JOURNAL PART A 2016 SEMESTER 1 TUTOR CANCUI CHEN SHUJUN HAN 668383
I am a student studying Bachelor of Environments an majoring in architecture. At the beginning, i have a crush in interior design because specific materiality and spatial organization can contribute to the unique style, i believe this process is beneficial for stimulating creativity and cultivate open mind. Then I understand architecture as a outward expression. It looks general compare to interior design, but it still needs to incorporate the concepts to site and apply fuction appropriately, so it is a difficult and complex process. When I get to know architecture, everything is fresh, but now it becomes more and more difficult, i sometimes get lost and not just think of having fun but keeping making something. Then it will be boring and painful. When I get confused, i will appreciate my favourite architecture to get a sense of harmony which is the Church of the Light designed by Tadao Ando, this architecture is expression that abstract the relationship between architecture and nature and the integration is magic. The reinforced concrete structure and well controlled light effects shows strong contrast and gives a sense of mystery, solemnity, purity. This is why I like this, it always makes calm down, this is also the architecture that I met, so it means a lot to me .
Furthermore, I like minimalism not only in architecture, but also in arts and many other aspects, i think it is an effective approach to transfer the message of simplicity, this type is very clear and simple, geometric strcuture without decoration will be the unique beauty. In architecture style, i really like modern to post modern architecture style, the transparency of glass, the solidity of concrete, the supporting structure of steel etc. After doing studio water, i was inspired by Rem Koolhooasâ€™s design concepts, he likes to make the simple geometry become complex after spatial organization, such as Seattle Central Library, it is a typical work that form follows the function, the exterior follows interior. Each level is defined as different size so it contributes to an unqiue stretching form, the connectivity between different levels is also interesting and is worth learning. In all, all the previous design studios and other major subjects have given me a lot of inspiration, before choosing architecture as major, i knew nothing about architecture, architectures, or even design, right now I attempt to move forwards step by step, I think it will be a long journey but this journey is definitely valuable.
DESIGN FUTURING DESIGN FUTURING PLACES DESIGN IN POLITIC FRAME WHEREIN IT IS REMADE IN ORDER TO BECOME THE FORCE FOR CHANGE THAT IT NEEDS TO BE. TONY FRY
FIG.1 DYNAMIC TOWER (ARCHITECT: DAVID FISHER)
FIG.2 DYNAMIC TOWER (AT THE SAME PLACE BUT AT DIFFERENT TIMES)
FIG.3 WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Dynamic Tower is the first built rotating skyscraperin the world, as a revoltuionary design, the significance is huge, this changes the living patterns of people and shows that techonology will provide prossibilities for concepts to be realized. As showed in the figure 1 and 2, the form of the tower is rotating gradually, the outside appearance keeps changing, and the interior viewpoints are also different, which is very fresh experience for inhabitant, also to the site, the look is magic and shows a building a motion. the materials are all most prefabricated before construction with cauculation of computer procedures, so it saves time, labour and energy. David Fisher said that the technique of building a tower is from Egyptians then to Roman, but now it is manufacture in product facility, the instrurial era evolves a new living style benefits human and nature (Gedi Group, 2010). As a rotating tower, it still consumes a lot of energy, but specific approach is taken such as collecting the optimum power of wind and sun. wind turbines will be installed horizontally between the floors, thus aesthetic damage will be minimized, energy captured by the Dynamic Tower will be sent to Dubai’s power grip (Dubai Journal, March 17 2014),It is very eco-fridendly and future-oriented. As a rotating skyscraper, it deals with potential energy problems This is an architecture that seems to exist between reality and possibility. It is designed to provide different views to individual apartment and the cost is supposed to huge. But David Fisher open up more possibilities when overcome challeges. The tower is of technological intelligence and also provides development of sustainment. Furthermore, compare to normal turbines, those it means the lifespan of this building is extended to some extent. This is a typical design of futuring architecture , as the fundamental quality is ensured and explore certain opportunities. It is situated to current circumstance and is also oriented to future. I think this design will continue to be appreciated because it turns probable and plausible ideas to possibility and finailly shifts to reality, this process itself deserves to be appreciated. It also gives inspiration to other rotating design, as we can see now, starting from Dubai, there are a lot of rotational architecture built or planned or in construction, actually it is applied in the world because it is not tradtional geometric form but very
FIG.4 NO MAN’S LAND // DEAD SEA (ARCHITECT: PHU HOANG, HWA-SEOP LEE, RACHELY ROTEM)
This project is a conceptual design from Architectural Association’s Environmental Tectonics 2007 competition, which uses innovative approach to show how architecture can be part of multi-disciplinary solutions (Ali Kriscenski, June 16 2008). It stands in the middle of the Dead Sea. It is proposed to solve environmental issues with surrounding political influences. There is struggle about how to control resources, especially water. From environmental and political aspect, it is crucial to deal with this crisis to prevent Dead Sea from disapperaring and reduce different kinds of damage from the angle of architecture thinking. Artificial network has been applied to this island and creates unique and effective water recycle system. This system incorporates technological intelligence and is used to solve environment crisis. This project is not just about architecture, it is about a floating island complex, the biggest propose is to use scientific thinking to improve water and weather condition. It is significant for site and inhabitants as it provides
