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Design for Sustainbility II Process Book Shu Ou Instructors Jonathan Abarbanel Heidrun Mumper-Drumm Spring 2017

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Brief Design of a lunar-based system of product/ service for the year 2030. The design will be an ‘Earth/Moon Partnership’ to enhance and extend life on Earth.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Outline Understand the Moon Human Waste Management Research LCA (ISS) Concept Development Final Design LCA of New Solution Conclusion Lunar Architeture Strategy Assignments Personal Consumption DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Understand the Moon We kicked off the project with study the article, Lunar Architecture (appendix a), to understand the condition of the Moon and lunar missions. At the same time, we did a broad research to find the area we’re interested in.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 1 Heath Care System It won’t be practical to staff a full-service hospital on the Moon until the population reaches several thousand people. Therefore, advances in tele-medicine serveice might be needed, so the crew-member on the Moon will be able to work in real time with specialist on the Earth through tele-communication for treatment.

Physiological Effects on LongDuration Space Missions Lack of gravity Radiation (solar flare/ cosmic radiation) Dust

loss of bone mass/ muscle immune system change

eye irritation respiratory cardiac decompensation

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 1 Heath Care System Needs & Opportunities Monitor & Detect

Earth-Moon Telemedicine

Access

-Health monitoring system -Remote medical diagnosis -Collecting data

Until the population reaches several thousand people, it’ll be impratical to staff a full-service hospital.

-Access to treament -Habitable area for isolation to prevent further spreed of disease.

Benchmark Product

samÂŽ Sport

TeladocConnect DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 2 Science Investigations Communication

24/7 Earth-Moon communication

Constant communications between surface crew members

- Network of satellites in lunar orbit - Device for communicate/ display/navigate

Teleoperation of robotic exploration system

- Rotbot and human communication

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 2 Science Investigations Communication Needs & Opportunities

Senses Communicate only orally without any visual(or other senses) support.

Team Work Assisting team work mission

Ease of Use - Interface - Ergonomy

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 2 Science Investigations Communication Benchmark Product

Boeing new space suit for Starliner DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 3 Lunar Habitation A Closed-Loop Habitat

Opportunities

- Pressurized - Suitable Temperature - Protection from Radiation & Micrometerites - Life Support System

Benchmark Product

An Inflatable Greenhouse? - Lava Tube - Permanently Shadowed Polar Environment - Inflatable Activity Module - Lunar Agriculture

Bigelow Expandable Activity Module

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Area of Interest 3 Space Poop A system that routes and collects human waste away from the body, hands-free, for 1)fully suited crew who’s on EVA mission 2) in habitat

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Human Waste Management Research

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Human Waste Human waste from each adult

Waste Management Needs

Urine: 1 L per day Feces : 75 grams /75 mL per day Menstrual fluid: 80 mL per month

Characteristic in microgravity: - Solid, liquid & gas might float or cling on nearest object. - Different state of matters don't mix with each other easily.

In-suit waste: - Human waste away from the body, hands-free, for fully suited crew. - 10 hrs while launching and entering - 6 days max for any off-nominal events in spacecraft Spacecraft waste: Collect & treatment. Outpost: 4 crews with 6 months human waste collect and treatment.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Past Solution

1980

In-Suit Waste Management

Disposable Absorption Containment Trunks (DACTs) Apollo Era

Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly (UCTA)

Fecal Bag

Fecal Containment System (FCS)

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


What to improve

Shouldn’t require intimate contact Astronaut had to knead a germicide into their waste so that gas-expelling bacteria wouldn’t flourish inside the sealed bag and cause it to explode. (Fecal bag came with finger cot to allow the astronauts to manually move things along) As little time as possible to use the system 45 minutes~ 1hour to complete in the Apollo spacecraft (No.2) The system will be able to remove waste from the body automatically

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG) Wear under the cooling garment during liftoff, landing, spacewalks, and other extra-vehicular activities to absorb urine and feces.

Current Solution

Downside: Hold up to 8~10 hours, temporary use only Could lead to diaper rash or infection if left untreated.

In-Suit The Astronaut Diaper

Contains powdery chemical absorbent, sodium polyacrylate, can absorb 300 ~ 500 times in distilled water.

Space Station Space Toilet Urine funnel Use airflow to create suction. Urine gets recycled into drinking water through a filtration system.

Commode for solid waste Airflow to draw waste away from the body in place of Earth’s gravity. Plastic bag is placed inside the canister is compacted after each use. Air is separated from waste using centrifugal force. Then the air is filtered from bacteria and odor and return back to cabin. DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Current Solution Space Station Waste Management

Liquid waste

Fecal waste

93 % become drinking water

Burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere

Keg-sized distiller produce artificial gravity field to separate

Cygnus cargo with its cargo of garbage and human waste from ISS was launched to burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Waste Managemnet Technologies Clean Technology Supercritical Water Oxidation System

Use the physical and chemical properties of water at conditions above its supercritical pressure(250) and temperature(670°F). Under these conditions, complete combustion of organic materials occurs in the presence of oxygen yielding sterile water, carbon dioxide , nitrogen.

Advantage : Accept gaseous, solid and liquid wastes. It destroys all microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi) Combustion products such as sterile water are resources that can be separated and recycled. It's mechanical waste treatment system that is not susceptible to disease or toxins.

