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Pan American Unity

Diego Rivera is internationally acknowledged as one of the 20th century’s most import-

ant muralists and influential artists. He gave the people of the San Francisco Bay Area an extraordinary work of Pan American art and an inspiring vision of Pan-American Unity. His grand, 22’ high and 74’ long, mural, is entitled “Unión de la Expresión Artistica del Norte y Sur de este Continente” (The Marriage of the Artistic Expression of the North and of the South on this Continent). It is a sweeping synthesis of the art, religion, history, politics, and technology of the Americas that is as timely now as it was sixty years ago.

Rivera painted this masterpiece, now commonly called Pan American Unity, in 1940 as

part of the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay. He was commissioned by the organizers of the 1940 Golden Gate International Exposition to paint a large-scale fresco during the run of the fair. It was the centerpiece of Art in Action, an innovative exhibit where fairgoers could watch artists create their work.

After the fair closed, the mural was intended to be placed in the new library of San Fran-

cisco Junior College (now City College of San Francisco). This library was part of a grand architectural plan developed by Timothy Pflueger, a prominent local architect, one of the organizers of the fair, and Rivera’s patron and friend.

World War Two interrupted these plans. Pflueger’s library was never built and the ten

panels of the mural were crated and stored first on the fairgrounds and then at the College until Rivera’s death in 1957. That year, Milton Pflueger, Timothy’s younger brother, proposed to install the mural in the lobby of the new campus theater. The mural was moved into this lobby in 1961.

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Housing the Pan American Unity. Designing a space that house the mirror ( function ).

This space also has to present the idea that Diego Rivera was trying to display.

Here is a brief description of my design process from the first series until now. I cate-

gorize my ideas in two different groups: The visual interpretation from the mural which has been with me from the beginning, and my own interpretation that I have discovered after doing some research.

The visual interpretations are

Transition : I have tried to have that quality from the beginning in all my models, transition from a form to a different type of form. ( ILLUSTRATION 1 )

People : I have tried to from all the objects on my models by smaller elements which represent people, the influence of humans on their lives. ( ILLUSTRATION 2 )

My own interpretations are

Freedom ( Equality ) : Diego had a very radical political view. Before painting Pan American Unity he had painted many other murals to illustrate the message of freedom. Some of his works were not shown for many years like dream of Sunday in alameda. When he was invited to San Francisco for the last time to paint, he didn’t want to give up on his ideology so this time he painted more conservative. But still you can see many evidences that he is trying to illustrate the same message. This time he didn’t paint the mural as he did before. Instead of painting harsh images like slavery, compression, corruption, immorality and anarchy, he created two different environments in order to show the contrast of the quality of life between these two different worlds. In the first world, which is the top of the first and last panel, people are tied to materials. They are slaves of their own belief, and trying to earn material. The cylinder shapes are trying create the same environment with different influences. In the second world, which is San Francisco at the top of the third, fourth and fifth panel, people are enjoying their lives, doing art and sport, Helen Crlenkvich represents the sense of flying. ( ILLUSTRATION 3 )

Rivera in Pan American Unity let people choose and decide in opposite of all his

works he had done before. He didn’t give the direct message like before but his radical view prove that he definitely illustrate the freedom. He was a communist that’s why he was doing murals.

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As Rivera claims “ doing arts from our own emotions “, I want to develop my design pro-

cess from my own point of view. Transition, People, Personal Freedom and Equality are my major concerns.

TRANSITION ( ILLUSTRATION 1 )

FROM

TO

Clay

Material

Steel

Untamed nature

Nature

Developed land

Traditional society

Evolution

Industrial society

Sculpturing

Creativity

Invention

Ancient

Time

Groups

People

Modern Individuals

PEOPLE ( ILLUSTRATION 2 )

Transition from past to future is

Rivera always has humankind

I believe this image is trying to

creating by people’s abilities.

at the center of his works and

show the ability of humankind

tries to emphasize over the in-

to fly.

fluence of people on societies.

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FREEDOM ( ILLUSTRATION 2 ) The left image shows how religion controls people.

The right image shows people are so busy to earn

they are slaves of

material that forget

their own beliefs.

enjoying their lives.

Even the cylinder shape is the clue that emphasizes on similarity of these two worlds.

On the other hand at the middle part, which is the city of San Francisco, Rivera illustrates happy people who are seeking to enjoy their moments. They are busy with sport and art. Even Hellen Crlenkvicch is symbol of personal freedom that can make you fly.

