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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

THE THOMPSON COUNTRY.

Being Notes on the History of Southern British Columbia, and Particularly of the City of Kamloops, Formerly Fort Thompson.

By

MARK

S.

WADE,

M.

D.

KAMLOOPS. Inland Sentinel Print.

1907.

in

Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, year one thousand nine hundred and seven, by

the

Mark Sweeten Wade,

at the

Department

of Agriculture.

F 10^ W'l-t

PREFACE. Even amongst our own, people, how little is known of That the Fur early history of British Columbia! Traders were the first white men to take up permanent resthe

unknown Rocky Mountains and

idence in the wilds of the

tween the

Interior land lying bethe Pacific Ocean, is

common knowledge,

but, with that, error creeps in and with the very phrase "The Fur Traders" is associated the idea that by it is meant the Hudson's Bay Company, an idea at once prevalent and erroneous. Established by Royal Charter in 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company gradually extended their field of operations westward, but it

was the North West Company, formed in 1787, that first pushed their way west of the Rockies. These rival companies swept the North, the South being harvested by a later concern known as the Mackina Company. Then came the founding of the American Fur Company by John Jacob Astor, of New York, in 1809, and his aborption of the Mackina Company two years later. With the whole South field in his control, Mr. Astor turned his eyes Westward, beyond the Rockies, to the Oregon or Columbia River, and formed the Pacific Fur Company, with headquarters at Astoria, afterwards Fort George when the Nor'- Westers secured possession, at the mouth of that great waterway. Thence traders branched out Northward even as the Nor'Westers made their way South. That both these companies should reach what is now Kamloops about the same time, when the is, therefore, scarcely a matter for wonder, and vigorous Northerners devoured the Pacific Fur Co., the I^arther West, rich in the coveted pelts, was theirs alone, and so remained, so far as the Interior was concerned,

until the

amalgamation Wost Companies. This

in

190-")

loops.

little

volume

is

of the

Hudson's Bay and North-

the outcome of an article published

dealing, in the main", with the early history of

To

this

Kam-

has been added new matter and this nar-

imperfections and shortcomings, is not presented as acomplete hi'story of that section of the country embraced in the title, but merely as a contribution throwing some light on the past. It may per-

rative, with

the result

its

many

It is

chance serve others engaged in historical research as a beacon; to warn from what should be avoided and to guide whither there lies safety and knowledge. The author acknowledges with thanks the courtesy of Rev. Father Morice for the use of several cuts from his excellent work the "History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia."

Kamloops, B.

C.,

1st

March,

1907.

CONTENTS. CHAPTER. I.

PAGE.

ABORIGINAL TIMES

II.

THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN

III.

IV.

V.

23

SUPERSTITION AND TRAGEDY

41

THE REIGN OF JOHN TOD

55

ANEW

VI.

OUTLET

H7

DAWN OF A NEW ERA

81

THE SEARCH FOR GOLD

VII. VIII.

IX.

7

..........

THE COMING OF THE RAILWAY

FROM FORT TO

CITY...

9!)

Ill .

127

1 o

u

I o 0)

*

THE THOMPSON COUNTRY.

CHAPTER

I.

ABORIGINAL TIMES.

HE is

Southern Interior of British Columbia

the

home

of several tribal subdivisions of

Indians of Salish into bands, each finite

location

subdivisions

stock,

subdivided

further

band residing on some de-

or reserve the

Of

.

these

tribal

Shuswaps

(Shoowha'pamooh), possess the largest territory which includes Shuswap and Adams Lakes, the valleys of the

vers and the

North and South Thompson rimain Thompson nearly to Ash-

Bonaparte river. Hat Creek, Clinton and the valley of the Fraser from Pavilion

croft, the

Creek to Soda Creek, their boundary being the territory of that other great branch, the Tinneh or Dene tribe

Along the Fraser Lillooets

river

(Sta'tlumooh),

valley below

the

live

meeting the Thompsons

Foster's bar on the Fraser, the

mooh) being

Pavilion

Thompsons

western neighbors

of

th?

near

(Ntla-ka-pe-

the

Shuswap

*

and occupying the Similkameen district (excepting Keremeos which is Okanagan), the Nicola valley and that of the Fraser from Foster's Bar to Spuzzum. The Okan-

(Ool'anakane) inhabit the country to the south and east of the territory on the Shuswaps and Thompsons.

agans

The western Lakes

and

quarters

river,

however,

being,

divides the

The

Kootenay

subdivision of

a

chik'st,

Arrow

leg of the Columbia valley, including is

Salish

the

by

S-na-a-

the

proper, their

Montana.

in

Okanagans from

claimed

head-

Their territory

Kootenays (Kootenuha). were originally known as "Flat-heads." discovered by Canadian voyageurs they had the

Salish oroper

When

first

amongst them slaves taken from the head was deformed. Little 'is

known

the coast tribes

where

of the history of these aboriginal inc

;

who were The remote

habitants pnor to the advent of the fur traders, the

first

past

whites to penetrate the Interior.

shrouded

is

in

a cloud of tradition, superstition

and

It is evident, however, judging from these mythology. sources of information, that the different tribes were constantly .it war with one another, the stronger enslav-

The northern races, more warlike and it was probably

ing the weaker as opportunity offered. the Tinneh, were the

a party of that race that, clad in the habiliments of warriors on the warpath, long before the first white man descended the Fraser or even beheld its waters, set out from the Chilcoten country and made a sudden and unexpected appearance in the Bonaparte valley. cent was made and,

as

in the

height of the

provisions had been abnormally

the previous winter,

removed from

all

prise

scarce

during

young and old, had the Bonaparte and Thomp-

the Shuswaps,

their villages in

son valleys to their fishing grounds

none

But the des-

salmon fishing season,

at Pavilion.

Finding

where they had expected to surthe stay-at-homes and enslave them, the stranger

left in

the villages

Indian

Salmon Cache.