Downside : Power requirement for the system is too high(power consumption for and 8-person crew has been estimated to be 300-400 watts continuous(Sedej, 1985). Possible solution: planned solar-powered lunar electric grid Still in development phase Supercritical Water Oxidation System

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Opportunities In-Suit Waste Management Space poop challenge There still lack of effective solution to keep the human waste away from a crew member’s body for a minimum of 144 hours. *The result will be announced on Feb 16 2017, might be a good reference

Long-term mission waste management There’s no solution to repurpose fecal waste. Future outpost mission will be a closed loop system. What will be an effective waste management system?

Human waste can’t be recycled through current solution.

NASA’s proposal of using Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Techologies to create a closed- loop system.

Future spacesuit will have limited room.

Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

Aluminum canister for fecal waste collection in ISS

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Repurposing Research - Electricity Microbial fuel cells which obtain their electrons from organic waste

Geobacter microbes

Cathode

Anode

Liquidfied Waste

Membrane

It’s able to move electrons into metal, so it could decompose waste and generate electricity.

eDFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Repurposing Research - Electricity Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Nutraceuticals and Materials

CO­2 O2 Urine

Algae

Yeast

PHA Omega-3 3D printable plastic Water

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


AES LRR Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

The Logistics Reduction and Repurposing(LRR) technologies is the development to serve the needs for future Earth-independent-typed missions. The LRR project develops a set of technologies to reduce crew consumables and provide methods for both stabilizing waste and repurpoing waste as a resource.

Losistics to trash flow schematic for AES LRR

AES = Advanced Exploration System REALM = Radio Frequency Identification-Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management HMC = Heat Melt Compator MCTB = multi-purpose cargo transfer bag TtG = trash-to-gas UWMS = Universal Waste Management System

[3] DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


LRR Technologies Relate to Human Waste Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) Current WCS in ISS

The compartment which interface with the crew-member. This development is the Improvement from WCS, the current system that use on the space station, for future long-term missions. Overall, it minimizes the installed mass and volume as well as the component and consumable replacement. Also, the facility is refined ergonanomically from the feedback of the crew-members to suit both genders.

Current needing improvement: • Adequate air flow • A seat configuration that lends to ease of use and maintaining cleanliness • Urine air separation • A urinal hose for both sexes • Clean & easy fecal collection for long-term missions • Stowing urine on-board supports water recovery • User simplicity

UWMS developing mockup

WCS = Waste Collect System

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


LRR Technologies Relate to Human Waste Heat Melt Compactor (HMC)

HMC (Heat Melt Compator) Repurpose the recycled waste in the habitat and make it into plastic tile Potential benefits: - Reduce weight and recover water. - Mechanically compacts trash while heating to produce stable tiles that can be used for radiation shielding (contain high percentage of Polyethylene).

HMC tile before & after (right) DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


LRR Technologies Relate to Human Waste Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU)

After several experiment, the research in [21] shows a promsing method to process solid waste. The proposed torrefaction (pyrolysis) method is performed under mild conditions. It’s defined as a thermochemical treatment of biomass at 200~300 oC in the absence of oxygen. The net result was a nearly undetectable odor, complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of dry solid mass, and the production of small amount of gas and liquid. In the proposal, the feces generated by the UWMS aret sent to the TPU to extract water and produce a stable char product. The char product has the potential for repurposing. [21]

Char after torrefaction from stimulant feces DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Potential Repurposing Usage from Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU)

Potential Repurposing Application DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


LCA Benchmark: The human waste management in the International Space Station(ISS)

Urine Collect System

Scope: The evalution focus on the management and disposable product that use in the waste manage system. However the following are excluded due to the accessibility of the information: - Products for air filtration - Refill Water Pouch Functional Unit:

Fecal Collect System

Impact Waste in HWS/ 4 crewmembers/ year (lb)

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Food (Dry) Drinking Water

Urine

Feces

Pretreatment

Gas/ Liquid, Solid Separation

Process Pretreated Urine

Compress

Process Waste Water Refillable Water Bag

Waste Storage

Urine Brine 1

Potable Water

Temporary Urine and Brine Storage Bag / Progress Rodnik Tank

2 Hydrophobic Fecal Bag, 3 Wipe

4 Fecal Canister

5 Progress Rodnik Tank

Disposal

Simplified schematic for human waste management process on ISS

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


ISS Urine Inputs

Process

Outputs Air Filtration

[ Urine Storage Assembly ] Urine, Electricity (Solar Power), Air(Cabin)

Waste Collect System

Oxone/Chromium Trioxide, Sulfuric Acid

Pretreatment

AirC

urine separator fan

Odor(Charcoal)/ Bacteria Filter

lean Cabin Air Particles

stabilize/ control microbial growth (Removable Urine Storage)

[ Urine Processor Assembly ] Electricity(Solar Power)

Distillation/ Evaporation

Calcium Sulfate Precipitation, Heat

centrifugal pump to create a low pressure distillation process to speeds the evaporation of water from urine

Condensate Water

Urine Brine 1

1

Activated Charcoal, Ionic Exchange Resins

Temporary Urine and Brine Storage Bag/ Progress Rodnik tank,

Adsorption/ Ion-Exchange

Disposal

5 successive filtration beds: activated charcoal/ ionic exchange resins

carry during the entire round-trip mission/ discard trash inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction.

