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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND DEEP LEVEL STUDY HABITS IN A VOCATIONAL NURSING PROGRAM

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A Graduate Research Project Presented to The Faculty of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction Sam Houston State University _______________________________________

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education

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By Elizabeth Powell June 1, 2011


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Abstract The concept of incorporating vocational nursing curriculum is gaining popularity in high schools in Texas. Hudson High School housed the first vocational nursing program on a public high school campus beginning in August of 2010. Since this is a novel program, research is needed to determine methods to best meet the needs of these students. The nursing program at Hudson is part of the Angelina College School of Vocational Nursing which has students on four other campuses with a range of ages up to 59 years. The purpose of this study was to compare the study approaches utilized by young vocational nursing students (aged 18-22 years) with those of older students (aged 23 and over). It was hypothesized that the older students used deep and strategic level study approaches, which have been shown to correlate with academic success, more frequently than their younger cohorts. Sixty-nine nursing students across five campuses were given a modified version of the Revised Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory. It was determined that students ages 23 and over reported using deep and strategic level study habits more frequently than younger students, whereas the younger students reported more use of superficial level study habits which have been shown to correlate with lower academic achievement.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents........................................................................................................................... iii List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ vi List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ vii Chapter 1: Introduction ...................................................................................................................8 Background ..................................................................................................................................8 Definition of Terms ......................................................................................................................9 Statement of Problem .................................................................................................................10 Hypothesis ..................................................................................................................................10 Limitations .................................................................................................................................11 Delimitations ..............................................................................................................................11 Assumptions ...............................................................................................................................11 Chapter 2: Literature Review........................................................................................................12 Study Habits and Academic Success .........................................................................................12 Academic Performance and Study Approaches .........................................................................12 Student Utilization of Study Approaches...................................................................................13 Factors Influencing Study Approaches ......................................................................................14 Contradictory Evidence..............................................................................................................14 Summary ....................................................................................................................................15

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Chapter 3: Method ........................................................................................................................16 Participants .................................................................................................................................16 Instrument...................................................................................................................................16 Procedure....................................................................................................................................17 Chapter 4: Results .........................................................................................................................20 Superficial Approaches ..............................................................................................................20 Strategic Approaches..................................................................................................................20 Deep Approaches .......................................................................................................................20 Analysis of Variance ..................................................................................................................21 Chapter 5: Discussion ...................................................................................................................23 Summary of Results ...................................................................................................................23 Interpretation ..............................................................................................................................23 Life Experience and Learning ....................................................................................................24 Implications for Future Research ...............................................................................................25 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................25 Works Cited ...................................................................................................................................27 Appendix A: Letter of Participation .............................................................................................30 Appendix B: Study Approaches Questionnaire ............................................................................31 Appendix C: CITI Certificate .......................................................................................................33 Appendix D: IRB Approval .........................................................................................................34 iv


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Appendix E: Approval Letters ......................................................................................................35 1: Hudson...............................................................................................................................36 2: Angelina College...............................................................................................................37

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List of Figures Figure 1: Reported Study Approaches by Age Group ..................................................................21

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List of Tables Table 1: Relationship Between Survey Questions and Study Approaches...................................18 Table 2: Mean Responses by Age Group .....................................................................................21

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background Vocational programs enabling high school students to obtain training for a marketable job skill are gaining popularity in Texas high schools. This trend is, in part, due to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act which sets requirements linking secondary and postsecondary education and offers federal funding for institutions that provide vocational programs (King, 2009). At Hudson High School, near Lufkin, Texas, there exists a pilot program in which high school seniors and post-graduates are being trained as vocational nurses. The program is affiliated with Angelina College, a local community college, which has an established vocational nursing program with traditional students of all ages. Memorial Medical Center of Lufkin, a local hospital, is also an affiliate. Prior to 2010, Angelina College vocational nursing students were accepted to three different campuses: Lufkin, Jasper, and Crockett. August of 2010 marked the beginning of two new vocational nursing cohorts, one in Livingston and the Hudson High School program. The vocational nursing program on the Hudson campus is the first program to incorporate a nursing curriculum into a high school setting in any public high school. This presents a unique opportunity and necessity for research so that teachers and administrators can begin to determine the characteristics and needs of high school students attending nursing school. The nursing curriculum consists of one year of coursework in which students are instructed in both a classroom and clinical setting. In this particular program, no college level prerequisites are required and students are accepted based upon admission criteria set forth by the college. Application for admission to the Angelina College vocational nursing program at Hudson High School is open to graduating seniors who have completed most of the requirements for high school graduation. Transcripts are evaluated on an individual basis to


