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Shuying Wei 20TH CENTURY ART AND DESIGN 502-AH3-AS sect. 02506

ANALYSING ESSAY OF ARTIST MOVEMENTS BY SHUYING WEI

Present to Kathryn Kelly

LaSalle College Feburary 19th, 2013


Table of Contents Post-impression-----------------------------------------------------------------------------01 Fauvism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------08 Futurism---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 Cubism-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 Art Nouveau----------------------------------------------------------------------------------30 Abstract----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38 Dadaism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45 References------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51


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INTRODUCTION OF POST-IMPRESSION

Post-impression is a sect of western painting. In the end of 19th century, Artist who has encouraged by impressionism, had begun to oppose it. Those artist were not just satisfied with pursuing light and color using. They emphasized an art should be subjectively express the thoughts and feelings of artists, so that they tried to pay attention to the factors of colors and shapes, and used them for expressing their emotions. One of the most representative artist is Vincent van Gogh(1853-1890). Vincent van Gogh is a Dutch painter. He was born in a poor family so that his art is all about the busy, hard and ordinary life. His color using is bright and his brushwork has lots of movement. Vincent van Gogh’s art was not approbated by people in the beginning, but after people started to understand his art. His art is full of the desire of beauty, kindness and freedom. His masterpieces are “The Starry Night”, “Still Life:Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers”, “Wheatfield with Crows” and so on.


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PAINGTING:STARRY NIGHT

Painting: The Starry Night Artist: Vincent van Gogh Year:1889 Type:oil on canvas Size:73.7cm× 92.1 cm (29 in × 36in) Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York City


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The Starry Night has well explained the landscape that Vincent van Gosh saw. It's a silent night sky and contains lots of stars , mountains and houses. From the top of this painting, all factors on the sky is made of round shapes, like the moon and the stars. By the way, every brushstroke seems so broken and wavy, but they're also impressive, it’s very clear to see where and how do the lines strike, just like some lines of the sky, they gather to the middle of the painting. Those star on the sky have a kind of explosion. It represents a belief of christainity. Moreover, on the bottom of this painting there are some houses and mountains, Vincent van Gogh used dark blue, purple and yellow on almost the whole picture, it seems like Gogh was trying to express the sense of silence at night. The shape in black, which is like a tower is a church. It's different from other factors of the painting, the lines are moving fast , but it doesn't make it wired in the picture, it's successfully mixed into the silence night, and people fall asleep under the church’s protection. Vincent van Gogh painted “The Starry night” on the June of 1886 in St. Remy. At that time Vincent van Gogh’s nerves was breakdown, sometimes his mood is good sometimes is bad. When he was awake and able to thinking, he would spend lots of time to do his art. Actually Vincent van Gogh is not pleased with this painting, he has said there’s too many factors of exaggeration in this painting, what’s more the brushstrokes are so curly that seems like withered wood (1889). But now this painting is finally become one of Vincent van Gogh’s most well known artworks. Generally says, this painting has very unified shapes,colors and hues to describe the diverse natural world, what's more, it also reflected the vitality very well, just like what did Vincent van Gogh hope for his life, but Vincent van Gogh still loves human and nature,this painting also represents his enthusiasm of his life.


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PAINGTING:SUNFLOWERS

Painting: Sunflowers Artist: Vincent van Gogh Year:1888 Type:oil on canvas Size:92.1cm× 73 cm (36.2 in × 28.7in) Location: National Gallery, London


05 On the February of 1888, Vincent van Gogh came to Arles. His had lots of inspiration during this time, and he began to like the sunflowers. Sunflowers stands for the sun, they are hot and beautiful just like Vincent van Gogh’s attitude towards life. Vincent van Gogh had built atelier in Arles, only few artists were willing to join him. Paul Gauguin(1848-1903) was one of those person who responded to Vincent van Gogh, they lived together all the time. Vincent van Gogh drew lots of sunflowers in order to show his gratitude to Paul Gauguin and decorate their atelier. During that period, this piece of “Sunflowers” is the most representative art even Paul Gauguin is appreciating for it. The composition of “Sunflowers” is 15 sunflowers inserted in the vase, the whole thing is right on the middle of the canvas. Sunflowers take the largest space and the vase is also the axis of the canvas, this composition exactly shows the theme of this painting. Vincent van Gogh was very carefully to consider how these flowers distributed, what size are them and how to spread or gather them. Also, he paid lots of attention to the length and direction of these sunflowers. This painting is mainly colored by blond and brown. The brushwork in this painting is heavy, the veins are like engraving on the slime. The lines, shapes, color using and hue, even the brushstrokes and the painting techniques are all expressed Vincent van Gogh’s feeling of experiences through his life. These sunflowers are blond, they are burning and leaping and full of enthusiasm. They’re brilliant, they have lots of vitality, but on the other hand, when Vincent van Gogh express hope and sunshine in this painting, at the same time he expressed that all of those things go so fast and hard to retain just like the time. This is what the most of the artists thought before they end their hard and short life.


