Page 1

Chapter Title Has regeneration

of stadia completed or destroyed a community? Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

Jonathan F. Hughes 07039013 Dissertation Synopsis Module: U30099


Stadia should ideally be places where people watch their team win every match. An ideal stadium should be packed to capacity with fans watching their team score countless goals, running out winners of the most important championship in that sport. Whether it be The International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) World Cup, The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Olympics, The International Rugby Board (IRB) Rugby World Cup, or The International Cricket Council (ICC) World Cup, fans come from all over the world to watch their team win, and any sports man or woman will tell you that a fantastic venue, produces a fantastic performance.

Fig. 1 - The world famous image of Sir Bobby Moore hoisted on the shoulders of his team mates, moments after the England football team secured the 1966 Jules Rimet FIFA World Cup Trophy after a 4-2 controversial victory over West Germany in the final at the now demolished Old Wembley Stadium. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/02/sports_stadiums/image/wembley1.jpg

“We approached the design of the new Wembley Stadium with the ambition to offer every fan and visitor an experience that would be unique and memorable. These original drawings represent the work of our team and the process involved in successfully delivering this vision. Wembley is a huge and exciting project that is already a striking presence on the London skyline. The arch can be seen as a triumphal gateway and a strong symbol for the new stadium which will build on the heritage and traditions of the old Wembley to provide invaluable memories for future generations.” Quote from Lord Norman Foster of Foster and Partners, responsible for designing a majority share of the new Wembley, after handing over original drawings of early scheme ideas for the new stadium to be placed in a Wembley Stadium Timecapsule, 4th December 2005

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

Arenas initially became a status symbol in Ancient Rome, with one of the greatest arenas just about surviving 2000 years of use and misuse.1 There was always one place where Roman citizens gathered for an afternoon’s entertainment involving wild animals, gladiators, and chariots alike. 50,000 people would cram into the oval arena, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre2, bringing people from all over the city together to celebrate an event worthy of the Emperors own eyes. Had such an event taken place without being surrounded by tiers of seating rising nigh on 50 metres3 into the sky, there wouldn’t have been a fraction of the atmosphere created by 50,000 cheering, shouting and screaming citizens, deciding the fate of a slave, used for entertainment. Today stadia have taken on an entirely different form. The Flavian Amphitheatre had one pure function, to ensure the customers had the best possible view of the action. They would turn up, watch the event, and leave. Today’s stadium designers have an entirely different outlook. Whilst the pitch and viewing positions may be important, the overall experience, from References 1. Channel 5 UK (2005). Seven Wonders of Ancient Rome. 60 min. Channel 5 London. DVD. 2. Channel 5 UK (2005). Seven Wonders of Ancient Rome. 60 min. Channel 5 London. DVD. 3. Wikipedia (2009). Colosseum. Avalable at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colosseum

01


Fig. 2 - Drawing of Wembley Stadium from the proposal by Foster and Partners http://www.bdonline.co.uk/Pictures/web/x/o/p/Foster_Wembley_ready.jpg

when the stadium is first seen, to the moment it falls out of view, is what today’s designers care about. Stadia must ensure the customer looks in awe at its size, is left speechless as you walk through the turnstiles, and most of all enjoy the overall weekend’s experience, not just the 90 minutes of action observed on the pitch. Designs now incorporate the community, stadia blend in with their surroundings, creating a soft edge as you approach the pitch, as oppose to suddenly being struck by the massive structure that usually guards a pitch. There are facilities in close proximity, giving the customer an experience greater than that of enjoying a football match, creating a subcommunity within the normal community. Stadia now include hotels, swimming pools, cinemas, restaurants, and even bowling alleys. Today’s generation of stadia are no longer places for people to gather to watch a football match, they are now multi-functional, multi-purpose, entertainment venues for families to enjoy over an extended period of time.

