points are found on pages 48 to 62 with an associated map. GPS points were taken at each location so that they can easily be found, and the photos can be replicated in the future. It is recommended that photos be taken a minimum of once every two years. Comparing the photos over time will provide a sense of how the area is changing and the staff can determine whether the changes are positive or negative. If the number of photo points proves to be too great a burden on staff, then it is recommended that photos be taken once every three years. Quantitative: Three monitoring plots were installed at Laguna Gloria, one in each of the three vegetation types present. In order to be

Siglo Group 40 consistent with other local monitoring efforts, we duplicated the methods outlined in the City of Austin's study at Mayfield Preserve (Murray 2011). Unlike the City's study, however, our efforts were not designed to provide statistically rigorous data that could be used to generalize the entire property. Instead, the plots are designed to provide feedback on whether the invasive control methods being used in each zone are effective. Baseline data was collected on April 9, 2013 and is shown on page 45. Each woody plant stem was counted and placed in a size class. For plants growing as groundcover, the percentage of the plot they covered was estimated and each plant was placed in a groundcover class. Plot locations were not randomly selected, but were chosen based on whether they appeared to be a good representation of the vegetation community and zone in which they were located. In other words, they appeared “average” in their invasive plant diversity and abundance. It was impossible to find an area large enough in the deciduous limestone savanna and woodland where the plot would not encompass either infrastructure or water. This plot (plot 1) was split into two parts, with the granite path going down the middle. Thus plot 1 is two half circles that are approximately 10 feet apart from each other. A photo point is found at the center of each plot. Plot data should be collected again

three years after control work is completed in them. This time period should allow for follow-up treatment and the re-growth of invasive species that were ineffectively controlled. If invasive plant management never occurs, then data should be collected in 2018 to assess whether the invasive plant threat is becoming worse. Once the data is analyzed, a grade should be assigned. § Plots receiving an “A” grade are on a good trajectory. Current management strategies should be continued and expanded into areas where invasive plant management has not yet occurred. § Plots receiving a “B” grade are making progress, but it is slower than desired. Management strategies should be reviewed and adjusted. §Plots receiving a “C” grade are basically the same as they were in April of 2013. Since the invasive species problem has not become worse, it is not a complete failure, but management strategies should be seriously altered. § Plots receiving an “F” grade have become worse since management began. An entirely new management plan may be required. A protocol for grading the plots is shown on page 46. Early Detection Monitoring

Photo point 6 for use in qualitative monitoring. Early detection monitoring is not designed to assess whether or not the management guidelines are having their desired effect, but rather to detect new threats at an early stage of development so that they can be addressed quickly. It is not tied to a specific photo point or vegetation plot, but requires a staff member, professional, or volunteer to periodically walk the entire grounds and recognize whether a new invasive threat is becoming established or whether an invasive plant that is already found on the grounds is expanding its range. Once a new threat is identified, staff or volunteers can quickly take action and begin control work before the new invasive forms a large patch that would require a large amount of resources to contain. To be effective, early detection monitoring requires a staff member, professional, or volunteer who is: § Adept at identifying invasive plants, even obscure ones;

41 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

ยง Very

familiar with the Laguna Gloria grounds so that he or she can accurately determine if change is occurring; ยงWilling to walk the grounds a minimum of 4 times a year looking for new threats.

Laguna Gloria. In addition, the City has already begun training volunteers to map and monitor invasive plant locations and Laguna Gloria could be added to their list of sites. Once restoration efforts have been undertaken, these volunteers can be instrumental in detecting and controlling reinvasions.

INVOLVING THE COMMUNITY Initial restoration efforts will need to be taken on by professional land managers and AMOA-Arthouse staff. In the long term, professional stewardship work can be supported by volunteer efforts. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, the City of Austin, the Capital Area Master Naturalists, and the Native Plant Society have programs or people that could benefit Laguna Gloria.

BUDGET The implementation of the plan outlined here will take numerous intricate steps to complete. It is critical to understand the human and capital resources associated with its implementation. It is also critical to realize the need for dedicated staff time and outside professional services to move the plan forward.

The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center's Invaders of Texas program has already trained hundreds of volunteers in invasive plant identification and mapping ( Laguna Gloria may wish to contact the Wildflower Center or the Capital Area Master Naturalists and request the services of a long-term volunteer or group of volunteers. The City of Austin created an Invasive Plant Management Plan in 2012, and has been actively removing invasive plant species at neighboring Mayfield Preserve.

The exact costs over a period of time will depend on the professional services available and the times of treatment. To that end, it is recommended that over the course of the next five years at least $30,000 to $50,000 per year is allocated to natural area management activities and professional services. In addition, dedicated AMOA-Arthouse staff is essential to the successful completion of this plan. It is therefore recommended that beginning in 2014, at least the equivalent of one additional full time employee is dedicated to natural areas management and upkeep.

The City's Watershed Protection Department will soon be hiring an Invasive Species Coordinator, possibly in late 2013, and he or she may be interested in partnering with

These numbers are a starting point towards more sustainable management of the natural areas. As a design is implemented and the value of the natural areas is realized, it is

likely they will increase substantially. SCHEDULE Again, restoration is not an event, but an ongoing process. This land management effort will need to become an integral part of AMOA-Arthouse operations with the end result being a more robust, activated site that allows for the fulfillment of the AMOAArthouse mission within a thriving ecologically significant natural setting. A five year land management schedule can be found on page 43 along with a chart showing the best times of year for each activity on page 42. This schedule assumes the use of professional services, AMOAArthouse staff time, a moderate budget as laid out above, and eventually the use of volunteers. It is a flexible schedule that suggests the need for adaptive management techniques that alter activities based on what is working best and what is seen as the highest priority based on the needs of the institution, degradation concerns, or the potential to build off previous successes. While the actual schedule will by necessity change due to the results of treatments and the availability of resources, the schedule can serve as a baseline of important tasks as the process moves forward. The evaluation of treatments three years after completion and/or the 2018 mark will be a good point to revise this entire document and look forward to the next five years of treatments in the ongoing process of making Laguna Gloria an incredible place to experience art and nature.

Siglo Group 42

Preferred Invasive Species Control Scheduling J





O N D Notes

Ligustrum mechanical removal: Remove ligustrum with a basal diameter less than 2.5 inches.

For obvious reasons, summer months are less ideal for worker's comfort.

Basal Bark Applications : Ligustum, chinaberry, nandina, and Chinese tallow

Most effective from late summer to winter when sap flow is mostly towards roots, slightly less effective when flowering and producing berries.

Cut Stump Applications: Ligustum, chinaberry, nandina, and Chinese tallow Arundo Foliar Spray: Clearcast spray for plants that have not been cut in at least a year and are over 6 feet tall. Cutting vines (catclaw and Japanese honeysuckle): Cut vines growing among desirable plants in order to make chemical control more contained. Foliar spray of evergreen vines and groundcovers: English ivy, catclaw, Japanese honeysuckle and common periwinkle vines. Foliar spray of: Nandina, elephant ears, iris, Bermuda grass, Johnson grass, and bamboo.

Want to allow time for growth before winter spraying, but not so much that they overtake desirable plants again. Best done in winter when other plants are dormant. Acceptable other times of year, but least effective when soil is relatively dry/periods of drought/heat of summer. Spray plants during months with the most active growth, when it is not too cold, and when there is not heat stress.

Less Preferred Invasive Species Control Twice a month at minimum to begin with.

Frequent mowing of arundo Wick applications of herbicide on arundo or Johnson grass Digging and removal of iris, elephant ears, arundo

Monitoring Photos were taken during growing season, best comparison will be if done when overstory trees have leaves. For best comparisons of groundcover, will need to be close to the original month, April. Four times a year, evenly spaced.

Photo Points Vegetation Plots Early Detection Monitoring

Restoration Planting Live plantings of trees and shrubs - no irrigation Live plantings of trees and shrubs with irrigation (Zone A, wildflower meadow in Zone D) Seeding of warm season grasses Seeding of spring wildflowers Planting of Buffalo grass sod optimal time

moderately optimal time

non-optimal time

43 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Five Year Land Management & Restoration Schedule Summer 2013 Staff obtains pesticide applicator license. Foliar spray of arundo in Zones B & D. Removal of ligustrum under 3-inch diameter in Zones A, B, and D and use cut material to create erosion control berms where needed. Installation of erosion control matting where required in Zone A. Purchase of drip irrigation materials for Zone A restoration plantings. Fall 2013 Removal/thinning of larger ligustrum in Zones A & D. Planting of shrubs and trees in Zone A. Cutting of bamboo in Zone A. Cut catclaw vine from trees in all zones. Basal bark and cut stump treatments of Chinese Tallow, ligustrum, in one acre of Zone B. Sowing of wildflower and grass seeds in areas where invasive control has occurred. Winter 2013-2014 Foliar spray of catclaw vine and English ivy in Zone A. Foliar spray of Japanese honeysuckle in southern half of Zone B. Chipping of plant material removed during invasive control efforts and placing it on trail in Zone B. Spring 2014 Foliar spray of bamboo in zone A. Wick or drip herbicide applications of arundo for areas that were dug in spring 2013. Minimum of two herbicide spray treatments of future wildflower meadow in Zone D. Foliar spray of nandina in Zones A & C. Summer 2014 Removal of ligustrum seedlings in Zone A. Foliar spray of Arundo donax in Zones B & D, 2nd treatment. Training of Early Detection volunteers. Early detection monitoring occurs throughout the year from this point onward. Assessment and modification of control methods in all zones as needed.

