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A Book of Interaction Design Methods I543 Interaction Design Methods Spring 2014 Shruti Meshram


Interviews “Interviews are often one component of a research strategy utilizing complementary methods such as questionnaires, observations, to verify and humanize data collected through other means. “ Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Notes from class

Description

It can be structured , unstructured, semi -structured. Medium of communication can be in person, on phone or on Skype.

Interviews are one of the two methods of survey research, the other being questionnaires.

Fieldwork parameters: Constraints Access to users Types of users Time Writing interview question: - Strive for brevity - Strive for clarity - Avoid abstract and general questions - Avoid bias - Avoid double negative - Avoid leading questions - Avoid using jargons or technical vocabulary - Avoid evoke authority figure - Avoid asking participants to predict future - Avoid asking people to recollect technical details Ideal no of questions. Ideal type of questions - open ended, one word, descriptive, options, sketches.

It can be used to Know more about the subject their likes-dislikes, ethics, values, preferences, demographic information etc.

Procedure Identify user group Identify medium - in person, on phone, on video chat. Identify questions Identify the type of interview - structured, unstructured or semi-structured. Recruit a healthy mix of users Set up sessions ( ideally should be done in a day) Follow up interviews (if necessary) Never hesitate to ask impromptu questions


Interviews Practice Tried to find out ‘The meaning of comfort’ : Did a pilot study and then did several semistructured interviews. A variation of the interview approach, personal narratives focus on uncovering individual life events that are significant to the subjects and allow researchers to understand people’s motivations,emotions, imaginations, and other forms of subjective dimensions of social action and life experience through storytelling

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Knowing more about a recent experience, background research to build common ground. Whenever you do ask users for their opinions, watch out for the query effect: People can make up an opinion about anything, and they’ll do so if asked. Field notes: Record the interviews ( video or audio) and while take notes about body language simultaneously, time the interviews. (use a specific application which recognizes when during the interview you wrote a particular thing : time stamp for notes ). Video interviews on Skype hide the body language and expressions Field notes can be uneven and sometimes even incomprehensible- develop a method to note down and understand later.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ interviewing-users/ User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p 102-103, 68-69 Lazar et al, Chapter 8, Interviews and focus groups, p 177-216 Bardzell, and Bardzell’s 2010 CHI paper, “The Rogue in the LovelyBlack Dress: Intimacy in World of Warcraft,


Ethnography & “I want to understand the world from your point of view. I want to know what you know in the way you know it. I want to understand the meaning of your experience, to walk in your shoes, to feel things as you feel them, to explain things as you explain them. Will you become my teacher and help me understand?” ― James P. Spradley Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Description

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure

Foundational anthropological method adapted Identify the user group on which the ethnography for design use. is to be conducted. Become a part of the group by reaching out to Participant observation is an immersive, existing members or participating in activities ethnographic method for understanding that create common ground. situations and behaviors through the experience Systematically video and audio record the of membership participation in an activity, session, also take time stamped field notes. context, culture or subculture. Observe behavior, surroundings, interactions, language, motivations perceptions of the Explain the purpose of the study to the subject. participants. Do not lie. Marginal participants blend into the environment as a natural observer of an activity or an event.

Notes from class

Record whatever you think is : - Relevant Full participants must be complete members of - Interesting the group participant, subculture or an extreme - Odd cases of infiltration. Researchers engaged in participant observation need to stay vigilant to retain some measure of objectivity, and to avoid undue influences on member behaviors.

What to do in Analysis ? - bridge rich data and design - planning is essential - research, speculate - problem space warranted

Interview the subject in the same context to get You are studying a slice of reality. more data. Interpretation of space changes over time.


Field Observations Practice Studying Clutter and/or Hoarding in the Home We focussed on uncovering people’s behavior and habits as a result of the objects they accumulate and examined people’s relationships with the objects they collect, trying to find out why they kept certain objects. Created a detailed layout of the subject’s home with indicating clusters and interesting areas. Video recorded the fieldwork session and transcribed the session analyzing conversation based on - questions asked, responses, researcher’s comments, notes and fieldwork notes.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Benefits: Rich voluminous amounts of data- video, audio, field notes, artifacts First hand experience makes it more empathetic compared to other methods. Limitations: Time limited engagement Can have a very wide scope- undirected at times Access to user populations Biases - subjects and researchers. Have prior knowledge of subject’s/population history/ethics/values to prevent any misunderstanding.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p 120-121. Lazar et al, Chapter 9, Ethnography, p 217-250 http://ethnographymatters.net/ Epic Conference for Ethnography