The ecological system is relatively complicated inclduing multiple steps, seawater evaporation will increase the humidty in the zone and water molecules inside will be extracted and transformed into large volumes of distilled water. The captured water will then be reused again. In the fact, there are a lot of project focusing on natural resources, especially on water recycling, compare to those systems proposed, this is a bit different as incorprating the local climate condition, it is not just about water it self but treat them in a whole system, furthermore it combines more function such as tourism. Although this is not built I think it is still give inspiration to many other furture-oriented projects. This project contributes to sustainable development of natural resources and explores a lot of potential possibilities. As well known, the resources are not renewable but it can be recycled and reused again to avoid waste. We cannot predict the future but we can attempt to overcome challenges and make changes to current circumstances and explore new possible scenarios
A 02 DESIGN COMPUTATION THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECUTRE HAS BEGUN TO ENABLE A SET OF SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPST BETWEEN THE FORMULATION OF DESIGN PROCESSES AND DEVELOPING TECHONOLOGIES. RIVKA OXMAN AND ROBERT OXMAN
FIG.6 GALAXY SOHO (ARCHITECT: ZAHA HADID)
Galaxy SOHO is a project to create an internal world reflecting the theme of the Chinese courtyard. It consists of five soft and malleable volumes with inter-connectivity, the general outlook is fluid, just like in montion. It is also inspired by Chinese terraced rice field. Computing used is to syntheise the natural landscape. It creates systematic, adaptive variation, continuous differentiation, and dynamic figuration (SOHO China, 2014). VERTICAL FASCIA PRODUCTION MODEL
FIG.5 INHABITABLE BRIDGE IN TOKYO (ARCHITECT: DAVID EATON AND MICHAEL WETMORE)
This living bridge is conceptual design that connects Ginza and Tsukishima these two residential neighbourhoods and discrete flows. The design process includes identifying moving patterns, modelling interactions, organizing paths and testing connectivity (eVolo, July 13 2011), this calculation process is developed by computation to be accurate and also allow further changes. Because the currrent moving pattern including all the interactions is modelled by computer, it is easy to change the process part and export the different forms, computing can have positive effects on the design and modelling process.shows a new fluidity of connectivity and â€˜formlessnessâ€™. The entire appearance is idealogical, conceptual and of complexity. The diagram above indicates the transformation process from linear to
nonlinear. This changes the simple geometric form. Then complexity is developed gradually within allowance. I think this form focuses more on structre than form, because advance in representational techology provides possibilities for creating different design methods and outputs. Through computation, changes in the process can be proceeded. Furthermore, for the tectonic system, current materials and technology such as digital fabrication contribute to the realization of complexity, also boosts the evolution of digital architecture. Therefore, computing brings a lot of ongoing and incoming changes. Different from traditional approach, this is more efficient and accurate, allowing techonological creativity. Computation in this design project is
SETTING OUT OF THE PANELS BY FLOOR LEVELS
AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED SHEET 10
The whole design process is not determined by computation, it is computerized in modelling part which is very significant to the whole design process. In the first diagram, it can be seen that this model is overlaying different layers of parametric models on top of each other, all the layers respond to the geometric updates. Galaxy SOHO model is developed by Maya Subdivision Surface Model, which ensures constructibility for fabrication. It fits developable geometry to a predefined defined shape. It means that general shape definition is already given, detailed surface needs to be further applied. This model also allows modifications during the design process. Then the construction wil be based on the rule gived by digital model (Achim Menges, Jan 23 2012). In this project, computation is significant for modelling and constructions, although the beginning is not started by computing. Computerization is now commonly applied in the upstream design process, because parametric design will allow modications easily, especially when design comes to the modelling and construction part. It brings a lot of changes to design and construction industry as technology is developed at a high speed, it gives accurate calculation and save time and labour. Generally it is very efficient.It also affects the geometries, it is no longer constrained by simple geometries CONCEPTUALISATION 11
A 03 COMPOSITION/ GENERATION IS DESIGN BY COMPUTATION WITH ATHAT SET POCEEDS OF RULES IN PROGRAMS, COMPOSITION IS DESIGN BY HUMAN EFFORTS, IT OFFEN CONSIDER THE PROPORTION FOR BEAUTY. NOT JUST APPLIED IN ARCHITECTURE, BUT ALSO IN ARTS...
STRUCTURE OF WEAIRE PHELAN FOAM
FIG.7: BEIJING NATIONAL AQUATICS CENTER, WATER CUBE (ARCHITECT: PTW ARCHITECTS, CSCEC, CCDI, AND ARUP)
CONCEPT DESIGN USING WEAIRE PHELAN FOAM
CAD MODEL OF THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
THE ENTRY SHOWING DETAIL OF THE FACADE DESIGN 14
This project attends competition for the 2008 Olympic Swimming Centre, It is an innovative and future-oriented design. A continuous skin of soap bubbles is selected to cover the walls and the roof, about connectivity between bubbles, it uses minmal material by applying Weaire Phelan Foam to avoid secondary structure. In computer program,they did infinite array of foam which is oriented in a particular way for constructing the geometry of the structure of our building, and a block equal to the size of our building was carved out. Steel structure is designed also by CAD to support those soap bubbles, the steel structure basically follows the shape of soap bubbles, but it is laterly modified in CAD about how to lay out the whole structure (Archive, 2006).