Fall 2014 Foliar spray of bamboo in Zone A, 2nd treatment. Late fall planting of trees, and seeding of treated areas of Zone B where control was successful. Continued spraying of wildflower meadow Bermuda grass. Irrigation materials for wildflower meadow acquired. Winter 2014-2015 Foliar spray of catclaw vine, English Ivy in Zone A, 2nd treatment, and Zone C, 1st treatment. Foliar spray of Japanese honeysuckle in one acre of Zone B, 2nd treatment. Chipping of plant material removed during invasive control efforts and placing it on trail in Zone B. Planting of buffalo grass and perennial grasses, wildflowers in wildflower meadow. Spring 2015 Take photopoint pictures. Foliar spray of nandina and bamboo in all areas. Wick or drip herbicide applications of arundo for areas that were dug in spring 2013. Summer 2015 Assessment and modification of control methods in all zones as needed. Foliar spray of Arundo donax in all zones Removal of ligustrum seedlings in Zone A. Fall 2015 Basal bark and cut stump treatments of Chinese tallow, ligustrum, in remaining portions of Zone B. Planting of wildflower seeds in wildflower meadow (Zone D). Planting of trees, and seeding of treated areas of Zones A, B & C where controls were successful. Winter 2015-2016 Removal of ligustrum seedlings in areas where control work has occurred. Foliar spray of Japanese honeysuckle and catclaw throughout the property. This will be the 2nd treatment for some areas. Chipping of plant material removed during invasive control efforts and placing it on trail in Zone B.

Removal of temporary irrigation in Zone A, wildflower meadow. Mow wildflower meadow. Plant trees and seeds in Zone B areas that have not already been planted. Spring 2016 Replicate vegetation monitoring plots, assess progress, and alter controls to optimize effectiveness. Foliar spray of isolated plants. Fall 2016 Begin removal work in Zone D. Follow up treatment in Zone B as needed. Late fall planting of trees, and seeding of treated areas of Zone B where controls successful. Winter 2016-2017 Digging of elephant ears and taro along shoreline of Zone A. Planting of trees and shrubs along shoreline of Zone A. Follow up Japanese honeysuckle and catclaw foliar applications throughout property. Mulching of Zone D trail. Fall 2017 Complete removal work in zone D as desired. Final repeat applications where necessary. Winter 2017-2018 Mulching of zZone D trail. Removal of ligustrum seedlings in all areas. Follow up Japanese honeysuckle and catclaw foliar applications throughout the property. Spring 2018 Take photopoint pictures. Evaluate and update needs, priorities, actions, and schedule.

Siglo Group 44

Monitoring Locations

h St W 35t


L a k e A u s t i n

22 !

Mayfield Park & Preserve Driscoll Villa


Art School

!5 ZONE A SLOPING WOODLAND 6 1 ! !3 !8 ! 7 !4 2 ! ! 21 9 ! ! 10 ! 20 11 ! ! 12 16 ! ! ZONE B FLOODPLAIN FOREST 19 15 ! 18! ! 17 !


r cD ni e Sc

250’ Sources: Field Observation 0 Trail Zone A: Sloping Woodland # Photo Point Zone B: Floodplain Forest ! # Photo Point with Zone C: Path to the Point ! Vegetation Plot Zone D: Floodplain Forest

45 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Vegetation Plot Composition Plot 1, Zone C Vegetation Composition woody species Live oak Heavenly bamboo Hackberry Mountain laurel Texas persimmon Cedar elm Sabal sp. Unidentified rose Cherry laurel Chinaberry Crape Myrtle Pomegranite Possumhaw holly Gum bumelia Spanish oak Mexican buckeye sum

< 1" 29 22 44 7 7 6 3 31 1 3 1 2 1 13 170



28 12 1 1

2 1

10-15" 3




3 5 2


1 1



sum 3 29 52 57 8 10 6 3 34 1 7 5 1 2 1 13


Plot 2, Zone B, Vegetation Composition woody species < 1" 1-5" 5-10" 10-15" 15-20" 20-25" 25-30" sum Chinese tallow 31 20 11 2 1 65 Sabal sp. 26 4 1 31 Bald cypress 2 2 1 5 Box elder 2 1 3 Green ash 1 1 1 1 4 Hackberry 1 2 2 5 Possum haw 3 1 4 sum 66 29 14 5 1 0 2

Plot 3 Zone A, Vegetation Composition woody species < 1" 1-5" 5-10" 10-15" 15-20" 20-25" 25-30" 30-35" sum Sandpaper tree 2 2 Chinese pistache 1 1 Live oak 1 1 2 1 1 1 7 Hackberry 9 4 13 Texas redbud 1 1 Texas persimmon 1 1 2 Gum bumelia 1 Mexican buckeye 9 Mountain laurel 13 8 1 Sabal sp. 3 1 Cherry laurel 1 1 1 Mexican palm Chinaberry 3 Glossy privet 1 Box elder 1 1 sum 44 18 2 3 1 1 0

Medallion 2 location: Latitude: 30.31099 Longitude: -97.77464 Medallion 3 location: Latitude: 30.31097 Longitude: -97.77467 Aspect: Center points are at top of ridge which slopes steeply to the east and west. Vegetation type: Path to the Point, Edwards Plateau Deciduous Oak Woodland Collection date: 4/9/2013 Groundcover < 1% 1-5% 6-15% 16-25% 26-50% Catclaw X Live oak root sprouts X English ivy X Cedar sedge X Poison ivy X Bedstraw X Virginia creeper X Common primrose X Other species present Agarita, Canada wildrye, Carolina jessamine, Chile pequin, Chinese pistache, Coralberry, Frostweed, Greenbrier, Horseherbs, Iris sp., Snailseed, Sockbane, Sow thistle, Turk's cap, Widow's tears, Wood oat

Medallion number: 1 Latitude: 30.31112 Longitude: -97.77545 Aspect: Flat Vegetation type: Floodplain Forest, Edwards Plateau Floodplain Hardwood Collection date: 4/9/2013 Groundcover <1% 1-5% 6-15% 16-25% 26-50% Wild onion X Japanese honeysuckle X Poison ivy X Bare ground/litter X

Other species present Turk's cap Bedstraw Trumpet creeper

Medallion number: 4 Latitude: 30.31192 Longitude: -97.77444 Aspect: South Vegetation type: Sloping Woodlands, Edwards Plateau Oak/Ashe Juniper Slope Forest Collection date: 4/9/2013 Groundcover <1% 1-5% 6-15% 16-25% 26-50% Catclaw vine X English ivy X Live oak root sprouts X Poison ivy X Snailseed X Common primrose X Virginia creeper X Trumpet creeper X

Other species present Agarita Mustang grape Ruellia sp. Frostweed

Siglo Group 46

Vegetation Plot Evaluation Criteria

PhotoPoint Locations

Plot 1, located in zone C A B C F < 5 6 to 25 26 to 32 >32 # of Heavenly Bamboo clumps 1-5% 6-25% 25-50% >50% % catclaw groundcover % English ivy groundcover eradicated <1 % 1-5% >5%

Plot 2, located in zone B

A B C F # of Chinese tallow 1 -5" dbh <3 3 to 17 18 to 22 >22 # of Chinese tallow 5 -10"dbh <2 2 to 8 9 to 12 >12 # of Chinese tallow > 10"dbh 0 1 2 >2 % Japanese honeysuckle groundcover <15% 15-25% 26-50% >50%

Plot 3, located in Zone A

A B C # invasives greater than 4' in height <2 2 to 4 5 % catclaw groundcover <15% 15-25% 26-50% % English ivy groundcover <1% 1-5% 6-15%

F >5 >50% >15%

Photopoint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Latitude 30.31168649 30.31152145 30.31171147 30.31163217 30.31192412 30.31172639 30.31161642 30.31167895 30.31143319 30.31134979 30.31110831 30.31099305 30.31042661 30.31021354 30.31010365 30.31099473 30.30989461 30.31006568 30.31013056 30.31111971 30.31144031 30.31213232

Longitude -97.77340827 -97.77380087 -97.77394001 -97.77396382 -97.77444536 -97.77441443 -97.77442214 -97.77464896 -97.77472263 -97.77473546 -97.77466253 -97.77463940 -97.77467368 -97.77473059 -97.77510912 -97.77494668 -97.77540291 -97.77564238 -97.77552612 -97.77544976 -97.77514491 -97.77494232

The table above shows the coordinates of the 22 photo points that were created with a GPS at Laguna Gloria on March 16 and April 9, 2013. It is recommended that the photos shown in this section be replicated a minimum of once every two years as part of qualitative monitoring. Comparing the photos over time will show how the area is changing, and the staff can determine whether the changes are positive or negative, and adjust management strategies accordingly.

47 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoints for Long Term Monitoring

Photopoint: 1 (1 of 2) Direction: SW Representative photo of oak/Ashe juniper slope forest in the eastern portion of Laguna Gloria where the density of ligustrum is relatively low, and it would be easy to control.

Photopoint: 2 Direction: SW View of peninsula from wooden dock.

Photopoint: 1 (2 of 2) Direction: W The slope forest occupies a very narrow area between the buildings and water, but is quite diverse nonetheless. This is a representative picture of the asphalt path that extends from the amphitheater to the buildings in the eastern sections of the property. Photopoint: 3 (1 of 2) Direction: E If understory ligustrum were removed to the east of the amphitheater, it would release mountain laurel and other native shrubs and create a more open feel.

Siglo Group 48

Photopoint: 3 (2 of 2) Direction: N AMOA-Arthouse may consider leaving some large ligustrum to provide shade. Erosion control methods outlined in the report should be put in place during invasive plant control work. Note what appears to be old rock terracing. Photo taken while standing at metal post. Photopoint: 5 (1 of 4) Direction: N Series of 4 photos taken at the center of vegetation plot 3, taken while standing over medallion number 2.

Photopoint: 4 Direction: ESE Yellow flag iris. Photo taken at the base of a large bald cypress.

Photopoint: 5 (2 of 4) Direction: E Catclaw vine is the most common groundcover in this vegetation plot, and has been cut off many of the trees.

49 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 5 (3 of 4) Direction: S At the center of vegetation plot 3, looking south towards lagoon.

Photopoint: 5 (4 of 4) Direction: W At the center of vegetation plot 3 looking west towards catclaw covered hillside.

Photopoint: 6 (1 of 2) Direction: W Hillside where English ivy is the dominant groundcover.

Photopoint: 6(2 of 2)

Direction: N

Siglo Group 50

Photopoint: 7 (1 of 2) Direction: SW Elephant ears in the lagoon near the amphitheater.

Photopoint: 7 (2 of 2) Direction: SE Yellow flag iris in the lagoon near the amphitheater.

Photopoint: 8 (1 of 3) Hillside covered with catclaw.

Photopoint: 8 (2 of 3) Direction: NW Nandina dominates the shrub layer in this area.