Contextual Inquiry Contextual inquiry helps provide tacit, explicit, and implicit details of work practice—that is external, public, and sharable and gain insight into a market domain—then use other methodologies to quantify and test hypotheses. Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure

Description

Pre-session: Recruit subjects,collect demographic information and define focus of study. Probably meeting the subject outside the workplace and getting to know each other, might make the session more open and comfortable. Ask a lot of questions : construct a semistructured questionnaire beforehand. Add specific contextual questions on the spot during fieldwork.

Contextual inquiry is an immersive, contextual method of observing and interviewing that reveals underlying (and invisible) work structure.

In-session: Always record a video and audio, take copious amounts of notes. Move conversations from general to specific; commentary of that action. Showing the field notes to the user, helps them verify the data collected. After-session: Analyzing and Documenting the study Sketch the layout of the place of study ( as detailed as possible) Identify affordances (if any can be leveraged) Analyze data using techniques like affinity diagramming

Contextual inquiry focuses on current use disregarding the future use and the past use. It is a dialogue with a clear focus. Its all about asking the obvious questions and knowing the issues.

Notes from class The contextual inquiry session should last from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Roles Master(user) Apprentice(researchers) Done in the actual workplace which is a rich data source. Observation of the surroundings(context) along with the user. Usability test vs Contextual inquiry - set of tasks vs observing tasks - iteration vs one time thing - assume users don’t know vs studying various levels of expertise


Contextual Inquiry Practice Resourcefulness of everyday things and its relation to Internet of things: - The focus of the study was identifying ‘Resourcefullness of everyday things’ in terms of adhoc actions which result in ongoing routines(Wakkary) - Searched for evidences concerning how subjects adapted to a new culture, also searching for influences of their culture and development of a new hybrid culture with new practices inside homes - Analyzed data based on : Goals, Terminology, Tools, Mental models, Values and Method - Drew design implications in terms of everyday design and internet of things. An interesting insight was using affordances of objects in new, innovative and alternative ways.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Benefits : - focused - short term - non interpretative Limitations - At least 2 researchers are required for a good contextual inquiry - you can split roles or do things simultaneously - making visible what exists is difficult - its a dialogue, one way communication is dangerous - wavering focus can harm the study - getting caught up in the conversation

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p 46-47 Kuniavsky (2003), Chapter 8, (pp 159-182)


Diary Studies Diaries and journals are guiding artifacts that allow people to conveniently and expressively convey personal details about their daily life and events to design teams.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Description

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure

Diary studies are ideal for collecting information from participants across tome, sampling their thoughts feelings , or behaviors at key moments throughout a day, week ,or month.

Identify the subject Make the study appealing Provide the subject with a notebook for a period of 3-5 days Ask them to take pictures It is a useful tool to help learn about user behavior Reminders or keeping in touch with the subject as it provides a record of thoughts and actions in regarding the progress. context. - Isabel Santafe Variations: Notes from class - time diaries: how time is used, entries regularly updated This study is useful to : - Peer things in the moment - Incident diaries: notebook with worksheets for - Components involved: Space, time, actors, users. Users fill out incidents. behavior - Know the subjects really well, they don’t open - Experience diaries: Application use recorded up/ don’t want to. in a very organized manner in terms of time. Subject will write their experience at specified A good report is generated by a highly times. complaint subject This method is used for creating design -Camera Journal: Users are asked to take their interventions, design implications. own pictures involving interactions with people and artifacts. ESM: parameters to keep in mind while designing a - Experience sampling method (ESM): Brief form : date/time, location, a person’s activity, questionnaires everyday help to sample certain companionship, internal- thoughts and feelings. activities or certain period in a day. For each reminder no more than 2 pages of form.