FIG.7: THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO
This architecture designed by Frank Gehry is the most spectacular design, Gehry first envisioned the form through a simple freestyle hand sketch, but problem comes (Academy of Achievement, Feb 26 2010). This kind of gesture shapes is relatively difficult to built by handmade materials, at that time Gehry did the model with normal sheet materials, but it cannot be stable. The cost for building models is also expensive, especially for those needing double curvatures. Flattening and standardizing a design saves money, but for aesthetic purpose, it cannot be applied as architecture should be expression of complexity.
In the test period, they build an accurate physical model of a number of structural members and panels. Those materials are all fabricated the manufacturing and automobile industries, which increases the work efficiency to a high extent. They use CAD modelling and the data translation for a structural model. When the model is out, it is proved impossible to manually select the size of all the structural elements and obtain a rigid structure. Thus they developed new software to automatically select the member sizes through an iterative optimization process. Then the problem is successfully solved. Within a whole automated process, one programme generated the entire geometry, the structural optimization process, model convertion (Archive, 2006). Obviously, the design process that apply computation is very efficient, it will allow changes including light modifications and also transition to different softwares. It saves time to start over. But compare to other parametric design, the form tends to be a bit regular because usually it is very creative and appearance is magic, generative design needs a set
In the 1990s, there is a second generation of “smart” digital design in architecture, Gehry used software to optimize designs and translate them directly into a process of fabrication and construction. This leads to significant changes to architecture. After Gehry won the contract to design a new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, he started to test his design by computation. his team import the model data into CATIA, this data was resolved into parametric surfaces so that design and constructability could be digitally manipulated. Gehry believed that ‘digitally designed geometries could be executed much more efficiently with less redundancy’. Now it shifts from 2D to 3D construction, the computer has accurate and high quality performance, there is less mistake and it is easy to organize, thus it plays a more and more important role at the present time.
GEHRY WRANGLES A PIECE OF CARDBOARD
In this project, Gehry uses hand and brain to develop the form, the appearance, the concepts, when coming to model part, there are complext issues to face, which starts the transformation from composition to generation. Different from compoistion, generation is operated by computer softwares, it is more efficient than hand work. CONCEPTUALISATION 15
Part A includes three topic which are design futuring, design computation, composition/generation, those share common points like connection to technological advance, orientation to future, computation etc. To develop future, techonology is boost at a high speed. My intended design approach is to try absolutely parametric design, feel free to create any shapes. I think computation itself provides a lot of chances for us to explore possibilities, develop creativity. Parametric design is significant to architecture as it is representation of techonological advance, it shows a new type of innovation. This is efficient and allow modifications, which is very convenient. I think both architects, clients and users will benefit from that. Architecture can use this approach to develop ability of innovation, clients and users would like to see attractive, fluid, curvilinear and many other type of creative architectures rather than regular ones.
After learning the theory and practice of architecture computing, i was inspired by especially by those magic and attractive architecture, although some are just conceptual design, but it looks very fantastic and are of innovation. At the very beginning, i am confused about why do we need to learn theory of computing, like practice is more important, but now i do not think so. The theory part is easy to understand, and it is base for development of computation. Without learning, i will not know the difference between computation and computerization, also the difference between generation and composition. It is interesting that there is interlinkage. After learning of part A, i appreciated a lot of excellent work, it do gives me a lot of inspiration. Until now, I am still lack of creativity, I am always restricted with the rigid frame, regular shape, like cannot develop further, sometimes I want to do something crazy, but have no chance. This time I will attmpt to apply paramatric design, this is really magic!
REFERENCE Achim Menges, ‘Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design’, Architecture design, 216 (2016), 100-101 Archive, ‘Engineering the water cube’ in Architecture AU ,<http://architectureau.com/articles/practice-23/> [accessed 17 March 2016] Academy of Achievement. ‘Rosa Parks Biography -- Academy of Achievement’ <http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/ par0bio-1> [accessed 17 March 2016] Ali Kriscenski, ‘NO MAN’S LAND: Innovative Watertecture in the Dead Sea’, <http://inhabitat.com/no-mans-land-innovativearchitecture-in-the-dead-sea/> [assessed 05 march 2016] Dubai Journal, ‘A World First: The Dynamic Tower – a Rotating Skyscraper’ <https://dubaijournal.wordpress.com/2014/03/17/aworld-first-the-dynamic-tower-a-rotating-skyscraper/> [accessed 05 March 2016] Evolo, ‘Algorithmic Architecture: Inhabitable Bridge in Tokyo’, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/algorithmic-architectureinhabitable-bridge-in-tokyo/ > [accessed 12 March 2016] Gedi Group, ‘Rotating Tower - Dynamic Architecture: the “fourth industrial revolution” - Prefabrication’<http://designplaygrounds. com/projects/designing-an-installation-using-computational-design-tools/> Lian Chang, ‘The Software Behind Frank Gehry’s Geometrically Complex Architecture’ in Priceconomics, <http://priceonomics. com/the-software-behind-frank-gehrys-geometrically/> [accessed 17 March 2016] ModuArchitecture, ‘No Man’s Land // Dead Sea’ <http://www.moduarchitecture.com/No-Man-s-Land-Dead-Sea> [accessed 17 March 2016] SOHO China, ‘Design & Architecture’ <http://galaxysoho.sohochina.com/en/design> [accessed 12 March 2016]
JOURNAL PART B Studio Air, 2016 Semester 1
Shujun Han (Bunny) 668383 Tutorial 12, Tutor Chen
B.1. Research Field
Precedent study: Serpentine Pavilion 2013 (Architect: Sou Fujimoto)1 Serpentine pavilion 2013 is an extraordinary design that realized the structure design. It is a challenge for comtemporary architecture and engineering to mask the complexity behinde the simple grid design. The grid structure is three-dimensional, density and frame are various in different parts of the grids to satisfy needs. Material for structure is white lattice of steel poles. Circles of transparent polycarbonate are placed on the grids to create shelter. I think it is a useful precedent because it is an successful example that build a close relationship with nature. Although the artificial grid itself seems to be sharp, the whole atmosphere created by this structure is more likely to be trees or clouds, which is very soft and beautiful. This is a pavilion that provides natural light and inspired by organic structure, those points can strongly support my design proposal.