Direction: NE

51 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 8 (3 of 3) Direction: SE Dense bamboo just beyond bridge railing blocks views of the water and hillside below.

Photopoint: 9 Direction SE Dense stand of Carolina jessamine.

Photopoint: 10 Direction: S Representative picture of the granite path that takes visitors to the Temple of Love and of the Deciduous Oak/Evergreen Motte and Woodland.

Photopoint: 11 (1 of 3) Direction: NE Photos taken at a bench along the granite path.

Siglo Group 52

Photopoint: 11 (2 of 3) Direction: E Nandina and catclaw vine dominate the understory.

Photopoint: 11 (3 of 3) Direction: SE Nandina and catclaw vine dominate the understory.

Photopoint: 12 (1 of 8) Direction: N Series of 8 photos from the center of vegetation plot 1, with the first 5 photos taken on top of medallion 2. Catclaw vine is beginning to climb the live oak tree.

Photopoint: 12 (2 of 8) Direction: NE Catclaw is the main groundcover in the eastern half of the vegetation plot, covering over 75% of the ground.

53 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 12 (3 of 8) Direction: E Nandina domestica is the primary invasive shrub in this area. Clearing it would provide a good view of the water.

Photopoint: 12 (4 of 8) Direction: SE Staff cut catclaw vine at head height (note cut stems on tree) in order to stop it from covering the tree canopy. This was an effective strategy to prevent mature tree damage and limit the flowering and seed production of the invasive vine.

Photopoint: 12 (5 of 8) Direction: S Looking south down the Path to the Point Trail towards Temple of Love from the center of vegetation plot 1.

Photopoint: 12 (6 of 8) Direction: W Mature crepe myrtle in foreground. Dense growth in background helps the block view of the driveway.

Siglo Group 54

Photopoint: 12 (7 of 8) Direction: NW Groundcover in the western half of the vegetation plot is mostly leaf litter, although English ivy and catclaw cover approximately 5% of the area.

Photopoint: 12 (8 of 8) Direction: N Taken over medallion 5, vegetation plot 1 looking north towards Driscoll Villa.

Photopoint: 13 (1 of 4) Direction: N Southern portion of the granite path.

Photopoint: 13 (2 of 4) Temple of Love.

Direction: S

55 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 13 (3 of 4) Direction: NW Mountain laurel and pomegranate near temple of love.

Photopoint: 13 (4 of 4) Direction: SW Wooden bench in front of dense bamboo growth.

Photopoint: 14 Direction: SE View from the gate behind the Temple of Love.

Photopoint: 15 (1 of 4) Direction: SE Series of photos at the southern end of the large sculpture area. A dense wall of vegetation is found along the edges, some of it native, but much of it invasive. Ligustrum is the main understory shrub/small tree in this photo.

Siglo Group 56

Photopoint: 15 (2 of 4) Direction: SW Representative picture of the path through the southern end of the meadow.

Photopoint: 15 (3 of 4) Direction: W Large patch of arundo on the edge of the meadow.

Photopoint: 15 (4 of 4) Direction: N Bermuda grass dominates the meadow.

Photopoint: 16 (1 of 2) Direction: NW Large willow and mulberry trees are obscured by ligustrum. Removing invasives from these tree â&#x20AC;&#x153;islandsâ&#x20AC;? would create a more manicured look in Zone D, which is already highly manipulated.

57 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 16 (2 of 2) Direction: S The wall of vegetation at the edge of the floodplain forest prevents users of the forest trail

Photopoint: 17 (1 of 4) Direction: S Bullrush clumps in the water help protect the shore from wave erosion.

Photopoint: 17 (2 of 4) Direction: W Looking out over Lake Austin from Birderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Point.

Photopoint: 17 (3 of 4) Direction: NE Concrete art structure at the end of the peninsula with a backdrop of Arundo.

Siglo Group 58

Photopoint: 17 (4 of 4) Direction: N Southern trail entrance into the Floodplain Forest.

Direction: W Photopoint: 18 (1 of 2) View of the lake from the end of a spur trail.

Photopoint: 18 (2 of 2) Direction: E Poison ivy, while not welcome at the trail's edge, is a much better groundcover to have than the invasive catclaw and Japanese honeysuckle vines, and is a beneficial plant for wildlife.

Photopoint: 19 Direction: N Informal path through the floodplain hardwood/Ashe juniper forest.

59 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 20 (1 of 8) Direction: N Series of 8 photos taken at the center point of vegetation plot 3, marked by medallion.

Photopoint: 20 (2 of 8) Direction: NE Overstory trees are bald cypress, green ash, and the invasive Chinese tallow. Large sabals are found in the understory.

Photopoint: 20 (3 of 8) Direction: E Japanese honeysuckle is dense and covers between 25-50% of the study plot.

Photopoint: 20 (4 of 8) Direction: SE Poison ivy and Chinese tallow in plot 3.

Siglo Group 60

Photopoint: 20 (5 of 8) Direction: S The younger age class of trees (those below 5â&#x20AC;? dbh) is dominated by Chinese tallow, and it will likely take over the Floodplain Forest if control work is not undertaken.

Photopoint: 20 (6 of 8) Direction: SW While ground appears bare in many of these pictures, dense patches of wild onion are common.

Photopoint: 20

Photopoint: 20

(7 of 8)

Direction: W

(8 of 8)

Direction: NW

61 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Guidelines

Photopoint: 21 Direction: W Northern trailhead of the Floodplain Forest trail.

Photopoint: 22 (2 of 4)

Direction: S

Photopoint: 22 (1 of 4)

Direction: SE

Photopoint: 22 (3 of 4) Direction: NW Large patch of arundo near the shore of Lake Austin.

Siglo Group 62

Photopoint: 22 (4 of 4) Direction: NE Slopes to the west of the museum have a large number of Mexican palm present, but few trees of significance.

63 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Major Site Contraints d ll R ne on tB M

Driscoll Villa

Laguna Gloria

Mayfield Park & Preserve Art School

ek r Cre Taylo

L a k e A u s t i n


St th 35

Scenic Dr

300â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 0 Sources: COA Floodplain Critical Water Quality Zone Water Quality Transition Zone Slopes 25 to 35% Slopes Greater than 35%

Siglo Group 64

Site Assessment Here we look at some of the physical and regulatory constraints of the site, as well as opportunities for potential future development. This assessment does not look at design solutions that may negate these constraints or offer other opportunities. The site is wholly within the City of Austin and any development on the site must comply with relevant codes and practices. We will look here at: Water Quality Buffers and Floodplain, Zoning, Historic Designation, Infrastructure, Stormwater Retention, Boardwalks and Docks, Parking, Impervious Cover, and Concepts for Future Development. Other site assessment issues such as visitor circulation, scenic views, habitat interaction, and accessibility will be dealt with in the Visitor Experience, Birds and Birding, and Natural Area Management Guidelines sections. WATER QUALITY BUFFERS & FLOODPLAIN Water quality buffers acknowledge and protect riparian areas, which clean water, prevent erosion, support infiltration, and contribute to a healthier environment for our community. Laguna Gloria is located on the shores of Lake Austin, the city's source of drinking water. Any development in this area must comply with the “watershed

supply suburban” section of the watershed ordinance, which is outlined in section 25-2551 of the Land Development Code (LDC). No development is permitted in the 100year floodplain or in the Critical Water Quality Zone (CWQZ). The CWQZ around Lake Austin is a 75 foot set back from the 492.8' contour. The CWQZ at Laguna Gloria contains 5.72 acres around the lake edge where development cannot occur without a variance. CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES Areas within the Floodplain Forest, the lagoon area, and other parts of the site may be considered to be critical environmental features (CEFs) as defined in sections 25-8281 and 25-8-282 of the LDC. Two CEFs that are likely to occur at Laguna Gloria are wetland CEFs and rimrock CEFs. The standard regulatory setback for wetland areas and CEFs is 150 feet, but it can be reduced through a Watershed Protection Department Director's administrative variance issued by the Environmental Review staff of the Environmental Resource Management division. Only certain types of development are allowed within a CEF setback, and mitigation may be required based on the guidance in Environmental Criteria Manual 1.3.0. The identification of

wetland CEFs can be made based on numerous factors, with the ones most relevant to Laguna Gloria including: prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soil formation, and the presence of adequate hydrology—these are areas highly influenced by water in the soil and on the ground. Using these criteria, it is likely that areas of Laguna Gloria, especially in the Floodplain Forest and lagoon areas, would be considered wetland CEFs. In addition, the steep slopes behind the school are likely classified as rimrock. The final assessment of these CEFs can be made in conjunction with a wetland biologist or a hydrogeologist as well as city staff. Because of their regulatory buffer of 150 feet and their multiple occurrences on the site, it is recommended that CEFs be identified early in the design process and that a dialogue begin as soon as possible with regulatory personnel at the City. ZONING The site is zoned Single Family Residential (SF-3), with the 2-acre historic area being defined as Single Family Historic (SF-3-H). This zoning allows museum activities under a conditional use permit, which means that for changes and/or approval, site plans must be presented to the Planning Commission for approval. For properties with SF-3 zoning, the Land Development Code in

65 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Zoning & Historic Designation d ll R ne on tB M




St th 35

SF-3- NP

Mayfield Park & Preserve


Laguna Gloria

ugh r Slo Taylo

L a k e A u s t i n



SF-3- NP

SF-3- NP



Sources: COA, Cultural Landscape Report Historic Designation Archeologic Designation

Infrastructure d ll R ne on tB M

St th 35

Mayfield Park & Preserve

ugh r Slo Taylo

L a k e A u s t i n


Laguna Gloria

section 25-2-492 sets the maximum height at 35 feet, the front setback at 25 feet and the interior side setback at 5 feet.