Diary Studies Practice The Stories of Mundane Technologies. The diary study was conducted with a subject at IU. The subject wrote several pages for 3 days and clicked pictures depicting use of technology in his life. He mentioned the use of communication technology but wrote down in the diary that somehow it felt incapable of expressing self thorugh digital communication. I maintained a diary throughout the process and then mapped the subjects and my diary to see similar trends. The process of recruitment was tough as very few people agreed to physicaly write in a diary. Recruited a backup subject for pilot study and in case of a bail out.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Benefits: - You get the autobiographical account of the subject which eliminates researchers biases. Reference, papers, articles, - Subjects have full liberty to write, sketch and record their accounts, which makes this method ideal examples very versatile in terms of data. - Small sample User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p 66-67 Limitations: - The subject might write irrelevant or no Lazar et al, Chapter 6, Diaries in HCI, p 126-137 information at times and there is no way to predict or dismiss that. http://www.eriontheinterweb.com/2011/07/ - Periodic reminders may seem like a chore to the-dos-and-donts-of-diary-studies/ the researcher and might irritate some subjects.


Elito Analysis Elito helps in building a shared vocabulary and collective memory, and gives the team members a sense of ownership in the process. The document is seen as a partner in design, a testament of team’s ability to produce sound design arguments. Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Description

Procedure

The Elito method is used to develop solid design arguments grounded in research observations and anchored to business directives.

Elito is done on the data collected in a field study. Write down all observations from the field study, by goign through videos, photos, audio and field notes. In an excel spreadsheet, write down each observation in the rows. For each observation, come up with a judgement, value seen in the observation. Come up with concept (s) for each logic line and sketch the strong concepts. Derive key metaphors from the logic line.

It is an elaborate way of making a leap from design observations to clear design directions. There are five Elito entities: - Observation : What did you see, read or hear. The content must be fact based. Sketches or photos help make an observation concrete. - Judgement : What is the researchers opinion about that observation? It provides a clear point of view as to why the observation matters - Value : What values are at work ? Values are positive in tone help to - Concept Sketches : What the design team can do to solve the problem? It can be a design direction that solves the problem or creates value. - Key Metaphors : What is the hook of the story? It is a memorable tagline that the team can refer to the specific logic line. It encapsulates the entire meaning of the logic line.

Notes from class Approaches to sort data: Deductive- choose a theme and sort data Inductive- sort data and identify chunks Organizing data : - Chronological files - Genre files - Cast of character files - Event/activity files ( relevant to ethnography) - Topical files - Quantitative data


Elito Analysis Practice Elito Analysis was used for deriving concepts for the ethnography study we conducted for clutter and hoarding. It was interesting to analyze each logic line, and ironic to come up with a judgement and finding a good value in every observation. It helped me develop a postive outlook regarding problems and look for interesting solutions in that context. In the end, clustering the logic lines and coming up with groups was like affinity diagramming of logic lines. The strongest concepts derived out of

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Unified way of analysis eliminates biases Form of analysis depends on the audience you are showing it to. Benefits: Reference, papers, articles, - Elaborate analysis can be useful to study a ideal examples space very in depth. - Involves digital and physical collaboration among team members User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p - A logic line can generate more than one 70-71 concept Limitations: - Time consuming as time is spent in analyzing each logic line. - Sorting logic lines can be tedious

Fetterman (1998), Ch. 5, Analysis, p 92-103


Affinity Diagramming Affinity diagram is a process used to externalize and meaningfully cluster observations and insights from research , keeping design teams grounded in data as they design

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Description Affinity diagram is a widely used method for data clustering and analysis. It is an inductive exercise, i.e. grouping is done bottom up instead of grouping by pre defined categories. It uses both expansion and contraction - the two brainstorming techniques for ideation. It can be used for clustering wide range of data - be it compiling observations from contextual inquiry to grouping errors and finding out major problems in the usablity testing. They can be personalized even to make minute decisons within the team - like voting on certain aspects of a design. There can be several level of hierarchies in an affinity digram and they are often color coded or denoted in some other way. Single observations, insights, concerns or requirements are written on individual postit notes or digital tools are used. They are clustered up by issues or other categories until all the post-its belong to groups or are outliers. Out of this work a story emerges about people, their tasks and the nature of their problems.

