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Perceptions and Attitudes of Online Courses

A Graduate Research Project Presented to The Faculty of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction Sam Houston State University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Education

by Stephanie Behnke April 26, 2011


Abstract Even with numerous studies showing that online courses are just as effective as traditional, face-to-face courses, many people still feel traditional courses are better than online courses. This research study will explore these perceptions and attitudes of online courses especially towards the use of technologies (i.e., Glogster, PBwiki, podcasting, blogs, and other Web 2.0 tools) and communication (i.e., e-mail, Skype, Discussion Board, etc.). This study will also compare instructor and student responses which can lead to an overall improvement in the student’s education and the expansion of the college programs. The study found that there is a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the amount of communication and use of technologies in those online courses. Instructors and students were also shown to hold the same views about the amount of communication provided and the use of technology in an online course.

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Table of Contents Title Page ................................................................................................................ i Abstract ................................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents .................................................................................................... iii List of Tables ........................................................................................................... v List of Figures .......................................................................................................... vi Chapter I. Development of Proposal ......................................................................... 7 Introduction ............................................................................................... 7 Statement of Problem ............................................................................... 7 Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 8 Definition of Terms ................................................................................... 9 Assumptions ............................................................................................. 10 Limitations ................................................................................................ 10 Delimitations ............................................................................................. 11 II. Review of Related Literature .................................................................... 12 III. Methods and Procedures......................................................................... 15 Sampling Process..................................................................................... 15 Variables................................................................................................... 15 Data Collection Instruments ..................................................................... 15 Procedures ............................................................................................... 16 IV. Analysis of Data ...................................................................................... 17 Introduction ............................................................................................... 17 iii


Analysis of Student Responses Only ....................................................... 17 Analysis of Instructor Responses Only ..................................................... 21 Analysis of Student and Instructor Responses ......................................... 25 V. Summary and Conclusions ...................................................................... 28 Summary .................................................................................................. 28 Recommendations.................................................................................... 28 Works Cited ............................................................................................................. 29 Appendix A. Instructor Survey ..................................................................................... 31 B. Student Survey........................................................................................ 38 C. CITI Certification ..................................................................................... 46 D. IRB Approval Notice................................................................................ 47 E. Approval Letter ........................................................................................ 50

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List of Tables Table 1..................................................................................................................... 18 Table 2..................................................................................................................... 19 Table 3..................................................................................................................... 20 Table 4..................................................................................................................... 20 Table 5..................................................................................................................... 21 Table 6..................................................................................................................... 22 Table 7..................................................................................................................... 23 Table 8..................................................................................................................... 24 Table 9..................................................................................................................... 24 Table 10................................................................................................................... 25

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List of Figures Figure 1 ................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 2 ................................................................................................................... 22

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Chapter I - Development of Proposal Introduction There are numerous research studies showing that online courses are just as effective as traditional, face-to-face courses. Even with these studies, many people still feel that traditional courses are better and more effective than courses that are online. This research study will explore these perceptions and attitudes of online courses especially towards the use of technologies (i.e., Glogster, PBwiki, podcasting, blogs, and other Web 2.0 tools) and communication (i.e., e-mail, Skype, Discussion Board, etc.). This study will be comparing the views between graduate instructors and students in Sam Houston State University’s College of Education graduate and postbaccalaureate programs. Studies that compare the views of both instructors and students are rare, if any. Technologies and communication were two major factors that repeatedly showed up in other studies that analyzed perceptions and attitudes of online courses.

Statement of Problem Does communication and technologies effect how a person views the effectiveness of an online course? Research Questions 1. Is there a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the amount of communication and use of technologies in those online courses?

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8 2. Do instructors and students share the same views about the amount of communication provided and the use of technology in an online course? If communication and technology influence perceptions and attitudes of online courses, then it can be concluded that improving communication and use of technology will improve perceptions and attitudes of online courses.

Comparing the views of

instructors and students can lead to instructors reflecting over how they teach online courses. This can lead to an overall improvement in the student’s education and the expansion of the college programs.

Hypothesis I believe there is a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the amount of communication and use of technologies in those online courses.

If there is a lack of communication or unfamiliar technologies with poor

instructions on how to use them, then a person will have a negative attitude towards an online course.

The opposite can be said when an online course provides many

communication opportunities and technology is easy to use. Instructors may think that they are providing enough communication and direction in an online course, but this might not be the case when compared to what students perceive. The hypothesis will be tested through two online surveys; one for instructors and one for students. The surveys are almost identical except for some re-wording of some of the questions. This has been done to assist the instructor or student in responding to the question and ensure the survey provides clearer responses.

The number of


9 participants being surveyed is 86 instructors and 1,211 students in the College of Education department at Sam Houston State University.

Definition of Terms Teacher of record means that you are the teacher of the classroom; you are a full time, paid teacher. Higher education means college level education. Self-directed learning is a process in which students take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes.

The role of the

instructor is the “guide on the side�. Instructor-directed learning is a process, in which the instructor diagnoses student learning needs, formulates learning goals, identifies resources for learning, selects and implements learning strategies, and evaluates learning outcomes. Expository instruction is where the technology delivers the content. Active learning is where the technology allows students to control digital artifacts to information or address problems. Interactive learning is where technology mediates human interaction; learning emerges through interactions with other students and the technology. Traditional courses meet face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week. Hybrid courses have a combination traditional classroom instruction and online instruction.