Precedent study: Volvo V60 Pavilion (Architect: Synthesis Design + Architecture)1 This design won the competition of Pure Volvo, it is a rapidly deployable pavilion that expresses strong and creative identity. Design is based on the continous organic surface with integrated photovoltaic panels tensioned over carbon fiber rods. Rods are bending into the curvy forms. This design is extraordinary for its curvature,all the elements follow the curvy forms, the appearance is very free and organic. I would like explore the organic curvy surface in my design, it is a good starting point. It breaks the normal geometric shape and looks very elegant and unique. Due to its specific materiality, it tends to be very fluent and modern. Materiality can change the whole experience, i will test different materials to find suitable approach.
1 SCIA, Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2013 - London, United Kingdom. <https://www.scia.net/en/company/references/projects/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2013-london-united-kingdom>, [accessed 6 April, 2016]
1 Levent Ozler, Synthesis Design + Architecture Designs Pavilion for Volvoâ€™s New Hybrid Electric. <http://www.dexigner. com/news/26741>, [accessed 12 April, 2016]
Precedent study: Proposal for Amazon Biodome Seattle (Architect: NBBJ)1
Precedent study: Times Eureka Pavilion (Architect: Nex Architecture)1
This is one design proposal for Amazon’s second phase of foot mega-campus. The most interesting item presented was three interconnected, asymmetrical steel and glass Catalan-sphere modules, shown in picture above. The 5 story spheres will enclose an atrium with lavish landscaping and other function rooms. The figure indicates the relationship between the organic curves and polygon cell in the sphere external surface. Due to the transparency of sphere, organic curves on the surfaces are very attractive. I will explore the organic curves projecting on geometric shape to increase the complexity and engagement. This will bring fresh experience.
Nex Architecture won the competition of design for Times Eureka Pavilion. This is a pavilion that creates the balance between landscape and architecture. It looks at the cellular structure of plants and processes of growth to inform the design’s development. The primary structure is timber for main polygon panels that are used to form the basic shape and supporting structure of the pavilion. Then secondary timber cassettes hold recycled plastic ‘cells’. The embedd structure and substructure follow the ‘bio-mimicry’ of leaf and branch. Moreover, the hollow frame provide unique views to look outside. The structure and visual experience can be utilised in my design to build relationship with nature. Particularly the substruture is very organic, it explores the bio-mimicry of leaf, which is very interesting.
1 Georgia Globe Design News, New Mega HQ: Apple, Amazon, Google & Facebook. <https://wdanielanderson.wordpress.com/2013/11/01/new-mega-hq-apple-amazon-google-facebook/ >, [accessed 10 April, 2016]
1 Archidaily, Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture.<http://www.archdaily.com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture >, [accessed 10 April, 2016]
B.2. Case Study 1.0
Specie 1: DIstribution - test the different ways of combination including moving, rotating and scaling. This process is to explore the complexity of basic shape.
Specie 2: Fractals - Use pyramid to build different fractals by cluster multiple times. Subtraction can sometimes bring unique experience.
Specie 3: Structure - Build boundary structure of polygons, bezier span curves add organic elements to the geometric structure, the complexity is increased by arranging geometries.
Specie 4: Geomtery - The basic geometry is put into kangaroo to create ramdon shapes by controlling the anchor points and force object.
Specie 5: Restructure - Source from previous iteration, the ramdon shape are restructured from surfaces to pipe structure, there are both geometric and organic structures.
B.2. Case Study 1.0
Aranda Lasch - The Morning Line1 SELECTION CRITERIA Potential in structure complexity and different materiality are explored in the case study 1. Organic structure is the main topic for developing.
This iteration is the fractal version of a polygon trimmed from pyramid. Use cluster commands for three times to build a structure like this. Polygon inside is not restricted to size, combination of big and small polygons provides space for people to climb, jump or have a sit. It tends to be a more solid structure, timber will be a good choice for the material. It enhances the solidity and forms a balanced mixture with natural environment.
The original form of this is combination of different sizes of polygon through moving, rotating, scaling. It is a complex structure after adding random curves to the surfaces of polygons. At the end, polygon structure and curves projected on the surface are combined to run pipe command. The radius of the pipe is carefully considered to follow the function. Basically it is a structure for climbing. The small polygons on the ground are ensured to bear loads, and polygons above should leave space for people to catch. There will be natural light inside the structure because the material will be semi-transparent lattice.