Sources: COA, Bury, Field Observation

Water Line Waste Water Line Electric Line

HISTORIC DESIGNATION The 2.26-acre historic site is in the National Register of Historic Places (1975), is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark (1983), and is a City of Austin Historic Landmark (approx. 1983). LDC article 4, section 25-11-211, states that any alteration to a historic landmark must be approved by the City of Austin Historic Landmark Commission. An alteration is defined as: “(a) exterior changes to or modifications of structures, architectural details, or visual characteristics; (b) construction of new structures; (c) disturbance of archeological sites or areas; or (d) placement or removal of exterior objects that affect the exterior qualities of the property.” Notice to the State is also required for alterations. In addition, a site near the trail behind the school next to the lagoon has been designated as a State Archeological Landmark (SAL) under the Texas Antiquities Code. SALs may not be “taken, altered, damaged, destroyed, salvaged, or excavated” without a permit from the Texas Antiquities Committee. There is believed to be an addition archeological site in the northwest corner of the site that has not been confirmed. Both sites are shown in the Zoning & Historic Designation map to the left. INFRASTRUCTURE As shown in the Infrastructure map to the left, a 24-inch waste water pipe runs from north to south through the length of the peninsula of Laguna Gloria. In Mayfield Park, two wastewater lines, one 20-inch and another 15-inch, bisect the property running north to south. Water enters both Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park through 8-inch water lines extending from 35th street. Finally, electricity comes to all structures via 35th street. Electricity enters both sites

Siglo Group 66



St th 35

Mayfield Park & Preserve



Laguna Gloria Laguna Gloria

r Taylo

BOARDWALKS AND DOCKS Lake Austin water frontage is a tremendous asset for Laguna Gloria. With approximately 2,900 feet of shoreline, Laguna Gloria is literally surrounded by water on three sides. Laguna Gloria has the ability to increase access to the water through additional structures like boardwalks and docks. According to the Land Development Code (sections 25-2-1171 to 25-2-1177), two docks may be constructed at the site, with each dock allowed to store, moor or anchor only one vessel. The City defines a dock as a wharf, pier, float, floating dock, island, boat

Site plans and building permits are required for the construction of boat docks, marinas, bulkheads, shoreline modifications, and shoreline access structures such as stairs and elevators. Structures on docks must comply with appropriate building codes, as well as floodplain and zoning restrictions. All planned docks must be reviewed and approved by the Planning and Development Review Department, the Watershed Protection Department, and the Parks and Recreation Department before being built.

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STORMWATER RETENTION For new construction, stormwater detention is generally required to slow the runoff from at least a 100-year storm. Because of Laguna Gloria's proximity to Lake Austin, it is possible that development on the site could receive a waiver for some of the required detention. In order to protect water quality, new construction is also required to treat the first 1/2 inch of storm runoff from impervious cover, usually with a sedimentation/filtration pond. If impervious cover exceeds 20% of the net site area, there are additional retention requirements. There is a one-time exemption of retention requirements for 5,000 square feet of new impervious cover.

dock, or similar structure. There is currently one small, dilapidated dock in the lagoon area. The total length of the dock(s) cannot exceed 20% of the shoreline of the property. The dock(s) cannot be within 10 feet of a neighboring property or extend more than 30 feet out into the water. These regulations are geared towards a standard single family residential lot. It will be important as design moves forward to understand what Laguna Gloria is interested in doing at the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge and begin a dialogue with City staff in order to understand what is feasible.

L a k e A u s t i n

from 35th street, with separate connections for the art school and the Driscoll Villa. There are also underground utilities in the Meadow area, which were mapped using information from the Bury survey.

Scenic Dr

600â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 0 On-Site Parking On-street Parking Restrictions

67 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines Additional permitting is required for projects that include dredging, fill, bank stabilization, floodplain alteration or which deviate from the standards above. PARKING Parking at Laguna Gloria, particularly for large events, remains an unresolved issue. This section looks at regulatory constraints and current inventory and offers recommendations. The site is zoned as SF-3 with a conditional use permit to operate as an "Art Gallery" within the Driscoll Villa. Under

the current Land Development Code, one off-street parking space is required for every 500 square feet of building space that can be occupied. At 6,600 square feet of "Art Gallery" space, a minimum of 13 off-street parking spaces are required. With the "Art Workshop" conditional use permit, the Art School at Laguna Gloria falls under the City of Austin's "Schedule B" parking requirements, which state, "The director shall determine the minimum off-street motor vehicle parking requirements . . . In making a determination, the director shall consider

Impervious Cover d ll R ne on tB M

Mayfield Park & Preserve Laguna Gloria

There are approximately 68 off-street parking spaces available for the Laguna Gloria site: 9 angled spaces along Old Bull Creek Road, a short-term space at the gatehouse, 7 parallel spaces along the inner loop, 9 perpendicular spaces along the inner loop, and 42 perpendicular spaces at the art school. At Mayfield, there are 26 perpendicular spaces. The 68 spaces at Laguna Gloria, shown in the map on the previous page, are more than the minimum required, but are often insufficient to meet demand during large on-site events. Options for potential future parking may include on-site parking with pervious surfaces, continued use of on-street parking on 35th street, and shuttle parking at nearby facilities such as the Albert R. Davis Water treatment plant and Camp Mabry.

r Taylo gh


L a k e A u s t i n


St th 35

the requirements applicable to similar uses, the location and characteristics of the use, and appropriate traffic engineering and planning data."

Scenic Dr

600â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 0 Sources: COA, Bury, Field Observation Impervious Surface Laguna Gloria: 1.74 ac Mayfield Park: .79 ac

IMPERVIOUS COVER In the Lake Austin District, which the Laguna Gloria property lies wholly within, impervious cover is allowed on only 20% of the net site area, which excludes the Critical Water Quality Zones as well as slopes greater than 35%. The net site area includes only a tenth of slopes with grades 25% to 35%, and 18% of land within the Water Quality Transition Zone. The numbers for these different elements are shown in the calculations on page 69 for both Laguna Gloria and

Siglo Group 68


L a k e A u s t i n




Mayfield Park & Preserve Laguna Gloria

ugh r Slo Taylo

CONCEPTS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT Laguna Gloria’s unique characteristics call for design solutions that acknowledge and are grounded in the site’s ecology and natural beauty, as well as the mission of AMOA-Arthouse. Concepts and metrics to keep in mind at the site level include ecological restoration, Sustainable Sites, and LEED. The Imagine Austin Priority plans, the EcoDistrict Framework, and the Austin Sustainability Action Areas can also help place the site within the context of the broader community. Of particular interest are the sections related to green infrastructure and sustainability.

d ll R

Lack of allowable new impervious cover presents a design challenge for the Laguna Gloria site. Options for future development include: no additional impervious cover, redevelopment of portions of the site without adding new impervious cover, retrofitting some impervious surfaces to be pervious, or obtaining a variance for new development. Impervious cover can also be transferred to the Laguna Gloria site from other properties within the Lake Austin District, as per section 25-2-551 of the Land Development Code.

Net Site Area & Impervious Cover

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Mayfield Park. According to these calculations, Laguna Gloria currently has 1.74 acres of impervious cover, which is 30.01% of the net site area. Using SF-3 standards for calculating net site area, Mayfield Park has approximately .79 acres, which is 17.5% of the net site area.


Scenic Dr

Laguna Gloria Mayfield Net Site Area: 5.79 ac 4.54 ac 30% 17.5% 600’ Existing IC: 0 Floodplain Impervious Surface Critical Water Quality Zone Slopes 25 to 35% Water Quality Transition Zone Slopes Greater than 35%

Thinking about how any new improvements will relate to the natural processes of the site, here are a few key elements that can be incorporated into new designs and development: §Use the site’s unique variety of vegetation, topography and water to create an expansive, inspiring outdoor art gallery. §Maximize native plant cover for cooling, aesthetics, visitor comfort, and a reduction in invasive species.

§Incorporate Low Impact Development

technologies and other best practices into the design for new and existing areas to allow for the utilization of storm water as a resource and amenity. §Respect and appreciate the sensitivity of the riparian habitats along the shore. §Respect soil as a resource and ensure that future designs reduce the potential for erosion and compaction. §Limit impervious cover and use

69 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Net Site Area & Allowable Impervious Cover Calculations Total Gross Site Area:

Laguna Gloria Mayfield 11.96 ac 23.40 ac

Water Quality Deductions Critical Water Quality Zone: Water Quality Transition Zone: 100-year Floodplain

5.72 ac 0.00 ac 0.00 ac

11.36 ac 8.53 ac 0.16 ac

Uplands Area No Water Quality Buffer WQTZ

6.24 ac 0.00 ac

3.36 ac 8.53 ac

Upland Slopes - Outside WQ Buffer Slopes 0 - 25% (100% included in NSA) Slopes >25-35% (10% included in NSA) Slopes > 35% (0% included in NSA)

5.79 ac 0.26 ac 0.22 ac

3.36 ac 0.00 ac 0.00 ac

Upland Slopes - WQTZ Slopes 0 - 25% (100% utilization) Slopes >25-35% (10% utilization) Slopes > 35% (0% utilization) Net Site Area Outside Water Quality Buffers Within Water Quality Transition Zone Total Allowable Impervious Cover (20% of NSA) Existing Impervious Cover Existing Impervious Cover Percentage Remaining Impervious Cover Allowed Existing Impervious Cover in CWQZ Existing Impervious Cover in WQTZ

6.03 ac 0.97 ac 1.53 ac 5.79 ac 0.00 ac 5.79 ac

3.36 ac 1.18 ac 4.54 ac

1.16 ac 1.74 ac 30.01% 0.00 ac

0.91 ac 0.79 ac 17.48% 0.11 ac

0.53 ac 0.00 ac

0.01 ac 0.50 ac

porous/permeable surfaces wherever possible. ยงDesignate areas of the site that will be impacted by development and keep other areas, such as the Floodplain Forest, off-limits. Set clear boundaries for impact zones to limit areas of compaction, disturbance, and erosion. ยงEcological processes and functionality throughout the site should be enhanced through ongoing land management practices and improvements. It is also important to note that a Lake Austin Task Force has reviewed all current regulations in the area and is making recommendations for changes to the code that could affect the Laguna Gloria site in the coming years. Their draft work can be seen at files/files/Boards_and_Commissions/ LAFT_ Report_WorkingDraft_Posted_ 05_15_13.pdf. CITY CONTACTS For future design and development, positive and insightful interactions with City staff are crucial. Here are some of the key departments and contacts moving forward: Environmental Review, Liz Johnston 512.974.1218,, Code compliance. Environmental Resource Management, Andrew Clamann, 512.974.2694,

Siglo Group 70, Compliance with wetland, critical environmental feature, shoreline, and environmental assessment regulation. Parks and Recreation Department, Chris Yanez, 512.974.9455,, Boardwalk and Dock code compliance.