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Assumptions The first assumption being made with this research study is online courses are just as effective as traditional, face-to-face courses. There are very few studies that show anything different than online courses are as effective as traditional courses. Even fewer studies that contradict the statement, “online courses are less effective than face-to-face courses�, are considered reliable by the research community.

Another

assumption is assuming the survey responses apply to all online courses and not one specific online course.

Limitations The surveys used in this research study will create generalizations about all online courses instead of identifying problems in specific online courses. This limitation can cause the collected data to be inaccurate in identifying weaknesses in certain online courses. Another limitation is that this study only analyzes in-depth two factors that might influence perceptions and attitudes towards an online course. It is possible that there are more factors that play a role in how a person perceives an online course. Another limitation for this study is that students need to know how to remove their popup blocker to take the survey. If they don’t change their pop-up blocker, then they will not be able to access the survey.


11 Delimitations The research study only analyzes those attitudes and perceptions of online courses within Sam Houston State University’s College of Education department. The instructors and students that are being asked to participate in the study are only involved in graduate and post-baccalaureate programs. No one under the age of twenty will be participating in this study.


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Chapter II - Review of Related Literature Review of Related Literature Numerous research studies show that online courses are just as effective as traditional, face-to-face courses. Even with these studies, many people still feel that traditional courses are better and more effective than courses that are online. “Online learning has become popular because of it potential for providing more flexible access to content and instruction at any time, from any place” (U.S. Dept, 2009, pp. 1). Every year online courses gain in popularity and have become more widely available at colleges. As popularity for online courses and programs increases, more and more “various organizations and accreditation agencies have outlined ‘best practices’ and/or developed frameworks for quality in distance education” (Lee, 2009, pp. 73). The U.S. Department of Education (2009) released a meta-analysis consisting of 51 different studies “found, on average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction” (p. ix). Only 4 of the 51 studies examined students at a graduate level.

“The studies in this meta-analysis do not

demonstrate that online learning is superior as a medium” (U.S. Dept, 2009, pp. xvii). This shows that online learning is not better than face-to-face instruction, but that the conditions or factors are what effect student performance. Some of the major factors that were noted in the meta-analysis were the amount of time spent on a task, the amount of communication and feedback provided, and the effective use of technologies within an online course. Some studies suggest that “the way in which a medium is used is more important than merely having access to it” (U.S.


13 Dept, 2009, pp.40). According to the study technology and pedagogy: the association between students’ perceptions of the quality of online courses and the technologies employed (2009), “the best predictor of perceived quality of the course was frequency of contact with the instructor” (Aziz, pp. 253). This same study also showed a strong correlation between students’ evaluation of the quality of the online course and the frequency of communication with the instructor. “Since the 1960s, modern distance education has evolved through a series of delivery methods with an increasingly sophisticated set of techniques for teacher-student and student-student interaction” (Baggaley, 2008, pp. 40). There is a strong relationship between the use of various technologies and a students’ perception of the difficulty of the course (Aziz, 2009, pp. 257). Another study that was analyzed in the U.S. Department of Education metaanalysis (2009) found “students in the more active, high-intensity online tool condition demonstrated better understanding of the material” (p. 41) on the course assignments compared to other students. “A technology will be effective only to the extent that it enables or enhances the application of good teaching practices” (Aziz, 2009, pp. 253): “the more instructors use these technologies to connect with their students, the greater the quality of the course as perceived by students” (Aziz, 2009, pp. 259). It is important to understand what conditions or factors will increase effectiveness when deciding how to implement online learning. “The goal of the study as a whole is to provide policy-makers, administrators, and educators with research-based guidance about how to implement online learning” (U.S. Dept, 2009, pp. xi).

The role of faculty members is essential to the successful

implementation of any education program. If faculty perceptions are negative towards


14 online courses, then an online program will struggle. “It is important to understand why faculty members may be reluctant to embrace the non-traditional modes of course delivery standard to distance education” (Casebeer, 2009, pp.19).

“In an intensive

course, the professor needs to be available to respond promptly to online inquiries” (DeFelice, 2010). One result from the study perceptions of distance learning among faculty of a college of education (2009) showed that “personal lack of technology competence was a strong theme” (p. 27). It is important to use technology in courses, especially since the expanding use of technology in K thru 12 school settings. The study, listening to students: investigating the effectiveness of an online graduate teaching strategies course (2009), the online instructional activities rated as most effective were those related to the field experience (p. 80). It is very rare to find a valid study that shows online learning could be less effective for students when compared to a traditional, face-to-face learning. An article published by eCampus News (2010) discussed a research study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research that suggests “males, Hispanics, and lowperforming students might fare worse in web-based classes than they do in the traditional classroom” (p. 1). There were many limitations to this study that were not addressed: whether students have a reliable internet connection, whether that program has well-designed courses, and the narrow performance examination of students in a single course. However, the article does state, “this study should be seen as a warning to schools to look at their quality of their online course” (Carter, 2010, pp. 25).


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Chapter III - Methods and Procedures Sampling Process Graduate instructors and students in Sam Houston State University’s College of Education graduate and post-baccalaureate programs were chosen to be sampled. The various graduate and post-baccalaureate programs offered the opportunity to survey students and instructors who have been involved in both online and traditional, face-toface courses. The number of participants being surveyed is 86 instructors and 1,211 students in the College of Education department at Sam Houston State University. A total of 257 students and 32 instructors responded to the survey; a return rate of 21.2% for students and 37.2% for instructors.