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determine which credits the students need to graduate and how the credits may be earned concurrently with the nursing courses. Post-secondary students are also considered for admission on an individual basis. Upon successful completion of the program, students will graduate with a permit to practice vocational nursing and are eligible to take the NCLEX-PN exam, which is the nursing licensure exam for vocational nurses in Texas. Definition of Terms Vocational nurse – an individual who has successfully completed a vocational nursing program at an accredited school of nursing and has passed the NCLEX-PN exam in the licensing state Deep level study approaches (habits) – approaches that incorporate looking for meaning in content being studied by relating content to personal experience and thinking critically about what has been read or learned. Strategic level study approaches (habits) – approaches that involve organizing study time and content in an efficient manner and being aware of the methodology by which knowledge of content will be assessed. Superficial level study approaches (habits) – approaches in which content is simply memorized and critical thinking is not employed. Young(er) students – For the purpose of this study, young(er) students are defined as those between the ages of 18-22 years. Old(er) students – For the purpose of this study, old(er) students are defined as those age 23 years and older which are more traditional vocational nursing students.


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Statement of Problem Attrition rate is always a concern in nursing programs, and it is of particular concern in a novel program such as the one at Hudson High School (W. Adams, personal communication, August 23, 2010). Thus, it would be particularly helpful to determine whether or not differences exist between these younger nursing students and older, more traditional, students relative to learning strategies that may be predictive of academic success. Hypothesis Do study habits influence academic success? Are there any differences between study approaches utilized by younger vocational nursing students compared to older, more traditional, vocational nursing students? If so, what differences exist? This study is designed to answer these questions. With such a novel program, insufficient data exists regarding the academic differences between traditional vocational nursing students and younger nursing students such as those at Hudson High School. I have personally observed that, as a whole, older students tend to have a plan for studying including use of a calendar to mark off study time and breaking the content into smaller portions of information to study. I have also noted that older students tend to relate course content to personal experience more often than younger students. These observations are consistent with the use of deep and strategic level study approaches by the older students. In addition, I have seen that younger students tend to approach learning and studying through memorization. Although I have made these observations, I want to determine whether or not there exists a statistically significant difference between the study approaches of the younger versus older populations of vocational nursing students, as reported by the students via a questionnaire about study habits. My observations, along with some previous findings by other


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researchers (discussed in Chapter 2), led me to the hypothesis that older students tend to use deep and strategic level study habits more frequently than younger students. For the purposes of the present study, younger students are identified as those who are between the ages of 18-22 years of age whereas older students are identified as 23 years of age and older. Limitations There are currently no students enrolled in the Angelina College vocational nursing program less than 18 years of age, so the study is limited to students 18 years of age and older. Delimitations The results of this study are intended to apply to vocational nursing students enrolled in the Angelina College School of Vocational Nursing. Assumptions It is assumed that students will provide truthful information during data collection, that campus assignment will not affect study approaches, and that semester level will not affect study approaches. The assumption that semester level will not affect study habits is supported in an investigation regarding study approaches of Iranian nursing students conducted by Mansouri, Soltani, Rahemi, Moosavi, Ayatollahi, & Nekooian (2006).