Organic Compounds, inorganic ions, small organic molecules, ,Waste Water

[ Water Processor Assembly ] - 2, Platium Catalyst, Heat, Ionic Exchange Resins, Electricity(Solar Power), Refillable Water Bag

Catalytic Oxidation

CO-2, Gas

volatile removal assembly removes remaining organic compound

Potable Water

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


ISS Feces Inputs

Process

Outputs

[ Fecal Collection System]

2

Feces, Air(Cabin), Hydrophobic Fecal Bag, 3 Wipe, Electricity (Solar Power),

Waste Collect System AirC Gas/ Liquid, Solid Separation dry solid waste, vacuum source causes some of the original vapors and vaporized liquids to pass through the membrane liner

Electricity (Solar Power)

Air(Cabin), Electricity (Solar Power)

Air Filtration

air flow for bolus separation (vacuum)

Compress compress by motorized fecal compactor

Waste Storage pump into waste can for accumulation

Odor(Charcoal)/ Bacteria Filter

lean Cabin Air Particles Heat

Heat, Air Air Filtration

Heat, Air

Air Filtration

(Fecal Canister)

Disposal burn with logistic module while re-enter earth

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


2

Hydrophobic Fecal Bag Functional Unit Fecal Waste On ISS Per Year= 71.68Kg/Year Defecation / Crew Member - Year = 71.68 Kg/ 100g = 716.8 Times/ Year

716.8 Fecal Bags Per Year x 4 Crew Member = 2867.2 Bags

Material Membrane Liner

Membrane Liner Polypropylene Microporous PP Film + One ply PP 4g x functional Unit =

Outer Bag

Outer Bag

Port Solid And Liquid Waste Drying Bag Patent No.: US 794909367 B1

LDPE sheet 2 layers 8g x functional Unit Port LDPE 4g x functional Unit

[5] Litwiller, Eric, John A. Hogan,, and John W. Fisher,. SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DRYING BAG. The United States of America as Represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (US), assignee. Patent 794909367 B1. 17 Feb. 2009. Print. [6] “Peepoople.” PeePoople. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. [7] Lionel, Borenstein. SELF-ADHERING VAPOR PERMEABLE AIR AND MOISTURE BARRIER MEMBRANE. Bakor Inc, assignee. Patent US 6,901,712 B2. 7 June 2005. Print.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


2

Simplified Schematic of Process Tree

[PP]

[LDPE]

Extracting Crude Oil hydraulic fracturing

Transportation: Pipeline

Extracting Ethylene

Convert into PP pellets

Convert into LDPE pellets

- Polymerization

- Polymerization

Transportation: Truck

Made into Sheets

Made into Microporous Film

Made into Sheet

Laminating

Injection Molding (Port) Transportation: Truck

Heat Sealing Sealing Packaging Transportation: Cargo Spacecraft

Use

Disposal

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ISS Hydrophobic Fecal Bag

PP

Inputs

Water, Sand, Natural Gas, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity,

Process

Outputs

Extracting Crude Oil

GhGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, Particulates, Sox,

hydraulic fracturing

Transportation: Pipeline

Fuel Crude Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity

Natural Gas, Electricity:Fossil Fuels/ Hydropower, Catalyst: Ziegler-Natta, Propylene Monomer Gas, Heat(Temperature & Pressure), Water

GhGs, Heat, Dust, Air Contaminants

Extracting Ethylene

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, VOCs, SOx, O2

Convert to PP pellets Distillation, Cracking, Polymerization,

GhGs, Heat, Waste Water(Contaminated From Process & Coolant), Vocs, SO2, Catalyst, Hydrocarbon Gas

Process

Outputs

Extracting Crude Oil

GhGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, Particulates, Sox,

ISS Hydrophobic Fecal Bag

Inputs

Water, Sand, Natural Gas, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity, Fuel Crude Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity Al-based catalyst, Electricity, Natural Gas, Water, Catalyst: Al-based, Pressur(lower), Heat,

LDPE

hydraulic fracturing

Transportation: Pipeline

Extracting Ethylene

Convert to LDPE pellets Distillation, Cracking, Polymerization,

GhGs, Heat, Dust, Air Contaminants GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, VOCs, SOx, O2 GhGs, Heat, Waste Water(Contaminated From Process & Coolant), VOCs, SO2, Catalyst, Hydrocarbon Gas

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


ISS Hydrophobic Fecal Bag

Product

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Fuel

Transportation: Truck

GHGs, SOx,NOx

PP Pellets, LDPE Pellets, Electricity, Heat, Water, Lubricating Oil

Heat, Adhesive, Pressure, Electricity,Natural Gas, Diesel

Manufacture Microporous Film (Ex: Aptraâ„¢ )

PP Film Extrusion

for port

LDPE Film Extrusion

GHGs, Waste Water, Waste Lubricant, Heat, VOCs, Particulates, Propane, Particulates, Vocs, Dioxins, Methylethyl, Ch4 Ketone, Toluene, Ethanol, Methanol, Benzene, Propane, Alchohols, Solid Wastes, Other Waste Chemicals, Water

Laminating

Heat, Adhesive, Pressure, Electricity

Heat Sealing

MTCB, Vacuum Manifold Rack

Packaging Transportation: Cargo Spacecraft

O2, CH4, Deep-cryo Methalox, Electricity, Water

Waste Manage System

Cargo Spacecraft, Energy(Fuel)

Injection Molding

GHGs, Heat, Particulates, VOCs, Dioxins, CO

Particulates, Black Carbon Soot,CO2, O2, CH4, Aluminum Oxide, Water Vapor CO2, Particulates, VOCs, Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxins, Furans, Heavy Metals, Carcinogens, CO, CH4, Nitrogen Gas, Hydrogen cyanide, Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfurous acid, Sulfuric Aluminum

Disposal

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


1

4

Aluminum Storage Canister

KTO mass/ 4 crew-year KTO (Canister for Fecal Waste)

EDV mass/ 4 crew-year

Aluminum Functional Unit: 113.08(kg) +98.6(kg)= 466.67 (lbs)/ 4 crew-yr

EDV (Canister for Urine Brine)

* The information of the canister invertory use per year was found later in the term, will change the format to digital in the future.