This is an organic structure resulted from kangaroo, the original version is very geometric. However, through controlling anchor points and the force object, randomly forms this shape. It combines a lot of surfaces intersecting together, the bottom can be inserted into ground to be stable. The above can be shelter for people to have a rest during walk or bicyling. Materials can be metal sheets for those surfaces.
DESIGN POTENTIAL Use architectural language to create space for having fun. Explore unique possibilities rather than provide open space or set a normal pavilion. Different kinds of organic structures can provide potential for develop different functions.
1 Jakob Polacsek, The Morning Line Istanbul. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/arandalasch/5882758562>, [accessed 9 April, 2016]
After test in kangaroo, the shape becoms very organic, with pipe structure, the frame looks very free, moreover, the shape is more interesting than geometric one, it provides more possibilities than a simple pavilion, people can sit on different curving parts after climbing. Because it is very organic, the function is not designed, but given based on the shape itself. I think it is a differnet type of â€˜function follows formâ€™, because the form can be easily change by kangaroo, this is one of the successful test that can be turned into reality.
B.3. Case Study 2.0
Step 1: Start with setting two curves as bouundaries. Shapes of curves follow diagram of ZA11 Pavilion. Streching for entrance is considered.
Step 2: Use â€˜Loftâ€™ command to build a surface base on curves given.
CLJO2 - ZA11 pavilion1 This is a flexible and comfortable space that can be utilised to hold different social events. Geometric shape evolved from curving surface.
Step 3: This step is to add hexagon cells on the surface. Number of cells are controlled by u,v divisions.
Step 4: Now based on the cells, explode the curve to capture edge points, each point is extruded towards centre of the surface and an amplitude is given.
Step 5: Use boundary curves to build boundary surface. 1 ThinkParametric, CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION, <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/clj02-za11-pavilion/ >, [accessed 15 April, 2016]
B.3. Case Study 2.0
B.4. Technique: Development
Reverse Engineer Process
ZA11 Pavilion structure processing diagram
Figure: ZA11 Pavilion design process1
Similariteis and difference between reverse engineering and original ZA11 Pavilion: Apparently there is difference between the original shape and reverse engineering. But the structure created is similar. The size of cells are not exactly the same, that is because of the lofted surfaces are different. However, the entry position are similar in reverse engineering. 1 ThinkParametric, CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION
Specie 1: Curve
All the shape is based on original curves. Those iterations are generated by increasing number of curves, editing points on curves, scaling and rotating curves. This process is to explore the complexity of curves and developing potential of the basic shape.
B.4. Technique: Development
Specie 2: Panel
The design will focus on the lighting effects, this process is to test different panels with different densities, this will also influence the general appearance. Types of panels including hexagon, diamond, triangle, quadrangle, skewed quadrangle etc.
Specie 3: Pattern
This process is to randomly do some subtraction by culling pattern, parameters are important in controlling the entire shape. Culling pattern breaks the continourity and bring new experience. This also provides possibilities to create different entrances to this space as the gaps are randomly generated.
B.4. Technique: Development
Specie 4: Boundary Surface
Some interesting shapes selected from previous iterations are set as base for testing different boundary surfaces. Different kinds of boundary surfaces can generate different light effects. Boundary surfaces are all the same to those pieces, the size is based on the original one.
Specie 5: Redistribution
This species includes subtraction and addition. Use subtracting parts to redistrubute to the main part. DIfferent types of recombination is tested here, the basic rule is mobilitiy between different parts. The path needs to create fresh expereience. Scaling and rotating to subtracting parts also helps.
B.4. Technique: Development
SELECTION CRITERIA Explore the complexity of geometry from different approaches This iteration is boundary surface changed based on panels. This panel is triangle and have significate impacts on the entire apperance. After testing, this panel can create beautiful lighting effects. It looks better than other panels. When changing the u,v divisions, the reaction of this shape is positive. As a pavilion, this design would be a great geometry which provides a base for later iterations. This iteration is also formed by triangle panels on the original surface. After creating boundary surfaces, the shades looks beautiful. The other interesting point is pattern created, it leaves 2 entrances, as the gaps are ramdonly selected, the experience will not be equal to normal one, it is not usual entrance, it looks that there is block in entrance, but people can get into space, just like a secrete space as it is surrounded by hollow surface. This is the redistribution of previous iterations to create a larger space. Compared to single part, the interesting point of combination of multiple parts is that mobilities between difference will give an unique experience. The circulation will be the most significant factor, it can increases the engagement of users. The whole combination of hollow surfaces will provide sense of secret and insecurity. Moreover, the experience can be controlled by adjusting a lot of factors like the number of parts, size of boundary factors, density etc.
Specie 6: Restructure
The final process is to restructure this frame. Basially previous iterations are all set of surfaces. This processes focuses more on the boundaries. They are explored again. They are restructured though piping, To increase the complexity, bezier span curves make them look more organic and softer.
I think it is an successful combination of geometric shape and organic elements. After restructuring, bezier span curves projecting on the surface increase the complexity of design. In addition, the light effects will be different from that created by normal boundary surfaces. A bit similar to one of the precedent studies, serpentine pavilion 2013, they both looks very soft and â€˜cloud-likeâ€™, but the difference is that this design has both geometric grids and organic curves. The experience will be unique.