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PAINTING:WHEATFIELD WITH CROWS

Painting: Wheatfield with crows Artist: Vincent van Gogh Year:1980 Type:oil on canvas Size:50.2cm× 103 cm (19.9 in × 46in) Location: Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam


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“Wheatfield with Crow” is pained by Vincent van Gogh in July, 1890 in Auvers. The whole scene of this painting is full of commotion. A green narrow road goes depth and far away, it added more of emotions such as trepidation and excitement. It also explained a kind of tension and bad omen, just like a suicide note. It os said that “Wheatfield with Crow” is the last painting of Vincent van Gogh. During this period, Vincent van Gogh lived with a doctor named Jan Hulsker(1907-2002), the pain of illness made him felt nervous and despair. He always doubted that he would fall into the ditch and die with Jan Hulsker. But Vincent van Gogh still wanted to draw something, he is still looking for the sense of art. Finally, he fell ill again and committed suicide, on 29th, he stoped his breath. There is a catcher which is opened up by three branch roads on “Wheatfield with Crow”.this painting does not have any viewpoint for center, the crows spread everywhere, they makes the painting looks more wide. Vincent van Gogh used three primary color and green to express the impression of this painting. The yellow in this painting looks very gloomy; dark clouds cover the blue sky, and press the blond wheat. Those crows are just some moving lines in black, they are heavy just like the weather. The theme of the painting is despair, trepidation, oppression and opposition. The brushstrokes are heavy and tough, they don’t mean any kind of images, they just a feeling of movement. Vincent van Gogh was trying to express the sadness and loneliness on this painting, so this painting has always been regarded as the notice of his death.


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In conclusion, I can feel the changing mood of Vincent van Gogh, I appreciate his desire of beauty and art. Every pieces of Vincent van Gogh’s art are filled with strong emotions, his life is hard enough but he always revolt to the destiny thought his painting, Vincent van Gogh’s paintings are not only shows the hard life he had spent, but also shows the beauty he had met, and how tenacious and strong lives that human have.

INTRODUCTION OF FAUVISM Fauvism is a trend of modern painting which started from 1898 to 1908 in France.Fauvism doesn’t have any clear theory or programme, but it shows the consequence of an specific art movement during a period of time. Artists whose painting style belongs to fauvism are always good at using bright and thick colors, they usually just squeeze pigment from the paint tube, paint in a rough and direct way, so it usually have strong effects on their canvas. Henri Matisse(1869-1954) is one of the cores in fauvism art movement. Henri Matisse usually use colors in graphic ways. He likes to make series of pure colorful pieces bu make up a balance in his painting. The modeling of hia painting is simple but the lines are bending and wavy, his painting seems very smooth, and reflects cheerful and relaxing emotions.


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PAINGTING:DANCE

Painting: Dance Artist: Henri Matisse Year:1909 Type:oil on canvas Size:259.7cm× 390.1 cm (102.2 in × 153.6 in) Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York City


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“Dance” was painted by Henri Matisse in a period between 1909 and 1910. “Dance” is his masterpiece, the theme is like its title, that means the colors he used in the painting is dancing on his canvas. The factor of “Dance” is similar to the pottery vase paintings in the old Greece. The pose of those dancer is referenced to the local folk dance. This painting doesn’t have too much details. There are five female dancers knob their hands and surrouded as a circle. Only few colors appear on his canva, all the canva is only bright cinnabar, green and blue. The lines are very smooth, that seems like those dancers bodies are relly moving. It’s plain but at the same time it has a little bit factors of fantasy. This painting is full of vigor without any sadness and annoyance. And it very abundant to express the essence of fauvism. When Henri Matisse was doing this painting, he brang his model to the coastal of Mediterranean. He said the emotion on this painting he had expressed is related to his cheerful mood when he first see the beautiful scene of the coastal. He has talked about the symbols and feelings of this painting. The blue is like the sky of the in the summer; the green can make people imaginate the grass; the cinnabar stands for the healthy bodies of human beings. Their untrammeled postures gave a strong enthusiasm of lives, this enthusiasm has directly convied to the viewers.


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PAINGTING:THE RED ROOM

Painting: The Red Room Artist: Henri Matisse Year:1908 Type:oil on canvas Size:180cm× 220 cm (70.9 in × 86.6 in) Location: Hermitage Museum, St.Peterspurg


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“The Red Room” is also called “The Dessert: Harmony in red”. It was painted in 1908. this painting is more peculiar and mysterious than impressionist artists such as Paul Gauguin(1848-1903). Henri Matisse only used one red piece without any decorations, limited the space f the room. Vines and plants are spread all over the wall and the desk in the room. They increased the dependence of the red piece on the canva. Those plant and trees outside of the room are abstract style, they are coordinating with background, the green grass and blue sky. On the top of the right, there’s another red house, which repeats the color that Henri Matisse used in the big room. Actually, this house has built a illusin of depth in this painting. It seems like the result of perspective, but it is not formal and traditional. From this painting, Henri Matisse gave up the traditional ways of perspective and add some ornaments which seems like the effcts of perspective. For example, the techniques he used on thewindow frame, the chair on the left, desserts on the desk and those patterns that surround the desk, are all explained a clean, palpable and marvelous world of painting by simple color using and affluent lines. “The Red Room” let the still lifes change into the ornamental patterns, the effcts of perspective is almost detached from this painting. Even the scene outside of the window is become one of those patterns, Henri Matisse used drak color to draw the line, they become pieces of crude shapes, and then he used a large piece of red no matter there is wall, floor or the desk, this technique of using color is very impressive.