Variables Communication and technology along with whether the participant was an instructor or a student were the variables in this research.

The first goal was to

determine if communication and technology influence perceptions and attitudes of online courses. The second goal was to determine if instructors and students share the same views about the amount of communication provided and the use of technology in an online course.

Data Collection Instruments Two anonymous, online surveys created in Google Docs were used to gather the data for the research. The surveys are almost identical except for some re-wording of some of the statements to help students or instructors respond and ensure the survey


16 provides clearer responses. Statements and questions in the surveys were created to collect generalizations about all online courses; not specific online courses.

No

identifiable information was gathered other than whether the participant was an instructor or student, what department the participant was involved with, gender, and age range. See Appendix A and Appendix B for both distributed surveys.

Procedures The survey was conducted strictly online within a two week time period. Surveys were only sent to Sam Houston State University school e-mail accounts only. An e-mail was sent out on the first day of the two week period and was then followed by a second email asking for those to participate exactly one week later. Responses were collected through Google Docs during this time period.


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Chapter IV - Analysis of Data Introduction The goals of each survey were (1) to determine if there is a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the amount of communication, and (2) to determine if there is a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the use of technologies in those online courses. The third goal required analyzing the student survey responses to the instructor survey responses to see if instructors and students share the same views about the amount of communication provided and the use of technology in an online course.

Analysis of Student Responses Only Figure 1 contains the technology skills that students consider themselves to have.

More than half of the students feel they have a medium level of skill with

technology; meaning more than half of the students do have some experience with various technologies besides email and surfing the web. An overwhelming 96% of students felt they had medium or high technology skills.


18 Figure 1

Student Technology Skill Level 4%

low technological skills (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)technological medium

35%

skills - (some experience with various technologies)

61%

high technological skills (extensive experience with a variety of technologies)

Table 1 shows the percentage of students who strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, or strongly disagree with statements specifically pertaining to the use of technology. Table 1 Students Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Technology Use Enhances the Quality of Learning Experiences and Outcomes

16%

51%

21%

7%

5%

Preference to Utilize Technology Employed in K-12 School Settings

30%

44%

18%

3%

5%

Online Courses are Difficult Because of Unfamiliar Technology

5%

19%

13%

39%

24%

Of the three statements listed in Table 1 the statement “online courses are difficult because of unfamiliar technology” was compared to the student’s level of technology skills to see if there was a strong correlation between the two. Table 2


19 shows the results. More than half of those students with low technology skills strongly agree or agree that online courses are difficult due to unfamiliar technology while over three-fourths of the students with high technology skills disagree or strongly disagree with the same statement. Those students with medium technology skills were more evenly distributed between whether they agreed or disagreed. Table 2

Strongly Agree

Agree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

1.9%

0.8%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

1.5%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

1.2%

Students Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

0.4%

0.8%

0.0%

15.3%

10.9%

24.9%

8.9%

3.1%

1.9%

13.2%

15.2%

Students were given the statement “an online course makes me feel overwhelmed� which was also compared to the student’s technology skill level in Table 3.

Most students with low technology skills agreed or strongly agreed with feeling

overwhelmed with an online course. Those students with medium or high technology skills had similar percentages when it came to feeling overwhelmed with an online course.


20 Table 3

Strongly Agree

Agree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

1.2%

1.6%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

4.2%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

4.7%

Students Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

0.4%

0.4%

0.4%

15.2%

18.7%

19.1%

4.2%

6.2%

6.6%

9.7%

7.4%

Table 4 shows student responses to the statement “I believe online courses overall are less effective than traditional courses” versus the student’s technology skill level. Table 4 shows that at least half or more of all students at each technology skill level feel online courses overall are not less effective when compared to traditional courses. Table 4

Strongly Agree

Agree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

0.8%

0.8%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

6.2%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

5.4%

Students Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

0.4%

1.6%

0.4%

8.9%

10.9%

24.9%

10.5%

6.6%

4.3%

10.1%

8.2%


21 Student responses to statements involved with communication in online courses are shown in Table 5. Table 5 Students Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Opportunities to Interact With One Another in Real Time

30%

39%

18%

10%

3%

Communication Between Instructor and Student/Student and Instructor is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course

6%

19%

22%

33%

20%

Communication Between Student & Student is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course

4%

19%

21%

38%

18%

Easier to Request/Easier to Provide Help/Assistance Compared to a Traditional Course

3%

21%

22%

35%

19%

Just as Much Feedback Compared to a Traditional Course

9%

30%

18%

25%

18%

Online Courses Allow More Time for Students to Complete a Task

12%

48%

23%

13%

4%

Course Materials are Well Prepared and Carefully Explained

11%

48%

19%

16%

5%

Assignment Instructions are Thoroughly Explained

8%

49%

19%

18%

6%

Analysis of Instructor Responses Only Figure 2 shows the technology skill level that instructors feel they have. 38% of instructors felt they had high technological skills while 94% of instructors thought they had at least medium technological skills.