10

south and finally reached a

warriors pursued their

way

point on the

opposite the

Thompson

mouth

of the Nicola

Th^re they were discovered by scout?

river.

Thompsons who

at

of

the

once carried the tidings of the presence

within their territory of a hostile force, to their fellow

tribesmen

A

at.

Nicomen and Lytton. Thompsons

strontf force of the

once

at

set out to

repel the invaders and having duly reconnoitred the en-

emy's position and estimated his strength, established in his front and rear. The invaders were not

themselves

slow to realise the danger that threatened them by superior force established

in

commanding

a

positions and,

with admirable discretion, quietly and unobserved, crossed the

Thompson

river

under cover of night. They ascended

the Nicola, followed by the

harassed

them,

finally

Thompsons who them

driving

into

continually

the

Similka-

There, however, the strangers, young men for the most part with their wives with them, took a

meen

district.

firm stand and offered such resolute resistance that their

pursuers ceased to interfere with them further.

There newcomers remained and the Thompsons and Okanagans were subjected to conquest at their hands, not by the warriors but by their women who were good to look upon and found favor in the eyes of the young men the

among

the

made and

older

established

inter-marriages resulted, and

strangers lost their individuality.

being the

first

They

were

Treaties

peoples.

gradually

the

are credited with

inhabitants of the Similkameen of

whom

there

is

had

knowledge of the whites there is no deinformation but it was probably at some time con-

record.

any At what date the Indians their first

finite

of the

Southern Interior

II

i

I

13

Al-

siderably subsequent to the events narrated above.

exander Mackenzie, the

first

white

man

descend the

to

waters of the Upper Fraser, was informed by the Carrier Indians, a branch of the Tinnehs, that their immediate

neighbors, the Shuswaps, were a malignant race,

"who

and that they possessed iron arms and utensils which they had obtained from lived in subterranean recesses,"

friendly tribes v/ho had received

them

directly

whiles, probably from the coast Indians. historical

journey took place

in 1793,

but

afterwards that the Shuswaps had their

it

from the

Mackenzie's

was not

until

glimpse of

first

the white man, the available evidence placing this event

A Spokane beginning oC the list century* his mother with connected Pilakamulahuh, through

ab;out the chief,

both the Okanagans of Penticton, at the southern end of Okanagan lake, and the Shuswaps, had as one of his wives a Similkameen

woman

of

Tinneh stock,

in all pro-

bability a descendant of that adventurous band that had

from the Chilcotin country as already was the custom in those days for the Indians set out

of the ries

to

Rocky Mountains and engage

in

related.

It

living west

yet near enough to the prai-

buffalo hunting, to

band together

common

for

foe, the Black-

mutual protection against the when on those excursions, the Spokanes, Kootenuha, and sometimes the Nez Perces and Coeur D'Alenes, being

feet,

among

those so doing.

they met

a

party

Pass, near where

two

parties

of

On

one of these annual. hunts

Canadian trappers

Helena, Montana,

at

now

Hell Gate's stands.

The

and when, towards the end of homeward journey westward across the

fraternized

summer, the Rocky Mountains was begun, two of the trappers, Finan Macdonald and Legace, accompanied them as guests of

14

who

the Colville chief,

took them to his winter quarters

river, where they ulmarried his two of Finan Macdontimately daughters. in afterwards had of a ald, 1812, charge post among the

at Kettle

Forks on the Columbia

Flatheads in the service of the Northwest Company. Late in the antumn, Pitakamulahnh went into winter quarters with his Similkameen wife at

entertained the other Indians of the whites

as a

of the

Penticton.

He

village with tales

met with on the buffalo hunt and his fame became so widespread that lie was a

story-teller

welcome guest wherever he

men and

of the white attractive.

that he did

In fact

-he

little

else

visited, his vivid descriptions

their doings proving particularly

found

this

occupation so agreeable

and made journeys

usual haunts to gratify his

own

far

from

his

vanity as a narrator and

the curiosity of his eager listeners, a

course

that ulti-

his undoing.

mately proved

The people of Shuswap invited him to visit them and them the wonderful things he had entertained his '

tell

own

people with.

required a whole

First he

month

went

to tell

to

all

Spallumcheen and it knew of the white

he

Next the inhabitants of the village of Kualt, Haltkam and Halaut, on Shuswap Lake and the South

people.

Thompson

river,

him

invited

in

succession

and

at

each

Tokane, the chief of the Kamloops band, also had him pay his village a visit and accorded him a grand reception. place he spent a month.

This round of

much time

that

was not prepared

festivities

when

and story

telling occupied so

spring came again Pilakamulahuh

to join the annual buffalo hunt

on the

Instead, he accepted Tokane's invitation to spend plains. the summer at the Shuswap's fishing grounds at Pavilion

15

on the Fraser cellent

this

afforded him another and

opportunity

to

There he met the

whites.

few miles farther down the

now thoroughly numerous

story

of

more

ex-

the wonderful

chief of the Fountain

him was

the Lillooets and by a

his

tell

band of

invited to visit his camp, valley.

loth, the

Nothing

seasoned narrator went and entertained

visitors

from below Lillooet and from

villages

on the lakes west of that place, who had heard of the marvels he related and came to hear them in person.

One

of them, the chief from Seton Lake, listened with

increasing

to

incredulity

beings with white skins, hair; clad in

woven

Pilakamulahuh describe thes* blue eyes,

light,

short,

curly

material so fashioned as not to im-

pede their movements; armed with a weapon that killed

wing and at a great distance; shod so that All they could walk over cactus without being pricked. the Seton Lake chief disbelieved and these things utterly birds on the

said so in plain language.

He

further asserted that there

was no animal on which men could ride and outstrip the buffalo; no weapon that discharged, with a noise as of tWunder and a smoke eye could not see

like fire, a missile so fast that the

it.