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PAINGTING:WOMAN WITH A HAT

Painting: Woman With a Hat Artist: Henri Matisse Year:1905 Type:oil on canvas Size:79.4cm× 59.7 cm (31 in × 23 in) Location: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art


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“Woman With a Hat” depicts Matisse's wife, Amelie. It was painted by Henri Matisse in the year of 1905. the juncture that he draw this painting is in a exhibition which is known as "Fauves" at the 1905 Salon d'Automne. “Woman With a Hat” is the early fauvist painting of Henri Matisse. It is also the most famous painting of fauvist artworks. The form of “Woman With a Hat” is very exaggerate and wild. Henri Matisse used differet colors of pigments to cover all of the wall, those color were not in the regular pattern, every piece of those colors have strong sense of presents, the charactrics of them are really distinctive and clear. To see through the painting, the women on the middle is the theme that Henri Matisse wants to tell. All parts of the women are the same as the backgroud, they are full of irregular colors. The brushstrokes on her face are red and green-colored, they are very bold, the line of the painting was clearly sketched. squeezing pigment from the paint tube and paint on the canva seems very unrealistic, but it is a subjective way that Henri Matisse used for express his strong emotions. This painting also causes an impressive visual vibration. It has established a distinctl painting guidelines which is exactly different from the tradition.

In conclution, Henri Matisse’s art gives us a direct feeling of enthusiasm. He make his lines and colors dancing on his painting just as the wild beasts, more over, they are like most of the living things. Henri Matisse buit a kind of communication between our heart and his art, we are always desire to finding the rhythm and fountainhead of our lifes. I think Henri Matisse didn’t regard painting only as a job, he regarded it to be a part of his life so that even though the life is short, sometimes is might behard, but he would be more excited and comfortable.


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From this point of view, I think almost Henri Matisse’s art expressed the happiest lifes in the world.

INTRODUCTION OF FUTURISM

First Futurism appeared in Italy, 1907. An Italian composer named Ferruccio Busoni(1866-1924) had published a category of artist composition, it was regarded as a miniature of futurism. During 1911 to 1915, Futurism has became popular in Italy, Futurism coves all the forms of art such as painting, sculpture, poem, music, drama even streched to cook. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti(1867-1944) has shown his antipathy of obsolete thoughts and artistic tradition, he also pointed out that he likes industrialized outcomes, these scientific factors can develop the sosiety and make progress in the art filed. One of the followers of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti is Giacomo Balla(1871-1931). Giacomo Balla is an Italian painter, his style of paintings are always stereoscopic, fantastic and have lots of movements. Giacomo Balla’s art is praised by most of the reviewers during that period.


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PAINGTING: DYNAMISM OF A DOG ON A LEASH

Painting: Dynamism of a dog on a Leash Artist: Giacomo Balla Year:1912 Type:oil on canvas Size:91cm Ă—110cm Location: Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, America


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“Dynamism of a dog on a Leash” is one of Giacomo Balla’s painting which is painted in 1912. it was said that “Dynamism of a dog on a Leash”is his most famous and interesting artwork. On this painting, both of human and dog are in a situation of headway. Because of the high speed of their movement, the dog seems has many legs, the chians are increased as well. The woman’s feet and dress become series of

individuals with the dog’s chain. All the

painting has only a few colors, they’re black, dark blue, white and gray. Giacomo Balls used dark color to draw the woman and the dog in order to make them look unique anf easy to be recognized. He also used bright color like white to make larger difference between the moving things and the background. Also there are viens what covers on both the woman and the dog. They are also in a bright color so that it shows how they move clearly. The the lines has the same dorection, it represents the woman and the dog go very fast. The shapes of these licing things are regular, especially their feet, every pieces look similar, and they also the balance of the painting. This painting shows the continuity of memory of living things, it makes different kind of movements that comes from different moments, gather to the same canva, just like the negatives of a film. This technique directly shows movements of individuals even if it is clumsy and humorous.


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LINES OF MOVEMENT AND DYNAMIC SUCCESSION

Painting: Lines of Movement and Dynamic Succession Artist: Giacomo Balla Year:1913 Type:tempera on paper Size:58.4cm Ă—83.8cm Location: Private collection, NY, America


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In the year of 1913, Giacomo Balla changed his techniques of painting, on “Dynamism of a dog on a Leash”, Giacomo Balla used lots of shadows and same shapes to express movement. In “Lines of Movement and Dynamic Succession”, Giacomo Balla used the technique which is like the abstract style. He drew lots of irregular pieces and lines to make up meaningful signatures, then these shapes have been orgnized and become the theme of the whole paingting. From “Dynamism of a dog on a Leash”, There are lots of straight lines, these lines has made up different and irregular shapes, then they became the background of the painting.in the middle of the painting, many of sawteeth oblique lines gathered together and made up another kind of bird shapes, then they distributed as an arc, it also like the thunder. This kind of composition reflected the high speed of the birds and vitality of living things. The perps, oblique lines interlace and depend on eachother, it create the innervation very well. Bright red, yellow, white set off gloomy gray, brown. Also it makes a strong contract between each kind of colors. Giacomo Balla used the factor of lines, color and shapes make graphs to decorate the painting, not just show the direction of movements, but it is still based on it. This painting express a strong power of natual, and it has lots of innovate factors.