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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Study Habits and Academic Success One predictor of academic success is study habits. In a longitudinal study about the impact of study behavior on academic performance, Ning and Downing (2010) suggested that educators pay special attention to learning experience and study behavior when designing instruction because these are two strong indicators of academic success. In a study of undergraduate business students, Nonis and Hudson (2010) reported that it was the quality of study, rather than the time spent studying, that most affected learning outcomes. Effective study requires training and practice and effective study skills are associated with positive learning outcomes across many different content areas and diverse groups of learners (Gettinger and Seibert, 2002). Yip (2009) also noted that study approaches significantly relate to academic success in a study of university students in distance learning courses in Hong Kong. Research findings clearly support the relationship between effective study approaches and academic success. Academic Performance and Study Approaches It is apparent from the research that a relationship exists between study habits and academic success, thus it would be beneficial to ascertain what particular types of study approaches correlate with high academic achievement. Marton and SäljÜ (1976) were among the first researchers to attempt to relate specific study approaches to academic success. They defined deep level study habits as those in which students focused on comprehending and understanding what was being studied. They also identified what they deemed as a superficial


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approach to studying in which students attempted to memorize the content being studied. The researchers noted that high-quality learning outcomes were associated with deep level approaches, while superficial approaches were generally associated with low-quality learning outcomes. Duff (2004) indicated that a deep approach involves looking for meaning in the content being studied and relating it to other ideas and experiences. He also noted that students utilizing a superficial approach tend to treat parts of a subject as separate entities rather than integrating them as a whole concept. Duff (2004) also reported that deep approaches were conducive to effective studying, whereas superficial approaches were not as effective. Mattick, Dennis, and Bligh (2004) reported that deep approaches to studying were widely accepted to be associated with success in undergraduate programs. They identified behaviors such as relating content being studied to real-life situations, thinking at length about content, and drawing conclusions regarding what is being studied as deep approaches. Taking content at face value and attempting to memorize without understanding were identified as surface approaches to learning and studying. In that same 2004 study, Mattick, Dennis, and Bligh reported a third approach to studying called the “strategic approach�. Students using this approach were characterized as well-organized and aware of assessment techniques, thus demonstrating highquality learning outcomes. Students using strategic approaches tended to put a lot of effort into studying and to be systematic and organized when studying. This is a second approach that students may be encouraged to utilize in order to achieve academic success. Student Utilization of Study Approaches Since research indicates that deep and strategic approaches to study relate to high academic performance whereas superficial approaches relate to low academic performance, it would be beneficial to determine what approaches are most commonly utilized by students in


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vocational nursing programs. Unfortunately, there is not an abundance of information on this topic specific to vocational programs, and none was found that targeted vocational nursing programs. In their research regarding study habits in vocational programs for secretarial work, data entry, and accounting, Slate, Jones and Harlan (1998) noted that the vocational students being assessed tended to utilize surface approaches to studying. They also observed that it is particularly important for students enrolled in vocational programs to develop good study skills in order to help them become independent thinkers, which will be expected of them on the job. The researchers concluded that it is very important for teachers and administrators involved in vocational programs to be aware of the types of study skills employed by their students. Mansouri et al. (2006) reported that Iranian nursing and midwifery students who were highly interested in their fields tended to utilize deep approaches to studying and students with higher grade point averages tended to use deep approaches. Factors Influencing Study Approaches What factors influence approaches to studying? In an investigation regarding approaches to studying among Greek university students, E. Andreou, Vlachos, and G. Andreou (2006) noted that factors such as gender, age, academic discipline, and handedness may all influence approaches to studying. These researchers found that more mature students tended to utilize deep approaches to studying, but that study approaches more often involved an interaction between multiple factors such as age and gender. Contradictory Evidence Gijbels, Van de Watering, Dochy, & Van den Bossche (2005) cited some evidence contradictory to previously reported research. In their study of European law students, these


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researchers indicated that sometimes the relationship between deep level study habits and grades were not as pronounced as expected. They identified assessment techniques as the reason for the diminished relationship, reporting that multiple choice examinations alone were poor strategies for assessing effectiveness of study habits. These researchers suggested using a variety of assessment techniques in order to ascertain a true picture of study habits related to academic performance. Draper (2009) reported that multiple choice examinations could promote deep learning strategies, if properly utilized. Draper suggests making the exams interactive by having the students write questions or generating reasons for and/or against each response on the exam. Summary Research clearly indicates that the types of study approaches utilized impacts students’ academic success. However, research regarding use of particular study approaches by students in vocational programs is limited, and no research was found targeting vocational nursing students. Since the program at Hudson High School is a novel endeavor, no research exists regarding study approaches used by nursing students in a public high school. Research is needed to determine the types of study approaches employed by vocational nursing students and whether or not differences exist between study approaches used by younger students as compared to older, more traditional, nursing students.