71 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Visitor Circulation

Potential Orientation Kiosk Driscoll Villa 5th St W 35

Overlook Potential Addition to Forest Trail Largest Bald Cypress Meadow Loop Boat Ramp Forest Trail Double Trunked Bald Cypress

Gatehouse Gallery Mayfield Access Mayfield Park & Preserve

Lagoon Trail Water Access Amphitheater

Art School Deck & Restrooms

Largest Live Oak Path to the Point

Temple of Love

r cD ni e Sc

Lake View Birder’s Point & Water Access 250’ 0 Sources: Field Observation Trail Asphalt Trail/ Road Informal Trail Suggested Trail

Existing Gather Area Potential Gathering Area Stairs Live Oak Bald Cypress

Siglo Group 72

Visitor Experience Visitors come to Laguna Gloria to enjoy the art, history, and natural beauty of the site. Many visitors also come for specific purposes such as art classes, meetings, or special events. How they experience the place is shaped by their movement through the site, their experiences with people and elements on the site, and their involvement in particular programs. As AMOA-Arthouse looks at activating the many components of the grounds, it will be important to understand the visitor’s path through the site and where improvements to that path can facilitate a more robust experience. This section looks at some of the elements affecting the visitor's experience including orientation, wayfinding signs, interpretation, pathways, gathering places, views and accessibility. ORIENTATION, WAYFINDING, & INTERPRETATION Once visitors enter the site—generally by car—they have to decide where to begin their experience. Clara Driscoll's (18811945) vision of an Italian Villa and associated gardens, begun in 1915, sets the initial impression as visitors enter the property. Depending on a visitor's intent, his or her next move may be one of action to a specific activity or one of deliberation to determine what to do at the site.

For those going to a particular event such as a wedding or an art class, the answer of what to do is generally clear from information given ahead of time, or the general structure of the site when entering—tents for an event or the school area for a class. For a new visitor, however, it is unclear where to get more information or where to find vital services like water and restrooms. Laguna Gloria needs a defined orientation site that tells people where they are, what there is to see and do, and where the essential services are located. Key elements that should be included in the orientation are: the Driscoll Villa, school, amphitheater, Gatehouse Gallery, Temple of Love, Path to the Point, Meadow, Floodplain Forest, trails and gathering places. Numerous new elements in need of explanation will be added during the design process as well. The orientation site will serve as the visitors' trailhead for their journey through Laguna Gloria. There are a number of places it could be located with a potential location shown on the visitor circulation exhibit. The orientation site will be the starting point of a wayfinding system, which the site currently lacks. Wayfinding allows visitors to know where they are on the site and how to get where they are going. The system can use explicit descriptions, trail name markers,

or symbolic markers. The current lack of clarity poses a barrier to visitors' enjoyment and exploration of the site. Using both orientation and wayfinding, Laguna Gloria can tell its compelling story of history, art, and nature through an interpretive system. The system could include signage, docents, mobile devices, web tools, and programming. The rich history of the site, its ecological value, the mission of the organization, and the outdoor art exhibits are in need of interpretation that engages and enlightens the visitor. The rapidly changing technologies associated with mobile devices and interpretation provides numerous ways for AMOA-Arthouse to engage visitors, including basic information about art pieces, directed activities, citizen science associated with bird sightings, and numerous other possibilities. Orientation, wayfinding, and interpretation will be highly affected by design choices moving forward and the final design should take all three into consideration. The ecology of the site, natural management patterns, and some of the concepts expressed within this report can help lay the framework for wayfinding and interpretation related to the natural areas of the site.

73 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines PATHWAYS As AMOA-Arthouse begins to activate the entire site, additional considerations will need to be given to the maintenance of the trail system and the formalization of trails in the natural areas. Through the design process, the existing elements can be considered for their alignment, utility, durability, and contribution to the overall visitor experience. The Path to the Point is the most utilized and established trail in the natural areas. This path was part of Clara Driscoll's design for the site and has become an iconic walk in the Austin area for celebration, picture taking, and the enjoyment of nature. The surface is decomposed granite with a porous The Path to the Point is a decomposed granite trail with a porous rock edge.

rock edge and cement slabs on both ends. Both ends of the walk offer gathering places -- at the Villa to the north and the Temple of Love to the south. As shown in the visitor circulation exhibit, an additional stopping point where visitors can enjoy the view and gather as a group may be appropriate. The site has historically been a bench location and is next to a majestic live oak that is one of the largest trees on the site, with an approximately 55 inch diameter. The lagoon path runs from the school area to the amphitheater and connects with the Path to the Point. The path's surface is asphalt from the school to the amphitheater where it changes to cement. Further down, it becomes decomposed granite, which it remains until it reaches the stone stairs that connect it with the Path to the Point. The lagoon trail offers numerous opportunities in the design process including slight changes in its alignment to reduce its overall slope, interpretation at the archeological site, better connection with the waterfront, and integration into future amphitheater activities. Moving to the lower terrace of the site, the Meadow area currently has a formalized trail consisting of an asphalt road that enters the site from the north and creates a loop in the center of the lower terrace between the Path to the Point and the Floodplain Forest. From the end of the loop to the Temple of Love and Birder's Point there is no formalized pathway. This area offers numerous design and circulation opportunities as

Asphalt trail/road in the Meadow below the historic area. invasive species are cleared and long-term management decisions are made regarding the lawn areas that could remain as lawn, be transformed into wildflower meadows, or be utilized in various other ways. The current alignment of pathways could change and gathering places and infrastructure could be added. In all cases, the surfacing of the pathways and the connections between them should be considered in the future design process. Moving from Birder's Point through the Floodplain Forest, visitors are treated to an incredible ecological experience with grand bald cypress, cottonwood, willow, ash, and elm trees. The trail is unmarked and informal. The Floodplain Forest is the area

Siglo Group 74 most in need of trail improvements and formalization. Foot traffic over the years has created numerous side trails, causing soil compaction, root damage, erosion, and an increase in invasive species. As traffic at the site increases, this issue will become worse if not addressed. At a minimum, mulch created through the invasive species control efforts can be used to form a defined pathway through the areas. An informal log or rock edge similar to that used on the Path to the Point can be used to keep the mulch in place if needed. Because of the sensitivity of this area and the likelihood of flooding, a raised pathway is recommended in at least the lower sections, and ideally for the entire length of the trail in the Floodplain Forest. This raised pathway would immediately Informal trail in the Floodplain Forest.

change visitors' perspective, allow them to contemplate the ecological importance of the area, allow for more natural vegetative patterns, reduce harm to the area, and offer an interesting design element. There are currently two natural gathering points that could be formalized, which are located at the boat ramp and Birder's Point. Between these two, there is an opportunity to create an additional gathering point for a class or a group near the double-trunked bald cypress. Finally, extending the path to the north would expand the visitors' experience and bring them past the tree that is tied for the largest on the site with an approximate 55 inch diameter. Existing and future trails will need to be included in the wayfinding and interpretation systems. Basic services such as seating, tables, drinking water, lighting, safety, bathroom facilities, and trash collection will also need to be considered. Scenic views, gathering sites for larger groups, and accessibility can also inform the design process. GATHERING PLACES AND SERVICES Numerous places along the trails at Laguna Gloria can accommodate a group of individuals touring the facility who wish to stop for a moment or gather for an extended period of time. Critical for these groups are areas that can comfortably accommodate up to 25 individuals to discuss their experiences, concepts of art, information about Laguna Gloria and its natural setting, or any other

Historic bench site on the Path to the Point Trail where potential â&#x20AC;&#x153;bulbingâ&#x20AC;? of the trail could create a gathering area. issue relevant to the group. These areas were briefly discussed in the Pathways section above and can range from an area where people can rest in the shade, to seating for a group with tables, to a full bathroom facility with drinking fountains. The goal of all of these gathering areas would be to enhance the visitor's experience with art and nature. Examples of gathering areas currently at the Laguna Gloria site include the Temple of Love area, the deck behind the art school, and the amphitheater. There are numerous other locations along the trail that can serve as gathering places with minor modifications or a "bulbing" out of the trail. Potential additional gathering places are shown on the Visitor Circulation exhibit.

75 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Scenic Views & Vegetative Screening

Driscoll Villa

h St W 35t

Gatehouse Gallery

L a k e A u s t i n


Mayfield Park Mayfield Park & & Preserve Preserve

Meadow Loop

Boat Ramp

Forest Trail

Double Trunked Bald Cypress & Potential Viewing Platform

Lake View

Lagoon Trail Water Access

Art School Deck & Restrooms

Largest Live Oak & Potential Gathering Area

Path to the Point Temple of Love

Dr ic n e Sc

Birder’s Point & Potential Viewing Platform 250’ 0 Sources: Field Observation Trail View Area Vegetative Buffer

Siglo Group 76 These gathering spots will naturally tie into the wayfinding and interpretation systems of the site. There are currently no food options on the site for general visitors, but providing this service would allow visitors to stay longer and experience more of the site. This service could be permanent or temporary and could take advantage of Austinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s many mobile food trailers. A gathering place would likely develop around any food service area, and would need to be considered when planning visitor circulation through the grounds. SCENIC VIEWS & VEGETATIVE BUFFERS Views at Laguna Gloria are part of what drew Clara Driscoll to the site. The homestead and the garden were designed to take advantage of the picturesque views of the lake and lagoon, similar to what visitors see today. This section looks at existing view corridors, opportunities for enhancing views through selective management of invasive species, as well as the importance of maintaining vegetative â&#x20AC;&#x153;curtainsâ&#x20AC;? between distinct zones of the property. As the design process considers scenic views and vegetative buffers, it will be important to also consider natural area management, invasive species control, and the importance of reestablishing native, healthy, sustainable groundcover, understory, and tree canopies. Around the historic site and art school area, majestic oaks, elms, and other species frame the landscape, but the views of both the

lagoon and Lake Austin are somewhat blocked by vegetation. For instance, the area to the east of the amphitheater is dominated by ligustrum. This area could be cleared of invasive species, while taking care to leave the native understory intact, resulting in improved views from the historic site into the lagoon area. On the western side of the amphitheater, the same issue is at play with catclaw, English ivy, poison ivy, and bamboo. By removing these species, the site is opened up for native plant regeneration, and instead of being blocked by invasive plants, views of the lagoon will be framed by heritage oaks, elms, pecans, and a native understory. The views from the historic area to the west

have changed over time as vegetation, including many invasive species, has matured. Again, selective clearing here with a focus on invasive species control can open up views to the lake and the hills beyond. Along the Path to the Point, views can be enhanced through selective clearing of the areas between the historic area and the Temple of Love. Cleared areas can be thought of as view portals, with the remaining vegetation being used to frame the view. These cleared areas can be strategically sited to create an aesthetically pleasing distance between framed views, and also sited where there is potential for expanding the trail a bit to create a gathering area. One area ready

Scenic view near the Temple of Love looking northeast over the lagoon towards the art school.