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PAINTING: STREET LIGHT

Painting: Street Light Artist: Giacomo Balla Year:1909 Type: oil on canvas Size:174.7cm Ă—114.7cm Location:Museum of Modern Art, New York City


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“Street light” is the 1st art work of Giacomo Balla. It has discribed an important symbol of modern city. It is the steer light beside the road. During that period, Romam has already imported the electrict light for illumination. Giacomo Balla emphasized the vertigo raies that comes from the electricities, and regarded that as a kind of virtual matierial. The strong light of the street light has made a huge definition with the moon which sets on the right of the painting. In this painting, Giacomo Balla has really used the techique of division on his art. He used lots of red, yellow and green to creat a scene of refraction. Their shapes are all like “V”, refract from somewhere that has a center of a circle, and radiate to different places. The more close to the orign of the light, the more bright the raies are, they would become yellow and pure white when they exactly near the illuminant. On the other hand, Giacomo Balla used thin and short brushstrokes to draw the raies those are far from the illuminant. The corners are places that is the most far away form the illuminant, they are all in black. Giacomo Balla also circled the round shape of the street light to express the power of it because electric light is quiet a modern concept in Roman. “Street light” responsed the slogan of “resist the past and value the present” in the period of futurist movement. Some factors of the “Street light” is referenced to “Kill the Moonlight” which is wrote by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti(1876-1944). Because of this painting, Giacomo Balla and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti became good friends.

To conclude all of these painting, most of the favist art should be have different kind of patterns and idea. I think Giacomo Balla has lots of great idea, I feel the modern throughout his


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painting, I also like his smooth brushstrkes he could express the moving effects as well as we did by computer softwares nowadays. Not only Giacomo Balla but also foe modt of the futurist artists, they have ability to explore new things, even they could notice what and how will the art style change in the future.

INTRODUCTION OF CUBISM

In the early of 1908, the name of “cubism” was created by Louis Vauxcelles, a journalist of Gil Blas magazine. This style had become more and more popular. Pablo Picasso(1881-1973) is one of the famous artist who represents the style of Cubism. Pablo Picasso is an Spanish artist and sculptor. He is a member of France Communist Party. He is also a founder of modern art, the main representative person in western modern painting. Pablo Picasso is Spanish. His father is an an teacher. He has also been in art college for series of years, so he has amazing painting techniques and modeling capabilities. Pablo Picasso had the most famous and brilliant artworks during the period of Cubism. His masterpieces are such “Guernica”, “Boy with a pipe”and “Bottle, glass, violin”.


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PAINGTING:GUERNICA

Painting: Guernica Artist: Pablo Picasso Year:1937 Type:oil on canvas Size:349cm× 776 cm (137.4 in × 305.5 in) Location: Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain


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“Guernica” is one of the masterpieces of Pablo Picasso, this mural is for the decoration of World Exhibition or Exposition, also he drew it in order to commemorate the Spanish Civil War. It was in the year of 1937, the air force of Germany destroyed this town which is in Spain. They strafed around 3 hours, it caused lots of people dead. At the time, medias around the world strongly criticized this offense, Pablo Picasso felt very angry about this event, he used this event as a theme, then created the mural—“Guernica”. Now is has been 17 years after, “Guernica” is become a kind of symbol, a symbol of war and catastrophe. The tragedy of Guernica is also become a unforgettable memory of people. Pablo Picasso expressed the tragedies of wars and suffering of individual people by gathering cubism, realism and surrealism on “Guernica”. From the right of the mural, there is a man which is waving his hands, she falls down from the fire roof. Another women runs to the middle of the mural. On the left side of the mural, there is a child which is dead, the women who is crying, and holds him is his mother. A soldier lies on the floor and hold a sword, besides his sword is a blooming flower. There is a horse rights on the middle, it is killed by a lance. A cow rights on the left side, it exposes the head. There is also a bird between the cow and horse. Finally, on the top of right side, it is a person’s hand, which is holding a light, the light is flashing, it irradiates the whole scene of the war. Everything of “Guernica” is filed with black, white and gray, it shows a miserable condition, it is caused by bombing of Germans. The composition of “Guernica” seems very messy, sometimes it’s hard to recognize what is on the mural, but this kind of mess exactly expressed the chaos. To see this mural carefully,


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those lines have a quiet regular movement, each shapes of “Guernica” has a strict arrangement and order. A triangle rights on the middle of the painting, one of its edge clearly divided the whole picture into two pieces, each of the pieces come with a quadrilateral shape, they make the picture keep balance. What’s more, from the left to the right, “Guernica” emphasizes different factors. First it stressed the cow, second it turns to the horse and the light, third it is the person who holds a candle, finally is the nervous man. The color using also reflected the tensity and despair.


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PAINGTING:BOTTLE, GLASS, VIOLIN

Painting: Bottle, glass, violin Artist: Pablo Picasso Year:1912 Type: Charcoal and papers collage on paper Size: 56.4cmĂ— 75cm Location: Moderna Museet, Sweden


27 “Bottle, glass, violin” represents that Pablo Picasso started to use the style of comprehensive cubism. From this picture, there are some shapes that can be recognized as a bottle, a glass and a violin. They’re all collaged by card and newspaper. For cubism, all he things are divided into many different pieces, but these pieces can all become the bacis factor of the original objects so that they can be made up. But Pablo Picasso used an exactly opposite way to make this picture. Pablo Picasso was not start with the orignal object, then divided into factors. “Bottle, glass , viloin” is started with those basic factors such as the chords on the right and water in the glass. They turned to objective shapes, that means before the real shapes of the bottle, glass and violin are created, an abstract structure of the picture has already fixed up. Pablo Picasso didn’t use brushes to paint this picture, but used different kinds of paper and card as matierial like newspaper, wall paper and wood paper. On the one hand, these pieces expressed the another world which is out of the picture, on the other hand, these facors had orgnized and became their own world. Both aspects are independent, but they are also unified. Collaging is the one of the common techniques of expresstion in comprehensive cubism. Pablo Picasso had talked about it with Francis Gillot. “Using paper to collage objects is in order to point out that any substance can be put in the composition. It can be made up as reality. For example, if a newspaper could become a bottle, that would made us consider both benefits of newspaper and the bottle. One thing that becomes incompatible with the world it entered, is good for us to considering because we all realized that we live alone, and we are not at ease in the world.” (1988)