Ref: [3][4][11][13][15] DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


PP

Extracting Crude Oil

Convert to PP Pellets

Extracting Crude Oil

LDPE

Material Input

Energy Use

Waste & Emissions

Water, Sand

Natural Gas, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, Particulates, SOx,

Transportation: Pipeline Extracting Ethylene

Fuel

GHGs, Heat, Dust, Air Contaminants

Crude Oil

Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, VOCs, SOx, O2

Crude Oil Feed, Catalyst, Water,Heat, Propylene Monomer Gas

Natural Gas, Electricity Heat

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, SO2, Catalyst, Hydrocarbon Gas

Water, Sand

Natural Gas, Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, Particulates, SOx,

Transportation: Pipeline Extracting Ethylene Convert to LDPE Pellets

Hydrophobic Fecal Bag

ISS

Process

Crude Oil

Crude Oil Feed, Catalyst, Water,Heat, Propylene Monomer Gas

Fuel

GHGs, Heat, Dust, Air Contaminants

Residual Fuel Oil, Electricity

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, VOCs, SOx, O2

Natural Gas, Electricity Heat

GHGs, Heat, Waste Water, Vocs, SO2, Catalyst, Hydrocarbon Gas

Transportation: Truck

Packaging: Corrugated Boxes

Fuel

GHGs, SOx,NOx

Injection Molding

LDPE Pellets, Electricity, Heat, Water, Lubricating Oil

Electricity, Heat

GHGs, Waste Water, Waste Lubricant, Heat, VOCs, Particulates, Propane,

LDPE Film Extrusion

LDPE Pellets, Lubricating Oil

Electricity

GHGs, Waste Lubricant, Heat, Particulates

Manufacture Microporous Film

PP Pellets,Ntioxidants, Plasticizers, Fillers, Carbon Black, Lubricants

Electricity, Heat

GHGs, Waste Water, Waste Lubricant, Heat, VOCs, Particulates

PP Film Extrusion

PP Pellets, Lubricating Oil

Electricity

GHGs, Waste Lubricant, Heat, Particulates

Laminating

Adhesive

Pressure, Electricity, Natural Gas, Diesel, Heat

Heat Sealing

Adhesive

Pressure, Electricity, Natural Gas, Diesel, Heat

Packaging

(Waste Manage System) Transportation: Cargo Spacecraft

Energy(Fuel)

Particulates, Vocs, Dioxins, Methylethyl, Ch4, Propane, Alchohols, Solid Wastes, Waste Chemicals, Water, Heat GHGs, Heat, Partic ulates, VOCs, Dioxins, CO

CO2, Particulates, VOCs, Hydrochloric Acid, Dioxins, Furans, Heavy Metals, Carcinogens, CO, CH4, Nitrogen Gas, Hydrogen cyanide, Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfurous acid, Sulfuric Acid, Hydrogen Culfide, Hydrogen fluouride, Hydrogen Chloride, Hydrogen bromide, Hydrogen Iodide, Various Halogenated HCs, Phosgene, Phosphorus Oxides, Phosphoric Acid, Phosphane, Phosphate Esters, Aluminum

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Process High Impact

PP

No Impact

Global Warming

Ozone Layer Depletion

Acid Rain/ Acidification

Solid Waste

Land Degradation

Extracting Crude Oil

ISS

Low Impact

Resource Depletion

Positive Impact

Transportation: Pipeline Extracting Ethylene

Hydrophobic Fecal Bag

LDPE

Convert to PP Pellets Convert to LDPE Pellets Transportation: Truck Injection Molding LDPE Film Extrusion Manufacture Microporous Film PP Film Extrusion Laminating Heat Sealing Packaging Transportation: Cargo Spacecraft Disposal

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Okala Score

Key Finding From LCA

BILL-OF-MATERIAL

AMOUNT UNIT

OKALA FACTOR POINTS

PP, primary

25.28

/lb

1.9

/lb

48.032

LDPE, primary

75.85

/lb

1.5

/lb

113.775

Film Blow Molding

101.13

/lb

0.9

/lb

91.017

Aluminum alloy

466.67

/lb

5.8

/lb

2706.686

Al Sheet rolling

466.67

/lb

0.38

/lb

177.3346

AL Metal Working

466.67

/lb

2.8

/lb

1306.676

Paper, sec.

22.57

/lb

0.37

/lb

8.3509

Air freight, cont.

240.24

/ton-mi

3

UNIT

OKALA IMPACT POINT

/ton-mi 720.72

5172.5915 0.5904784817

Storage Canister Dominated impact from the aluminum canisters which are used between stages. These disposable products use are from raw material extraction. Impact/ product lifetime Lifetime hours

Disposal Incinerate with re-entry cargo spacecraft in Earth’s atmosphere cause huge environmental impact. This linear solution is impractical for deep space mission.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Key Takeaways From Research

No Effective Way to Process Waste Instantly A lot of time and space is wasted for collecting and storing the waste between steps. Solid waste mainly rely on the incineration at the Earth’s atmosphere. Therefore, waste was accumulated till next cargo re-entry.

Massive Use Of Disposable Material

Human waste management system on ISS

Disposable containers and bags are heavily used in order to collect between steps.

Dependent on Earth Current waste management still rely on Earth for re-supply and incineration.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Goal

Strategies

Reduce the Use of Disposable Material Disposable containers and bags are heavily used in order to collect between steps.

Enhance Efficiency Time and space is wasted to accumulate and store the waste between each steps.