B.5. Technique: PROTOTYPES
Material : Ivory card, 290gsm
Effects: Ivory card is relatively thin, but it is highly elastic, it can realises different types of curvature. Although the bearing capacity is not enough, in the test process three strips are combinated together to increase bearing capacity. If combined, the capacity will be roughly equal to that of boxboard.
Material: Boxboard, 1.8mm
Process: Same to previous one, multiple strips are cutted first. For those three strips to combine, they are just put together and then use bolts to combine as normal, no specific approach is used here. It causes negative effects later.
Effects: In test process, it is found that boxboard has certain tortuosity but it is not highly elastic, after bending, the curvature shape will not change even under pressure , it can help stablize the structure and realize function of sitting etc.
Performance assessment: There is a significant failure part that is curvature shape, because the material itself is too elastic, it can be bended to desired shape, compare between the two shapes, they are different in curvature.
Part of bezier span curves projecting on the polygon surface is selected for materialisation. In fabrication process, curves are turned into strips to increase stability. Selection criteria for material is elasticity, tortuosity, bearing capacity, stability.
Process: Firstly, strips are cutted and drilled holes are leaved for joints. The joints are M5 bolts. For stability, two bolts are used in one side to combine two strips. The drill point is not absolutely at the end, the position is tested because it will have certain impact on stability. The bolts prevents the structure from collapsing. Performance assessment: Because of the specific charateristic of boxboard, surface cracks appear during the bending process, it has damage to visual effects to some extent. In the intersection part, they are not perpendicular, and laser cut cannot cut angles for intersection, the gap is calculated to fit, but in actual test, it will slightly change the shape. Thus the intersection should
In all, the boxboard will be more successful considering all the criteria. In the actual materialisation, timber will be a good choice as they have certain elasticity and are also relatively stable in structure characteristic, therefore, the curvature shape can be realised and stabilised.
B.6. Technique: Proposal
This design is selected due to the specific bond structure. It looks very organic and branches-like. The appearance helps build a close relationship between nature and design. The technique is based on the organic curves. However, to stablise the structure and increase load bearing capacity, width is given to make thin strips instead of pipes like showing in prototype part. There are more to consider in later fabrication, such as how to fit the strips to polygon structure, the connection between polygon boundaries and strips on the surface Another type of joint may be required. The most important point to consider is that then it shifts from bond structure, how to make it looks soft and also stable in structure, maybe external tension can help.
Design Proposal: Based on the geometric structure, to explore the organic complexitiy that can be fitted in the design. This design will be placed in waterfront area with trees around and is used to create a balance between nature and design. The function will be a space for people to have fun and provide unique organic experience. Size is pavilion size, people can sit, wallk around, lie, clime. The bond structure with timber as material, it will be very organic, looks like tree branches.
B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes
I have learnt a lot from the processo of exploring and design. Different from other studios, air focuses on computation. Computation plays a significant role in design. It develops a lot of possbilties, sometimes ‘random’ can be part of ‘logic’. I use grasshopper to generate random results and then set them as inputs to iterate again and again. This process itself is about developing, exploring, restructuring, redistribution. Through parametric modelling, creativity and complexity can be easily explored. In this process, design thinking becomes mature, it gives a lot of inspiration for me to develop design proposal. Computational techniques provides foundation for design.
The most impressive point is that modification in parametric modelling is easy because all the data are manipulated well, since one branch changes, the outcome will also be modified. Compare to previous design, you need to organise and change by yourseld step by step. Computation saves time and effort. The other impressive part is fabrication, when we turns the digital model to physical one, we start to consider the structure, the joints to ensure the stability and also the materiality. In this process a lot of challenges occur, which forces us to change the design to make it feasible and suitable. I enjoy this process because everything we do is make it perfect.
B.8. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches
B.9. References Archidaily, Times Eureka Pavilion / Nex Architecture (2011) <http://www.archdaily. com/142509/times-eureka-pavilion-nex-architecture >, [accessed 10 April, 2016] Georgia Globe Design News, New Mega HQ: Apple, Amazon, Google & Facebook (2013) <https://wdanielanderson.wordpress.com/2013/11/01/new-mega-hq-apple-ama zon-google-facebook/ >, [accessed 10 April, 2016] Ozler, L. Synthesis Design + Architecture Designs Pavilion for Volvoâ€™s New Hybrid Electric (2013) <http://www.dexigner.com/news/26741>, [accessed 12 April, 2016] Polacsek, J. The Morning Line Istanbul (n.d.) <https://www.flickr.com/photos/arandalasch/5882758562>, [accessed 9 April, 2016] SCIA, Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2013 - London, United Kingdom (n.d.) <https://www. scia.net/en/company/references/projects/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2013-london-united-kingdom>, [accessed 6 April, 2016] ThinkParametric, CLJ02: ZA11 PAVILION (2016) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/ clj02-za11-pavilion/ >, [accessed 15 April, 2016]
C.1. Design Concept About the interim presentation... In the interim presentation, a lot of feedbacks were given based on my design. Generally the most important problem is the constructability. My design is about structuralism and consists multipe pipes intersecting together. For this, angualar joints are necessary to keep the original appearance. Without prototyping, i did not how hard will be to construct the overall form. When i started to test, i found that the joint types can not be generalized because all the angles in the intersection parts are different, it will take a lot of time and also there is no certain feasibility, even it is not sure whether the actual model will look as the same as digital one. It is hard to keep them in control including the position of each pipe, the connection and many other risky elements. need prototype to prove whether it can work or not, in this process design may evolve in technique, form, pattern. It is better to narrow down first and start testing rather than keep exploring in digital world. For prototype part, i lately decided to work on the curvy pattern, they were more interesting to explore, i tested some samples selected from polygon face focusing on different materiality and which kind of joint will be suitable. For strips i used bolts and nuts to stablize them. But apparently they do not give aesthestics. With materials for strips, they do not look like to belong to the same family. I think it is important to keep them not to look strange. Maybe this time i did not explore enough, next time i will keep research and test. Other problems mentioned last includes scale and dimension, I think it is necessary to keep them in control because they are also set to fit into the site and correspond to the concept, maybe my concept is not strong enough, so i did not set a specific value. But now i understand everything there should be meaningful. Moreover, relevance to precedents are also questioned. Good and useful precedents will give direction towards design including many aspects like concept, site-releationship, form, pattern and connection type. I was inspired from my precedents by their geometric shape and also inner organic elements, but next time the direction can be more clearer so I can directly absorb some useful experience and also save time if I choose more suitable precedents.