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PAINGTING:BOY WITH A PIPE

Painting: Boy with a pipe Artist: Pablo Picasso Year:1905 Type: oil on canvas Size: 100cmĂ— 81.3cm Location: private collection


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During the spring of 1904, Pablo Picasso moved to Paris. He settled down here and live with his girlfrend Fernand Olivier, this is the end of the “Blue Period” of his painting. Then his painting started enter the “Rose Period”, warm and bright rose pink had instead of the gloomy blue on his canvals. In the year of 1905, Pablo Picasso painted “Boy with a pipe”. This painting was sold for 104 million dollars at Sotheby's auction in New York City on May 5, 2004. The young boy on the painting named “Little Louis”. He sits on the right of the painting, wears a blue uniform and hold a pipe in his left hand, a garland was on his head. The back ground is two rose bouquets. This painting is very realistic without movement. Pablo Picasso used rose pink and blue to painted the whole canval. Pink is a warm color and blue is cold color, generlly said, I uauslly has conflict when different hues of colors mixed together. But “Boy with a pipe” doesn’t have this conflictIt, on the contrary, Pablo Picasso used warm colors as the background to prominent the blue charactrer, this kind of rose color looks a little bit Chinese style. It has a exquisite balance though the painting. Also this painting has a three-demensional feeling. All the shadows and high lights are clearly to see. The most impressive aspect is the boy’s ficial expression. His face is pale and looks gloomy, he also seems tried. But it doesn’t mean the painting has a sad theme. The bright background shows a warm and comfortable environment. Colorful roses are around the boy, it such likes he is sitting in a silent garden and felt asleep under the sunshine. Even if he doesn’t smile on his face, but he is in a relaxing situation. The garland on his head expressed more of the beauty of youth and lives. Many of expets said Pablo Picasso added it temporarily, but it makes the


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painting more harmonious and hyperchromic.

To concluding all of those painting, Pablo Picasso’s painting style has series of changes. That also means he had experienced many different events in his life, and his thoughts were changing all the time. From “Boy with a pipe” I see that Pablo Picasso drew more vivid and it represents the mood of him when he was fall in love with Fernand Olivier. In “Guernica”, I feel it is the best reflection of Pablo Picasso to oppose the wars, and his desire of piece. For “Bottle, glass, violin”, it shows the innovation of Pablo Picasso, The technique of comperhansive cubism is not traditional but it is logical and meaningful. In all, cubism is a unique style of art, different people might thought different when they were seeing this kind of painting so that it represents the value of cubism artworks.

INTRODUCTION OF ART NOUVEAU

Art Nouveau started in the year of 1880. the peak of Art Nouveau is the period from1890 to 1910. the name of ”Art Nouveau” is origned from La Maison Art Nouveau which is a store


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in Paris. The products in the store are all represent the theme of Art Nouveau. This movement is devided by two kind of styles. One of them is a straight style, the other one is wavy. It is used in graphic desin of decoration. Artists used smooth and graceful lines to present beautiful women, that is the reason why Art Nouveau was become more and more popular. The Art Nouveau has also affected on the design of buldings, furnitures and clothes, even in patterns and typefaces. One of the famous artist who joined this movement is Edvard Munch(1863-1944). Edvard Munch is an Norwegain artist, he is the pioneer of Expressionism, his art also has some factors of Art Nouveau. Edvard Munch’s art is very subjective and pessimistic, and his art usually seems like his is trying to call for something. Edvard Munch’s paintings have inspired many artists in France and Germany. Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse are artist who learnt knowledge through his paintings. Edvard Munch technique also has affected the development for German art movement. The masterpieces are “Skrik”, “The Frieze of Life”, “The Sick Child” and so on.


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PAINGTING:SKRIK

Painting: Skrik Artist:Edvard Munch Year:1893 Type: oil, tempera and pastel on cardboard Size: 91cmĂ— 73.5cm Location: National Gallery, Oslo, Norway


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“Skrik” is called “The Scream” in English. It was painted on 1893. it is also the tipical art of expressionism. The background of this painting is the Gunung Krakatau broke up in 1883, the red ash covered the sky. The place on “Skrik” is Oslo Fjord, the perspective of Edvard

Munch is looking down from Ekeberg. “Skrik” has shown the fear of doomsday. Edvard Munch used technique of exaggeration to discribed a creaming characer, which express the distortion. This technique has well explained the loneliness and sadness of human beings who is facing the stintless universe. On this painting, nothing can clearly imply the orign of the fear, the person who walk through the bridge just make people feel a kind of horror. He covers his ears and his body turned a little bit to the railing. He seems doesn’t hear the steps of the other two people behind him, also he cannot see the boats and the tower of the chruch. Because he doesn’t see and hear things ao he look very scared. That represents a lonley person who cut off the real world, his staring eyes and hollow checks make him looks like a skull. This painting even has some exaggerating brushstrokes, but it also has some realistic things. For example, the water is still blue, the tree is green and the sky is red, they don’t lose their charactricts. But the whole scene is full of depression. Especially for the sky, the red is justlike the blood, it gives a kind of uncomfortable notice. And the purple which is used in the loney person’s customs, white in his head and hands also bulid pale and dismal environment.