The main research question in this dissertation will address whether two newly built stadia have affected the surrounding community in positive or negative ways. The two case studies in hand are the newly replaced Wembley stadium, and the Regenerated Arsenal stadium, now known as the Emirates. Both are surrounded by schools, shops, pubs, and other businesses, providing many opportunities to gather feedback first hand.

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

02


Introduction “While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand; When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall; And when Rome falls - the World” Lord Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto the Fourth, 1818

Introduction will firstly introduce the topic and give a history of stadia design all the way back to ancient the Ancient Greek period, up to and including future stadia design. It will then summarise what questions will be asked during the dissertation, and how they are planning to be answered. There will also be An xplanation of materials that are going to be used along with a planned methodology. 1500 Words

Fig. 3 - Jean-Leon Gerome - Pollice Verso (1872) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jean-Leon_Gerome_Pollice_Verso.jpg

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

03


Chapter 1 - Structure and Construction ‘Third generation stadia are not designed for summer or winter, for football or rugby, for young or old; they are designed for as wide a range of events and audience as possible. Entertainment is the aim and ‘service’ is the method.’ Thompson P., Tolloczko J. J. A., Clarke J. N. [1998] Stadia, Arenas & Grandstands. London. E & FN Spon. p. Xix

The initial chapter in this dissertation will explain in detail the structural technology of the Emirates and New Wembley stadia. In depth detailed research into materials, techniques, and overall design will take place, comparing and contrasting along the way. The chapter will be divided into sub chapters, exploring the individual aspects, concluding by bringing all of the information together in order to compile a critical comparison. • Aspects taken into account will include the pitch; is the line between grass and synthetic pitches merging with developments in areas such as plastic root reinforcement? In conjunction with this, new hybrid grasses require less light, grow faster, and are more robust, giving a far larger canvas on which the architects of new stadia can put down their ideas.4 • Seating has come a very long way since the ancient tiered step systems used in Greek times, passing standing terraces, and eventually reaching 100,000 all seater stadia. New seats are being designed with long term comfort in mind, featuring detained ergonomic research, along with new materials with integral padding of soft plastics bonded in manufacture.5 • New computer systems can calculate sight lines for every individual seat with the help of detailed three dimensional models.6 This means spectators can discover what they will see from any particular seat before booking the ticket, let alone arriving at the stadium.

Fig. 4 - Fans in the lower concourse preceding the 2-1 victory Arsenal managed over Manchester United, 21st January 2007 http://www.flickr.com/photos/shields_t/365203502/sizes/l/in/photostream/

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

References 4. Thompson P., Tolloczko J. J. A., Clarke J. N. [1998] Stadia, Arenas & Grandstands. London. E & FN Spon. p. Xix 5. Thompson P., Tolloczko J. J. A., Clarke J. N. [1998] Stadia, Arenas & Grandstands. London. E & FN Spon. p. Xix 6. Thompson P., Tolloczko J. J. A., Clarke J. N. [1998] Stadia, Arenas & Grandstands. London. E & FN Spon. p. Xix

04


• New stadium designs will attempt to give an experience for 24 hours. So instead of supporting your team at an evening match for 90 minutes, families will be encouraged to turn up during the daytime, spend some time in one of the stadium restaurants, have a game of bowling in the stadium bowling alley, and watch a film in the stadium cinema. All before watching the night’s events unfold on the pitch, ultimately ending with spending a night in the stadium hotel.