22 Figure 2

Instructor Technology Skill Level low technological skills (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web) medium technological skills - (some experience with various technologies)

6% 38% 56%

high technological skills (extensive experience with a variety of technologies)

The statement “online courses are difficult because of unfamiliar technology” was compared to the instructor’s level of technology skills to see if there was a strong correlation between the two in Table 6. Many of the instructors with low or medium level of technology skills agreed or strongly agreed that online courses were difficult because of unfamiliar technology while most of those with high technology skills disagreed or strongly disagreed. Table 6

Strongly Agree

Agree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

0.0%

3.1%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

6.3%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

0.0%

Instructors Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

3.1%

0.0%

0.0%

25.0%

6.3%

9.4%

9.4%

3.1%

6.3%

9.4%

18.6%


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Table 7 shows the instructor responses to the statement “an online course makes me feel overwhelmed” versus instructor’s technology skill level. Those with low technology skills all responded the same with neither agreeing or disagreeing with feeling overwhelmed. A large percentage of those instructors with medium technology skills agreed or strongly agreed with feeling overwhelmed when it came to an online course. The largest percentage of those who strongly disagreed or disagreed with feeling overwhelmed with an online course were instructors with a high technology skill level. Table 7

Strongly Agree

Agree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

0.0%

0.0%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

3.1%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

3.1%

Instructors Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

6.3%

0.0%

0.0%

15.5%

21.8%

9.4%

6.3%

6.3%

9.4%

12.5%

6.3%

Table 8 contains the responses for the statement “I believe online courses overall are less effective than traditional courses”. It is interesting to note that no instructor with low technology skills agreed with this statement. More than half of all of the instructors with medium technology skills felt that online courses overall are less effective than traditional courses along with over a third of those with high technology skills.


24 Table 8 Instructors Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Low Technology Skills - (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

0.0%

0.0%

3.1%

3.1%

0.0%

Medium Technology Skills (some experience with various technologies)

6.3%

25.0%

6.3%

9.4%

9.4%

High Technology Skills (extensive experience with variety of technologies)

9.4%

6.3%

12.3%

6.3%

3.1%

Table 9 responses to statements involved with communication in online courses Table 9 Instructors Strongly Agree

Agree

Neither Agree or Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Opportunities to Interact With One Another in Real Time

41%

38%

22%

0%

0%

Communication Between Instructor and Student/Student and Instructor is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course

3%

13%

28%

38%

19%

Communication Between Student & Student is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course

3%

6%

34%

47%

9%

Easier to Request/Easier to Provide Help/Assistance Compared to a Traditional Course

9%

16%

22%

38%

16%

Just as Much Feedback Compared to a Traditional Course

16%

47%

19%

16%

3%

Online Courses Allow More Time for Students to Complete a Task

9%

31%

34%

25%

0%


25 Course Materials are Well Prepared and Carefully Explained

16%

63%

19%

3%

0%

Assignment Instructions are Thoroughly Explained

22%

50%

25%

3%

0%

Analysis of Student and Instructor Responses Table 10 shows student responses and instructor responses to statements to determine if students and instructors share the same views about the amount of communication provided and the use of technology in an online course. There are many similarities between student and instructor responses. One thing to note is that a larger amount of instructors feel that online courses provide just as much feedback as traditional courses when compared to students. Another thing to notice is that over 50%of students agree or strongly agree that online courses provide equivalent learning opportunities for students while only 34% of instructors feel the same way. Table 10 Students

Technology Use Enhances the Quality of Learning Experiences and Outcomes Preference to Utilize Technology Employed in K12 School Settings Online Courses are Difficult Because of Unfamiliar Technology Opportunities to Interact With

Instructors

Strongl y Agree

Agre e

Neither Agree or Disagre e

16%

51%

21%

7%

5%

16%

56%

22%

6%

0%

30%

44%

18%

3%

5%

34%

38%

25%

0%

3%

5%

19%

13%

39%

24%

6%

31%

16%

19%

28%

30%

39%

18%

10%

3%

41%

38%

22%

0%

0%

Disagre e

Strongly Disagre e

Strongl y Agree

Agre e

Neither Agree or Disagre e

Disagre e

Strongly Disagre e


26 One Another in Real Time Communication Between Instructor and Student/Studen t and Instructor is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course Communication Between Student & Student is Less Difficult to Establish Compared to a Traditional Course Easier to Request/Easier to Provide Help/Assistanc e Compared to a Traditional Course Just as Much Feedback Compared to a Traditional Course Online Courses Allow More Time for Students to Complete a Task Online Courses Require More Time and Attention Course Materials are Well Prepared and Carefully Explained Assignment Instructions are Thoroughly Explained An Online Course Makes Me Feel

6%

19%

22%

33%

20%

3%

13%

28%

38%

19%

4%

19%

21%

38%

18%

3%

6%

34%

47%

9%

3%

21%

22%

35%

19%

9%

16%

22%

38%

16%

9%

30%

18%

25%

18%

16%

47%

19%

16%

3%

12%

48%

23%

13%

4%

9%

31%

34%

25%

0%

21%

35%

26%

14%

3%

47%

31%

13%

6%

3%

11%

48%

19%

16%

5%

16%

63%

19%

3%

0%

8%

49%

19%

18%

6%

22%

50%

25%

3%

0%

10%

23%

26%

29%

12%

6%

22%

38%

22%

13%


27 Overwhelmed Equivalent Learning Opportunities for Students I Believe Online Courses Overall are Less Effective than Traditional Courses Prefer All Courses to be Online Prefer All Courses to be Traditional Prefer All Courses to be Hybrid Would Not be Involved in a SHSU Program if Online Courses Were Not Offered