77 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines great views within the Meadow. The high value trees and understory can serve as the framework through which art and views can be displayed. Clearing within the Meadow area has already begun to open views directly west of the Driscoll Villa. As additional areas are cleared, it is important to follow best practices with regards to invasive species control such as those listed in the Natural Areas Management Guidelines.

Area on the Path to the Point where removal of catclaw and nandina will result in increased scenic views of the lagoon. for an enhanced view is the potential gathering area along the Path to the Point suggested above, which has a majestic live oak to provide shade. The vegetation to the east of the trail is dominated by invasive nandina (heavenly bamboo) and catclaw. Removal of these invasive species, regeneration of native vegetation, as well as the selective pruning of trees would create a beautiful view of the lagoon area and the eastern slopes of the property. Similarly, in the area around the Temple of Love, selective pruning and removal of the understory would open up the views to the lake and the propertyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eastern slopes. On the western side of the Path to the Point,

invasive species management is recommended in the Natural Areas Management Guidelines. In this area, removing the natural vegetative barrier / curtain between the historic Path to the Point trail, which was designed and used during Driscoll's time, and the Meadow may not be desirable. The visual barrier between the two areas allows for multiple experiences that would be lost if the areas were opened up too much to one another. Entering into the Meadow area, there are opportunities in both the northern and southern portions of the property to further open up views to the lake. In addition, along this corridor, there is the opportunity for

Within the Floodplain Forest, the blanket of vegetation can be thought of as part of the experience. Much like the Path to the Point walk, the Floodplain Forest offers a unique experience for the visitor and various programmatic opportunities. The forest area feels much larger than it is because of the contrast in experience from the Meadow area and because of the vegetative buffer between the two areas. Caution should be taken when clearing invasive species between the Meadow and the Floodplain Forest to insure that the sense of place is maintained. At the water's edge, the bull rush in the water and the woody species along the shore stabilize the shore and prevent erosion. Within the Floodplain Forest, there is an opportunity to increase views and formalize the experience at the historic boat ramp that is used by birders to see out into the river. As art installation is considered in the Floodplain Forest and invasive species control is implemented, native plant regeneration, trail alignment, and art placement can work together to create sight

Siglo Group 78 Birder's Point. Each of these locations would provide visitors with longer, clearer views of the lake. At Birder's Point, a raised platform would allow for views of the island area, the marsh, the open water, and the migratory flyway over the Colorado River. It would also formalize the visitor experience at the point and reduce erosion and invasive species. In the Floodplain Forest, a raised platform would allow for views of the tree canopy and its inhabitants, as well as views out to the water. In both cases, these platforms offer interesting design challenges to create functional, artistically inspired structures fitting within a high value ecological setting. Scenic view from the western side of Driscoll Villa looking west over Lake Austin. lines that tie the experience together while respecting the ecological value of the area. From Birder's Point, there are views out onto the lake, which are a major attraction for birders. These can be enhanced by greater access to the water through a dock or boardwalk structure. During the assessment process, a discussion point that came up repeatedly is the value that a raised platform could provide the visitor. While this could be built at numerous places throughout the site, raised viewing platforms might add the most value in two places: in the Floodplain Forest near the double-trunked bald cypress and at

ACCESSIBILITY Future design will naturally activate greater portions of the site and make them accessible. As this accessibility is considered on the site, attention should be given to the mobility of different user groups, internal connectivity, connections to Mayfield Park, and access to water. Visitor Mobility The historic area is separated from much of the remaining site by steep slopes. Pathways to the Meadow, the Path to the Point, and the Floodplain Forest would be enhanced by more accessible trail options that consider those with mobility impairments, strollers, and/or wheelchairs. While there is a path down to the amphitheater, the slope and alignment could be altered to make it more accessible. A design solution that connects the major areas of the historic area, the Path

to the Point, the Meadow, and the Floodplain Forest in a way that is aesthetically pleasing or unobtrusive would be ideal. Connection to Mayfield The proximity of Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park presents an opportunity for collaboration to improve the experiences of visitors to both sites. Public participation from the nearby neighborhood and beyond is well established at Mayfield Park. Mayfieldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s topography, community gardening, peacocks, and extensive water frontage have made for captivating experiences that have inspired family traditions and committed participation. Stairs connecting the Path to the Point to the Meadow that cannot be used by some visitors with impaired mobility.

79 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Gate and fence between Mayfield Park and Laguna Gloria.

The existing relationship between Mayfield Park and Laguna Gloria can be expanded through physical and programmatic changes. The existing security fence between the two parks is uninviting. In the short term, the connection between the two properties can be improved by removing barbed wire from around the gate, expanding the actual gate to make for a larger entry, and keeping the fence open during Laguna Gloria open hours. If security is not an issue, the fence could be removed altogether. As future designs are taken on and the relationship with Mayfield Park is contemplated, there are numerous options for collaboration including sharing pathways, volunteers and infrastructure.

izing and improving these access points, as well as opening up some of the views as described above, Laguna Gloria can take better advantage of the incredible lake resource that surrounds the site on three sides. The use of structures extending into the water offers incredible design opportunities to engage visitors while expanding experiences with art and nature. The formalization of approaches to water will also reduce impacts to the environment, which can currently be seen at the dock and at Birder's Point where foot traffic has resulted in bare soil in some areas. In addition, a raised platform could be considered in the design process to further expand views over the water.

Connection to Water A better connection to the water can substantially improve the visitor's experience. Currently, there are numerous views of water and access points at both the dock in the lagoon and at Birder's Point. By formal-

ENTRY SEQUENCE The entry sequence to the site is generally outside the control of AMOA-Arthouse. There are basic changes that could be made to direct visitors and prepare them for their

Potential sign locations along Loop 1 and 35th street to direct visitor traffic. LL aa k k ee A uu A ss tt ii nn

Entry Sequence Signage Opportunities W 35

th St

Laguna Gloria

Mayfield Park & Preserve

Potential Potential Signage Signage along along 35th 35th street street


Signage Signage along along Highway Highway

Siglo Group 80 entrance to Laguna Gloria. The primary means for directing this effort would be signage along Mopac (Loop 1) as well as along 35th street, with signage along 35th street being more likely. For 35th street, the contact would be City of Austin Engineering at 512.974.5677 and for Loop 1 (Mopac) the contact would be the Texas Department of Transportation's Right of Way Division at 512.416.2901. PROGRAMMING As mentioned above, visitors come to Laguna Gloria for a variety of experiences including art appreciation, birding, nature walks, education, general tourism, and event participation. Visitors may come for one or multiple reasons, or they may come without clear expectations. As the design process moves forward, it will be important for the physical design to allow for and facilitate successful programming at the site. While future programmatic elements cannot be predicted at this time, it is important that the design support the programs that currently are or could be important for AMOA-Arthouse. To facilitate thinking in this way, some current and potential visitor attractions are listed below. Current: Outdoor sculpture, changing outdoor and indoor art exhibitions in the Villa and Gatehouse, opening preview receptions, art classes, guided tours, performances, independent bird watching, guided birding walks, citizen science, walks in the woods, film screenings, volunteer oppor-

tunities, family outings and art activities related to exhibitions on view, special events, photography, celebrations, memorials, and meetings. Potential: Interpretative and wayfinding signage, interpretation available on mobile devices, land management activities, docent led walks, citizen science, formalized birding programming, nature and outdoor oriented programming, a cafĂŠ, food trailers, picnic baskets, music performances, live theater, films, group gathering areas, picnic areas, plant walks, nature art classrooms, outdoor classrooms, revolving natural area exhibits, a sculpture trail, an interactive sculpture area for children, raised platforms for viewing, a boardwalk trail through the Floodplain Forest, and a venue for Austin cultural events.

81 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Barred Owl, Courtesy S. Fason

Broad Tailed Hummingbird, Courtesy S. Fason

Yellow Warbler, Courtesy S. Fason

Yellow Crowned Night Herron, Courtesy S. Fason Lake Travis

Most Popular Birding Sites in Austin

2. Common Ford Park 18,545 observations



3. Laguna Gloria/Mayfield 16,443 observations 130

Downtown 1. Hornsby Bend Austin 106,772 observations 290


4. Webberville Park 15,233 observations

Siglo Group 82

Birds and Birding Birds and Birding are important to the visitor experience, the ecology, and the natural area management at Laguna Gloria. Birders are major users of a large portion of the site, visiting regularly to enjoy, observe, and record what they see. The unique combination of habitat types, terrain, and proximity to water has resulted in over 210 species of birds living at or visiting Laguna Gloria. The features of the site that attract birds and the visitors that come to enjoy them can serve as a benchmark for decisions around future land management and improvement activities. The species diversity found at Laguna Gloria is impressive considering the site’s relatively small area. The diversity is due to the migratory flyway created by the Colorado River and the availability of numerous habitats including: floodplain forest, marsh habitats, open water, slope woodlands, and open meadows. The site accommodates year round residents such as the barred owl mating pair often seen on the Point Path and in the Floodplain Forest. It also attracts rare birds, such as the least bittern that was seen this winter, which resulted in an immediate influx of visitors to the site after the sighting was posted on the internet. With a network of good trails, a diversity of

habitats, and access to the Colorado River, Laguna Gloria is one of the most important sites in Travis County for bird watching and the general appreciation of nature. The value of the grounds to the birding community is illustrated by the number of bird observations posted on the internet. According to eBird (, a popular website where birders report their observations, Laguna Gloria has one of the most active birding communities and one of the highest levels of species diversity in Travis County. Birders have submitted over 17,000 observations of birds in the Laguna Gloria and Mayfield Park area. 16,443 of those observations were at Laguna Gloria. Each observation represents the sighting of a particular species at a particular place and time. 210 species have been reported at Laguna Gloria and 108 species have been reported at Mayfield Park. Only two species have been reported at Mayfield Park that were not also found at Laguna Gloria. The interest in birding at Laguna Gloria is increasing—eBird data shows a substantial increase in recording from 2009 to 2012. Part of the increase is due to monthly bird walks provided by the Travis Audubon Society as well as the work of a few individuals who regularly record bird observations at the site.