In brief, he declared the honored

story-teller to be a liar and that the tales he related were Thus unworthy the attention of men and warriors. grossly insulted, Pilakamulahuh reached for his bow and

arrows, intending to wipe out the affront with blood, but

adversary was too quick for him and wounded him His friends the Shuswaps carried him with two arrows. his

back

to their

fore the

own camp

shadow

urged his murder.

at Pavilion

of death

and there he

died.

Be-

upon him, however, he had son N'kuala, then a mere boy, to avenge his fell

16

NViala reached manhood's

the time

By

whites had established

a

outposts at other points tributary to

a

man

successful winter's trading,

One

it.

was near the head of Okanagan Lake Montigny, assisted by

estate, the

trading post at Spokane with of the latter

charge of a Mr. named Pion. After a very in

for head-

Montigny departed

quarters with the furs, leaving everything at the post in the care of

young N'kuala who had already earned a some standing. Upon

putation and was a chief of

re-

his

return, Montigny, rinding everything safe and sound, rewarded N'kuala with a gift of ten guns, a supply of ammunition,

tobacco and pipes. Here was the young chief's opDuring the winter he trained the best men of

portunity.

had established themselves ceived the gift of a horse. his

disposal,

From

use of the guns.

his tribe in the

he

felt

at

the traders

who

Walla-Walla he had

With firearms and

a

re-

horse at

prepared to undertake the task of

death. Meeting the Shuswaps, Similkameens in solemn council, he inand Thompsons vited them to join him in an attack on the Lillooets.

avenging

his

father's

They agreed without salmon season, .Jooets,

.killing

.

many women and was offered the

hesitation and, in the height of the

suddenly upon the unsuspecting Lilover thr^e hu.idreJ of^ tlue n and taking fell

children prisoners.

attack, the noise

.Little

and deadly

resistance

effect of the

guns and the terrifying, to them, appearance of N'kuala on horseback riding from point to point directing the attack,

In

this

completely demoralising the astonished Lillooets. striking

manner

was

amulahuh's narrative proved and

the his

truth

of

Pilak-

death avenged.

To

allies, N'kuala gave a great feast at Nicola, driving a large herd of wapiti, which must then have been plen-

his

19

where they were dispatched with spears,

into a corral

tiful,

the

antlers

from the slaughtered animals forming two

heaps that endured until after the whites settled

l^arge

in the district.

In

respects the Indians

many

customs of

of

to-day retain the

ancestors but in others, notably their

their

mode of buri il, marked changehave taken place, the influence of ihe whites being apdwellings, clothing, and

The

parent in these particulars.

were

old village sites

carefully choien, a sandy soil and a southern, sunny ex-

The

posure being preferred.

among

dwellings

all

of

the

were

tribes inhabiting the drier portions of the Interior,

one type, called in the Chinook jargon, Keekwhich simply means underground houses.

the

willee houses,

They were

often of considerable size, were round in form

and consisted essentially of a circular hole dug to of about six feet and from twenty-five to thirty

From

diameter. of

was

erected

sloping

cone

shaped

framework.

timber a

forming

circumference

the

at

the

peak

of

the

the

roof,

In

roof

boughs, bark, etc., the further covered with soil.

feet in

superstructure

towards

interlaced

being

a

a depth

centre

the

were

this

thus

formed

The entrance was

same

opening

also

serving as a chimney.

A

ted ingress or egress.

These buildings formed the perm-

ladder, or notched pole facilita-

anent quarters and were always occupied in winter months, a temporary dwelling made of poles covered with sheets of the

bark

animal

or

primitive

grounds. sionally

houses

These seen

only

skins

tribes

at

the

at

serving the

temporary this

day

circular

purpose of and fishing

the

hunting residences

but

of

are

the

depression,

occa-

Keekwillee

showing

the

20

site

of some ancient village, now remain, the The Shuswaps, Okanagans, Thompsons and

Keekwillee holes being given to the pits, all Che Interior tribes had then, as they still have,

mon

fact

com-

in

wilh the 'Tinnehs, Crees, and other Indians, sweat

houses.

planted

run

name in

These consist

'

of a

number

right angles to the others,

at

of

willow boughs

the ground at either end, half of

in

each point of intersection.

all

being fastened

Blankets, skins or other

covered the frame work thus made,

terial

wefe carefully closed, and

them being

all

at

ma-

apertures

after placing inside a

number

of heated stones and a vessel of water, the person about

undergo the sweating process, crept within the dome shaped structure, poured the water slowlv on the hot. stones and endured the heated vapor that arose therefrom

to

The the sweating had proceeded long enough. sweat was generally ended with a plunge into river or lake, the houses being built conveniently near water with

until

this

end in view.

The Indian

burial ground of the present day has no resemblance to that of the old time native. They were located near the permanent villages, sandhills being

chosen, no doubt, because the graves were

dug

in this

who

loose

more

Unlike some o*-the coast

soil.

disposed of their dead by placing them

in

easily tribes,

boxes" on

raised platforms or in trees, the Interior Indians interred

the dead

in

graves,

many

of the bodies being buried in

the sitting posture, others again being bent and then placed

on the

side.

Copper ornaments, dice made

of beaver

teeth, pipes of stone rudely carved, portions of

made

of sage brush

garments bark and other fibrous material in

which the bodies were wrapped, red and yellow earths

21

for

arrow heach,

paint,

were usually found

etc.,

old graves that have been opened

many who have ransacked

closed.

etc.,

found deposited

hdnse was

A, small shelter -or tent-like

erected

generally

by archeologists,

every available burial ground and

removed the prehistoric implements, with the dead.

which was usually en-

over a grave

decorated

painted -and

Poles,

with

streamers,

sometimes carved, and carved -and painted figures frequently adorned the old burial grounds and days,

whites had

the

after

made such

pot and kettles and other articles were

The simple

grave.

hetrogeneous

cross

now

later,

lucifer

match,

friction, a

by w.poden palms of the hands for

fire

things

;

later

possible,

takes the

place

the

the

of

the

flint

first,

Interior

drill -being'

this

and

Indians

steel and,

obtained

turned between the

purpose, the point being

against a piece of the dry root of the poplar.

pressed

most

men,

hung about

The sparks thus produced were caught upon blown

of in

.collections of those past days.