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure How to affinity diagram? - Generate items - Display items - Sort them into categories - Label categories - Draw finished diagram i.e. visual map

Notes from class Strategies for identification: - Actors (social group, individuals) - Time - Setting - Behavior - Activites (time and space) - Ways of participation - Relationships - Meanings Categorize according to : - connections - If some items fit in more than one category, duplicate items -Outliers Label categories: - Short titles - Discuss out loud - Super headers


Affinity Diagramming Practice I have used affinity diagramming at various stages in all my projects so far. It is a very good method to brainstorm, vote and cluster data in a project. This particular exercise (indicated by adjacent photos) required to affinity diagram data generated from contextual inquiry - observations made by looking at photos, video and field notes. The resultant diagram contains various levels of hierarchy and themes of several problems. Our design concepts were derived as a result.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits When should you affinity diagram? - when the situation is unexplored Color and quantity of post-it notes determine the quality of the affinity diagram. Decide what goes on the card. Go for gut reactions when doing affinity diagrams. Randomize post-its before categorzing them, this helps in removing a bias.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples User research methods, Martin Hannignton, p 70-71

Analytic Induction - Identification of negative, disconfirming or Beyer & Holtzblatt (1998) Contextual Design, Ch 9, esp 154-163 dissimilar case. - Refine defnitions of your items and categorize https://www.extractable.com/blog/category/ teamwork/


Artifact analysis A systematic examination of the materials, aesthetic, and interactive qualities of objects contributes to an understanding of their physical, social, and cultural contexts.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Notes from class

Description

Material ecology: 3 kinds of interactions occur - co-operative - competitive - independent

The emphasis of artifact analysis is on the object itself. Artifact analysis ask what do objects have to say about people, culture, time and space? It can also be useful for market analysis.

Material culture How artifact mediates relationships with humans, time , etc.

Material analysis addresses the quantitative inventory of artifacts in the environemnt under study, and defining characteristics such as composition, durability, wear etc. Aesthtic Analysis includes a subjective visual assessment and identifying the history 0f the object. Interactive analysis addresses the explicit operational characteristics of objects.

Museum studies - materiality - construction - function - provenance - value Classification - Intrisically passive - Intrisically active - Normal use and alien use - Status objects - Esteem objects - Stigma objects - Collective objects - Social facilitators - Occupational objects - Indegenious objects and exotic objects - Way of production

Artifacts Emphasis is placed on the extent to which an artifact participates in a system of artifacts and possible interactions among artifacts.

Procedure Identify objects. Describe the object in terms of the 5 dimensions by Elliot and Pearce or use other classification technique depending on what is expected of the study.


Artifact analysis Practice The aim was to take an ordinary object from a given list and defamiliarize it. It was required to sketch/draw the object and provide a detailed description of the object in terms of the following 5 dimensions ( Elliot and Pearce) : • Material. This dimension explores the nature of materials that go into artifacts: natural, human-made, etc., as well as the extent to which a given designer regularly uses those materials. • Construction. This dimension gets at the relationship between processes of construction and its appearance, including whether traces of construction processes are visible in the final design, the role of ornament, whether a design construction process reveals a designer’s personal style, and whether designers place any distinguishing marks on the artifacts. • Function. This dimension considers the relationship between what an artifact does or used for and ways that its function reveals the intentions or other aspects of its maker. • Provenance. This dimension examines the history of the artifact, from where it was made to where and how it ended up being used. • Value. This dimension takes into account the various nuances of the word “value”: it includes the value placed on the artifact by its creator, its value in society, and the social and cultural values that are inscribed within it. Finally re-appropriated the objects for different purposes and sketched re-appropriations.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Select a very specific artifact( in terms of materials, culture and other aspects) and then analyze it and defamiliarize.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 14-15; 190-191 - Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). Why we need things. In Lubar, S. & Kingery D. (eds). History from Things: Essays on Material Culture. - Fleming, E. (1974). Artifact study: A proposed model. Winterthur Portfolio 9, 153-173.


Probes & triggers Cultural probes are provocative instruments given to participants to inspire new forms of self-understanding and communication about their lives, envrionments, thoughts and interactions Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Description Probes are designed to inspire people to thoughtfully consider personal cotext and circumstances and respond to the design team in unique and creative ways facilitated by provocations. Cultural probes are casually informal and are not intended ot be formally analyzed but to serve as inspirational pieces, identifying key patterns and themes from a participant group or culture. Probes can be deployed in various ways such as : - probe as packet - probes as data collection - probes as participatory objects - probes as sensibility Probes and triggers can be done in many ways : Object probes: - using artifacts to generate responses - prototypes are also used as objects to study interactions. Walking probes: - Visiting a particular location that has meaning, to the informant - discuss environment as objects and imbued meanings

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure Determine the focus of the study and recruit subject(s) for the probe. Interview the subject(s) to find out more details that will help in constructing the probe. Carefully make/select objects and packaging for the probe mostly related to theme/focus. Deploy the probe(s) for a period suitable for the study and prompt the users if needed. Collect probe and interview subject(s) Analyze obtained data and draw insights.