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CHAPTER 3: METHODS Participants The participants in this study were vocational nursing students attending the Angelina College School of Vocational Nursing on Hudson, Lufkin, Livingston, Jasper, and Crockett campuses. Participants were asked to complete a paper-based survey regarding their approaches to studying while in nursing school. Subjects were given the option not to participate, and were asked to sign a letter of participation (see Appendix A) if they wanted to take part in the study. All of the students agreed to be involved in the research, and a total of sixty-nine surveys were collected. Twenty-six of the participants were ages 18-22, whereas forty-three were ages 23 and older. The minimum age surveyed was 18 years, and the oldest participant was 59 years old. On the surveys, nine students indicated male as their gender, and forty-two selected female. The gender option was left blank on one survey. Instrument The survey used was a modified version of the Revised Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (see Appendix B) utilized by Mattick, Dennis, and Bligh (2004). This survey asks students to rate eighteen statements regarding study habits on a Likert scale from 1-5 indicating how often the statement describes their approach to studying. Selection of “5” indicates that the statement is “usually true”, “4” indicates that the statement is “frequently true”, “3” indicates that the statement is “true half of the time”, “2” indicates that the statement is “sometimes true”, and “1” indicates that the statement is “rarely true”. Seven additional statements regarding study environment and study of textbook versus class notes were added for


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informational purposes, but will not be used for this study. On the survey, four of the 18 statements related to surface level study approaches, six statements related to deep level study approaches, and eight statements related to strategic approaches. Procedure Surveys were separated into categories by age of participant. Two surveys were immediately rejected due to missing information critical to the outcome of the research (some questions blank and/or age not indicated). Surveys received from students ages 18-22 were placed in one group, and those received from students ages 23 and older were placed in another group. As previously noted, there were 26 surveys from students ages 18-22 and 43 surveys from students 23 and older. In order to make the results more equitable, the 23+ group was reduced to 26 surveys. In order to do this, each questionnaire in the 23 and older group was assigned a number. Then, a series of 40 random numbers between the values of 1-43 was generated using Microsoft Excel. Surveys in the 23 + group were chosen for study based upon the random appearance of their assigned number. Duplicate numbers were ignored and the next number on the list chosen. Twenty-six surveys from the 23+ group were selected in this manner. Next, responses to the survey questions were organized into three different spread sheets using Microsoft Excel. Survey item numbers 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, and 16 represented deep level study approaches. Responses closest to 5 on the Likert scale on these items were consistent with use of deep level study approaches. Survey item numbers 2, 4, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15, and 18 represented strategic level study approaches. Reponses closest to 5 on the Likert scale indicated use of these study approaches. Survey items 1, 5, 13, and 17 represented superficial study approaches. Student responses closest to 5 on the Likert scale on these survey questions indicated use of


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superficial study approaches. The relationship of survey questions to study approaches is summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Relationship Between Survey Questions and Study Approaches Survey Question

Study Approach

1. I often have trouble making sense of things that I have to remember.

Superficial approach (memorization without understanding) Strategic approach (monitoring understanding) Deep approach (relating content to personal experience) Strategic approach (managing effort) Superficial approach (not tying concepts together) Deep approach (activating prior knowledge) Strategic approach (organization) Deep approach (reflection)

2. I review work that I have completed to check my reasoning to be sure that it makes sense. 3. I usually try to make things that we are studying make sense to me personally. 4. I generally put a lot of effort into studying. 5. Much of what I’ve learned seems to be no more than lots of unrelated bits and pieces in my mind. 6. In making sense of new ideas, I often relate them to real-life contexts. 7. Overall, I am quite systematic and organized in my studying. 8. Ideas that I have encountered in my academic reading often set me off on long chains of thought. 9. I look at evidence carefully to reach my own conclusion about what I’m studying. 10. When I communicate ideas, I think about how well I’ve gotten my point across. 11. I organize my study time carefully to get the most benefit from it. 12. I feel that it is important to see the reason behind things that I am studying.