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PAINGTING:THE FRIEZE OF LIFE

Painting: The Frieze of Life Artist:Edvard Munch Year:1900 Type: oil on canvas Size: 151cmĂ— 228cm Location: National Gallery, Oslo, Norway


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“The frieze of Life” is pained from 1899 to 1900. this painting describes a gourp of people dance on the lawn of riverside, three women take the main space of the canvas, each of them stands for a phase of women. From the feft of the painting, there is a girl in white dress. She is good-looking and her smile is very innocent and pure. Some flowers bloom and surround her, they are also stand for the clean and honest of this girl. On the right on the painting, there is a women in black, she makes a contrast with the girl on the left. She folded her arms and looks lonely and gloomy, her dark colored dress reflects the sad emotion and darkness. These two females are both looking at the middle. On the middle of the painting, there are two person, one of them is a man and the other one is a women, they are dancing together and look very happy and enjoy. The long hair and dress of the women surrounds the man’s body, the man wears a drak suit, he also express the beauty of the woman. The red on the woman’s dress stands for the short and happy time of human’s life. Behind this three women, there are two couples of characters dancing behnid them, they stands for a more humble life of human. There is a moon which hangs on the sky, its reflection appears on the surface of water. The color using is also meaningful and keep balance od the whole scene. It said that the moon is the symbol of male, this issue are also reflceted on Edvard Munch’s other paintings. In all “The Fieze of Life” seems show three different period of women, actually all the human could have different kind of period during their life. Most of the charactriests is from innocence to aging, finally it falls into the depression as the age passed by.


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PAINGTING:THE SICK CHILD

Painting: The Sick Child(the orignal version) Artist:Edvard Munch Year:1886 Type: oil on canvas Size: 137cmĂ— 139cm Location: Tate, London


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“The Sick Chid” has painted in many times during different period. The orignal vesion of this painting if painted from 1985 to 1986. this painting recorede the death of Edvard Munch’s older sister Johanne Sophie (1862–1877) from tuberculosis at 15. Edvard Munch was veru sad about it and he has evented the painting over 6 times, finally, it was competed by the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch (1863–1944), between 1885 and 1926. in this painting, Sophie is lying in a bed. The person beside Sophie was her aunt Karen. She was holding Sophia’s hand and yielded. Karen is also suffered because the person beside her was dying, it also shows some other emotions of her, it might be an Inexplicable guilt, that caused she can not bear herself to look at Sophia’s eyes. The basic color in this painting are green and gray. The tone of Sophia’s hair and the green curtain behind her are cold. Edvard used many colors to painted the pillows which sould be white. Many colors are mixing toghether so that it is hard to see the orignal color of the issue. The scraches on Sophia’s pale skin are well explianed the weakness of her body, they also emphasized the contours of characters on the canva. However, those brushstrokes destroied the structure of the painting, some scraches are very heavy some are nt, it seems like a relief. So Edvard Munch was not just colored the painting roughly, color is also the way for him to express his emotion. This painting has represented the sadness of the artist, also represented the pessimistic attitude forward life.


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In conclution. Edvard’s art seem traditional but it also has some factors of exaggeration. His art always give notices by a realistic techniques. We can see lots of themes throughout his painting such as love, living things, sadness and death, but finally they would all fall into the fear and despair. Edvard Munch’s art usually give some shocks to our mind and it isdifficult to escape from the haze that are shown on his paintings. Edvard Munch had wrote in 1889, "No longer should interiors be painted, people reading and women knitting: there would be living people, breathing and feeling, suffering and loving." This amazing performace of Edvard Munch somes from the honest of his mind, Edvard Munch painted by both heart and soul.

INTRODUCTION OF ABSTRACT Abstract art is a movement that contains many different kind of art style, and gather them in to a whole thing. Abstract art movment started on the 20th century. This movements emphasized that the techniques should spread from the imitaion of nature. Actually this mvement has been take for a series of years, many artists are trying to break the rule of traditonal painting and seeking for somehing new, abstract painting is the epitomize of those artists’ painting style. After WW2, abstract art has become the most popular and particular art in the world. A Russian painter named Wassily Kandinsky(1886-1944) is the representative figure of abstract art.


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PAINGTING: BLUE MOUNTAIN

Painting: Blue Mountain Artist: Wassily Kandinsky Year:1809 Type: oil on canvas Size: 106cmĂ— 96.6cm Location: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York