Until the whites introduced, the

the

in

into a

flame.

primitive

earthenware placed

in

style.

puts,

closely

Culinary

food

operations

Possessing that

neither

required

tinder and

were

boiling

woven baskets which were

of

metal nor

filled

wawith

water which was raised to the necessary heat by dropping Basket making was quite an art red hot stones into it. with these people and a few of the older Indians

do

a little of

still

it.

Before the advent of the fur traders, furs and skins

animals formed the clothing worn by the majority of the Indians, deerskin being a useful and favorite The fibre of the bark of the sage-brush was material.

of wild

used for making a cort of petticoat for the women. Fea-

copper bracelets, strings of animals' teeth, used as ornaments for the person. The goods were etc., introduced by the Northwest Company and Hudson's thers, shells,

Bay Company found favor

in the

speedily effected a radical dress

in

eyes of the natives and

reform

in

both sexes.

Bows and arrows and spears, were the weapons used hunting, the arrow heads and spear points being made

same material being made into knives, chiNeedles were made of bone. and other implements. Pipes were made from, steatite and were generally ornaof stone, the

sels,

mented with rude carvings and

incised lines, similar de-

corations being found on other wooden, bone and soft

stone tools and implements, the deiigns having meanings attached.

CHAPTER

II.

THE COMING OF THE WHITE MEN. The

First Explorers into the Interior Mackenzie's Journey The Coming of Simon Fraser and David

Founding of Fort Thompson The Fur Traders Rival Companies Exploration of the North Thompson The Philosophy of

Thompson

Alexander Ross.

25

CHAPTER

II.

THE COMING OF THE WHITE MEN.

HE

early history of British Columbia

corveries

ly

of

a

few

is

large-

adventurous

intrepid,

an account of the explorations and

spirits

who made

the

dis-

unknown wastes and

wilds of the western slope of the continent the field of their labors.

By

the sea the mar-

iners of Great Britain, Spain, Russia and the

United States had visited the North West

what

coast line of the Pacific, but

yond

that coast line,

ranges that reared their heights

ground was

knowledge was

lay

be-

beyond those mountain

unknown

gained by the fur hunters,

in the

back-

This

them.

to

who were

the

The first of these first explorers made who the first partial was Alexander Mackenzie, an as descent of the Fraser as early 1793, expedition made North West in the interests of the Company in whose in

service

he

was.

the

unknown

west.

The hardships and

well

nigh

insur-

mountable obstacles he encountered, and which would have daunted a less bold

spirit,

are modestly told in his

journals.

The course followed by Mackenzie

in

his

moment-

26

ous and haxardous journey

v,

aa

rivers , a short portage across

up the Peace and Parsnip the height of land sep-

down "Bad

arating the Mackenzie and Eraser watersheds;

shallow, rocky and rapid stream which played havoc with the big canoe carrying the explorer and party,

river"

a

This was descended as

to the Great River, the Eraser. far as Alexandria,

Mackenzie

where

from attractive description

said to be "a very malignant race,

was

given a far

Shuswaps who were

the

of

who

lived in large sub-

terranean recesses." (Keekwillee houses).

The Shuswaps then iron utensils and

ther west,

who

in

possessed, so he was informed,

arms procured from other Indians farturn obtained them from whites at the

coast.

Reascending the Fraser

to

the

mouth

of the Black-

water, that stream was ascended, and finally the Pacific

Ocean was reached

One month

later.

Bentinck

at

August

Inlet,

22nd July, 1793

24th, the er.tire party

was

safely

returned to Fort Chippewayan, the starting point.

Following

same

great

Simon

his

in

fur

Fraser,

came another servant of the

steps

and

his

the

company,

trading

explorations

have

Nor'Westers, exercised

material influence upon the history of the province.

not

did

confine

gaining for trade

in

his

company

the virgin land.

Columbia or ene

the in

himself

1806,

and

to

himself establishing

busied

in

navigated the

making

trading a

secure

explorations;

posts and forts

foothold in

the

a

He he

and fur

Thinking he had reached either of its main tributaries, Eraser, stream,

the spring of 1808. in

established

company

several forts

with John Stuart

and Jules Maurice Quesnel left Fort George, at the junction of the Fraser and Nechaco rivers, he set out to trace

Sir

Alexander Mackenzie.

29 river

the

to

mouth.

its

that

It

In

they soon discovered.

was not

his

a

pleasure trip as

Fraser mentions

journal,

having reached the village of the

and

Askettihs,

presumed to mean the Lillooet Indians, the men, who were dressed in coats of mail, received him with a volley of arrows. The village he

by

this

name he

is

describes as "a fortification one hundred feet by twenty-

surrounded by palisades eighteen feet high, slant-

four,

ing inward, and lined with a shorter row, which supports a shade, covered with bark, constituting the dwellings."

They abandoned

their

the confluence with the is

now

situated,

on foot as

far

and the as

before

canoe,s

Thompson

the

rest

they

of the journey

vicinity

of

reached

where Lytton

river,

what

is

they did

now

Yale,

where they secured a canoe and journeyed to the coast in comfort and safety. Between Lytton and Yale he

was not long in finding evidences whom he was traveling!, had, trafficked

ropean

with

other

manufacture

Europeans were seen

that the natives

or

directly since at

articles

intervals.

these wa's "a copper kettle and a gun of a

among

indirec.tly

of

One

large

Euof size,

which are probably of Russian manufacture." Another article was a huge sword made of sheet iron. After arriving at their goal, the sea coast,

neither

wise nor safe,

natives,

to

it

was considered

on account of the troublesome

remain there long and after but one day's

rest,

the return trip wa>s

been

left

on

May

commenced.

Fort George had

26th and they entered

its

portals on

having in the meantime made the journey to the coast and return over one of the most arduous

August

6th,

routes conceivable.