Notes from class Preliminary research Getting to know and engaging subjects Visually attractive packaging -The probe package must be visually appealing -Materials must be aesthetically crafted/ selected -Should convey personal information or feelings -Should be delightful and not condescending When the topic is not clear -> use ambiguous, open ended method or conduct an interview to gain more context.


Probes & triggers Practice The cultural probe we deployed was to study how people cope with loss- Broken probe. We decided to focus our study on loss of a close relative and started our recruitment process. Following are the phases in our probe study: - Pre probe interview: to screen a subject and establish common ground and also get information regarding the loss they suffered. - Brainstorm session : It was conducted to determine what kind of objects to include inside the probe and rationale behind each object. - Selection and Procurement: The objects with strongest rationales were selected and procured or made. - Deployed the probe, communicated instructions to the subject and also inside the probe. - After a week, collected the probe and interviewed the subject to study reactions to the objects in the probe and uncover perceptions, concerns and other emotions. - Analyzed data and presented insights

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 54-55 - Gaver, B., Dunne, T., & Pacenti, E. (1999). Cultural probes. In Interactions 6,1 (21-29). - Boehner, K., Vertesi, J., Sengers, P., & Dourish, P. (2007). How HCI interprets the probes. Proc. CHI2007. (1077-1086)

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits It is an exploratory method, don’t overanalyze. Be careful while recruiting subjects and giving incentives, and keep the focus clear while constructing the probe.


Personal Inventory & Personal Inventories allow the designer to see and understand the relevance of objects in a user’s life from the participant’s point of view, to inspire design themes and insight.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Procedure

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Description

This study is to understand how objects are Personal inventories are representative relted to the subject and to one another. collection of artifacts selected by the participant or researcher. The focus of analysis is targeted The study can be conducted in the towards certain kinds of objects. following way: Conduct prior research and prepare questions. A genealogy and lanscape analysis can be conducted. Genealogy study is about how an Discuss about questions ( categories like individual thing evolves. Landscape analysis perspectives include material, purpose, source is about finding how objects and materials are - when, where, customize, ownership, frequency related to each other. of use) Recruit a subject for the study and introduced the team and explain purpose of the session.

Notes from class

Observe the material ecology Do the activity. Record audio, video, photo and - Collaborative - Competitive take field notes. - Independent Based on question prepared, start the inquiry. Origin of objects Discussed and selected items to conduct a - grouping of objects - Preference of use genealogical analysis. - Ownership (gifted/ purchased/ found) Discuss with the subject (use categories) - Habits formed to uncover personal attachments and evoke - Organization of stuff emotions Analyze trends in tangible objects and Construct the landscape analysis of all the compare them to trends in digital objects to find out how a material trend fits in the digital objects observed. ecology.


Virtual Possessions Practice We did a Genalogy and landscape analysis of personal possessions of students. We had a discussion prior to the session, about the focus and questions to ask (perspectives include material, purpose, source - when, where, customize, ownership, frequency of use). We then recruited the subject and introduced ourselves, the purpose of the session and requested him to empty his backpack and to arrange things in the way he likes. Based on question prepared, we inquired about each item. The enitre session was recorded and photographed, including the process how he took things out of/put back to the bag. We discussed and selected objects to perform a genealogical analysis. Based on that we construct the landscape analysis of all the content in the bag.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 130-131

Ask about the origin of the artifact, where it came from, ownership and study what kind of emotions it evokes.

- Belk, R. (1988). Possessions and the extended self. The Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 15, Issue 2, 139-168.

Items can define identity.

- Odom et al (2011). Teenagers and their virtual possessions: Design opportunities and issues

Look for the maetrial ecology, objects used on/ with another objects and the history of use. Section the contents of the study while analyzing to understand patterns.

- Wallendorf & Arnould (1988). A cross-cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness, and social linkage. Journal of Consumer Research 14(4), 531-547.


Image based research Photo studies are most often used as a complementary component with other methods.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Description

Procedure

Image based research involves recording data/ words via pictures, films, cartoons, illustrations, grafittis, diagrams, maps and symbols.