So by these three ideas Transition, People and Personal Freedom I’ve started my

design process. I need to mention that I’ve added the Idea of Freedom after I did some research. That quality can be found on iteration number 5 and the next series. I’ve tried to display that quality by creating contrast and let people decide and think.

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MODEL # 1

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

My first model is trying to show a path from past to the future. People ( gray strip ) encircles and shape the quality of their own lives ( transparent material ). From left which is past to the left which is future we are losing density ( we are not certain about the future )

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

What I really like about this model is creating the quality I am looking for in the most minimal way.

REFLECTION

It is too simple ! There is not any connections in my work. It just made of two pieces and this simplicity doesn’t represent the message very well.

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MODEL # 2

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

I am trying to represent Water drop circles. Trying to show how much we have influence on their own lives.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

I like the material I used but still the whole thing is only made of one single material. That doesn’t give me a chance to create more complexity. I will try to take the quality of repetition in my future models.

I should stop thinking about actual buildings. This model and specially next one have tendency to be buildings. Gesture models only reflect our notion, they are not actual buildings.

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MODEL # 3

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Simplicity is my main goal in this iteration because I believe we already have a treasure inside this space so I dont want to design something that eliminate the values of the mural by distracting the visitor. A transparent path with a solid core.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

No walls No floors No roofs, Stop making actual buildings.

Even though I am trying to present simplicity, I think this model is so simple and boring. I can’t see any relationship between the mural and this model.

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MODEL # 4

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

I ma trying to make a more complex model. I still want to have the pathway and also want to show the influence of people on their lives. The posts that are holding the pathway come from the future and people ( black string ) are tightening the future and past together. they rely on each other. The path way is more elaborate in the past. Sand paper represent untamed nature in the past whereas tall posts displaying human eager in the future.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

I could make a more complex model but still need to add more connection and make ir more complex. I used foam sheets for the first time. I like the interaction between foam and string. I will use that quality on my future models. REFLECTION On this model there is a gap between my idea about transition and the model. my work doesn’t represent the message very well. and there is no connection between this model and the last series. 9


MODEL # 5

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Black string ( people ) shape the society ( the circular shape ). The compression of each individual shaped a circle.( front view ). and also I have the quality of transition from a thin part to Think part.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

By using the same technique of my last model I made this model. The biggest weakness comparing to my last model is I reduce the complexity.

It is too simple ! I need to make it more complex. I need to add different types of materials then think about how to connect them together.

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MODEL # 6

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

The main core which is half of a circle ( side view ) represent a society that is enclosed by pressure. As gradually those layers getting far a way from tension, they become more loose. I definitely wanted to have the idea of freedom in this model.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Still to simple. They are simple plans that dont really create space.

The side view remind me of my second iteration, I brought some idea from my last works and represent them in a different way.

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MODEL # 7

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

The idea of transition is obvious on this model. Transition from a solid core ( foam board ) to a transparent material. I wanted to create two different quality in a same solid shape and compare them. Ans also Transition from a perfect square to a triangular shape.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

The whole model is based on a wooden stick that does not represent anything for me. In contrast of my last models that the whole thing was shaping by small individual elements! I want that quality back. I definitely want to take this type of transition to my next models ( from square to triangle ) This can be a beautiful individual model. There is no connection between this model and my last series !

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MODEL # 8

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

I believe on this model I have all the quality I wanted. Creating a society with equal individuals that shapes a perfect circle, shows the influence of each individual. On the other hand a smaller circle the only has tension at the center, represent a society that is creating base on the center. Then by placing them close to each other I create contrast and between them as Rivera was trying to do that in the Mural.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Even though this model is simple as well as my last models, I definitely want to apply this quality on my next models because I believe this can my best start point.

It is very similar to iteration number 5. The tension and compression and the effect of them on the foam is great. 13


MODEL # 9

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Here I have the same idea like my last model but I am trying to evaluate different approaches.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

It is too similar to my last model.

REFLECTION

I am stuck !

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MODEL # 10

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This is a combination of iteration number 8 and 6. I want to represent the idea of freedom more powerful.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

I am stuck !

The layers dont have any structures so they dont stand up by themselves! It is two dimensional. And I am not creating any space. This looks more like a plain.