10%

44%

20%

18%

8%

9%

25%

22%

22%

22%

12%

16%

16%

37%

19%

16%

31%

22%

19%

13%

20%

26%

16%

21%

16%

9%

13%

16%

38%

25%

13%

13%

21%

37%

17%

16%

13%

22%

44%

6%

11%

31%

32%

17%

9%

22%

31%

28%

13%

6%

41%

15%

6%

15%

23%

0%

3%

9%

16%

72%


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Chapter V - Summary and Conclusions Summary There is a strong correlation between perceptions and attitudes of online courses and the amount of communication and use of technologies in those online courses. An even stronger relationship is shown between the technology skill level and the perceptions and attitudes of online courses. The comparison results show that teachers and student typically do share the same views about online courses. Recommendations There are no official standards for online courses; only recommendations by various organizations. Discovering the major influential factors can help in the creation of official standards.

An overall improvement in the student’s education and the

expansion of the college programs by discovering the major factors that influence the success of online courses. Another discovery from the survey was that an overwhelming amount of teachers and students would prefer hybrid courses over online or face-to-face courses. More research could be done to determine why that is and how this information could be brought into public schools. As for the comparison between teacher and student views, a study could be conducted to see if it is true that how a teacher perceives an online course does rub off on the student’s perception.


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Works Cited Aziz, S., Kishore, M., Ozan, E., Tabrizi, M., & Wuensch, K. (2009, June). Technology and pedagogy: the association between students’ perceptions of the quality of online courses and the technologies employed. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 253-262. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/wuensch_0609.pdf Baggaley, J. (2008, May). Where did distance education go wrong?. Distance Education, 29(1), 39-51. Doi: 10.1080/01587910802004837. Carter, D. (2010, October). eLearning under the microscope. eCampus News, 3(10), 1,25. Retrieved from http://www.eCampusNews.com Casebeer, C., Mills, S., & Yanes, M. (2009, March). Perceptions of distance learning among faculty of a college of education. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 19-28. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no1/mills_0309.pdf DeFelice, A., & Ferguson, J. (2010, May). Length of online course and student satisfaction, perceived learning, and academic performance. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/viewArticle/772/1547 Lee, K. (2009, March). Listening to students: investigating the effectiveness of an online graduate teaching strategies course. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 72-87. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no1/lee_0309.pdf


30 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development. (2009). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: a metaanalysis and review of online learning studies (SRI International Contract No. ED-04-CO-0040 Task 0006). Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf


31

Appendix A Letter of Invitation to Participate/Introduction Dear SHSU Instructor: I am inviting you to participate in this online survey that is designed to explore perceptions and attitudes towards the use of technologies (i.e., Glogster, PBwiki, podcasting, blogs, and other Web 2.0 tools) and communication (i.e., e-mail, Skype, Discussion Board, etc.) in online courses. Many people in the SHSU College of Education have expressed interest in the results of this survey. I have received approval from IRB and the College of Education Dean, Dr. Genevieve Brown to conduct this survey. I would be more than happy to e-mail you the IRB approval if you would like to view it. Participation in this research survey is strictly voluntary. You may choose to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of any benefit to which you might otherwise be entitled. There is no cost for participation, nor is there any compensation for participation. Responses will be for research purposes only. Data will be aggregated and no individually identifiable information will be reported. Results of the study may be published, but no names or identifying information will be included in the publication. Participant identity will remain confidential unless disclosure is required by law. Your participation is valuable and important to accomplish the research goals. The survey should take no more than 5-10 minutes to complete. By clicking the link below, you agree to answer the questions in this survey. You must complete the survey in one sitting. Once you have completed the survey, click the “Submit� button on the thank you page to exit the survey. Please complete the survey by midnight on Thursday, December 14, 2010. Thank you for your participation. Please click on the link below to access the survey. https://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&formkey=dEtvMFNHQWpNank4YXB SR1c4STFLR2c6MQ#gid=0 Should you have any questions, problems, or need additional information like the IRB approval, please contact Stephanie Behnke at slb021@shsu.edu.


32

• •

Select your gender. o Female o Male Select your age range. o 20-27 o 28-35 o 36-43 o 44-51 o 52 or higher Select the number of years you have been teaching in higher education. o 0 o Less than 1 o 1-3 o 4-6 o 7-9 o More than 9 Select the department that you are affiliated with. o Curriculum and Instruction o Educational Leadership and Counseling o Health and Kinesiology o Language, Literacy, and Special Populations o Library Science Select the number of online courses that you are teaching. o 0 o 1-2 o 3-4 o More than 5 Select the total number of hours per week that you typically spend preparing and maintaining an online course. o Not teaching an online course o 0-3 hours o 4-6 hours o 7-9 hours o More than 9 hours I consider myself… o a verbal learner (listening learner) o a visual learner (seeing learner) o a hands-on learner (touch/experience learner) o a verbal and visual learner o a visual and hands-on learner o a hands-on and verbal learner o a verbal, visual and hands-on learner


33 •

I prefer to teach an online course as self-directed. (Self-directed learning is a process in which students take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes. The role of the instructor is the “guide on the side”.)

o o o o o •

Most online courses I teach are self-directed. (Self-directed learning is a process in which students take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes. The role of the instructor is the “guide on the side”.)

o o o o o •

(Instructor-directed learning is a process, in which the instructor diagnoses student learning needs, formulates learning goals, identifies resources for learning, selects and implements learning strategies, and evaluates learning outcomes.)