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“Blue Mountain” is painted in 1809. Wassily Kandinsky has bulit an art organization with Franz Marc(1880-1916), it called “The Blue Rider” in Munich on the December of 1911, it was an orgaizaiton which focuse on expressionism, but the difference is that their techniques and styles are more than the traditional expressionism paintings. Artists who join The Blue Rider are more interested in the world which is unkonw. They want to give a feeling if misteries in theiir paintings. In some aspects, The Blue Rider are affected by cubism, futurism, and the folk art. “Blue Mountain” is created druing that time, it’s the early work of Wassily Kandinsky. “Blue Mountain” is a stipling and the theme of the apinting is scenery. There’s a road right on the middle of the painting, it is also the axis of the canca. The tree on the left side is in yellow and the one on the right side is in pink. On the middle of the painting, it is the blue mountain. Before the mountain, there are some riders, they are riding the horses and crossing the road. The color of the sky is colorful and very harmonious. Not only the sky but all color using is warm and romantic. The brushstrokes are all points. Wassily Kandinsky vwas ery careful to painted this work, he only pointed in mountains and trees, so that the contour of riders could be more clear, also it coaused the effects of movement. The charactristic of this painting is the romantic color-using. It referenced to the folk tales and myths of the old Russia, so it seems very pure and relaxing. Foe techniques, Wassily Kandinsky also referenced to the pointillism of Georges Seurat(1859-1891) and the colouration of Paul Gauguin(1848-1903). Finally it also refers to something about Art Nouveau.


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PAINGTING: COMPOSITION Ⅱ

Painting: Composition Ⅱ Artist: Wassily Kandinsky Year:1910 Type: oil on canvas Size: 97.5cm× 131.2cm Location: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York


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In the yea of 1910, Wassily Kandinsky have learnt some musical factors. He also used these factors into the “Compositin Ⅱ” . from this picture, everything is impromptu and lyric, just like notes of the sheet music. This painting is the first completely abstract painting of Wassily Kandinsky .The theme of “Compositin Ⅱ” is also scenery. There are three branch roads on the pianting, each brach roads has different scenery. From the lift side of the painting, there are some people, they are meeting on riverside; on the middle of the painting, the road straight streches and goes very far, it looks like the road is trying to reach the sky, under the road there’s a river, some people riding horses and cross the river. On the right of the painting. There’s also a rider, furthemore, some colorful fish and aquatic are under the waer. Behind these three branch road, they are mountains,houses and trees. Actually it very hard to recognize what is on the canva, all the things in the painting is becoming some rough color pieces and lines, they quiver and agitate each other, that makes a huge movement between lines and shapes.

All the factors of real things or traditional ideas disappeares, instead, Wassily Kandinsky used the way of fauvism to color the painting. He used many of large and pure colo pieces to express a shock in mental ways. The intension of Wassily Kandinsky is to abandon everything that comes from the nature and used the movements of simple lines, colors and spaces to make the visual effects.


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PAINGTING: COMPOSITION IX

Painting: Composition IX Artist: Wassily Kandinsky Year:1936 Type: oil on canvas Size: 113.5cm× 195cm Location: Musée National d'Art Moderne, France


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In the end of the 1933, Wassily Kandinsky settlered in paris until he died. But the numbers and the quality of his art are still rich and colorful during his last period. Generally saiys he continues to look for the freedom, the beautiful models and color of art. Somehow he also created something that has texture of living things, and they are more brilliant and manifold than the abstract paintings he had painted before. The shape of his picture all still clear and bright, however, those creations of shapes or colors come from his brainstrom. Wassily Kandinsky used two same triangles to devide the painting into two pieces in “Composition IX”. One of the trangles are rewinded. Wassily Kandinsky bulit a kind of mathmatical color foundation. The parallelogram between thses two triangles are devided again, it becomes four pieces of parallelograms those have the same space. Under this background, Wassily Kandinsky spread the rounds and boxes all over the painting, what’s more, there is a rectangle and a worm-shaped pattern set on the middle of the painting and made up a model. The colors of the background are bright such as red, yellow, green and blue and the colors of the model are dark such as black and brown, the smallest shapes are also bright. the superposition of the color and shape in the painting have a lot of balance and gradations. That also shows the contract of freedom(small pieces) and constraint(model).

In all, most of the relationships of art pieces in Wassily Kandinsky ‘s apintings are imaginated throughout his intuition of manifestations. Imagination is the start of abstract art, it is also the ending of it. Sometimes artists might draw lots of free and spread pieces on a solid


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colored background, but they have to control the using of different shapes to make the canva cleaner. Wassily Kandinsky’s painting during his last period of his life have completely expressed his skillful techinques of his drawing, those paintings are the most brilliant art in his life.

INTRODUCTION OF DADAISM

Dadaism is an art movement which appeared in France, Germany and Switzerland in the perios of 1916-1923. Dadaism is an art movement of Anarchism. This movement tried to repeal the traditional culture and aesthetics and seek for the truth. Dadaism is leading by a group of young artists and people who opponent to the war. After WW1, They have done series of protests and anti-aesthetics art to express their strong emotions like anger and dispair, to opponent the values of Bourgeois. Marcel Duchamp(1887-1968) is one of the

representative figures of dadaism. Marcel Duchamp was born on France, he transferred the nationality to America in 1954. he changed the precess of western art. After WW2, western art is basicly follow the idea of Marcel Duchamp. In New York, Marcel Duchamp is the core of Dadaim. His masterpieces are “Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2”, “The Large Glass” and “L.H.O.O.Q”.