30

About out

time

the

his

that

on

expedition

John Jacob the

Tonquin

was

Astor to

fitting

establish

the

Fur Company at Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia, David Thompson, a Welshman, like AlexPacific

ander and Fra^er a Nor* Wester, set out for the west,

having

made

already

several

trips,

Rockies as early as 1800. and arrived in

Columbia,

at

January,

spring he set out for the

the

in

British

in

river,

"the

penetrating

mouth

Columbia

the 1811.

Early

that

of

great

stream and reached Astoria on July, I5th, only to find that Mr. Astor's expedition had arrived a few weeks before and were then engaged building their fort.

remained the

few weeks for rest and then

a

return

journey and by way of Arrow

the Columbia, reached his starting point. this

descended

he

expedition

established

set

Fort

Thompson,

It

out

He on

Lakes and

was during

Thompson river and afterwards named Fort

the

Kamloops.

Columbia was then not know by that name;

British it

was spoken

that

portion

called, the district.

and

of

of

as it

New

north

Caledonia, though of

Alexandria

only

southern portion being named the

Farther

south

still

was

by some, was so

Thompson

the

Oregon country next visitor came to

was from there that the Kamloops, or as it was then called, Fort Thompson, in 1812. TWs visitor was Alexander Ross, one of the it

1

members of the at the mouth of

little

community

established at Astoria,

the Columbia by the Pacific Fur Comwhich pany Mr. Astor was the leading spirit. When in 1813 the North West Company acquired the property of the Astor company some of the men were of

jriven

their choice of

entering th; S3rvio3 of the

new

31

masters or accepting Montreal.

and the

With

ment

New York

to

passage

spring of i8t4, the

the

in

first

West Company on

North

the

of

or

the country

became known

point,

llr-it

free

change of owners Astoria changed also its as Fort George, and from

tlie

and

naire

a

Of those who chose to remain in new service was Alexander Ross.

was begun, the departure

for

the

great

en

Interior,

move-

Columbia

the

route to

Fort

William, of the spring brigade, consisting of four-

teen

boats

which were embarked no fewer than 124 men of the Astor company who

in

exclusive of the

iren,

had elected to return to Canada by land

in

preference

making voyage round the Horn, the whole leaving the Fort with flags flying and the din of a general the

to

salute

ringing

their

in

ears.

Ross and a

the brigade as far as Fort

accompanied

little

party

Okanagan where

the

brigade continuing their journey along the Columbia, Ross taking pack horses overland

they

separated,

back to his post at Kamloops. at

that

point

he

from the North Westers for

petition

Fur Hunters" he alludes

Of

there."

nagan

In his

I

this

first

must have encountered in

to there "being

his

experience

some combook, "The

now no

second journey he says:

rivalry

"From Oka-

proceeded northward, some 300 miles, to

my

She-whaps. There being now no rivalry there, or elsewhere to contend with, I put the business in train for the season, and immediately returned again,

own

post

at

with the view of being able discovery,

some time:

which this

I

was

and

to

carry out a project of

others

had

to penetrate

Okanagan, due west, to the supposed not to exceed 200

Pacific, miles;,

contemplated

for

across the land from

on foot, a distance and for the perfor-

32

mance of which I had allowed two months." The following season Ross again visited Kamloops and of that

visit

he says:

and

She-whaps,

my

During

August.

"I

reached

whom

out for

set

that

absence

place a

my

post at the

the

in

man by

the

month name

of of

charge, had been murdered. The murderer was a young Indian lad who had been brought up at the establishment. They had gone on a trip to Eraser's river, six days' journey north, and

Charette,

1

had

left in

had quarrelled one evening about making the encampment. During the dispute the Indian had said nothing; but rising shortly afterwards, and laying hold of Char-

own

ette's

gun,

he

suddenly

turned

round

and

sho.t

him dead, without saying a word and then deliberately

down

sat

again

"

That winter,

1815-6,

Ross spent

fur

hunting between

She-whaps and Okanagan, returning to Fort George, as was the custom, in the spring for supplies, again going north to his old post

He

recounts

Brusseau,

fell

only course

him and the a

in

how on sick

left

in

time for the winter trapping.

journey one of his men, named and was unable to continue. The this

was

to

make him comfortable,

place

charge of another man, leave a supply of food

him remain until either recovery or death. As case was considered hopeless, the nurse was given let

spade with which to dig the grave should the sick die. Ten days afterwards the nurse arrived at

man

Kamloops with for

the

spade,

the

news

the

of his patient's death and as

Indian*

had

stolen

it.

All

this

some time afterwards who should turn up but poor dead Brusseau, escorted by some The nurse had become frightened at friendly Indians. passed for truth, until

and

approach of Indians

the

leaving the

sick

poor

The following River

in

year.

pursuance

examine the eastern

trapper

some

kindly offices of

the

had taken to

section,

from

lying

a

trip

with

him two

between

of

his

Canoe

country

white man."

men and two

trustiest

then striking off through

"to

She-whaps

a large tract of wild

Indians on foot and followed the North three days,

to

headquarters

never trodden before by the foot of any took

heels,

and but for

fate,

Ross made

orders

and the Rocky Mountains:

He

his

to

natives he would have died.

1817,

of

his

Thompson

the

for

timber north

the valley. The double journey took but 47 days remarkably good time over a trail-less country, on foot, Of packing on their backs the camp outfit and food. the district he formed a very poor opinion. of

going a bear hunt with some of the local shortly after his return from the journey to Canoe river. The fruit of the chase would be hailed

Ross

relates

chiefs

with delight by nimrods now-a-days ten miles

and

tions

from the in

two days

wolves and

nine

sions," says

fort

Ross,

before they the

eleven "

accompanying them.

they

party

small feel

They only went commenced opera-

killed

"On

deer.

flattered

The party were

by all

seven

bears,

these

occa-

their

trader

mounted on

horseback, to the number of seventy-three, and exhibited a fine

in

display of horsemanship."