-Develop reusable product -Use recycled material instead of making out of raw material -Develop methods to instantly process the waste -Change the structure of the product and make portion of it for long term use. -Repurpose the disposable material -Use flexible structure for storage - Methods to instantly process the waste -Stackable container

Independent From Earth Current system still rely on resupply and incineration at Earth. This is not a solution for lunar/ deep space exploration.

-Repurpose human waste into resource. The priority needs for deep space exploration: radiation shielding fertilizer air filtration Construction material life support needs - Process waste immediately instead of storage

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Refining current system is not enough, as we move on to moon and further deep space exploration, this will no longer be an accessible and sutainable method.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Mission Statement The current human waste management for space(ISS) is a linear system. This cause a huge financial cost and evironmental impact. Also currently, there’s no method to process the waste instanly, which create waste for space and time. Consider The Earth won’t be an accessible resource for lunar mission. There’s a needs to develop a tangible and sustainable solution for deep space exploration, which helps create a closed-loop system.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Concept Development

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Direction - 1 Improve Current WMS

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Direction - 2 Use Feces Char Habitat Radiation Protection

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


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Direction - 3 Use Feces Char (Acticated Carbon) Air Filtration

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Direction - 4 Use Feces Char Fertilization

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Direction - 5 CO2->CH4 Propellent

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Torrefaction One of The LRR technologies that relates to human waste management LRR: Logistics Reduction and Repurposing

Universal Waste Management Systems (UWMS)

Urine

Urine Processor Assembly (UPA)

Feces

Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU)

Water

Water Processor Assembly (WPA)

CO2

Brine

Char

Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA)

Feces char after torrefaction process has the potential to become material for polymer filler, radiation shielding or air filtration, etc.

[21] Serio, Michael A., Joseph E. Cosgrove, Marek A. Wójtowicz3, Thomas J. Stapleton, Tim A. Nalette, Michael K. Ewert, Jeffrey Lee, and John Fisher. “Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management.” NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA, 14 July 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2017. [3] Broyan, James L., Michael K. Ewert, and Patrick W. Fink. “Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2014 Conference and Exposition (2014) DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Radiation Shielding Disk

Universal Waste Management Systems (UWMS)

Feces

Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU)

Char

Heat Melt Compactor (HMC)

Plastic Tile

[21] Serio, Michael A., Joseph E. Cosgrove, Marek A. Wójtowicz3, Thomas J. Stapleton, Tim A. Nalette, Michael K. Ewert, Jeffrey Lee, and John Fisher. “Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management.” NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA, 14 July 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2017. [3] Broyan, James L., Michael K. Ewert, and Patrick W. Fink. “Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2014 Conference and Exposition (2014) DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Radiation On The Moon Radiation Protection for Lunar Outpost Mission

The surface of the Moon is baldly exposed to cosmic rays (GCR) and solar flares (SPEs). For a long-term mission, the constant bombardment of cosmic rays delivers a steady does. Solar proton events are relatively rare with one or two events per solar cycle. But adequate protection still needed since it can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The amount of shielding required to protect the astronaut will depends on the time and duration of the mission.

Ref: [22][23][24]

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Material for Radiation Protection Effectiveness and Requirement

Radiation BFO annual limit: 50 rem/yr Per-unit-mass, materials with a high hydrogen content are leading shielding candidates. Included are water, polyethylene and lithium hydride. Water shield thickness: 25~30 cm Polyethlene shield thickness: 19 cm BFO= blood-forming organs

Material Comparison of radiation mitigation performance

Equivalent water thickness

Ref: [22][23][24] DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Regolith for Radiation Shielding? It has been proposed to use lunar regolith for radiation shielding. (Wilson et al., 1990) Regolith shield thickness: 50cm

But - Cost of mining material for use is high. (digging, transporting, and placing the regolith) - Very labor intensive, taking up much of the crew’s time during the early missions

Use water + Polyethlene will be a more efficient and effective solution

- Less effective and much thicker wall is required

Since the resources are very limited on the moon, how could I combine these two materials and create product for radiation protection? DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Habitat on Lunar Surface Design Structure for Long-Term Outpost Mission

Cylindrical & spherical form are both suitable Both form have similar result for BFO radiation dose estimation. Also, the shapes are symmetrical and rounded which avoid pressure tension. Rigid Instead of Inflatable

X

Inflatable structural for a lunar base can speed up the construction process while lessening the costs. However, an unsupported inflatable will collapse from its own weight in the event of a loss of pressure, so the possibility of a puncture will be a problem.

O

Rigid structures provides certain robustness and high puncture resistance. It can be designed to accommodate all load cases at the same time without the need for a secondary structure. However, it requires higher mass and transportation volume.

Rigid structure will be a more practical solution for long-term outpost mission.

Ref: [22][26]

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Ref: [22][26]

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Final Concept Development Functionality: Provide radiation protection to mitigate the dose <50 rem/ yr

Material:

The Habitat

Use repurposed plastic tile. Might incorporate water, will have dual usage in the future

Form: Spherical/ Cylindrical Rigid structure Modular system. Easy to repair or replace.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Final Concept Development

Reservoir = Radiation Shield

Inspired plant leaf, creates a vascular system for the habitat.

+ DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


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Use the reticulate typed venation to create a network-like vascular system for water.

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Final Design Process Use dome as an example for the habitat form

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Final design Assume the repurposed plastic tile could be printable material.

The frame is in one piece. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hollowed inside which allow water to flow.

The frame The frame will be the female part which allow the panel to fasten on.

The Panel Each panel carry the reticulate venation found on leaf.

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Final design Hierarchy of the venation Each panel carry the reticulate venation found on leaf.