About the deisgn concept... After discussion with group members, we decided to work on linear fluid form based on our previous experience in exploration of digital design. Our design project is named as ‘ARBOR’. Arbor was conceptualized and developed as a response to our understanding and perception of digital design. This design focuses on transforming artificial reality by digital medium. We experienced challenge about how to blance the relationship between nature and artficiality. Because Arbor is not natural, it is a digital outcome which attempts to conceive a hyper reality. We apprecitate the abundance of nature, nature is source of inspiration due to its transcendency, organic and pure experience. Based on that, we want to use digital design as a medium to enhance the perception of nature. Arbor will be placed in flat open area of grassland, in close proximity to Rushall railway station and viewable from the surrounding residences, roads, and train line. The approach of the train line into Rushall station is offers an unobstructed view onto the site, which we utilised as a means of showcasing the form. There is certain issue in the surrounding environment, in the past few years there have been several minor crimes like muggings, assaults. Thus Arbor will a lighting installation, designed to provide a solution as instigator of crime that will facilitate a safer environment for commuters by enticing a greater amount of foot traffic meandering through the site and surrounds. For lighting part, we looked extensively at precedents by Loop Ph, patterns and lights gave inspiration to our design project. Neon colours were a deliberate choice to starkly contrast with the organic form and surrounding natural landscape, highlighting the ‘artificial’ origin and construction of the installation. It also increases the complexity and coolness of Arbor.
About the technique...
Form evolution process: from simplicity to complexity In the form developing process, we construct mesh based on curves in the boundary box, number of points, thickness,tighness, spread are adjusted to achieve aesthestics and complexity. Furthermore, the growing curves also show a trend of growing strength. This time we want to create something particularly that grasshopper can do. There are some interesting intersections even those curves are not joined. So I keep exploring and get the final form.
About the technique
Structure evolution process: first step
We looked at Loop Ph to learn some experience about pattern. We initially worked with a similar structural system as used by Loop Ph, a series of interlocking loops made from a flexible yet strong material, creating a self-supporting primary structure on which we would attach our lighting. Because in exploration, we find that el wire is too light that cannot self support. Thus, a stable main structure is necessary. But when we model it, there are problems. On the left, we use interpolate curves, this allows all the curves to have intersection point but we find it hard to controll the number of the circles. For the right one, based mesh face boundary, the number of circles are minimized. But it is still roughly 1000, it will bring difficulty to construction.
About the technique
Structure evolution process: further step
Then we decided to try another approach. This time the main structure is constructed based on the sliced sections of the form, space and total height are considered to fit into our site. This structure is supported by cutted rods. We did populate geometry to the bottom surface of the boundary box and select the appropriate position to build circles for rods to plug in. Substructure is light, we did naked edges and evaluate points on, then lift the points upwards to suit the form. Through further control, the lighting wires are supposed to fit in the form, we capture intersection part to pipe, then also leave holes for the lights. Basically what we want to do is to use the main structure to support the substructure which is the light. The difficulty we found in this way is that it is hard to get lights under control by grasshopper, we tried a lot of methods, but still a bit problematic, but we still decide to make a protype for it, just selecting top few layers.
About the construction Envisgaed process
We are supposed to use washer and bolts tied to metal rods to stablize the main structure. Due to the special twisting form, we cannot place a whole rod running through all the layers, so we divided them into sections, for similar parts, run rods through them. Particularlly for those small panels as shown in the left part of the photo, they require manual adjustment to make sure all the rods can fit in. Thus, for the prototyping part, we manipulate the rod position and hole size in rhino instead of grasshopper.
We focus on test the materiality for the circle structure. The material needs to be bendable and also strong because they cannot self support. Connection is also important for multiple reasons like aesthestics, stablity. We have test electric wire, plastic tube, timber rod and fiberglass rods. They both have advantages and disadvantages. Timber rod is not that bendy and cannot make super small circles. The minimum size of the circle can be 50cm for parameter. However, it really depends on the joint, i used metal wires for this but the circle will be broken when there isdollars, pressure because this joint will not offer some flexibity. Fiberglass rods can be bendy but it depends on the connection type because sometimes it collapses. It is not cost efficient. To make a structure 3m tall, we need to pay for roungly 650 bulks, so we change another method.