One

of the party,

Pacha of the hunting party," who rejoiced the name of Short Legs, was severely wounded in

"the

chief

by a female bear and Ross acted the part of skill and considerable success, remov-vcral ing portions of the skull from the wound, "I extracted a bone measuring two inches long, of an oblong

the head

surger ?

with some

and another of

form,

smaller pieces." after

a

all

of

delight

In

good

and

his

near

at

the

fort

men

disgust of the

:

with

qnarc,

the

days

several

who was

Indian,

nothing, was up and about, to the

for

himself

inch

an.

fifteen

but

relations,

against

whom

the

to 'he

wa?

constantly plotting.

This

who

trader

so

for

many

years

honors

did

al

Kamloops gives the details of many adventures and throws much Jight upon what were considered the' duties,

and pleasures of the

troubles

"And one

the

of

consists in doing

greatest pleasures,

homage

the honor of waiting to

your

You go his

dry

share,

if

socks.

upon him

m

you are; not meet him; you

if

forth to

seated; and

to the great.

fur

trader's

bie

A

alluded

life.

to,

chief arrives;

a servile capacity falls

above invite

your business. him in; see him

need require it, you untie his shoes, and You next hand him food, water and

and you must smoke along with him. After you must listen with, grave attention to all he has got to say on Indian topics, and show your sense tobacco;

which,

of

the

trinkets,

value

of

his

information

and sometimes even

But the grand point of

how

far

you should go

all

in

by giving him some

articles of value, in return. this

ceremony

is

these matters, and

to know when you

should stop. By overdoing the thing, you may entail on yourself endless troubles. When not employed in exploring new and unfrequented parts, involved in diffi-

with the natives, or finding opposition in trade, the general routine of dealing with most Indians ^oes culties

on smoothly. Each trading post has its leader, its interpreter, and its own complement of hands; and when things are put in proper train, according to the customs

Simon

Fraser.

37

of the country, the business of the year proceeds without

much

trouble,

You

ation.

instruct

and leaves you

take

your

your

family,

gun

or

time for recre-

sufficient o-n

your

improve

you

back;

yourself

in

can

reading

and reflection; you can enjoy the pleasures of religion

your God to more perfection, than were your lot cast

to better advantage, serve

and be

far

a

better

Christian

the midst of the temptations of a busy world."

in

The

first

Montreal

pioneers received their supplies overland from

William

Fort

via

by canoe and portage;

and

across

the

continent

long wearisome journey and

a

they so continued to get their supplies until the desirability

of a

more The

mode became

expeditious

sufficiently

Fur Company had shown the recognized. of feasibility taking supplies from the coast into the Interior of the Thompson district, Sht-whaps as Ross Pacific

it. by way of the Columbia to Fort Okanagan and thence by pack animals overland to their fort at

called

Kamloops.

In

1821

station

To

point

following the site

in

being established

that

the

was adopted

route

this

ing supplies to the forts

pack

New at

carry-

Alexandra on the Fraser.

trains

Kamloops Lake

Savona, ascending that

for

Caledonia, a distributing

to

went from

Kamloops,

Copper Creek, oppo-

stream across the

hills

to

Doadman's Creek, and then by way of Loon Lake and Green Lake on to Alexandria To Alexandria came the boats and canoes from the post at Fort George, Fort James,

etc.,

and received supplies brought by the pack

by which, in turn, the pe'ts gathered at the northern forts were taken south and ultimately reached Fort Vancouver, which in 1824 had superseded the post at Astoria. From Fort Vancouver the furs were taken trains,

round the Horn by the

mous

Thompson and New

gon.

was

Kanilnops "lid

was room

the

trains

.

were large

the

dant in,

of

Thompson

the

hr>e

large

and

furs

numbering from 200

affairs,

and

in

the

employed These pack-

brii;:'-le.->

goo.l-.

season

were

they

near the fort where there

hills

p:i>tiire

district

pali>a<led; within the stockade

of

winter

the

In

C;ilf<lmi:i.

capital

the

for

transportation

animajs.

en

the

was strongly

fort

ll'c

there in

that brought the enorsystem of posts in Ore-

vessel-,

^upp'ie? required for the

to

300

turned

out

was then abun-

spring the band

was gathered

and sh-ek.

fat

Jo! n

I

od

olt.cer

successively

in

the

of

cnarge

Hudson's Bay posts of Fort Alexandria and Kamloo Iv-s

s.

graphically described the operating of the "brigades."

throwing a sidelight

incidently

He

acter. ''It

upon

the

Indian

char-

says:

was found convenient

New

of the trade of iately south of

it,

to

take the annual produce

Caledonia and the districts immed-

on pack horses, southerly to the ship-

Vancouver on the Columbia river. ping place The This was the cheapest, indeed the only method. for most was traversed and furthe country, part, easily at

Fort

The long journeying

nished grass for pasture.

of

this

noble cavalcade of 400 or 500 horses, with their numerous attendants, drafted from various stations, took place an-

nually at

a

stated

time,

200 horses were

Alexandria for the transport join forces with

reached

my

Kamloops.

control of his

own

and

I

large contingent

Each

horses.

officer,

A

kept at Fort

was always ready

when

to

the cavalcade

however,,

retained

"brigade" as applied in this organization consisted of 16 horses in charge of two men.