Allow water to go through.

1 2 mushroom head fasten on the frame.

3

cross-section of the panel DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Building process

Frame: 3D print robot

rover to transport the construction material

Crew memberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role will mainly be supervising the build and repairing and damage during the process

Panel: 3D printer

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Other Consideration This radiation shield provides radiation protection and the structure for habitat. However there are still some consideration: Sealing: Soft material such as rubber is needed in order to seal the whole pipe system. However, we still know need more information about the property of the material on the moon in order to integrate. (Thermal expansion coefficient) Protection against temperature extremes, thermal shock and gradual dust accumulation

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LCA of New Solution

Food (Dry) Drinking Water

Simplified Schematic

Urine

Feces

Pretreatment

Gas/ Liquid, Solid Separation 2 Hydrophobic Fecal Bag, 3 Wipe

Process Pretreated Urine

Process Waste Water

Compress

Torrefaction

Urine Brine

Refillable Water Bag

Potable Water

Heat Melt Compactor

Disposal Plastic tile for radiation shield DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Habitat Feces Inputs

Process

Outputs

[ Fecal Collection System]

2

Feces, Air(Habitat), Hydrophobic Fecal Bag, 3 Wipe, Electricity (Solar Power),

Waste Collect System

Air Filtration

air flow for bolus separation (vacuum)

AirC

Odor(Charcoal)/ Bacteria Filter

Gas/ Liquid, Solid Separation dry solid waste, vacuum source causes some of the original vapors and vaporized liquids to pass through the membrane liner

Electricity (Solar Power)

Air(Habitat), Electricity (Solar Power) Heat

Compress

lean Habitat Air Particles Heat

Heat, Air

compress by motorized fecal compactor

Air Filtration

Torrefaction

Recover water, CO2

200~300deg C mild pyrolysis

(product Char)

N/A

Heat Melt Compactor blend with recycled plastic

Repurposed plastic tile

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Comparison of the Okala Score

BILL-OF-MATERIAL

AMOUNT UNIT

OKALA FACTOR POINTS

UNIT

OKALA IMPACT POINT

BILL-OF-MATERIAL

AMOUNT UNIT

OKALA FACTOR POINTS

UNIT

OKALA IMPACT POINT

PP, primary

25.28

/lb

1.9

/lb

48.032

PP, primary

25.28

/lb

1.9

/lb

48.032

LDPE, primary

75.85

/lb

1.5

/lb

113.775

LDPE, primary

75.85

/lb

1.5

/lb

113.775

Film Blow Molding

101.13

/lb

0.9

/lb

91.017

Film Blow Molding

101.13

/lb

0.9

/lb

91.017

Aluminum alloy

466.67

/lb

5.8

/lb

2706.686

Paper, sec. Impact/ product lifetime

22.57

/lb

0.37

/lb

8.3509

Al Sheet rolling

466.67

/lb

0.38

/lb

177.3346

bio-textile incineration Lifetime hours

714

/lb

0.012

/lb

8.568

AL Metal Working

466.67

/lb

2.8

/lb

1306.676

comprssion molding

NA

/lb

0.73

/lb

NA

Paper, sec.

22.57

/lb

0.37

/lb

8.3509

269.7429 0.03079256849

Air freight, cont.

240.24

/ton-mi

3

/ton-mi 720.72

5172.5915 0.5904784817

Note: - Only the process methods change, no additional material added - The actual output of terrofaction and Heat Melt Compactor still need more information and study to precisely conduct LCA and Okala score. DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Conclusion In this new solution, the containers are no longer needed, which also eliminate big part of the environmental impact. The new design is able to provide an application to repurpose human waste and help create a closed-loop system. The solution will no longer need cargo vehicle to transport the human waste back to the Earth, and no need for resupply for the container. The design provide an effective solution for radiation protection then the conventional proposal of using lunar regolith.

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Citation [1] Barta, Daniel J., Karen D. Pickering, Pensinger Leticia Vega, Michael Flynn, Andrew Jackson, and Raymond Wheeler. “A Biologically-Based Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions.” NASA Johnson Space Center, n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2017. [2] “Closing the Loop - Disposal, Re-Use, Recycling, and the Environment.” (2011): 405-31. Living in Space. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Web. 4 Mar. 2017. [3] Broyan, James L., Michael K. Ewert, and Patrick W. Fink. “Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2014 Conference and Exposition (2014) [4] Hintze, Paul E., Anne Caraccio, Stephen M. Anthony, Robert Devor, James G. Captain, Alexandra Tsoras, and Mononita Nur. “Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference and Exposition (2013) [5] Litwiller, Eric, John A. Hogan,, and John W. Fisher,. SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE DRYING BAG. The United States of America as Represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (US), assignee. Patent 794909367 B1. 17 Feb. 2009. Print. [6] “Peepoople.” PeePoople. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Mar. 2017. [7] Lionel, Borenstein. SELF-ADHERING VAPOR PERMEABLE AIR AND MOISTURE BARRIER MEMBRANE. Bakor Inc, assignee. Patent US 6,901,712 B2. 7 June 2005. Print. [8] Carrasquillo, Robyn. “ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Future Development for Exploration.” 2 Nd Annual ISS Research and Development Conference (n.d.): n. pag. NASA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. [9] Hart, Angela. Internal Cargo Integration. Rep. International Space Station, n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2017. [10] Spaleta, Steve. “Space Station ‘Potty’ Swap - Astronaut Demonstrates | Video.” Space.com. NASA, 1 Apr. 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2017. [11] Pedro Lopez Jr., Eric Schultz, Bryan Mattfeld, Chel Stromgren, and Kandyce Goodliff. “Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission.” NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2017. [12] Cristoforetti, Samantha. “L+68 to L+71 Logbook: Well, Here We Are. Ten Weeks Have Passed Already: Don’...” Collections - Google+. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2017. (Astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti’s logbook) [13] ”MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL - INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION PROGRAM (AUG 2005).” EverySpec Standards. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2017. [14] Carter, Layne, Christopher Brown, and Nicole Orozco. “Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery.” Ntrs.nasa.gov. NASA, 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2017 DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