Deep approach (critical thinking) Strategic approach (monitoring skill level) Strategic approach (organization) Deep approach (making content meaningful, relating to real situations) 13. I usually accept what is being taught at face value and Superficial approach try to memorize it without wasting a lot of time thinking (memorizing without about it. understanding) 14. I’ve tried to find better ways of tracking down Strategic approach (developing information relevant to nursing school. research skills) 15. Concentration is usually not a problem for me unless Strategic approach (focusing on I’m really tired. content) 16. When I read, I try to figure out for myself what the Deep approach (critical author means. thinking, reflection) 17. I’ve just gone through the motions of studying Superficial approach (lack of


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without seeing where I’m going. 18. If I have not understood things well when studying, I try to find a different approach.

reflection and organization) Strategic approach (monitoring understanding)

Portions of this table have been adapted from Mattick, Dennis, & Bligh (2004).

For the purpose of statistical analysis, the Likert data will be treated as ordinal data, a methodology supported by Pell (2005). After categorizing the survey items by study approach, the mean of the Likert responses to each survey item was calculated for each participant. These mean values were averaged, arriving at an overall mean response value for each study approach by age group. A single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in Microsoft Excel using these means. The single factor ANOVA is used to determine the probability that means of more than two samples are too different to attribute to sampling error (Best & Kahn, 2006). Generally, a P value of less than 0.05 is considered to represent a significant difference between the means. At this level, the probability that the difference between the means is due to chance and/or sampling error is 5%, which is considered an acceptable standard by most researchers (Best & Kahn, 2006). Thus, for the purpose of this research, the research hypothesis will be accepted if the P value obtained by the ANOVA is less than 0.05.


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CHAPTER 4: RESULTS Superficial Approaches Overall, fifty-two surveys were utilized in this study, which is an acceptable sample size. The mean Likert response for the 18-22 year old group for superficial study approaches was 2.22, whereas the mean for ages 23 and older was 2.05, which represents a difference of 0.17. Responses closer to 5 indicate a stronger tendency toward that approach, thus it is clear from these data that the younger group of students reported using superficial study approaches more frequently than their older cohort. Strategic Approaches The mean Likert response of the 18-22 year old group on the items representing strategic approaches to studying was 3.69. The mean response of the 23 and older group was 3.88, which represents a difference of 0.19 between the mean responses of the respective age groups. The older students reported more frequent use of strategic approaches which is indicated by the mean response being closer to 5. Deep Approaches With respect to deep study approaches, the mean Likert response of the 18-22 year old group was 3.72, and the mean response of the 23 and older group was 3.87. This represents a difference of 0.15 between the means. The older students reported more frequent use of deep level study approaches as indicated by the mean responses being closer to 5. These data are summarized in Table 2 and represented graphically in Figure 1.


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Table 2 Mean Responses By Age Group Study Approach

Mean Responses by Age Group 18-22 years

23+ years

Strategic

3.69

3.88

Deep

3.72

3.87

Superficial

2.22

2.05

Figure 1

Reported Study Approaches By Age Group 4 3.5 3 2.5 AGE (years) 18-22 Mean

2

AGE (years) 23+ Mean

1.5 1 0.5 0 Stragegic

Deep

Superficial

Analysis of Variance A single factor analysis of variance was performed using the means of the Likert responses regarding study approaches for the different age groups. The ANOVA yielded a Pvalue of 0.001232, which is significantly less than the P critical value of 0.05. These results suggest that there is a statistically significant difference between the study approaches utilized by


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the 18-22 year old nursing students and the 23 years and older nursing students. From the ANOVA and the data presented in Table 2 and Figure 1, it is clear that younger vocational nursing students report utilization of superficial level study approaches with more frequency than older vocational nursing students. The data also indicate that the older group of students report using deep and strategic level study approaches with more frequency than their younger counterparts.