39

The horses so banded kept together and each had its name. The load for each horse was two "pieces" of 84 pounds each, and the horse

was supposed

to

convey

this

about

20 miles a day, but, in fact, the distances between camp-

ing places varied. "I

remember on one

of the

above periodical journeys

which shows the importance of conciliating and trusting the Indians. It was customary for a number of these people to meet this regular cavalcade at the forks a little incident

of

river, not so much for trade as to exchange Jogging along towards that place three Indians,

Okanagan

civilities.

dressed in their best, accosted

camp near

their

me

with an invitation to

but added that they thought

party,

me that had come among

it

right to inform

several notorious Indian horse

thieves

them, over

being that

On my

pleased.

whom

they had not

power as over their own people. My reply I would camp in their midst, they went off well

the same

telling this

arrangement

to

my

co-officer

became angry, drew out his horses from it, and went to seek an encampment that would not About be, as he said, "among a lot of horse thieves." of the cavalcade he

1,000 Indians

were present

at the

Forks, and the evening

To my fire a number of were many stories and abundant

scene was picturesque.

came, and there

fulness; finally, before retiring,

tobacco,

I

made

after a distribution of

manner they like, and wound men had for two nights lost their

a speech in a

up by stating that rest, and we were ing horses

and

chiefs

mirth-

my

now going

and everything

to have a

good

sleep, leav-

Indians' care.

They some good pasture, and next morning had some misgivings during the night, every in the

sent the horses to

though I horse was brought

to the

camp.

40

Dispatching the loaded

and having the usual

train,

half hour's chat with the chiefs before starting,

who seemed

I

cantered

along my the stem of his big pipe in his hand and the bowl swinging by the string, as he strode bridle over arm, gesticuto

lating and

co-officer,

swearing.

"Those cursed horse taken three of last

my

"Hello!" thieves,"

said

was the

"Not

an excited state

I,

a one/' said

I.

"what's

up?"

gruff reply, "have

horses, and they took

night before they were unladen.

lost?"

in

two

How many

of

them

have yon

CHAPTER

III.

SUPERSTITION AND TRAGEDY.

A

Hudson's Bay Grandee Fort

Murder

of

Samuel Black at

Kamloops- John Tod's Narrative.

CHAPTER

III.

SUPERSTITION AND TRAGEDY.

FTER

making Kamloops in

his trip to

1817,

and did not again whaps.

From

visit his old

post at She-

there

no available

1817

record of his successor,

mentioned

in

Canoe River from

Ross returned to Astoria

is

next

the

trader

charge of the post being John

McLeod, who ruled it from 1822 to 1826, and when Sir George Simpson visited Fort

Thompson October er

Ermatinger

6th, 1828,

in charge.

ernor of the Hudson's

he found trad-

As

resident gov-

Bay Company

Sir

George Simpson made frequent journeys to all parts of the vast domain ocupied by that corporation. His visit to Fort Thompson, or Kamloops, was on one of these journeys, the

most lengthy he had undertaken,

extending from York Factory on Hudson's Bay to Fort The entire distance was Langley on the Fraser river. covered in ninety days, a remarkably short period, taking the transportation facilities obtainable into consideration

canoes, sometimes traveling on foot, and occasionally on

horseback

Kamloops.

as, for

example, on the trip from Alexandria to

At Kamloops water transportation was

re-

44

from that point

sunied, the journey

to the junction of the

Thompson and Fraser rivers, where Lytton now is, being made in a canoe with twelve men paddling, an undertaking fraught with danger skill in

great

many

in

handling the craft

complish safely. The next recorded

places and requiring

turbulent waters to ac-

in

the Kamloops district Scotchman and once endistinguished fellow countryman, David Doug-

was Samuel Black. tertained a

of

ruler

Black was

a

the noted botanist, at the fort.

las,

over the ed

several

host

that

the

times, his

in

of

cup

nightly

It

is

related

that

toddy, probably

replenish-

guest

told

bluntly

the

opinion

his

had

traders

fur

not a soul above a beaver skin, whereupon Black took instant

fire

and challenged Douglas to mortal combat,

but the latter took his departure early in the morning

and so avoided the duel.

was added

to

New

In 1841 T.lio'.njson. district

Caledonia.

During the winter of

Black was foully mUrdered by a nephew of a

1841-2,

deceased friendly chief, named Wanquille, on the excuse that the trader

had charmed Wanquille's

The circumstances Black are given "I

was appointed

andria, on Fraser er

by

of

New

trail)

attending

in detail

by John Tod

awa3r

life

death of

tragic

as follows:

as officer in charge of Fort Alex-

river, five

northwest,

Caledonia.

the

or six hundred miles (long-

in the direction of

The

"fort"

was

a

my

old habitat

stockade enclos-

ure with a block house and the usual buildings. close to

the bank amid dark

forests.

The road

It

was

thither,

after about 300 miles, led past the important

Hudson's

Co.'s station at the junction of the north

and south

Bay

branches &f

Thompson

river,

so named bv Mr.

David

Sir

George Simpson.

47

Hudson's Bay man, who, while in the serNorthwest Company, spent most of the time between 1808 and 1812 as a trader and explorer west of

Thompson,

a

vice of the

the Rocky Mountains, discovering in 1811 the northern head waters of the Columbia, which river he followed to

The Indians

the ocean.

meaning

'the

cally, called

"The son at of

fort its

meeting it

called the place 'Kahm-o-loops,'

of the waters,' and we, less poeti-

the 'Forks' of the

was on the

Thompson.

right bank

Kamloops. "The surrounding country,

in

North Thomp-

of the

mouth, opposite the modern

its

village,

general

or

town,

character,

presents south of the river a rolling, open surface, the ralleys clear, save for aspen poplars along the streams,

and the uplands sparsely timbered, chiefly with 'red' or 'bull' pines. It is more a pastoral than an agr cultural district,

vation.

The

officer in

chief trader, gave of

most parts

irrigation being necessary in

my

stay there.

never could acount

charge of the

fort,

for culti-

Mr. Black,

bye next morning, but passed away as we proceeded our journey.

"A few weeks

a

me a hearty welcome during the day Some calamitous presage, which T for, affected me on bidd'ng him good-

being

later,

at

on

Alexandria on a dark

night in February, a French-Canadian showing the traces of a hard journey, entered the fort is

murdered and

men

all the

at

and

said:

Kamloops

fort

'Air.