Take photographs covering all the aspects of an acitivty or a wide range of activities.

Categories: -visual ethnography: use of potential of photos, video and hypermedia in ethnography and social research. -photo illicitation - picture cards : they are postcard like objects with a photo on one side and text/explainations on the other side. - documentary photography: camera journals showing images to a person and recording reactions by talking about it. - collage method: predetermine the reactions. Physically assemble the collages to show interpretations. Subjects make these collages to reveal more about themselves.

Conduct Analysis based on : compostion focus qualitative recording conditions in the process context what’s missing subjectivity spatial and/or temporal order Document and look at the collection holistically to derive design insights.

Notes from class A video or picture does not represent the entire situation. It is a perspective or slice of reality. ( it is not a 1:1 map of reality). Take field notes as well as pictures. Focus on Subjectivity: What can be seen, and how do you know.


Photo Ellicitation Practice Our goal for this project was to find wide ranging activities that people in Bloomington participate in. We began by going to the farmer’s market downtown to find an interesting subject. We ended up constraining ourselves to the farmers market and finding different subjects from there. Each vendor we talked to had a different process on how they worked and produced their goods. This gave for wide ranging observations, stories and concepts. We interviewed farmers which practiced different types of agriculture, weaver who made her own dyes and had a balanced life with natural products and synthetic technology, various performers who practiced multi tasking and other businesses.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits This method is useful in the discovery and concepting phase. By referencing the pictures when concepting, we can look at how artifacts are laid out and how they interact with the current systems that they have. It is also useful to deeply understand the values and practices of a niche user group. It can be coupled with other methods for richer data. Learned the art of capturing the essence of an activity in one picture frame.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 134-135; 136-137 - Chalfen, R. (1998). Interpreting family photography as pictorial communication. In Prosser, J. (ed.). Image-based Research. London: RoutledgeFalmer. 214-234. http://www.humansofnewyork.com/


Mapping approaches A tool that enables designers to develop an understanding of and generate ideas about the problem space, and highlight areas for further exploration - Mind mapping

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Notes from the class Behavioral mapping - over space and time, watch what people are doing ( activities and behavior) - observation and research technique - individual centered (shadowing) - system observation Cognitive mapping - draw mentally a space (existing or virtual) - uncovering a hidden aspect - can be an installation using boards and pins - can be used when you are in the place or virtually observing Social mapping - group of people - get community on the same page - flow of something is mapped by vairous people - various maps are comapred( coupling cohesion like) Mind mapping - visual way of seeing branching and hierarchies - can be done with illustrations - differentiate using colors - after branching to the lowest problem show concepts at the end of the branch

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Customer journey map - journey that is describing various touch points in an experience - interaction sequences for a user - used in service design - experience should unfold through the map - highlights: gap, pain points and opportunities of the experience. Touchpoints are key moments in an interaction. (when product is interfaced with the user) Each touch point can have thoughts, emotions, behavior associated with it. Touch points can be virtual or physical. They are very useful in iteration of a product.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits Stay with the map after its done to verify its completeness Record interactions if doing a customer journey map. It is good to go back and verify the map with recorded data.


Mapping approaches

http://youthmappers.blogspot.com/2007/06/behavioral-mapping-of-day.html

http://www.mindtools.com/media/Diagrams/mindmap.jpg

http://www.servicedesigntools.org/sites/default/files/res_images/02.jpg

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 30-31; 38-39; 118119; 176-177

http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/s9809742/Cognitivemap.jpg

- Sommer & Aitkens (1982). Mental mapping of two supermarkets. Journal of Consumer Research 9(2), 211-215.


Card Sorting When user comprehension and meaningful categorizationis critical, card sorting can help clarify.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Procedure

Description

A card sorting exercise usually has a clear business goal.

Card sorting is a participatory design technique that can be used to understand how participants group items and categories together and relate concepts to one another.

The following are the best practices for running a card sort for a particular goal: Select a moderator who is familiar with the content and participants who are the target audience of the content, and who care about the information.

Card sorting is usually done to evaluate categories and it can be used to test and uncover misunderstandings in terminologies on the cards

Work iteratively with individual participants or small groups of participants ( no more than three to five people)

Card sorting is used when you want to generate options for structuring your information, for organizing navigations, menus and taxonomies. It helps in developing a framework which is verified as usable.

