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Endosulfan – Key I ssues


Agriculture - Segmentation ďƒ˜

Broad Acre Large land holdings typically 2000 to 10,000 hectares. Agriculture in USA, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Australia is largely broad acre. Use and application of pesticides are mechanical with aerial spraying being widely prevalent. Agriculture is intensive and yields high

ďƒ˜

Small Acre Small land holdings typically 1 to 10 hectares with holdings of 50 to 200 hectares in some cases. Agriculture in India, China, Pakistan, large parts of Africa and Asia is small acre. Use and application of pesticides are manual with backpack sprayers and minimal mechanisation. Agriculture is sustainable with varying yields


Chemical Crop Protection 

Insecticides

Weedicides (Herbicides)

Fungicides

Plant Growth Regulators


World Agrochemicals Market

Insecticides

Fungicides

` 2 Lac Cr.

$40.47 Billion

Herbicides

Indian Agrochemicals Market

` 5200 Cr.

$1.1 Billion Fungicides Herbicides

Insecticides

(Reference:- Phillips McDougall)


Global Crop Protection 

The global crop protection market is valued at US$ 40 billion

The top 6 companies, all multinationals, account for 75% of the total market

The top 3 companies, all European, account for over 50% of the total market

Over 67% of the market is either patented or proprietary and less than 33% of this market is generic

This market share has been built with a strong focus on patented and proprietary crop protection chemicals supported by strong regulations, driven by the European standards

There is a strong motivation for European multinationals to replace “ low priced generics” with their “ expensive patented alternatives”


Crop Protection: Usage 

Worldwide over 1400 pesticide active ingredients have been registered and over 1055 active ingredients are currently in use

In India 805 products are listed in the schedule with only 228 active ingredients registered for use

Worldwide over 16,000 pesticide formulations based on the 1055 active ingredients are labeled for use

In India a little over 400 formulations based on the 228 active ingredients are labeled for use

In Europe over 1260 pesticide active ingredients are currently listed as per Annex 1

Contrary to public perception the usage of crop protection products is very low in India compared to most parts of the world


Insecticides

widely used by the farmer to protect crops from insect attacks and infestations

contact or systemic

broad spectrum or selective

soft on beneficial, pollinators and predators


Regulations 

Use of pesticides is heavily regulated

Plant Protection & Quarantine dept. of most countries have clearly defined regulations which govern the use and application of plant protection products

Focus of regulatory authorities is on safe and correct use of plant protection products with clearly defined Maximum Residue Limits (MRL)


Endosulfan 

A broad spectrum generic “ contact” insecticide soft on pollinators such as honey bees and beneficial such as lady bird beetle, chrysoperla, trichograma etc.

Invented in Germany and in use in global agriculture for over 55 years. Used in India for over 40 years

Third largest selling generic insecticide worldwide with global market in excess of 40 million liters valued at over US$ 300 million (>Rs 1350 cores) with replacement cost of alternative estimated to be in excess of US$ 1 billion (>Rs 4500 crores)

India’ s share in global Endosulfan market is over 70%

The Indian market of Endosulfan is approximately 12 million liters valued at US$ 60 million (Rs 270 crores)

Exports of Endosulfan from India is valued at US$ 40 million (Rs 180 crores)

Today in the eye of the storm in the battle of “ patented” vs “ generic” pesticides


Endosulfan – Journey in Europe 

Manufactured and exported out of Europe for over 55 years. Used in Europe until 2005. No health issues in Europe relating to use of Endosulfan

Decision taken in 2001 by European manufacturer to phase out Endosulfan

In 2005 EU withdraws all authorisations for use of plant protection products containing Endosulfan

In 2007 the European manufacturer decides to stop manufacturing of Endosulfan but decides to continue sales of product

In 2007 the EU makes a submission to the Stockholm Convention recommending the consideration of Endosulfan as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)

In 2010 the European manufacturer announced that they would stop selling Endosulfan by end of 2010

The POP Review Committee (POPRC) during its 6th meeting in October 2010 recommends listing of Endosulfan as a POP


Endosulfan – Barriers to Trade 

Once the use of Endosulfan was discontinued in Europe attempts were made to restrict the use of Endosulfan worldwide

The EU regulatory authorities made it mandatory that Endosulfan cannot be used in Cocoa cultivation in West Africa and refused to import if Cocoa farmers used Endosulfan

The MRL (Maximum Residue Limit) for use of Endosulfan in Tea was reduced from 30 ppm to 0 ppm. This effectively meant that the Indian Tea plantations could no longer use Endosulfan if they had to export their tea to Europe