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Most online courses I teach are instructor-directed. (Instructor-directed learning is a process, in which the instructor diagnoses student learning needs, formulates learning goals, identifies resources for learning, selects and implements learning strategies, and evaluates learning outcomes.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach an online course as instructor-directed.

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach an online course with opportunities for the instructor and student(s) to interact with one another in real time. (This could be through video conferencing, instant messaging, Skype, etc.) o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree


34 o Disagree o Strongly Disagree •

I find preparing for and teaching online courses are difficult because of unfamiliar technology. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I consider myself to have… o low technological skills (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

o medium technological skills (some experience with various technologies) o high technological skills (extensive experience with a variety of technologies) •

I prefer to use technology in an online course that will prepare students to use technology in a real K-12 school setting. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach by… o expository instruction (the technology delivers the content) o active learning (the technology allows students to control digital artifacts to

information or address problems) o interactive learning (technology mediates human interaction; learning emerges through interactions with other students and the technology)

o o o o

expository and active learning active and interactive learning interactive and expository learning expository, active, and interactive learning

The technology I use in online courses enhances the quality of learning experiences and outcomes. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Communication between the instructor and student/student and instructor is less difficult to establish in an online course compared to a traditional course.


35 (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Communication between student and student is less difficult to establish in an online course compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

It is easier to provide help/assistance in an online course compared to a traditional course most of the time. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I provide comparable amounts of feedback for an online course as I do for a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

An online course provides… o the same amount of social interaction as a traditional course o more social interaction when compared to a traditional course o less social interaction when compared to a traditional course

(A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

All participants meet

An online course allows more time for students to complete a task compared to a traditional course.


36 (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

An online course requires more time and attention to prepare for and teach compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Course materials are well prepared and carefully explained for most online courses that I teach. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Assignment instructions are thoroughly explained for most online courses that I teach. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

An online course makes me feel overwhelmed. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

An online course provides equivalent learning opportunities for students compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o Strongly Agree o Agree


37 o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree •

I believe online courses overall are less effective than traditional courses. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach all of my courses online if given the option. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach all of my courses as traditional courses if given the option. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer to teach all of my courses as hybrid courses if given the option. (Hybrid courses have a combination traditional classroom instruction and online instruction) o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

If online courses were not offered, then I would not be a part of SHSU’s College of Education. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree


38

Appendix B Letter of Invitation to Participate/Introduction Dear SHSU Student: I am inviting you to participate in this online survey that is designed to explore perceptions and attitudes towards the use of technologies (i.e., Glogster, PBwiki, podcasting, blogs, and other Web 2.0 tools) and communication (i.e., e-mail, Skype, Discussion Board, etc.) in online courses. Many people in the SHSU College of Education have expressed interest in the results of this survey. I have received approval from IRB and the College of Education Dean, Dr. Genevieve Brown to conduct this survey. Participation in this research survey is strictly voluntary. You may choose to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of any benefit to which you might otherwise be entitled. There is no cost for participation, nor is there any compensation for participation. Responses will be for research purposes only. Data will be aggregated and no individually identifiable information will be reported. Results of the study may be published, but no names or identifying information will be included in the publication. Participant identity will remain confidential unless disclosure is required by law. Your participation is valuable and important to accomplish the research goals. The survey should take no more than 5-10 minutes to complete. By clicking the link below, you agree to answer the questions in this survey. You must complete the survey in one sitting. Once you have completed the survey, click the “Submit� button on the thank you page to exit the survey. Please complete the survey by midnight on Thursday, December 14, 2010. Thank you for your participation. Please click on the link below to access the survey. https://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&formkey=dG1mZUtmSHVwZ1hxM19 FUmRIX1d3VFE6MQ#gid=0 Should you have any questions, problems, or need additional information, please contact Stephanie Behnke at slb021@shsu.edu.


39

• •

Select your gender. o Female o Male Select your age range. o 20-27 o 28-35 o 36-43 o 44-51 o 52 or higher Select the number of years you have been teaching as the teacher of record in a classroom. (teacher of record means that you are the teacher of the classroom; you are a full time, paid teacher)

o 0 o Less than 1 o 1-3 o 4-6 o 7-9 o More than 9 Select the department that provides the program in which you are enrolled. o Curriculum and Instruction

(Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction, Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction, Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction with Certification, Post-Baccalaureate Alternative Teacher Certification, Master of Education in Instructional Technology)

o Educational Leadership and Counseling

(Master of Education in Educational Administration with Principal Certificate, Master of Education in Instructional Leadership, Master of Arts in Instructional Leadership, Master of Arts in Higher Education Administration, Master of Education in School Counseling, Master of Arts in Licensed Professional Counseling, Master of Arts in Licensed Marriage and Family Therapy, Academic Advising Certificate, School Counseling Certification, Texas Principal Certification, Texas Superintendent Certification)

o Health and Kinesiology

(Master of Science in Kinesiology, Master of Arts in Kinesiology, Master of Education in Kinesiology, Master of Arts in Sports Management, Master of Arts in Exercise Science, Master of Science in Health, Master of Arts in Health, Master of Education in Health)

o Language, Literacy, and Special Populations

(Master of Education in Reading, Master of Arts in Special Education, Master of Education in Special Education, Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction with an Early Childhood Education emphasis, Early Childhood Education Certification, Early Childhood Special Education Certification, Educational Diagnostician Certification, Reading Specialist Certification, Second Language Instruction Certification)

o Library Science

(Master in Library Science, School Certification)

Select the number of online courses that you have been enrolled in.