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MODEL # 11

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Again this is base on iteration number 6. This time I wanted incorporate all the other quality I had on my last series. The quality of freedom is my main concern. A solid core ( a society under pressure ) and then when they move further they become more loose. And the last piece I believe is tending to fly.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

I found the way to sew the first piece. I like that and I am going to use that on my next series.

REFLECTION

Because there is no gap between the pains, I couldn’t create a space. I need to have gaps between them and find the way to connect them together ( structure ) there is lack of structure in my models.

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MODEL # 12

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This time base on my 7iteration I wanted to have transition from a square to a triangle. from side view you can see a triangle that shaped by small individuals. Even though they are holding the layers, they are not as powerful as the layers. this society creates by people but they are not important as their social level are .On the other hand from back view you can see a square , in that society people ( individual gray cardboard ) are more important.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

For the first time I tried to more than two different elements on my work.

REFLECTION

Do Not Start over ! 17


MODEL # 13

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

I am seeking to make a more complex model. Trying to have more different pieces and make connection between them.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Do Not Start Over !

I like how metal mesh shaped the foam. But ! because I wanted to have more complexity I totaly forget the main idea and I started over. I wanted to evaluate different possibilities but that was not a good time to do that experiment.

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MODEL # 14

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This night I was about going to cry ! because I had many different types of model that dont talk to each other. I struggling to find a way to make a model that represent all the quality that I have on my last models and also make it more complex.. A transition from square shape ( equal individual ) to a triangle (tension at the center ). This transition creates by people ( black string ) As they are more under pressure the society becomes more close !

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

I feel , it’s still simple. It only looks interesting from one or two different angle.

REFLECTION

I am back in the correct direction. I only need to make it more complex.

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MODEL # 15

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

The whole thing comes from my last iteration. This time I wanted to show the dark influence ( dictator ) on the society as well as peoples. And started to bringing back the path way and show how that shaped by tension and compression.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Still It is too simple ! I need to make it more complex

I think it is too similar too my last model. Sometimes I feel I dont understand the border between getting stuck and starting over. I either start over or get stuck !!

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MODEL # 16

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Again this was an experiment. I have the same idea but trying to represent in different shape.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

It is not similar to my last models.

REFLECTION

Do not start over !

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MODEL # 17

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This is definitely base on my last models. This time I added wooden stick to hold everything together. Transition from Square to Triangle and reflecting on each other.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

This time I eliminate the black string which is a part of my design language. I definitely want them back in my next series. This is the first time my model doesn’t have base !

It seems this time I could meet the minimum but still need to make it more complex and in order to do that I need to add more different types of material and have a structure for them.

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OVERLAYS FROM THE LAST ITERATION

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INTRODUCING THE JOB SITE

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Mural

Visual interpretation :

Transition

People

My own interpretations :

Personal freedom

Equality

My emotion

Time

History of the site :

Water reservoir

Science Hall

Parking lot

MUB Building

Axis (respond not to follow)

Dealing with losing the accreditation

By looking to the future and respect to the past create a space that belongs to

this era

Nature of the site

Sun

Wind

Slope

Not the slope of parking lot by itself but the slope starts from Science Hall to the

secondary parking lot and goes all the way to the ocean

Slope in San Francisco as Rivera has that quality in Pan American Unity

Water

San Francisco and Treasure Island surrounded by water as Rivera has that

quality in the mural

The old water reservation (reservoir)

People

Humans are one of the most significant quality in the mural as well as I believe people

are the ones who define the purpose of the buildings.

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MODEL # 18

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

After introducing the site I wanted to make a model that have all building around the job site to see the relationship of my design with the whole.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Even though the model is not very accurate but I could see the relationship of the buildings around with my model.

Because this model is too small I was not be able to show any details about my work.

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OVERLAYS FROM THE LAST ITERATIONS TO DESIGN A NEW MODEL

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MODEL # 19

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This models is based off my iteration number 17. Transition from a shape to a different shape. trying to find a way to tight my model to central axis not directly because If I do that This axis will change the San Francisco forever. I wanted to incorporate water.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Even though I am trying to present simplicity, I think this model is so simple ans boring. I can’t see any relationship between the mural and this model. Everything in on the ground, I want to dig more deep down.