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CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION Summary of Results Do study habits influence academic success? Are there any differences between study approaches utilized by younger vocational nursing students compared to older, more traditional, vocational nursing students? If so, what differences exist? These were the fundamental research questions asked before the study began. A review of past research indicated that study habits do influence academic success (Marton and SäljÜ, 1976; Duff, 2004; Mattick, Dennis, and Bligh, 2004). The data collected during this investigation indicate that there are differences between younger and older vocational nursing students in the vocational nursing program at Angelina College. The results obtained support the hypothesis that students in this program aged 23 and older tend to use deep and strategic approaches to learning more frequently than students aged 18-22. In addition, the results indicate that younger students utilize superficial approaches to learning more often than the older students. Interpretation These results imply that students between the ages of 18-22 entering the vocational nursing program at Angelina College are less likely to succeed academically than their older classmates. Due to the nursing shortage, it is imperative for schools of nursing to focus on student retention (Williams, 2010). Since the branch of the program at Hudson High School is likely to be totally comprised of students in this age group, it is of particular interest to the faculty on that campus to assist those students to succeed in nursing school. In 2006, Hoke reported that the age of nursing graduates is trending upward and further suggests that students in high schools be encouraged to explore nursing as a career choice. This is happening now, with the start of the program at Hudson High school and the interest from


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other high schools in Texas in starting similar programs at their facilities. If these programs are going to be successful, it is imperative that we meet the unique needs of those students. One such need relates to development of study skills. The findings of this research suggest that it would be prudent for the faculty of the vocational nursing program to make study skills counseling mandatory for students in the 18-22 year age group. The counseling should focus on assessment of study skills currently utilized by the students, and teaching the students ways to study using deep and strategic level approaches. In addition, students need to be informed of why these approaches are more effective than the superficial approaches that they may have utilized in the past. Students should be monitored periodically throughout the duration of the program, with additional instruction on study approaches as needed. Life Experience and Learning One possible explanation for the differences in study habits noted between the two groups is varying levels of life experience. Knapp (2010) indicates that life experiences can foster deeper levels of understanding about a variety of topics. Older students benefit from past lessons regarding what study skills worked and did not work for them and also may glean some understanding of content based upon events in their own lives. If this is the case, how can educators impart knowledge and understanding to younger students who have little life experience? One solution lies in the field of experiential education or “learning by doing”. The use of clinical simulations with high fidelity computerized mannequins is becoming more common in nursing programs. These situations give the student nurse an opportunity to work with patients in various situations without the potential for harm. Perhaps younger nursing students would benefit from additional hours in the simulation lab gaining “life experience”. In


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addition, younger students may benefit from frequent evaluation, with the assistance of an instructor or mentor, of study habits in use and how well they are working. Implications for Future Research Much more research is needed with respect to high school nursing programs. This is a new concept, so research is quite limited. It would be beneficial to replicate this study in other vocational nursing programs to determine if results could be generalized to students in those programs. Also, research should be conducted into why the discrepancy exists between study habits of older and younger students. Are there methods that we, as educators, could employ within the high school education system to help close this gap? What are those methods? How can they be incorporated into high school education? How would the outcome differ with students younger than 18 years of age, if at all? All of these are potential opportunities for future research. Conclusion In conclusion, this research indicates that vocational nursing students between the ages of 18-22 at Angelina College tend to use more superficial level study approaches, whereas students in the program aged 23 and over tend to use more strategic and deep level study approaches. Since strategic and deep level study approaches have been shown to correlate with higher levels of academic achievement than superficial level approaches, these results suggest that older vocational nursing students at Angelina College are likely to perform better academically than younger vocational nursing students. More research is needed to determine the reasons for the discrepancies between the age groups. The research findings suggest that it would benefit younger nursing students to receive some instruction regarding study strategies prior to enrolling


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in the program with evaluation and re-teaching as needed throughout the duration of the program.


