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The Grasslands The Grasslands are a special biome found all over the world! Some example of Grasslands are the American Prairie, African Serengeti, and Mongolian Steppes. Let's focus on the unique African Grasslands! By Nili Ivan, Sierra Jobman, Reyna Mapa, Samantha White


Abiotic Factors

By Nili Ivan Sunshine: Roughly 8 hours a day Temperature: 15-25° Celsius Precipitation: 35-40 in. Humidity: 70%

*Please note that these are the average YEARLY numbers in Africa's Serengeti National Park 2


Ecological Succession Primary and Secondary Succession Primary succession usually starts off with just a rock nothing else no wildlife,no trees,no shrubs, nothing. Soon more plants will start to grow around the rock like lichens and grass. Then bigger and taller plants like shrubs and tall grass will start growing. Trees will then start rowing and Secondary succession is caused mostly by fires set animals will start showing up. by humans in the grasslands. Years later you will now have a Savanna. The grasslands will recover from the fires due to soil and nutrients in the dirt, but it takes hundred of years until the grass is rebuilt.

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Organism spotlight-Primary Producers Buffalo Grass Buffalo Grass is extremely hardy and thrives well in the Grasslands. Buffalo Grass is one of the most important grasses. It provides food for animals such as White-tailed deer, Buffalos, and pronghorns. Fires often spread in the Grasslands, but can actually be very beneficial to the plants and Buffalo Grass. Surprisingly, it often grows better after the fires. It also has seeds that stick on to animals. The animals then carry the seed until it falls off their fur and starts to 4 grow new grass.


Organism spotlight- Decomposers Earthworms Earthworms are important decomposers, and help provide nutrients for the soil. Earthworms dig in the soil, consuming dirt and other organic matter. It then passes through the worm's body and back into the soil. This helps cycle the soil and circulate it, providing better dirt for plants to grow in. Earthworms' main predators are birds. They often suffocate in intense sunlight, which is why they stay hidden in the soil for the majority of the day. Earthworms are abundant and hatch as many as 50 worms in their lifetime!

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Primary Consumers in the Serengeti By Nili

The elephant is a main primary consumer in the African Grasslands. This means it only eats plants, also known as herbivores.

There are two types- African and Asian elephants They are the largest land animal They can weigh between 2-7 tons Both male and female elephants have tusks

Sadly, elephants are endangered because of poaching. Many hunters will shoot elephants for their precious ivory tusks. Natural predators of this animal includes lions and crocadiles, but they are often left alone because of their great size.

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Organism Spotlight- Secondary Consumers Hyenas Hyenas are Omnivores, and scavenge for food. They are often found eating the leftovers of prey that a predator has caught. Hyenas live in clans, with up to 80 members. When no leftover animals are to be found, they work as a group targeting a single animal to kill and share. Hyenas are found in almost all grassland habitats, especially in the African Savannas. Hyenas main predators are humans. As our population grows, we take up more and more valuable land that animals live on. When there is no other food available, hyenas often try hunting a farmer's livestock, and many are killed by farmers protecting their property. This conflict is a huge threat to hyenas.

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Tertiary Predators The African Lion The African Lion is at a high risk of extinction. The african lion has decreased by approximately 43% from 1993 to 2014. Their population from 2015 was approximately 20,000. The lion and hyena have a commensalism relationship. The lion kills prey for food, and the hyena gains food from the lion. The lion and warthogs have a predator prey relationship, because the lion hunts warthogs for food. The white African lion has the selection pressure of having white fur, which gives them the disadvantage of being seen easier by prey. Only type of cat that lives in groups. Their groups are called prides. The african lion has the loudest roar. When new males take control over a group they will usually kill the youngest cubs so they can start their own families in the group. They are the tallest of the big cats

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Lion

Food Web

Spotted Hyena

Cheetah

Giraffe

Hippo

Acacia Tree

Zebra

Antelope Wildebeest

Grass

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Where In the world are grasslands!

You can find a grassland ecosystem on all of the continents except for Antartica! Tall grasses provide great hiding spots for predators and prey!