Fig. 5 - Emirates Stadium at twilight http://www.resimvadisi.com/resim-komik-bebek-resimleri-10620.htm

All of the aspects outlined above will be discussed in this chapter, with particular concentration on the past and present Wembley stadia. The basis behind researching these topics is to find out why the old Wembley was demolished in return for the new landmark that is the current Wembley stadium. Discoveries are set to include; why the twin towers entrance was replaced with a new wider all encompassing multi-entrance system, what the advantages are of having seating all the way up to pitch instead of having negative space between the pitch and the fans, and how the pedestrian and traffic flow around the stadium has been improved, among many others. 3000 Words

Fig. 6 - Wembley Stadium at sunset http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/02/sports_stadiums/image/wembley1.jpg

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

05


Chapter 2 - Designing for the Local Community: The Reaction

The British Empire Exhibition was opened by King George V at Wembley Stadium on 23rd April, 1924, St. Georges Day. The aim of the exhibition was “to stimulate trade, strengthen bonds that bind mother Country to her Sister States and Daughters, to bring into closer contact the one with each other, to enable all who owe allegiance to the British flag to meet on common ground and learn to know each other”.7 The area was further developed to cater for the event with a special railway loop line and station being built in order to connect the site to London Marylebone station.8 A great example of designing for the community, creating special travel links so as many people as possible could enjoy the exhibition. Chapter 2 will focus on the differing reactions people have had to the two new stadia. There are many aspects of community that can be covered in this chapter including, business, social, and standard living. I intend to look in detail at two main community based factors. The first will be the effect of replacing a stadium over a period of 7 years has on surrounding businesses, large and small. Research will be mainly based on face to face interviews across a range of business types, ranging from large scale hotels in the area, to primary schools nearby, and corner shops within a short distance from the pitch. The same questions will apply to the Emirates Stadium, with it replacing the Arsenal Stadium, Highbury, in 2006.9

Fig. 7 - Drawing of a Masterplan of the surrounding area of the New Wembley Stadium http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/render.aspx?siteID=1&navIDs=1,6,12,1350

Questions asked in this chapter will include, has the transition period between new and old stadia in both cases, seen a decline or rise in custom to businesses? Has the customer profile changed over that peReferences 7. Wikipedia (2009). British Empire Exhibition. Avalable at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ British_Empire_Exhibition 8. Wikipedia (2009). British Empire Exhibition. Avalable at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ British_Empire_Exhibition 9. Wikipedia (2009). Emirates Stadium. Avalable at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emirates_stadium

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

06


riod of time? Have trade patterns changed with the new stadia; is it busier or quieter at different times of the year? Other questions will be aimed at the social aspect of the surrounding area, such as; has the noise profile changed quality of life for nearby residents? Has the increase in capacity caused problems for the area in relation to volume of people and anti-social behaviour before and after a high profile, competitive match?

Fig. 8 - Visualisation of the development of Wembley community by Quintain Estates & Development plc http://www.skyscrapernews.com/imagesall.php?idi=Wembley%2BStadium&ref=267&selfidi=267WembleySta dium_pic7.jpg&self=nse&no=7&x=48&y=26

This chapter will be separated into 3 different subchapters, each focussing on a different aspect. The three categories will be Technical, Symbolic, and Community. Technical – This will cover important statistics on match days such as noise levels, traffic density and movement, crime levels, and anti-social behaviour, among others. There will be a direct comparison between Wembley and Emirates. Symbolic – Match days create a symbolic atmosphere in a confined area. Here, the dissertation will look at how the attitude of locals changes around kick-off. Interviews and one to one feedback will be necessary here to gauge the attitude in order to make a comparison. Community – Out of hours activity is what counts towards the community. It’s all very well coming together to watch a game, but it’s what happens before and after that defines a community. Information about how the local people use the new stadia out of match hours will be pivotal to this section. Information about events based around the stadium at meeting places

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

07


such as pubs, and community centres, will be gathered and analysed to determine what effect the new stadia have on the community. Research methods will include: • One on one conversations with school teachers, business owners, and local residents • Questionnaires circulated around specific areas to gauge how far the problems/success has spread • Visiting the stadia in order to gather first hand experience and information 3500 Words Fig. 9 - The Arsenal Team run out onto the turf at the Emirates Stadium http://anhso.net/data/8/huuhungnd91/335824/emirates_stadium_players86157.jpg