The EU moved away from the international CODEX standards on MRL for tea and decided to have its own standards

If Endosulfan was used in fruits and vegetables they would not be imported into Europe


Endosulfan : Stockholm Convention 

The Stockholm Convention is yet to take a final decision on the recommendation on Endosulfan. The Conference of Parties (COP) will meet in April 2011 to take a decision

On the basis of submissions made by the European Union, the Chemical Review Committee of POP in their 6th meeting in October 2010 at Geneva have recommended Endosulfan for listing as a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) under Annex A of the with specific exemptions

The recommendation was made taking into account that a lack of full scientific certainty should not prevent a chemical from being considered for listing

All decisions by the POPRC taken so far on Endosulfan have been without consensus. All recommendations have been made by voting


Stockholm Convention: Irregularities

While considering the EU proposal to list Endosulfan there were serious procedural lapses:

The text of the convention, their articles and rules were not followed The process was not transparent There was conflict of interest as European Union the notifying party for Endosulfan also prepared the risk profile The proposals to recommend Endosulfan lacked scientific merit and decisions were taken despite significant data gaps India’ s protest and dissent notes were ignored and all the decisions relating to Endosulfan were taken by voting in spite of serious objections from India, China, Argentina and other countries

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Stockholm Convention: Fallout 

While a final decision on Endosulfan is yet to be taken a general perception that Endosulfan is a Persistent Organic Pollutant has already been built and independent regulatory action is being triggered on the basis of the POPRC recommendations

Based on these recommendations a number of countries announce a ban or a phase out of Endosulfan over a 3 to 5 year period. Over 60 countries have joined the EU call for a ban on Endosulfan

The 60 countries include 27 EU member states and 21 countries in Africa and several other countries where Endosulfan was not widely used

None of the independent regulatory actions in many of these countries have been based on incidences of adverse human health in any of these countries


Endosulfan – Journey in India 

Has been in use as a broad spectrum insecticide since the 70’ s largely in cotton and other field crops

Was imported into India until 1980

India begins manufacturing Endosulfan from the early 80’ s. There are three Indian manufacturer’ s of Endosulfan active including Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, a Govt. of India enterprise

Endosulfan is today the most widely used generic insecticide in India with usage in cotton, pulses, Tea, Mango, Vegetables and oilseeds

The only insecticide which is soft on Pollinators such as honeybees and beneficial such as ladybird beetle, chrysoperla etc

Widely recommended for use during pollination

Widely recommended for use in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Insect Resistance Management (IRM) programs


Endosulfan – Cost Comparison MRP Product

Endosulfan 35% EC

per Lt or Kg

Cost / acre Cotton

Veg

Paddy

286

114

46

Flubendiamide 39.35 SC

13800

690

Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC

12280

737

246

Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG

8400

739

672

Flubendiamide 20% WG

7434

743

Thiamethoxam actera

4010

321

321

Indoxacarb 14.5 SC

3400

680

544

Imidacloprid 17.8% SL

2229

111

89

69

276 737

372 160

111


Endosulfan – Issues Involved 

The WHO (World Health Organisation), FAO (Food & Agriculture Organisation), IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) have all stated that Endosulfan is non carcinogenic, non mutagenic and non genotoxic

Aerial spraying of Pesticides by Plantation Corporation of Kerala is reported to have caused adverse human health effects in Kasargod in Kerala

Endosulfan has been linked to be the cause for these health effects

Some Environmental NGO’ s backed by EU funding unleashed a media campaign by propagating the EU call for a ban on Endosulfan blaming it for causing health problems. Some of them even went to the extent of generating false data to support their position

Successive committees appointed by the Govt. of India have concluded that there is no evidence linking Endosulfan to the reports of adverse human health effects

Thousands of workers of Endosulfan who have been exposed to Endosulfan and farmers who have used Endosulfan all over India have not had any issues relating to human health and have volunteered that their blood samples be tested for presence of Endosulfan residues


Endosulfan – Issues Involved 

For India its about ensuring affordable agriculture for its farmers and food security for its people

For sustainable and marginal farmers, its about their right to choose, their right to affordable crop protection solutions

For millions of farmers its about the right to plant protection balanced with protecting their ecosystem

For workers its about their right to dignity, their right to be heard, their right to know the truth

For the Scientific community it’ s the quest for truth

For Indian business its about their struggle for survival in the battle of “ patented” vs “ generics”

For the Indian consumer its about the cost of fresh fruits and vegetables


THANK YOU


Endosulfan key issues