I need to find a way to design a structure for the plains. In real world we dont put a giant piece of slab on the roof. As I am thinking about incorporating a structural system the whole thing will be more complex. 28


MODEL # 20

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This is my last model of this series so far. I see this model as good base to start and develop because I’ve brought all the qualities I had on my last models except black string ( people ) which is a really important element in my work. On the top view you can see the line that come off from the central axis. And curved lines that point to Treasure island. And that last series of lines that pointing to Golden Gate Bridge. The whole design comes from the origin point.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

I still need to incorporate the black string system in my work. They are essential parts of my work. For the next moel I am not allowed to use any cardboard. I need to use different material that doesn’t come in large sheets. I need to create the plains with smaller pieces that join together by a structure. 29


MODEL # 21

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

There was a big problem with my last model ! The model was still simple. Model number 20 was a good point to start. It had potential to growth. So base on last model, I started to add more complexity and to find a way to form the structure. And also I wanted to use the middle slab as a secondary floor to give the viewer this opportunity to experience the mural from a different point of view.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

Not only there was nothing new about this model but I also lost some of the qualities that made my work interesting on last model ! I could discover some structural methods that could help me to build my model more realistic and complex. I could bring back the black strings and get them incorporated. This was a big failure. I unconsciously sterilized my last model to an very unattractive model. I have to go back to my last model and try to have all those qualities in my next model while I add more complexities. 30


EXPERIMENT DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES TO FIND A STABLE STRUCTURE

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MODEL # 22

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

Again, base on model number 20, I started to explore a new structural technique. This time I used the black string as an element that created tension as I have the same quality on my first models .The black string holds that basswood in place. In fact, the compression bends the basswood. I could bring back the same language of my gesture models in this model.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

The most important achievement in this models is, I could introduce new elements by making a more complex structure. Main columns then cross beams and the element which is joists. Still I need to make it more dense and complex. Maybe I should make a mess. Beside that another critical issue is, there is no relationship between the mural and the whole structure. I have that relationship in my mind but I could not present it properly. 32


INCORPORATING BLACK STRING AS AN STRUCTURAL ELEMENT TO CREATE COMPRESSION

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MODEL # 23

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

I wanted to create a stable structure of the cantilever from my last model, and also add secondary spaces. My biggest concern was, trying to tight the mural to the whole building. Trying to strengthen the relationship between the mural and the space. The other significant aspect about this model is, I was trying to respond to the west wind by making the model in way that reduce the resistance to the wind.

STRENGTH & WEAKNESS

REFLECTION

While we are making models, we have to incorporate another media to present our works, pencil drawing. They helped me a lot to establish my concept design and move to the second phase which was locating the secondary spaces such as restrooms, cafe, meeting room and office space.

I have the same size rooms in my floor plan which are shaped by the force of me concept design. I dont need to have the same amount of space for meeting room and restroom. 34


The forces of nature altered my design in a way that responds to them

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MODEL # 24

TOP VIEW

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

PERSPECTIVE

DESIGN CONCEPT

This is the last chance to develop the design via drawings and models. I am still working on the structure to make it stronger and bring all the qualities from my gesture models in this version. My main focus was on the drawing. Trying to develop the secondary spaces and also circulation. I introduced a new vertical access to the second floor on the drawings. The biggest change in this new drawing is, introducing the secondary entry and try to break the force of the simple pattern on my design. STRENGTH & WEAKNESS Although the model looks more sophisticated than earlier version, the whole design need to alter in a way to introduce new spaces. I have achieved that in my drawings but I need to reflect that on my model as well. REFLECTION Architecture is not only about beauty. The beautiful geometry pattern is forcing my design not to satisfy the functionality of the building. 36


Shifting to a more functional approach. Developing the space base on needs not base on design circumstance. Introducing the vertical access ans also the secondary entry.

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Final Design

On the last stage, I need to go over some of the concepts that had the most influence on my design although I already included those ideas in the first part of my portfolio. Traditional society << Transition >> Modern society

Religion << versus << Personal Freedom >> versus >> Materialism Trying to show the contrast between these two societies. The one on the right has created by equal individuals which is a more grown up society. The one on the left that has a tension at the center represent a society has shaped by compression.

This is my last gesture model before we were given the job site. Again, the model is trying to represent the transition from a perfect square to an triangle. Creating to different types of society by different forces.

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I have brought my gestural language from the early iterations and then applied to new series of the models. Transition from a perfect square to an triangle and the contrast between these two shapes.