Electic wire is bendable and also strong, but the minimum size of the circle made by that is still too big, also the diameter of the wire is too big, it cannot be used to make a form and suit a certain angle.
Plastic tube is not very bendable, those tubes can be connected by metal wire, then can be used for a linear form. There are multiple choices for diameter and length.
Timber rod is not that bendy and cannot make super small circles. The minimum size of the circle can be 50cm for parameter. However, it really depends on the joint, i used metal wires for this but the circle will be broken when there is pressure because this joint will not offer some flexibity.
Fiberglass rods can be bendy but it depends on the connection type because sometimes it collapses. It is not cost efficient. To make a structure 3m tall, we need to pay for roungly $650 as $3 for 1m. There should be a method to enlarge circles and reduce the amount of them but we found hard to manipulate (technical issue), so we changed to another method.
We manually got the length of each piece of metal rod and sent them to factory. In actual construction process, we found that there is something wrong with the data as we didnt calculate the length correctly because we did not consider the washer and bolt height for the top one and bottom one. Because of time limit, we havenâ€™t get a correctly manipulated prototype as one piece is too short and cannot be plugged into the pespex.
We used black perspex for this prototype as considering that black perspex may not reflect too much light and can hide well in night. But it does not look good in the daytime, the metal rods also look quite strange, so we lately paint it to be black to reduce the aesthestic effects.
Apparently we didnt work out the effective control method of el wires. Becasue there is no solution at this stage, we just twisted wrap them around. It looks too random, compared to our design, it does show that we build excactly the same thing. Now the most important thing is too get lights under control. In addtion, maybe because it is only a part of all the layers, the form is not interpreted clearly, but i think the most direct reason is that the space is 100mm, it is too wide and cannot demonstrate the form well. Generally for the appearance, they are not ugly, but in daylight, it does look that good because the wrapping method and rods (although they are painted to black, but still they will affect the look). Black perspex as material for the main structure, they look good both in daylight and night, it will not reflect too much light and will hide at night.
Curves on mesh face boundary
The form was sliced into boundary surfaces to provide main support structure,and those surfaces are later extruded to be solid. Moreover,for lights to run through the sliced sections, the current approach is to literally draw curces along the mesh face boundary, this way can ensure all the curves are well controlled in the mesh, compare to the previous one which is evaluate points on the naked edge and them do interpolate curves between them, in this way some curves are run out of the mesh, which will cause problem when construct model. In addition, mesh is reconstructed to minize the amout of faces so that the curves will be more fluid and also easier for drawing.
Curves run throught surfaces
The most important one is conjuagting process, considering about the connection between main structure and lights, we need to match all the holes. We have to ensure the lights are kept in the curvy appearance but also allow appearance. For this purpose, we set a general hole size which allow most of parts of lights to fit in, for some specific angles, we manually adjust the size for them and then import the adjusted version of circles back to form new boundary surfaces. In addition, for more flexibity of lights, full hole and half hole types are set at edge for even and odd layers to prevent potential risks in constructing process.
Steps: 1. Pieces are grouped in each layer and arrange in fabrication sheets with organized logic sequence. 2. They are lately distributed to each branch and built from bottom to top. 3. The light path is very easy to follow because they do not intersect and twist in logic. We run lights through holes in each layer step by step. 4. Generally the wires can stablize the form except some very curved sections, we lately add some glue to hole edge and also between perspex sheets, but not too much, in case it may affect the appearance. We try to make it stable enough without damaging the aesthestics.
To improve the previous prototype, this time metal rods are replaced, perspex sheets self support and sit on each other, it is better for intepreting the form. We also use transparent perspex instead of black one because light is the main focus in our design, we need to make that more visible whether it is in daylight or at night. Transparent perspex can also correspond to the pure experience of nature. Moreover, the el wires used are too long for what the structure needs, so the rest are well packaged at the bottom so it will not affect the appearance.
Clear perspex in night will be magic as they can reflect the lights to create pixel effects.
Project Name: ARBOR Dimension: 1000*1000*3000 (Model 1:5) Site: close to Rushall station, grassland Budget: $600 roughly for model
C.4. Learning Outcome Studying studio air is a process that makes me have new understanding about architecture, and also parametric design, architecture is not restricted to the building, it can be everything around us. Our design concept is abstract, which is evolved from what we feel about digital design and artificiality. After experiencing from design to construction, from technique to prototype, I am more familiar with using grasshopper, althought there are still a lot that i can learn to manipulate. I will keep exploring parametric design, the process is difficult, but once get the script done, it is easy to modify as everything can be automatically changed quickly. Instead to tradtional computational design, I think it is more interesting, it will become source of inspiration. It also makes me realize that prototype is very important, it will let me know the feasbility and tell me whether I need to go back to change the design. For example, considering the actual hole size and el wire diameter, i find that some branches are too slim to cover those holes and space between them, so I need to go back and change the points evaluated on curves to make them thick enough to be able to build.
VIDEO LINK: https://vimeo.com/170129765