While birders may come to Laguna Gloria primarily to see the birds, AMOA has an opportunity to help these visitors engage with the art collection, further enriching their experience at the site. AMOA can also improve the birding experience and potentially increase visitation through natural area management and improvement projects. Guiding the visitor experience with wayfinding signs, interpretation signage regarding bird habitat, and the formalization of trails throughout the site will provide all visitors with more ways to explore and enjoy Laguna Gloria. Some potential improvements include: §Formalization of the Floodplain Forest Trail. §Raised platform in the Floodplain Forest for viewing the canopy. §An additional water access point in the Floodplain Forest. §Formalization of observation points throughout the trail system such as the peninsula point and the historic boat ramp. §Water access through dock and/or boardwalk structures. §Control of poison ivy near formalized trails (note that poison ivy also serves as

83 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Birds and Birding

h St W 35t

Western Overlook American Redstart Cooper’s Hawk Yellow-rumped Warbler Downy Woodpecker Peregrine Falcon

Driscoll Villa

Boat Landing Lesser Scaup American White Pelican Ring-billed Gull Purple Martin Osprey

View of Lagoon Belted Kingfisher Green Heron Wood Duck Great Egret Buffelhead

Laguna Gloria

Floodplain Forest

Path to the Point

Carolina Wren Red-shouldered Hawk Nashville Warbler Blue-headed Vireo

L a k e A u s t i n

Art School

Mayfield Park & Preserve

White-eyed Vireo Barred Owl Orange-crowned Warbler Red-bellied Woodpecker Catbird

r cD ni e Sc

Birder’s Point Common Yellowthroat Red-winged Blackbird Marsh Wren Swamp Sparrow Least Bittern Cedar Waxwing

300’ 0 Sources: ebird, field observation

Siglo Group 84

As AMOA-Arthouse reshapes the art

Floodplain Forest

Birder’s Point


Path to the Point

View of Lagoon


Boat Landing

Future improvements or changes, even those listed above, must be evaluated for their potential impact on bird populations. The natural areas guidelines contained within this document are intended to help increase bird diversity and improve habitat while acknowledging that some short-term activities may temporarily reduce available habitat. Using the principles of adaptive management, if it is found that a particular action is detrimental to the overall bird population or to a particular species, the action should be evaluated for positive and negative effects and an alternative should be sought if the negative effects are substantial. The following questions can help guide future actions: §Is it harming or improving bird populations in the short-term? §Is it harming or improving bird populations in the long-run? §Does it create more accessible birding opportunities? §Does it enhance the visitor experience for birders?

experience at Laguna Gloria, birders will be watching closely to see how any potential changes affect bird populations and their ability to use the site. Continuing open dialogues with the birding community, including individuals that frequent the site as well as local organizations such as Travis Audubon Society, will foster good will with a group of individuals who care deeply about

Western Overlook

a food source for birds so it should not be eradicated from the site). §Educational information available at the site and on AMOA's website, including a comprehensive list from eBird of species that have been seen at Laguna Gloria, as well as a list of which species have been seen there in the past week.

Belted Kingfisher Green Heron Wood Duck Great Egret Buffelhead White-eyed Vireo Barred Owl Orange-crowned Warbler Red-bellied Woodpecker Catbird Eastern Phoebe Lesser Goldfinch Cliff Swallow Lincoln's Sparrow Black-chinned Hummingbird Common Yellowthroat Red-winged Blackbird Marsh Wren Swamp Sparrow Least Bittern Cedar Waxwing Carolina Wren Red-shouldered Hawk Nashville Warbler Blue-headed Vireo Lesser Scaup American White Pelican Ring-billed Gull Purple Martin Osprey American Redstart Cooper’s Hawk Yellow-rumped Warbler Downy Woodpecker Peregrine Falcon

the site, and will provide unique insights into how the site can be used and improved.

Seasonality Notes Year Round Summer Year Round Year Round Winter Summer Year Round Winter Year Round Migrant Year Round Year Round Summer Winter Summer Winter Year Round Winter Winter Migrant Winter Year Round Year Round Migrant Winter Winter Migrant Winter Summer Year Round Migration Winter Winter Year Round Year Round

Numerous desirable perches in the area. Foraging along the bank under the overhanging vegetation. Breeds in the area and could be seen using one of the nesting boxes. Foraging in shallow areas. Diving or dabbling for food. Common and vocal breeding bird. Large owl likes riparian habitat and can often be found roosting over the trail during the day. Can be found foraging along side mixed species flocks with chickadees and titmice. Common resident that can be seen nesting in holes in the larger trees. Seen low to the ground along the trail. Uncommon migrants found at Laguna Gloria. Found along the forest edge where it waits on a perch for flying insects. Seen in small flocks at the edge of the clearing in the forest canopy. Flying through the clearing as they hawk insects. Found along the edge of the clearing in the lower vegetation. Flying and perched around the meadow. Spends the winter in cattails, and could possibly breed there. Abundant year round. Secretive bird of the cattails. Found along the water’s edge on or near the ground. Uncommon in Travis County. Is almost always found in cattails or similar habitat over water. Fruit eating species that can be seen in large flocks in the late winter and spring. Very common, and can be found in the understory foraging in pairs. Likes riparian habitat and is known to breed at Laguna Gloria. One of 29 species of warblers at Laguna Gloria. 25 can only be found during migration. Foraging in the canopy, often in mixed species flocks. Found on the open water. Flying in flocks of over a hundred, flying over the lake during migration. Flying over the lake. Foraging over the water. Hunting fish. Foraging for insects in the mid to low trees and shrubs. Extremely agile raptor that hunts songbirds in the woods. Flying overhead during migration. Found in flocks, sometimes in large numbers. Common year round, and probably breeds on the peninsula. Seen year round, but is most likely seen during migration. Fastest bird species on earth.

85 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Laguna Gloria & Mayfield Park Bird List Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii Canada Goose, Branta canadensis Mute Swan, Cygnus olor Egyptian Goose, Alopochen aegyptiaca Wood Duck, Aix sponsa Gadwall, Anas strepera American Wigeon, Anas americana Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos Blue-winged Teal, Anas discors Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata Northern Pintail, Anas acuta Green-winged Teal, Anas crecca Redhead, Aythya americana Ring-necked Duck, Aythya collaris Greater Scaup, Aythya marila Lesser Scaup, Aythya affinis Bufflehead, Bucephala albeola Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus Least Grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed Grebe, Podilymbus podiceps Eared Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis Neotropic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus American White Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias Great Egret, Ardea alba Snowy Egret, Egretta thula Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis Green Heron, Butorides virescens Black-crowned Night-Heron, Nycticorax

nycticorax Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Nyctanassa violacea American Bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus Least Bittern, Ixobrychus exilis White Ibis, Eudocimus albus White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura Osprey, Pandion haliaetus Mississippi Kite, Ictinia mississippiensis Northern Harrier, Circus cyaneus Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus Cooper's Hawk, Accipiter cooperii Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus Broad-winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus Swainson's Hawk, Buteo swainsoni Zone-tailed Hawk, Buteo albonotatus Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis Sora, Porzana carolina American Coot, Fulica americana Sandhill Crane, Grus canadensis Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularius Greater Yellowlegs, Tringa melanoleuca Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla American Woodcock, Scolopax minor Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis Least Tern, Sternula antillarum Caspian Tern, Hydroprogne caspia Black Tern, Chlidonias niger Forster's Tern, Sterna forsteri Rock Pigeon, Columba livia Eurasian Collared-Dove, Streptopelia decaocto White-winged Dove, Zenaida asiatica Mourning Dove, Zenaida macroura

Inca Dove, Columbina inca Common Ground-Dove, Columbina passerina Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus Barn Owl, Tyto alba Eastern Screech-Owl, Megascops asio Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus Barred Owl, Strix varia Common Nighthawk, Chordeiles minor Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomus carolinensis Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris Black-chinned Hummingbird, Archilochus alexandri Rufous Hummingbird, Selasphorus rufus Ringed Kingfisher, Megaceryle torquata Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle alcyon Golden-fronted Woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons Red-bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius Ladder-backed Woodpecker, Picoides scalaris Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens Northern Flicker, Colaptes auratus American Kestrel, Falco sparverius Merlin, Falco columbarius Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus Monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus Olive-sided Flycatcher, Contopus cooperi Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus Eastern Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe Ash-throated Flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens Great Crested Flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus

Siglo Group 86 Western Kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus White-eyed Vireo, Vireo griseus Bell's Vireo, Vireo bellii Blue-headed Vireo, Vireo solitarius Warbling Vireo, Vireo gilvus Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus Red-eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Common Raven, Corvus corax Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis Purple Martin, Progne subis Tree Swallow, Tachycineta bicolor Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica Cliff Swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Cave Swallow, Petrochelidon fulva Carolina Chickadee, Poecile carolinensis Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor Black-crested Titmouse, Baeolophus atricristatus Brown Creeper, Certhia americana Canyon Wren, Catherpes mexicanus House Wren, Troglodytes aedon Winter Wren, Troglodytes hiemalis Sedge Wren, Cistothorus platensis Marsh Wren, Cistothorus palustris Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii Carolina Wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula Veery, Catharus fuscescens Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus Swainson's Thrush, Catharus ustulatus