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WORKS CITED Andreou, E., Vlachos, F., & Andreou, G. (2006). Approaches to studying among Greek university students: the impact of gender, age, academic discipline, and handedness. Educational Research, 48 (3), 301-311. doi: 10.1080/00131880600992363 Best, J. & Kahn, J. (2006). Research in Education. (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Draper, S. (2009). Catalytic assessment: understanding how MCQs and EVS can foster deep learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (2), 285-293. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00920.x Duff, A. (2004). The Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI) and its use in management education. Active Learning in Higher Education, 5 (1), 56-72. doi: 10.1177/1469787404040461 Gettinger, M. & Seibert, J. (2002). Contributions of study skills to academic competence. School Psychology Review, 3, 350-365. Gijbels, D., Van de Watering, G., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2005). The relationship between students’ approaches to learning and the assessment of learning outcomes. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 20 (4), 327-341. Hoke, J. (2006). Promoting Nursing as a Career Choice. Nursing Economics, 24 (2), 94-101.


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King, S. (2009). Statewide articulation agreements between high schools and community college career and technical programs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 33, 527-532. doi: 10.1080/10668920802662438 Knapp, C. (2010). The 2009 Kurt Hahn Address: Seeking Deeper Understanding From Experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 33 (3), 274-287. Mansouri, P., Soltani, F., Rahemi, S., Nasab, M., Ayatollahi, A., & Nekooeian, A. (2006). Nursing and midwifery students’ approaches to studying and learning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54 (3), 351-358. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03814.x Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (1976a). On qualitative differences in learning: I – outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 4-11. Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (1976b). On qualitative differences in learning: II – outcomes as a function of the learners’ conception of the task. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 115-127. Mattick, K., Dennis, I., & Bligh, J. (2004). Approaches to learning and studying in medical students: validation of a revised inventory and its relation to student characteristics and performance. Medical Education, 38 (5), 535-543. doi: 10.1111/j.13652929.2004.01836.x Ning, H. & Downing, K. (2010). Connections between learning experience, study behavior, and academic performance: a longitudinal study. Educational Research, 52 (4), 457-468. doi: 10.1080/00131881.2010.524754


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Nonis, S. & Hudson, G. (2010). Performance of college students: impact of study time and study habits. Journal of Education for Business, 85, 229-238. doi: 10.1080/08832320903449550 Pell, G. (2005). Use and misuse of Likert scales. Medical Education, 39, 970. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02237.x Slate, J., Jones, C., & Harlan, E. (1998). Study skills of students at a post-secondary vocationaltechnical institute. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 35 (2), 57-70. Williams, M. (2010). Attrition and Retention in the Nursing Major: Understanding Persistence in Beginning Nursing Students. Nursing Education Research, 31 (6), 362-367. Yip, M. (2009). Differences between high and low academic achieving university students in learning and study strategies: a further investigation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 15 (6), 561-570. doi: 10.1080/13803610903354718


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APPENDIX A Participation Letter I agree to participate in the survey regarding study approaches conducted by Elizabeth Powell, RN, as part of a research project for a Research in Teaching course from Sam Houston State University. I understand that my participation in this survey will have no influence on my academic standing at Angelina College. I also know that all results will be anonymous and that the survey is being conducted for research purposes only.