[15]Broyan, James Lee. “Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications.” SAE Technical Paper Series (2007): [16] Anderson, Molly S., and Imelda C. Stambaugh. “Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration” NASA. International Conference on Environmental Systems, 16 July 2015. Web. 27 Feb. 2017. [17] Stapleton, Thomas J., James L. Broyan, Shelly Baccus, and William Conroy. “Development of a Universal Waste Management System.” 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (2013): n. pag. Web. [18] Gentry, Gregory J. “International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2015-2016.” NASA. 46th International Conference on Environmental Systems, n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2017 [19] Hintze, Paul, Edgardo Santiago-Maldonado, Michael Kulis, John Lytle, John Fisher, Jeffrey Lee, Helen Vaccaro, Michael Ewert, and James Broyan. “Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview.” AIAA SPACE 2012 Conference & Exposition (2012): n. pag. Web. [20] Dwight E., Donald Layne Carter, and Scott Higbie. “Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly.” NASA. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautic, n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2017. [21] Serio, Michael A., Joseph E. Cosgrove, Marek A. Wójtowicz3, Thomas J. Stapleton, Tim A. Nalette, Michael K. Ewert, Jeffrey Lee, and John Fisher. “Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management.” NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA, 14 July 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2017. [22] Simonsen, Lisa C., and John E. Nealy. “Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars.” NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA; United States, 1 Feb. 1991. Web. 20 Mar. 2017. The Moon http://science.jrank.org/pages/3869/Leaf-Venation.html

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Early Stage Citation Sauer, Richard L., and George K. Jorgensen. "Chapter 2/ WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM." SP-368 Biomedical Results of Apollo. N.p.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1975. N. pag. NASA. NASA. Web. 14 Feb. 2017. Editor, Megan Gannon News. “The Scoop on Space Poop: How Astronauts Go Potty.” Space.com. SPACE.com, 29 Aug. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2017.

Fink, Patrick W. “RFID-Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM) (RFID Logistics Awareness) - 11.22.16.” NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2017. Broyan, James L., Michael K. Ewert, and Patrick W. Fink. “Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2014 Conference and Exposition (2014): n. pag. Web. Stapleton, Thomas J., James L. Broyan, Shelly Baccus, and William Conroy. “Development of a Universal Waste Management System.” 43rd International Conference on Environmental Systems (2013): n. pag. Web. Hintze, Paul E., Anne Caraccio, Stephen M. Anthony, Robert Devor, James G. Captain, Alexandra Tsoras, and Mononita Nur. “Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions.” AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference and Exposition (2013): n. pag. Web. “NASA-supported Researchers Are Working to Develop a Fuel Cell That Can Extract Electricity from Human Waste.” NASA. NASA, 2004. Web. 22 Feb. 2017. Blenner, Mark. “Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Nutraceuticals.” NASA. NASA, 27 Aug. 2015. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.

Broyan, James Lee. “Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications.” SAE Technical Paper Series (2007): Hintze, Paul, Edgardo Santiago-Maldonado, Michael Kulis, John Lytle, John Fisher, Jeffrey Lee, Helen Vaccaro, Michael Ewert, and James Broyan. “Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG) Project Overview.” AIAA SPACE 2012 Conference & Exposition (2012): n. pag. Web. Anderson, Molly S., and Imelda C. Stambaugh. “Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration” NASA. International Conference on Environmental Systems, 16 July 2015. Web. 27 Feb. 2017. “Waste Collection System.” NASA. Ed. Kim Dismukes. NASA, 7 Apr. 2002. Web. 26 Feb. 2017

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Appendix a. Lunar Architecture

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Exploration Science Planetary Science

How? Collect samples of lunar surface and crust. Why? Lunar surface records the geological processes of an active planet 4.6~3 billion years ago. Understand it will help to recover for clues to the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s climate and life from incomplete terrestrial record. Related themes Bombardment of the Earth-Moon system -Bombardment history of the inner Solar System -Late Heavy Bombardment -Impactor flux and impactor-induced mass extinction Lunar processes and history Permanent shadowed area Regolith records Sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Exploration Science Natural Laboratory

How? ex: Studies of cell growth and evolution in 1/6 gravity Why? A vacuum, fractional gravity and non-radiation environment may affect (biological) processes. To understand the long-term effects on human physiology and psychology

Related themes Biomedicine -Cause of genomic damage -Synergy between lunar expedition and terrestrial biomedical advances -Earth-based pathogenesis & environmental health hazard

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Exploration Science Resource Extraction & Outpost Engineering

How? -Mapping the deposits from orbit (robotic precursor mission) -Examining on the ground -Experimenting extraction processes Why? To understand resource distribution and state in order to harvest and use. The potential for human lunar return in permanent shadow area.

Related themes Using the Moonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources -Resource extraction -Enhance human exploration capabilities on the Moon, cislunar space, and beyond Astronomy DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Lunar Resources Development Nearly-permanent illuminated — Solar Power Crater rims near the poles will be bathed in gentle but nearly-permanent sunlight. Steady sunshine provides a reliable source of power for long-term expeditions.