Limit the total number of participants. After 15 sessions, there are diminishing returns on the insight that canbe garnered from card sorts.

Notes from class

Use 30-100 cards, and allow about 30 minutes for each multiple of 50 cards. Include blank cards and markers to allow the participants to add their own items when needed. If there are no consistent patterns emerging after ten card sorts, consider renaming the cards, or reconsider the catergories.

Card sorting can be done in two ways : Open ended : Used when you want to know how users group content and understand the labels they use for categories. Used to determine the HOW and WHAT. Closed : used with a predefined set of categories and works well after an open card sort. Used to determine the WHICH and WHY.


Card Sorting Practice An in class exercise of card sorting was conducted to sort a pinterest board on interactive installations. A team of two members wrote down cards following an open or closed method and the opposite team sorted them according to the text written on the cards. While sorting cards we were told to think aloud so that the other team could take notes while the soritng was in progress. It was both creation of cards and sorting them, that made it interesting. Usually cards are created beforehand to be sorted by users.

Things to watch out for / Limitations, Interesting observations and Benefits People who know the domain are a part of the card sorting activity.

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples

Testing ever-more users in card sorting has diminishing returns, but test at least 15 users - 3 times more than you would in traditional usability - Martin & Hanington (2012). p. 26-27 tests. - Kuniavsky (2003). Ch. 8. (pp.192-199) Too many people: if greater than 30 Good: 10-12 Average: 6-8 ( when low on resources)

- http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ card-sorting-how-many-users-to-test/

Good technique to get out of your head ans see - http://www.syntagm.co.uk/design/articles/ cardsorting.htm others perspective.


Bodystroming, Roleplaying Bodystorming situates brainstorming in physical expreicne, combining role-playing and simualtion to inspire new ideas and empathic, spontaneous prototyping.

Behavioral Attitudinal

Qualitative Quantitative

Exploratory Generative Evaluative

Innovative Adapted Traditional

Participatory Observational Self Reporting Expert Review Design process

Planning, Scoping, Definition Exploration, Synthesis, Design Implication Concept generation, Early Prototype Iteration Evaluation, Refinement and production Launch and monitor, quality assurance

Description Common Approaches - Experience prototyping - Bodystorming - Role-playing - Informance - Performance Bodystorming is physical brainstorming— dynamic, experiential, and generative—situated in methods of informance, or informative performance, combining active role-play with simple prototypes. Through bodystorming, designers immerse themselves in user situations through loosely configured or simulated contexts, moving through space and situations while paying close attention to decisions, interactive experiences, and emotional responses. The method may be contained within design teams, but can also engage a wider audience of peers or clients, inviting response and dialogue. Prototypes or “props” used in bodystorming need not be sophisticated constructions; for example, cardboard or foam core can be used to enclose space; simple boxes or existing furniture can represent fixtures,

landmarks, or obstacles; chairs can be airline or car seats; tables become stretchers or beds; and lighting conditions can be manipulated as appropriate. Likewise, while scenarios may be partially scripted from observations using Whereas the primary function of traditional roleplaying is to gain an empathic sense of users by acting their part, bodystorming encourages active design ideation, concept generation, and even testing of ideas in parallel. During the bodystorm, in addition to props simulating typical products and environmental features that already exist, concept ideas can be integrated and tested in play, and the active situation can inspire the spontaneous creation of additional new product and service concepts. If well executed, bodystorming captures a realistic scenario of use through immersive acting in a simulated context, and the process is seamlessly empathic.


Informance and performance

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/08/03/us/03aging_600span.jpg

http://luidstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/bodystorming05.jpg

Reference, papers, articles, ideal examples -Boess et al (2007). When is role playing really experiential? Case studies. TEI’07 - Wakkary et al (2007). How informances can be used in design ethnography. CHI2007 - Iacucci et al (2002). Imagining and experiencing in design, the role of performances -http://mashable.com/2014/04/29/adoculus-rift-lag/ http://luidstudio.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/bodystorming05.jpg

A book of Interaction Design Methods  

Methods and notes summarizing user research and analysis methodologies from Universal Methods of Design by Martin and Hanington and I543- In...

A book of Interaction Design Methods  

Methods and notes summarizing user research and analysis methodologies from Universal Methods of Design by Martin and Hanington and I543- In...

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