____________________________Student’s Name (Please Print)

____________________________Student’s Signature

____________________________Date


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APPENDIX B Study Approaches Questionnaire Modified Version of Approaches to Studying and Learning Inventory, Mattick, Dennis, Bligh (2004) This is a survey about the way that you study that is being conducted for research purposes only. Study approaches differ from person to person and there is no definite right or wrong way to study. Please answer the following questions by choosing ONLY ONE number that represents the best answer to each question. Please answer honestly. Your answers will be CONFIDENTIAL. PROGRAM: Angelina College Vocational Nursing Program CAMPUS (choose one): __ Hudson

__Livingston

__Lufkin

__Jasper

__Crockett

AGE: ____________ GENDER: ___Male

___Female

1. I often have trouble making sense of things that I have to remember. 2. I review work that I have completed to check my reasoning to be sure that it makes sense. 3. I usually try to make things that we are studying make sense to me personally. 4. I generally put a lot of effort into studying. 5. Much of what I’ve learned seems to be no more than lots of unrelated bits and pieces in my mind. 6. In making sense of new ideas, I often relate them to real-life contexts. 7. Overall, I am quite systematic and organized in my studying. 8. Ideas that I have encountered in my academic reading often set me off on long chains of thought. 9. I look at evidence carefully to reach my own conclusion about

Rarely True

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32 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS what I’m studying. 10. When I communicate ideas, I think about how well I’ve gotten my point across. 11. I organize my study time carefully to get the most benefit from it. 12. I feel that it is important to see the reason behind things that I am studying. 13. I usually accept what is being taught at face value and try to memorize it without wasting a lot of time thinking about it. 14. I’ve tried to find better ways of tracking down information relevant to nursing school. 15. Concentration is usually not a problem for me unless I’m really tired. 16. When I read, I try to figure out for myself what the author means. 17. I’ve just gone through the motions of studying without seeing where I’m going. 18. If I have not understood things well when studying, I try to find a different approach. 19. I usually take notes during lectures. 20. I rely exclusively on the textbook for information to study. 21. I study with a group. 22. I study alone. 23. I study in a quiet area. 24. There is usually a lot of noise and activity where I study. 25. I try to multitask and do other things while I am reading, such as take phone calls, watch TV, cook dinner, etc.

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33 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS

APPENDIX C

CITI Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative

SHSU Human Subjects Curriculum Completion Report Printed on Friday, January 28, 2011 Learner: Elizabeth Powell (username: eam018) Institution: Sam Houston State University Contact Information: Department: Curriculum and Instruction Email: eam018@shsu.edu SHSU Human Subjects: Stage 1. RCR Passed on 01/27/11 (Ref # 5497733) Elective Modules Date completed Score Sam Houston State University 01/27/11 0 Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research 01/23/11 0 Research Misconduct 1-1215 01/23/11 80 Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership 1-1308 <

01/25/11 100 Mentor and Trainee Responsibilities 01234 1250 01/25/11 100 Conflicts of Interest and Commitment 1-1622 01/25/11 83 Collaborative Research 1-1450 01/27/11 83 Human Subjects 13566 01/27/11 100 The CITI RCR Course Completion Page. 01/27/11 0 For this Completion Report to be valid, the learner listed above must be affiliated with a CITI participating institution. Falsified information and unauthorized use of the CITI course site is unethical, and may be considered scientific misconduct by your institution. Paul Braunschweiger Ph.D. Professor, University of Miami Director Office of Research Education CITI Course Coordinator


34 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS

APPENDIX D Approval Notice

Initial Review 19-Feb-2011 Elizabeth Powell Box 2027 Huntsville, TX RE: Protocol # 2011-02-060 â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Relationship Between Age and Deep Level Study Habits in a Vocational Nursing Programâ&#x20AC;? Dear Elizabeth Powell, Your Initial Review submission was reviewed and approved under Exempt procedures by PHSC-IRB on Please note the following information about your approved research protocol: Protocol Approval period: Please remember to use your protocol number (2011-02-060) on any documents or correspondence with the IRB concerning your research protocol. Please note that the IRB has the prerogative and authority to ask further questions, seek additional information, require further modifications, or monitor the conduct of your research and the consent process. We wish you the best as you conduct your research. If you have any questions or need further help, please contact the IRB office at (555) 555-5555. Sincerely, IRB Chair PHSC-IRB


35 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS

APPENDIX E APPROVAL LETTERS


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37 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS


38 Running head: AGE AND STUDY HABITS

Capstone_Project 1  

Sam Houston State University A Graduate Research Project The Faculty of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction Master of Education Of...

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