Hermit Thrush, Catharus guttatus American Robin, Turdus migratorius Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla Worm-eating Warbler, Helmitheros vermivorum Louisiana Waterthrush, Parkesia motacilla Northern Waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensis Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia Prothonotary Warbler, Protonotaria citrea Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis peregrina Orange-crowned Warbler, Oreothlypis celata Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapilla MacGillivray's Warbler, Geothlypis tolmiei Mourning Warbler, Geothlypis philadelphia Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosa Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas Hooded Warbler, Setophaga citrina American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla Northern Parula, Setophaga americana Magnolia Warbler, Setophaga magnolia Bay-breasted Warbler, Setophaga castanea Blackburnian Warbler, Setophaga fusca Yellow Warbler, Setophaga petechia Chestnut-sided Warbler, Setophaga pensylvanica Pine Warbler, Setophaga pinus Yellow-rumped Warbler, Setophaga coronata Yellow-throated Warbler, Setophaga dominica Black-throated Green Warbler, Setophaga virens Canada Warbler, Cardellina canadensis Wilson's Warbler, Cardellina pusilla Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus

Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Aimophila ruficeps Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina Clay-colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla Vesper Sparrow, Pooecetes gramineus Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia Lincoln's Sparrow, Melospiza lincolnii Swamp Sparrow, Melospiza georgiana White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis Harris's Sparrow, Zonotrichia querula White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis Summer Tanager, Piranga rubra Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus Blue Grosbeak, Passerina caerulea Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea Painted Bunting, Passerina ciris Dickcissel, Spiza americana Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula Great-tailed Grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus Bronzed Cowbird, Molothrus aeneus Brown-headed Cowbird, Molothrus ater Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius Baltimore Oriole, Icterus galbula House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus Pine Siskin, Spinus pinus Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus psaltria American Goldfinch, Spinus tristis House Sparrow, Passer domesticus

87 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Laguna Gloria Opportunities

Driscoll Villa Gatehouse Gallery Mayfield Access

ZONE D MEADOW Forest Trail Extension Meadow Loop

Forest Trail Double Trunked Bald Cypress



Mayfield Park & Preserve

Art School

Lagoon Trail Water Access Gathering Area


Birder’s Point & Potential Viewing Platform

250’ 0 Zone A: Sloping Woodland Zone B: Floodplain Forest Zone C: Path to the Point Zone D: Floodplain Forest

Trail Existing Gathering Area Potential Gathering Area Live Oak Bald Cypress

Siglo Group 88

Conclusions Laguna Gloria is an iconic part of the Austin landscape. As AMOA-Arthouse reenvisions the site, this report, along with other existing research, can help guide the design process to create a place-based art museum that showcases nationally and internationally acclaimed artists. The natural structure of the site, including several distinct areas divided by vegetative barriers, and the proximity of both Lake Austin and Mayfield Park, can serve as the framework in which designers and artists are invited and challenged to express ideas and create experiences. Art can intertwine with the environs and use the diverse natural landscape to form niche galleries on open water, scenic trails, expansive meadows, and woodland preserves. The nuts and bolts of these elements are laid out in the preceding pages, including detailed information on ecology, flora, fauna, natural areas management, restoration ecology, invasive species control, regulatory constraints, scenic views, and access to Mayfield Park and Lake Austin. The overall goal of this report is to set the groundwork for a design process that allows designers, staff, stakeholders, and the AMOA-Arthouse board to understand the opportunities and challenges of the site as they create a robust visitor experience that is interwoven around place, art, and nature.

The site is ecologically significant for the Austin Area. Within a relatively small area, the terrain moves from a limestone savanna with majestic live oaks to a thick floodplain forest with mammoth bald cypresses towering above ancient palmettos. The site is surrounded by water on three sides, providing stunning views and access to the water and making it feasible for native lush vegetation in the lower region to thrive. Laguna Gloria has become known for the diversity of birds found there, and is now the third most birded site in the Austin area, with over 210 species observed. The site's adjacency to Lake Austin and its multiple ecological communities including open water, marsh, floodplain forest, meadow, sloping woodland, and limestone savanna make it a diverse natural treasure that draws humans, birds, and other wildlife. The site's ecological health also impacts the greater community, since Lake Austin provides drinking for Austin—one of the water intakes is just 800 feet from the Laguna Gloria property line. The long-term stewardship of the site is addressed in the Natural Areas Management Guidelines section, which includes an assessment of the natural areas' current condition and recommendations for invasive species control, ecological restoration,

monitoring and long-term adaptive management. The zonal approach addresses the different needs and long term uses of four distinct parts of the property. The Sloping Woodland closest to the historic area—Zone A—has invasive species that need to be controlled, is highly visible, and could offer a great deal to visitors through enhancement and more formal planting. The Floodplain Forest—Zone B—is a highly sensitive area in need of invasive species control, where native woody species should be planted. In the Floodplain Forest, the visitor experience must be formalized while respecting the area's sensitivity. In this area, the art experience can be integrated into the landscape and complement it. The Path to the Point—Zone C—is in need of invasive species control, but otherwise can remain in the natural picturesque form that has drawn visitors to this trail for decades. The Meadow—Zone D—offers a place to rethink the existing framework, and is an area where art and design can literally and figuratively rise above the landscape, while still being complemented by it. The Natural Areas Management Guidelines section ends with recommendations on the best practices for restoring significant parts of the site and controlling invasive species. It also includes a five year schedule for land

89 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines Slough, mean the site has relatively low future development potential. This section also addresses other elements that must be considered in the design process including critical environmental features, the historic and archeological sites, zoning, infrastructure, and parking. Of particular interest is the ability of AMOA-Arthouse to build up to two docks to access the water. An additional point of interest is the ability to transfer impervious cover credit from one part of the Lake Austin District to another. If AMOA-Arthouse could find a property in the area that would remain in open space, more of the Laguna Gloria site could be developed. In any design scenario, because of the uniqueness of the site within the regulatory framework, an ongoing dialogue and cooperation with City of Austin regulatory personnel will be crucial to creating an implementable plan. Bridge to the natural areas to the south of the Driscoll Villa. Clara Driscoll considered this bridge to be the transition point between the beautiful designed landscapes and the picturesque natural areas. This historic concept reverberates throughout this report while building on it with the concept of ecological restoraion and providing a framework for a robust visitor experience. management efforts. For this suggested plan to be successful, AMOA-Arthouse will need to dedicate significant staff time and capital resources, including for professional land management services. The redirection of attention to these natural areas will result in greater visitation, more robust visitor experiences, and expanded funding opportunities. The Site Assessment section looks at the

physical and regulatory constraints of the site. Regulations designed to protect Austin's drinking water and steep slopes have substantially reduced development potential at Laguna Gloria as well as at neighboring Mayfield Park. Under current regulation, Laguna Gloria has exceeded the limit of allowable impervious cover. And while Mayfield is primarily undeveloped, its adjacency to Lake Austin, together with the water quality buffers required around Taylor

The Visitor Experience section looks at orientation and wayfinding, interpretation, site circulation, scenic views, access, and the entry sequence. As with the other elements, the visitor experience in the natural areas can be divided up between the Sloping Woodland (Zone A), the Floodplain Forest (Zone B), the Path to the Point (Zone C), and the Meadow (Zone D). Each of these areas provides numerous opportunities to create an integrated, robust visitor experience. In Zones B, the formalization of pathways is a necessary short-term goal. This will reduce ecological degradation and, in combination with orientation, wayfinding, and interpretation, enhance the visitor experience

Siglo Group 90 substantially. The potential of raised pathways or boardwalks in the Floodplain Forest is a particularly exciting opportunity. While they would be a substantial investment, the concept resonated with a number of individuals advising and conducting this assessment. They would weave together numerous desirable elements including protection and appreciation of the natural world, unique design challenges for artists, activation of the Laguna Gloria site, and allowing for memorable art and nature experiences. Going even higher above the forest floor, raised platforms would meet many of the same needs, and would allow for a unique visitor experience 10 - 20 feet above the forest floor and over the water. These platforms would allow birders, naturalists, art enthusiasts, and general visitors to gain new perspectives, providing views of the island and the lake at Birder's Point, and of the tree canopy and lake in the Floodplain Forest. As with all elements mentioned here, these raised platforms are functional elements that can provide unique and interesting design challenges. Laguna Gloria's stunning views are an important part of the visitor experience. These views, created by the natural topography of the site, the vegetation, open water, and the neighboring open space, make the site feel expansive in comparison to its actual size. Enhancement of views can occur through selective removal of invasive species in coordination with the Natural Areas Management Guidelines. These enhanced views will look outside and inside of the

property. It is also important to recognize that the complexity of the visitor experience would be reduced and that the site itself may begin to feel smaller if the vegetative buffers between the Meadow and the surrounding areas were compromised. The removal of these vegetative barriers would also offer opportunities for greater establishment of invasive species in the Path to the Point area and the Floodplain Forest. The design process can use the vegetative buffers and scenic views to preserve the expansive feeling of Laguna Gloria while providing captivating sightlines and aligned art exhibits to enhance the visitor experience. The relation of Laguna Gloria to Mayfield Park offers both entities numerous opportunities, including the sharing of knowledge and resources. At the very least, future design should not limit potential partnerships and collaborations. Looking at land management, Mayfield staff offer a great deal of experience with the removal of Ligustrum and catclaw and the coordination of invasive species control. In the shortterm, the physical boundary between the two sites can be considered for refinement to allow for a more welcoming and richer experience for visitors to both sites. Access to the different parts of Laguna Gloria, including the waterfront, will need to be considered in the upcoming design process. The steep, sloping topography separating the lower terrace from the upper terrace is a mobility barrier to many people. Removing this barrier will connect numer-

ous parts of the site and offer unique design challenges. Access and connectivity to the hugely valuable 2,900 foot Lake Austin shoreline would also improve the visitor experience. Boardwalks, docks, trail alignments, and other potential design elements, as well as water-oriented art exhibits, will provide visitors with the opportunity to experience and explore Laguna Gloria's aquatic edges. The path forward for the Laguna Gloria site and its visitors is exciting. It offers stakeholders, staff, board members, and future designers the opportunity to contribute to the cultural map of Austin and beyond by creating a showcase for nationally and internationally acclaimed artists that is rooted in the site's rich ecology and history. Together the integrated processes of design, curation, and ecological restoration will create a visitor experience that captivates and inspires while exploring the intriguing space where art and nature meet.

91 Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

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Siglo Group 92

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Laguna Gloria: Site Assessment and Natural Areas Management Guidelines

Amoa report 2013 06 18 final siglo