TARANGIRE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA

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Threats The development of urban areas is being built on the grasslands. Crops are expanding onto the grasslands. Diseases spread easily and make toxic pesticides. Global Warming could cause grasslands to change into deserts.

Solutions

Teach about how to protect the soil and prevent erosion. Rotate crops to prevent the weakening of the nutrients in one spot. Protect the grasslands to ensure that people care about how the grasslands and the future 12 will end up.


Sources Abiotic Factors. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from https://serengetinationalpark.wikispaces.com/4.+Abiotic+Factors African Elephant Fun Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/africanelephant/#african-elephant-mud-family-baby.jpg antelope photo. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://wildlifefacts.weebly.com/uploads/6/5/5/3/6553869/male-impala.jpg Argentina Land Conservation. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from www.nature.org website: https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/latinamerica/argenti na/explore/our-work-in-argentina-lands.xml Buffalograss [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/s/asm4/turfgrass/educati on/turgeon/lessons/lesson24/corefiles/links/buffalograss/mains et.html Buffalo Grass. (2000). Retrieved February 12, 2018, from Blue Planet Biomes website: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/buffalo_grass.htm Cheetah picture. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/content/dam/kids/photos/anim als/Mammals/A-G/cheetahwatching.ngsversion.1396530528126.adapt.945.1.jpg Clark, J. (n.d.). How Earthworms Work. Retrieved February 13, 2018, from howstuffworks website: https://animals.howstuffworks.com/animalfacts/earthworm2.htm


Conservation Status. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from bornfree.org.uk website: http://www.bornfree.org.uk/animals/lions/conservation-research/ The Dirty Little Secrets Behind Earthworms [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BNUB314_NUMBER_GR_20170628124118.jpg giraffe photo. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Giraffe_st anding.jpg Grassland Ecosystem Food Chain in Africa. (2017, September 26). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from CLASSROOM website: https://classroom.synonym.com/grassland-ecosystem-food-chainafrica-38411.html grassland grass. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kids.nceas.ucsb.edu/images/temperate_grassland/grass.jpg Grasslands Map [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/grassla nd-map/ Grassland Threats. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from www.nationalgeographic.com website: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/grassla nd-threats/ grassland tree picture. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://photographsimages.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/themostb eautifulpicture.jpg Hippo photo. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Hippo _at_dawn.jpg/220px-Hippo_at_dawn.jpg


Hyena. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from African Wildlife Foundation website: http://www.awf.org/wildlifeconservation/hyena Langley, L. (2017, July 29). Why Are Some African Lions White? Retrieved February 14, 2018, from news.nationalgeographic.com website: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/07/animalslions-color-health-genetics/ Lion In Kenya [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/grassla nds/#/41.jpg Lion Picture. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://howtodoright.com/wpcontent/uploads/2017/09/Lion-Stalking-KalahariDesert.jpg.638x0_q80_crop-smart.jpg Picture of Hyena. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://howtodoright.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/LionStalking-Kalahari-Desert.jpg.638x0_q80_crop-smart.jpg Primary successsion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tropicalgrasslandsavannabrewerb3.weebly.com/uploads/2/9 /6/8/29684033/8278123_orig.jpg Relationships. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from ckgr.weebly.com website: https://ckgr.weebly.com/relationships.html Savanna Fire photo. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search? q=savanna+fire&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwifhuq Hh57ZAhXN2VMKHVbRBnAQ_AUICigB&biw=1920&bih=974#imgrc= gbviHcphILWIcM:


Spotted Hyena. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from National Geographic website: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/s/spottedhyena/ TARANGIRE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/grassl ands/#/41.jpg 10 Dumbfounding Examples of Predator-Prey Relationships. (2018). Retrieved February 14, 2018, from animalsake.com website: https://animalsake.com/examples-of-predator-preyrelationships What Eats Earthworms? (2017, April 24). Retrieved February 13, 2018, from Sciencing website: https://sciencing.com/eatsearthworms-8421416.html wildebeeste picture. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Blue_Wilde beest%2C_Ngorongoro.jpg Zebra photo. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/sites/default/files/201608/hero_zebra_animals.jpg

The Grasslands magazine  

A magazine on the Grassland biome!

The Grasslands magazine  

A magazine on the Grassland biome!

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