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

08


Anticipated Conclusion

Draw together all the main points covered in the dissertation, analysing the most useful information, and most fruitful information gathering techniques. A comparison will take place with a subjective outcome, deciding which stadium has been the most successful in design and effect on the community. Both subjects will be criticised as well as praised, forming a concise and fact based conclusion. 2000 Words

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

09


Annotated Bibliography

Thompson P., Tolloczko J. J. A., Clarke J. N. [1998] Stadia, Arenas & Grandstands. London. E & FN Spon This book examines the impact of recent Government legislation in the UK, the social , planning and design complexities of stadia design and, through recent examples and discussion of current design technology, suggests a way forward for the creation of imaginative and sustainable stadia for the 21st century. The book looks at case studies from around the world, explaining design and planning motives and outcomes. Barclay P., Powell k. [2007] Wembley Stadium: Venue of Legends. London. Prestel The basis behind this book is to create a mental picture of the atmosphere created in the past and present Wembley stadia. The book also covers the sporting history of the great venue, reliving the most important finals, concerts and events held on the hallowed turf. Culley P., Pascoe J. [2005] Stadium Engineering. London. Thomas Telford Structure, materials, design are all aspects covered in this book. Characteristics such as designing for a PA System are explained, as well as other aspects such as line of sight, seating arrangement, are also uncovered, among many others. Channel 5 UK [2004]. 25 min. Building the Ultimate: Stadium. DVD This recording explains in visual detail the process of stadium construction, showing the amount of preparation and planning needed to create a masterpiece such as Wembley Stadium or the Emirates Stadium.

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

10


Image References Fig. 1 - The world famous image of Sir Bobby Moore hoisted on the shoulders of his team mates, moments after the England football team secured the 1966 Jules Rimet FIFA World Cup Trophy after a 4-2 controversial victory over West Germany in the final at the now demolished Old Wembley Stadium. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/02/sports_stadiums/image/wembley1.jpg Fig. 2 - Drawing of Wembley Stadium from the proposal by Foster and Partners http://www.bdonline.co.uk/Pictures/web/x/o/p/Foster_Wembley_ready.jpg Fig. 3 - Jean-Leon Gerome - Pollice Verso (1872) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jean-Leon_Gerome_Pollice_Verso.jpg Fig. 4 - Fans in the lower concourse preceding the 2-1 victory Arsenal managed over Manchester United, 21st January 2007 http://www.flickr.com/photos/shields_t/365203502/sizes/l/in/photostream/ Fig. 5 - Emirates Stadium at twilight http://www.resimvadisi.com/resim-komik-bebek-resimleri-10620.htm Fig. 6 - Wembley Stadium at sunset http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/02/sports_stadiums/image/wembley1.jpg Fig. 7 - Drawing of a Masterplan of the surrounding area of the New Wembley Stadium http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/render.aspx?siteID=1&navIDs=1,6,12,1350

Channel 5 UK (2005). Seven Wonders of Ancient Rome. 60 min. Channel 5 London. DVD. This recording gives a history of the Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Revealing physical details about the massive structure, as well as information about how it was used by the citizens of ancient Rome.

Fig. 8 - Visualisation of the development of Wembley community by Quintain Estates & Development plc http://www.skyscrapernews.com/imagesall.php?idi=Wembley%2BStadium&ref=267&selfidi=267WembleySta dium_pic7.jpg&self=nse&no=7&x=48&y=26 Fig. 9 - The Arsenal Team run out onto the turf at the Emirates Stadium http://anhso.net/data/8/huuhungnd91/335824/emirates_stadium_players86157.jpg

‘Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?’ Wembley Stadium vs. Emirates Stadium Jonathan F. Hughes

07039013

Dissertation Synopsis

Module: U30099

11

Has regeneration of stadia completed or destroyed a community?  

3rd year degree dissertation synopsis looking at two case studies, identifying whether the building of the stadia has helped or hindered the...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you