This map show the primary lines that shaped my design. The black line is coming from Treasure island. The mural located on the secondary central axis that is broke by the landscape and the intersection.

West Wind Slope

Trea sure Islan d

My final model has the same gestural language but the forces of nature and the site altered the design in a way that respond to them. And also in the last step in order to make the building functional I changed some parts of my design such as introducing the secondary entry, creating a bridge over the pool, adding restroom area under ground.

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I wanted to invite people from north side and have them walk to south to experience the space and get closer to the treasure ( the mural ) but I could not deny the fact that the south side which is face to MUB is busier and has more human traffic. So I decided to enter the people from two different sides , north and south. But they have to take the same pathway to get to the mural.

The first column, that brings two beams together, creates a gate on the central axis. The triangular space underneath this part of structure can function as a kiosk that has information desk.

People enter from the biggest opening which is faced to MUB building and the central axis, but in order to get close to the mural they have to walk throw the building. And also the second entry which is close to ArtX building invite more people to the building.

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The secondary entry can function as a small informal amphitheater. No mater which entry people enter, they have to cross the bridge and step up in order to get close to the mural.

When visitors enter the building, they can see an blur image of the mural. The mural is covered by columns. In fact every time they want to see the mural, there is a column that block their view and that provokes peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emotion. They want to get closer to solve this puzzle.

Visitors can not see the mural when they enter, the slabs block their view. When they walk toward the mural, they can complete the puzzle. They can solve this puzzle as they are walking toward the mural.

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The office space is located behind the mural. In fact people who take care of the building and mural are in a place that mural can leans on them. The office has two entry, one close to main entry and the second one is from the lower level next to the mural.

Locating the Cafe close to open space and the pool gives this opportunity to visitors to experience two different environments, open space and close space. And also Cafe can work separate from the building even the time that building is closed.

The restrooms are located close to the cafe and also in open area. I located the restroom at the longest distance from the mural to avoid people destruct from viewing the mural.

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Office


The lowest roof which is the first roof from the north, gives this opportunity to visitors to experience the mural from two different view.

There are two main shafts that function as primary access to the higher level. They can be stair cases or elevators. I did not completely cover the slabs in my models, because I wanted the mural space been seen. Eventually all the three slabs have to cover and transform to a solid form. They will be green roofs except the lower level that is the secondary view point.

Eventually the roofs transfer to green roofs that have horizontal stripes that let the south light in and block the north light.

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44


45


46


47


48


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My own emotion

Rivera claims that good art works come from artists emotion. The relationship of each elements in this work to the whole is trying to illustrate the human revolution from the past to the future. The first slab which is the highest slab and has a set of vertical columns represents a traditional way of architecture. As we move to the north, we face to a more contemporary architecture. In fact the third and lowest slab has a set of angled columns. Then the next set which is located in the pool do not support any slabs. The whole design is questioning this human development toward an uncertain future. Most of the time we forget to respect to nature and destroy the nature to feed our own needs. But it should be acknowledged that we wont have a sustainable architecture if we do not consider the negative impact of our developments on nature. The last set of columns represent an uncertain future that still surrounded by the force of nature. 50


Presentation I presented my design process in four rows. The first row describes how I moved from the mural to my gesture models. And then the second row shows how the job site altered my design. My charcoal drawings and pencil sketches had the most influence over my design to make the building more functional. And the last row is my final digital drawings and also a few interior elevations to give the audience the notion of experiencing the space.

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Conclusion

Architecture is not only about beauty. Creating beautiful models does not create a good condition for living. There are many other aspects besides the beauty. The half of the semester I was trying to make beautiful models. When we moved to the second phase and started to make the building more functional, I realized that my models were so simple that I could not have secondary spaces next to them. So I started adding more space and breaking the fixed geometry. It was hard at the beginning but when I saw the result, I was amazed. And also I learned the design process is a big part of architecture. Ordinary people see only the result but the design process and the ideas behind the work create a stronger art work. Definitely in the next step I will start working with a different perspective.

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Special thanks to Mr. Chandler who made me recognize the difference between architecture and sculpture. He changed my wrong perception toward architecture, I had thought that architecture is only creating beautiful works. This was the most compelling lesson I learned during the semester. And also thanks to all the amazing and supportive classmates that were patient with my weak English skills.

I will miss Arch 102 and all the nights that stayed up until morning ...

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Final Portfolio Arch 102