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NUDE DESCENDING A STAIRCASE, NO.2

Painting: Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 Artist: Marcel Duchamp Year:1912 Type: oil on canvas Size: 147cmĂ— 89.2cm Location: Philadelphia Museum of Art,Philadelphia


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“Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2” is painted by Marcel Duchamp in 1912. Marcel Duchamp added “NO.2” on this painting because he didn’t satified with it. From 1911, Marcel Duchamp had learnt the art ofCubism and Fturism, he imitate the style of those art and draw some models of women, but he think they’re all dsatisfied. This painting has also shown on Armory Show in 1912, people called it as “the explosion of wood factory”. “Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2” is painted on a big bezel. There’re not any sexual dispriptions or characters. There is only the Mechanical schema with perspective. The middle line of this painting is an abtract horizon, there’s a chocolate mill on the bottom of the painting, it doesn’t have its real exterior, it is just a transparent wireframe of rectangle. There are seven cone drain sieves that are related to the pry. On the right side of the painting, they’re nine models that are related to those seven drain sieves. Marcel Duchamp called these thing as bachelor. They are whirling and that it a sense of “nothing can make them vent”. On the top the the painting, there are some shapes which looks like the signaling devices. They are related by pipelines, this shape stands for a depressive bride. She looks more flat than those machines on the bottom. Two parts of painting, a part is moving and the other one is keeping slient. It built a kind of sexual feeling. “Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2” is also the best art of Marcel Duchamp. It used machine to express the movements of livingthings, it said that this painting also has some sarcasm of sociology.


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THE LARGE GLASS

Art: The Large Glass Artist: Marcel Duchamp Year:1923 Type: Painting on two glass panels Size: 277.5cmĂ— 175.9cm Location: Philadelphia Museum of Art,Philadelphia


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“The Large Glass” is painted from 1915 to 1923. the special point of it is that this art is a painting on the glass by Oil, varnish, lead foil, lead wire, and dust. Marcel Duchamp spent 11 years to work on this painting in order to completely datched the traditional and habitual ways of painting. He used a new technique to express the opposition of tradion. “The Large Glass” is one of the most imprtant art of Marcel Duchamp. The glass of “The Large Glass” is devided by two parts. On the top of the glass, there is a bride, but they are just some broken pieces. On the bottom are bachelors. The shapes is like machines and they are complete and organized. All of the shapes is cafully drawed as a part of machine. Marcel Duchamp used machines’ shape to dscribe the iving things is in order to represent a kine of innovation. Artist should datch the conservatism and traditional discription of art because conservatism would kill their creation and as art, it should have more freedom. Actually, “The Large Glass” is the first try of Marcel Duchamp for drawing on the glass. Befor this art, Marcel Duchamp had never been learnt anything about glassy art. After Marcel Duchamp finished work on this art, he discovered that the galss has a special texture which is very ransparent and bright. the color on the glass is also brilliant. It caused a unique visual effect. Also, even if this painting doesn’t have background, the transparency of glass can also make people see through the full scenery of the painting even bigger than it self. People can even regard things outside of the glass as a part of its art so that the environment could be the backround of the painting. It represent the duality of art.


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L.H.O.O.Q

Art: L.H.O.O.Q Artist: Marcel Duchamp Year:1919 Type: oil on canvas Size: 19cmĂ— 12.7cm Location: Pravite Collection, New York


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“L.H.O.O.Q” is a reproduction of “Mona Lisa”. Which is painted by Marcel Duchamp in 1919. this painting makes Marcel Duchamp ecounter lots of critisizing in the filed of art. The name of “L.H.O.O.Q” is a sarcasm, in French, it is the homophonic of “elle a ehaud au cul”, means lascivious and dirt. Marcel Duchamp regarded Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519)’s classical and famous painting as a objects for ridiculing. That represented he was really disregard the tradition and constraints of art, and make the effects of dadaism to the extreme, also inspired artists who joined art movement in the future. “L.H.O.O.Q” is almost the same as “Mona Lisa”, the only difference is the face. Marcel Duchamp added beard on Mona Lisa’a face. Beard is a symbol of male, Marcel Duchamp transferred the factors of male into the female, this techinique is special but weird. This artwork even brang many trouble to Marcel Duchamp, but it still become one of the mst famous symbol of dadaism.

In coclution, the intension of dadaism is in order to destory the tradition art. It was born in chaos but it is also active in making chaos. They focused on break the differences between readymades and artwork; creator and viewer even the art and real lifes. those artists who is in the movement of dadaism would achieved their goal when everything was destroied. From 1922, defferences are becoming more and more obvious in dadaism. Finally, dadaism is disbanded and make their prophecy come true, ”Dadaism have to destroy itself as well”.


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REFERENCE Vincent van Gogh(1998). “Letter to Theo van Gogh”,Translated by Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, edited by Robert Harrison, NO.607. Tellegen(1966), “Annet: Vincent en Gauguin: schilderijenruil in Paris”, p. 42–45 Hulsker (1986), The Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches. p. 480. John Elderfield. Henri Matisse: A Retrospective. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1992. P.181. “Henri Matisse-the dessert: Harmony in red”,The International Financial news, 2004,NO.11 homas M.Messer, “Edvard Munch”,Harry N.Abrams,INC,Publishers,NewYork, p84 Eggum, Arne; Munch, Edvard (1984). “Edvard Munch: Paintings, Sketches, and Studies”. New York: C.N. Potter. Arnheim, Rudolf. (1973). “The Genesis of a Painting: Picasso's Guernica.” London: University of California Press. “Picasso’s ‘Boy with a Pipe’ sells for $104 million”, Entertainment-The Arts-TODAY.com, 2004 Sixten Ringbom,” The sounding cosmos; a study in the spiritualism of Kandinsky and the genesis of abstract painting”, 1970, p. 89 & 148a. Molderings, Herbert: "Duchamp and the Aesthetics of Chance",2010, p. 8

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