40

o 0 o 1-2 o 3-4 o More than 5 Select the total number of hours per week that you typically spend on an online course. o Never taken an online course o 0-3 hours o 4-6 hours o 7-9 hours o More than 9 hours

I consider myself… o a verbal learner (listening learner) o a visual learner (seeing learner) o a hands-on learner (touch/experience learner) o a verbal and visual learner o a visual and hands-on learner o a hands-on and verbal learner o a verbal, visual and hands-on learner

I prefer an online course to be self-directed. (Self-directed learning is a process in which students take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes. The role of the instructor is the “guide on the side”.)

o o o o o •

Most online courses are self-directed in my opinion. (Self-directed learning is a process in which students take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select and implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes. The role of the instructor is the “guide on the side”.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer an online course to be instructor-directed. (Instructor-directed learning is a process, in which the instructor diagnoses student learning needs, formulates learning goals, identifies resources for learning, selects and implements learning strategies, and evaluates learning outcomes.)


41 o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Most online courses are instructor-directed in my opinion. (Instructor-directed learning is a process, in which the instructor diagnoses student learning needs, formulates learning goals, identifies resources for learning, selects and implements learning strategies, and evaluates learning outcomes.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer an online course to have opportunities for the instructor and student(s) to interact with one another in real time. (This could be through video conferencing, instant messaging, Skype, etc.) o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I find that online courses are difficult because of unfamiliar technology. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I consider myself to have… o low technological skills (little experience with technology other than general email and surfing the web)

o medium technological skills (some experience with various technologies) o high technological skills (extensive experience with a variety of technologies) •

I prefer to use technology in an online course that will prepare me to integrate technology in a real K-12 school setting. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I prefer to learn by…


42 o expository instruction (the technology delivers the content) o active learning (the technology allows students to control digital artifacts to information or address problems)

o interactive learning (technology mediates human interaction; learning emerges through interactions with other students and the technology)

o o o o

expository and active learning active and interactive learning interactive and expository learning expository, active, and interactive learning

The technology used in online courses enhances the quality of learning experiences and outcomes. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Communication between the instructor and student/student and instructor is less difficult to establish in an online course compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Communication between student and student is less difficult to establish in an online course compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

It is easier to ask for help/assistance with an online course compared to a traditional course most of the time. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree


43

There is just as much feedback provided for an online course when compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

An online course provides… o the same amount of social interaction as a traditional course o more social interaction when compared to a traditional course o less social interaction when compared to a traditional course

(A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

All participants meet

An online course allows more time to be spent on a task compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

An online course requires more time and attention to complete compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Course materials are well prepared and carefully explained for most online courses. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Assignment instructions are thoroughly explained for most online courses.


44 o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

An online course makes me feel overwhelmed. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

An online course provides equivalent learning opportunities compared to a traditional course. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o •

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I believe online courses overall are less effective than traditional courses. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

I prefer all of my courses to be online if given the option. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

I prefer all of my courses to be traditional courses if given the option. (A traditional course meets face-to-face, typically in a classroom. All participants meet together in the same facility at the same scheduled time each week.)

o o o o o

Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree or Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree


45

•

I prefer all of my courses to be hybrid courses if given the option. (Hybrid courses have a combination traditional classroom instruction and online instruction) o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

•

If online courses were not offered, then I would not be involved in this SHSU graduate program. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Neither Agree or Disagree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree


46

Appendix C

CITI Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative SHSU Human Subjects Curriculum Completion Report Printed on 4/19/2011 Learner: Stephanie Behnke (username: slb021) Institution: Sam Houston State University Contact Department: Sam Houston Information Email: slb021@shsu.edu SHSU Human

State

University Subjects:

Stage 1. RCR Passed on 09/08/10 (Ref # 4897531) Date Completed

Score

Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research

09/07/10

no quiz

Research Misconduct 1-1215

09/07/10

5/5 (100%)

Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership

09/07/10

4/5 (80%)

Mentor and Trainee Responsibilities 01234 1250

09/08/10

6/6 (100%)

Conflicts of Interest and Commitment 1-1622

09/08/10

5/6 (83%)

Collaborative Research 1-1450

09/08/10

5/6 (83%)

Human Subjects 13566

09/08/10

9/11 (82%)

The CITI RCR Course Completion Page.

09/08/10

no quiz

Sam Houston State University

09/08/10

no quiz

Elective Modules

1-1308

For this Completion Report to be valid, the learner listed above must be affiliated with a CITI participating institution. Falsified information and unauthorized use of the CITI course site is unethical, and may be considered scientific misconduct by your institution. Paul Braunschweiger Ph.D. Professor, University of Miami Director Office of Research Education CITI Course Coordinator


47 CITI Course Coordinator Return


48

Appendix D

Office of Research and Special Programs Sam Houston State University 903 Bowers Blvd, PS Box 2448 Huntsville, TX 77341 Phone: 936.294.3621 936.294.3621 Fax: 936.294.3622