Permanent Shadow Area -Water Ice Sunlight never shines on the floors of some craters near the Moon’s poles, which makes it capable of forming water ice.

The Moon’s axis tilts only 1.5 degrees from the ecliptic plane which makes PSR happen

South pole of the Moon

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Lunar Resources microwaved into glass

building material

bulldozed into berm

provide blast shield

iron/ aluminum

regolith

40% of lunar soil grain of the regolith absorb solar wind.

chemical reduction process

heated to 700°c 50-100 ppm

oxygen hydrogen

carbon/ nitrogen/ sulfur

LOX/ hydrogen propulsion system

oxygen

water ice

hydrogen 1/100 less energy than extract from regolith anhydrous glass/ other substances DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture

crew-centered control

Mars-Forward Testing The operational techniques and exploration systems to live and work on different planetary surface will share similar strategies & function

Earth-Mars communication delay:20 mins

Earth centered teleoperation of robotic explorer from a central planetary outpost

Supporting infrastructure habitation power generation surface mobility surface communication & navigation dust mitigation planetary protection DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Lunar Surface Traffic Model

Precursor Robotic Mission

Human Sorties

Outpost Operation (IOC 2022)

Outpost Mission Surface Activities Long-term activities on the lunar surface during sustained operations at lunar outpost

Detail scientific investigation & construct large science facilities ISRU from demonstration to production (ex: life support consumable, spacecraft propellant, construction materials) Long term effects on the human body â&#x20AC;&#x201D; fractional gravity/ radiation/ lunar dust/ isolation Mars-forward testing Commercial opportunities DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Surface Mission Outpost need final assembly, crew members will lives in LSAM

Precursor Robotic Mission

Precursor Robotic Mission The outpost mostly deployed and delivered robotically prior to arrival of first outpost crew.

Human Sorties

Lunar outpost crew mission crew size: 4 duration: 6 months a crew rotation every 6 months uncrewed cargo missions every 6 months (3 months offset from crew missions)

Outpost Operation

crew rotation

8 people occupying the outpost

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Surface Outpost Mission Activities & limitations

Cargo mission Deliver supplies and equipment A more balanced schedule of EVA & IVA

Notional Schedule for a Typical week at the Lunar Outpost

Sustained EVA over the 6-months will be limited - Extreme radiation - Accumulated dose each crew member receives -Fatiguing nature of EVA operations -Spacesuit maintenance & repair - Portable life support system logistics DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Lunar Architecture Surface Outpost Mission Transformation

Weekly basis Earth-dominated control

Local control & crew autonomy

Pressurized rover could extend the exploration range

Science Investigation (outpost mission)

Geoscience - Structure and formation process of the lunar regolith - Teleoperated robotic explorers - Perform preliminary chemical and mineralogical analysis - Impact and volcanism to understand solar system Other - Space physics & astronomy Life Science & Medical Operation - Long-term effects on human body - Medical care techniques (ex: preventive medicine/ telemedicine/ trauma care/ countermeasure procedures) Related Topics: bone loss/ cardiovascular/cardiopulmonary function/skeletal muscle status/ and neurological function

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


ISRU

Lunar Architecture

demonstration

Resource Utilization

Construction of berms (protect surface assets from landing spacecraft) Ability to extract metal & silicon

ISRU technologies will be scaled up to production-level plants and facilities

Self-sufficient life support consumable Incorporation

Propellants for spacecraft Development of feedstock

Reusable spacecraft

*In-situ manufacturing and repair might be difficult

Required Surface System Capabilities

To support frequent and substantial EVA - Space suits that are flexible and lightweight, yet durable and maintainable after 8 hours of work -Efficient airlock -Enhanced surface mobility system

Robotic system which is capable of teleoperation by the outpost crew or operators from Earth

Analytical labs and equipments which will support biological investigations.

Subsurface exploration (involves drilling, trenching, geophysical profiling)

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Appendix b. Strategy Assignments

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Use compliant mechanism

One Material

tong

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Power of 10 Use falling palm tree fronds to weave a belt

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Power of 10 Moon

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Power of 10 Moon - Cont. each blade

Maple seed?

Overlap with each other to fasten together

Like helical gear

Side view DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Power of 10 Moon - Cont.

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Re-purpose â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Radiation Shield Water & organic materials can both be effective shields against radiation exposure

ECLSS

Water Recovery Human Waste UWMS

Torrefaction Processing

Torrefied Residue

The filling for radiation shield?

Torrefied sample from fecal simulant

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Fecal filling Repurpose MTCB for radiation shielding

MTCB

Tile for radiation shielding

Shielding tile from fecal waste

3D print building material from lunar regolith

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Biomimicry

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Appendix c. Personal Consumption

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Activities Water

Energy (Electricity/Gas)

Drink Shower Restroom Wash Laundry Other

Transportation (Miles) Laptop Use(Hrs) Cook/Heating (Gas) Laundry Dryer( Light Other

Unit: Gallon

Unit: Electricity (KWH)

Waste (Trash/ Recycle/compostables) Meal(Food/ Container) Material(Packaging/ Disposable waste)

Unit: lb

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Use Google Sheet to document

Water

Energy (Electricity/Gas)

Waste (Trash/ Recycle/Compostable)

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


Visualize Compare to Average (%)

Water

Electricity

Gas

Electricity

Gas

Waste

My Weekly Comparison (%)

Water

Waste

Each weekâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s result is divided by 1st week to understand the increase and decrese percentage

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou


14

14 14

wk1 wk1 wk1

Energy Waste

DFS II Spring 2017 Shu Ou

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