Approval Notice Initial Review 10-Nov-2010 Stephanie Behnke Box 2027 Huntsville, TX 77341 RE: Protocol # 2010-11-006 “Perceptions and Attitudes of Online Courses� Dear Stephanie Behnke, Your Initial Review submission was reviewed and approved under Exempt procedures by PHSC-IRB on 10-Nov-2010. Please note the following information about your approved research protocol: Provisions: Protocol Approval period: 10-Nov-2010 - 10-Nov-2011 Sponsor: Drug(s): Investigational Device: Device Risk Determination: N Exemption Categories: Research involving the use of educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic, aptitude, achievement), survey procedures, interview procedures or observation of public behavior, unless: (i) information obtained is recorded in such a manner that human subjects can be


49 identified, directly or through identifiers linked to the subjects; and (ii) any disclosure of the human subjects responses outside the research could reasonably place the subjects at risk of criminal or civil liability or be damaging to the subjects financial standing, employability, or reputation. Expedited Categories: Please remember to use your protocol number (2010-11-006) on any documents or correspondence with the IRB concerning your research protocol. Please note that the IRB has the prerogative and authority to ask further questions, seek additional information, require further modifications, or monitor the conduct of your research and the consent process. We wish you the best as you conduct your research. If you have any questions or need further help, please contact the PHSC-IRB office at (936) 294-3621 (936) 294-3621 . Sincerely, Glen Kercher IRB Chair PHSC-IRB

Investigator Responsibilities Protection of Human Research Subjects The Institutional Review Board (IRB) recently reviewed and approved your research. The IRB reviews research to ensure that the federal regulations for protecting human research subjects outlined in the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regulations (45 CFR 46) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations (21 CFR Parts 50 & 56) as well as other requirements are met. The Federalwide Assurance (FWA) (FWA# 00000000) awarded by the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) at DHHS, is a written pledge to follow federal guidelines for protecting human research subjects in accordance with the principles of the Belmont Report. All investigators must read both the Belmont Report and institution’s FWA to understand their responsibilities in conducting human subject research. Some of the responsibilities investigators have when conducting research involving human subjects are listed below: 1. Conducting the Research. You are responsible for making sure that the research is conducted according to the IRB approved research protocol. You are also responsible for the actions of all your co-investigators and research staff involved with this research. 2. Subject Enrollment. You may not recruit or enroll subjects prior to the IRB approval date or after the expiration date of IRB approval. All recruitment materials for any form of media must be approved by the IRB prior to their use. If you need to recruit more subjects than was noted in your IRB approval letter, you must submit an amendment requesting an increase in the number of subjects.


50 3. Informed Consent. You are responsible for obtaining and documenting effective informed consent using only the IRB-approved consent documents, and for ensuring that no human subjects are involved in research prior to obtaining their informed consent. Please give all subjects copies of the signed informed consent documents. Keep the originals in your secured research files for at least five (5) years. When appropriate, you should place a copy of the informed consent document in the subject’s medical record. 4. Continuing Review. The IRB must review and approve all IRB-approved research protocols at intervals appropriate to the degree of risk but not less than once per year. There is no grace period. Prior to the date on which the IRB approval of the research expires, the IRB office will send you a reminder to submit a Continuing Review Application. Although the IRB office sends reminders, it is ultimately your responsibility to submit the continuing review report in a timely fashion to ensure a lapse in IRB approval does not occur. If IRB approval of your research lapses, you must stop new subject enrollment, and contact the IRB office immediately. 5. Amendments and Changes. If you wish to amend or change any aspect of your research (such as research design, interventions or procedures, number of subjects, subject population, informed consent document, instruments, surveys or recruiting material), you must submit the amendment to the IRB for review using the current Amendment Form. You may not initiate any amendments or changes to your research without first obtaining written IRB review and approval. The only exception is when it is necessary to eliminate apparent immediate hazards to subjects and the IRB should be immediately informed of this necessity. 6. Adverse or Unanticipated Events. Any serious adverse events, subject complaints, and all unanticipated problems that involve risks to subjects or others, as well as any research related injuries, occurring at this institution or at other performance sites must be reported to the IRB within five (5) days of discovery of the incident. You must also report any instances of serious or continuing problems, or non-compliance with the IRB’s requirements for protecting human research subjects. The only exception to this policy is that the death of a research subject must be reported within 24-48 hours of discovery. All reportable events should be submitted to the IRB using the Adverse Event/Unanticipated Problem Report Form. 7. Research Record Keeping. You must keep the following research related records, at a minimum, in a secure location for a minimum of five years: the IRB approved research protocol and all amendments; all informed consent documents; recruiting materials; continuing review reports; adverse or unanticipated events; and all correspondence from the IRB. 8. Reports to FDA and Sponsor. When you submit the required annual report to the FDA or you submit required reports to your sponsor, you must provide a copy of that report to the IRB. You may submit the report at the time of continuing IRB review. 9. Provision of Emergency Medical Care. When a physician provides emergency medical care to a subject without prior IRB review and approval, to the extent permitted by law, such activities will not be recognized as research nor the data used in support of research. 10. Final reports. When you have completed (no further subject enrollment, interactions, interventions or data analysis) or stopped work on your research, you must submit a Final Report to the IRB.


51 11. On-Site Evaluations, FDA Inspections, or Audits. If you are notified that your research will be reviewed or audited by the FDA, the sponsor, any other external agency or any internal group, you must inform the IRB immediately of the impending audit/evaluation.


52

Appendix E


53

Capstone_Project 2  

Masters of Education Perceptions and Attitudes of Online Courses The Faculty of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction of the Requirem...

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