Black

ha\e

fled in

different directions.'' "I

may

this tragic

scribed 1841-2,

anticipate a

little

by stating here the

facts of

occurrence, as these have been wrongly

de-

book of

his

journey round the world

by the Governor,

Sir

George Simpson, who

in

the

in

was

48

Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia river,

at

1841, several

of

months

after

it

in

the middle

happened, and also

de-

scribed wrongly by other writers.

"A

chief

named

Tranquille, of an

Indian tribe near

the fort, had died lately, and the widow, in her grief and

concern for the departed, had told her son, a fine youth of 18, well disposed and quiet, that the father's spirit should be accompanied by the spirit of so.ne chief of This was urged daily until the youth, worn equal rank.

by importunity and

supposed sense of duty

a

ceased father, seized his gun and sat himself in

ily

the hall of the

Kamloops

Something

fort.

de-

to his

down moodin

his

appearance caused a servant to remark to Mr. Black that the Indian looked dangerous, but the latter said that prob-

ably the boy was ailing.

Soon afterward, on Mr. Black

from one room towarS another, the Indian suddenly rose and fired at his back, and the bullet passed through the victim's heart and body and lodged crossing the hall

in the wall.

"But to return. report,

me

at

for

I

directed

On

hearing the French-Canadian's

him and two other men

dawn on horseback, with

Kamloops.

ground during the after a long week

relays,

There were two first

of

feet

to start

with

from Alexandria of

snow on

the

part of our trip of 270 miles, and

almost incessant

travel, or 'march,'

word was, we reached our destination, to find Fort Kamloops abandoned save for the widow and children still weeping over Mr. Black's frozen body, lying where as the

An Indian named Lolo, but, as a 'mission' Inwho preached about St. Paul, commonly called fort, 'Paul,' who had been occasionally employed at the it

fell.

dian,

appeared soon to sympathize with

us,

and, possibly, to

49

proceedings to the

report

camp was

Indians,

whose

neighboring

silent.

"After examining as far as might be the course of the

we buried the body, ascertained the murderer's name from Lolo, and then began to make an inventory

bullet,

of the

goods

at the fort.

These seemed to be

intact.

"Several days were thus occupied, during which

an

armed Hudson's Bay Company party arrived from Fort Colville, and later another armed party from Fort Vancouver (to which southern place some of the men fleeing fort had gone), the expectation being that the

from the

Indians would be found in possession of the

my own

As

fort. I

care,

station

at

Kamloops

Alexandria demanded

my

returned thither at once in these circumstances,

but the end was not yet.

"The party from headquarters gan as a

means

were

The

result

except

in

Fort Vancouver be-

Kamloops

of enforcing delivery of the murderer.

seized,

of killing

at

Indians within reach of

terrorize the

to

Horses

property destroyed, and, practically, short

men, war against the people was undertaken. of this ill-judged action, of course, was nil,

causing bitterness, and, after a time, the com-

pany's forces were recalled to Fort Vancouver and Colville.

A

said, the

council held at the former fort, at which, as

I

governor-in-chief was present, then decided on

the policy to be adopted.

"Obviously with hostile

from the

year's pack of furs

which required

a

Indians interior of

intervening,

New

cavalcade of 400 laden horses,

not reach the shipping depot at

the

Caledonia,

Fort Vancouver,

could

nor

could the posts receive thence their goods for next year's trade.

Accordingly

a

temporising policy was approved.

was transferred from Alexandria

"I

to

Mr

succeed

Black at Kamloops, with instructions to try to continue trading and the business of the district as usual, and with the intimation that toward the end of the year a well

aimed force would be sent

to aid

me

in

'prosecuting hos-

tilities.'

"As the above policy of the authorities seemed

to

me

unnecessary and also dangerously provocative, in view of the number and boldness of the Indians, though not all

of

them had guns or much ammunition, or the whereI asked for, and

withal to purchase warlike equipment,

was given rather in

the circumsta.

more

grtidgirgly, ce-;,

an.l

I

shall

or

now

place, not for self-praise, but to illustrate

less

a

relate

how

free

hand

what took

not to

make

an Indian war.

"Despatching Lolo, the Indian a'.ieady mentioned (he a man of birth and undoubted courage, but I never

was

fully trusted

him), to the different camps and tribes,

I

ascertained what horses had been taken from each and

what property had been destroyed by the punitive expeditions, and I returned the horses fro.n the bands at the fort

and paid for the property

Then I who would show me stantiated.

was;

I

every case that was sub-

or

my

anyone

agents where the murderer

desired no other help.

"On the called me up him

in

offered a bile of 'goods' to

third night after this notification an Indian to say that his friends

to act as a guide, but

or otherwise.

had decided to permit

he was to take no pay,

The murderer was

far

away

in

in

goods

a valley

covered with prickly pears, encamped there near a stream His information provand guarded by twelve warriors. ed to be correct, for on my sending, with a guide, a small

51

men

party of three

own

my

(advisedly small in pursuance of

policy of regarding the matter as individual and not

the place

tri'bal)

was reached, but though the guards and

the murderer's wife and two child girls were there, he himself, unwitting of the present pursuit, had visited the

Fraser river to buy salmon. Indiscreetly, as I considof seized one the children and brought the ered, party her back to the Kamloops fort, whither they returned for supplies and further orders.

I

caused the child to

dressed prettily from goods in the store, supplied a

bag

of toys,

be

with

and immediately conveyed back to her mo-

ther by a special messenger on horseback.

"The

remained

latter

the murderer had

homeward was tect

a

day

at

the camp,

to

not returned), and before

\\mch

departing

by the 'guards' that they would proThus the the man no longer, but would go home. told

youth became an outcast among his own people, with doom fixed and the avenger on his track, but it was

his

not until four or

down and

five

killed, as

I

months

after this that he

now

shall

was run

relate.

"The pursuers, guided by the informant, came to the crest of a hill and looked down on a small encampment The guide on the opposite side of a river in the valley. said:

"There

camp."

is

his place

Acordingly,

when

and the ford night

fell,

is

in front of

the

creeping to the river

they crossed, the guide a little ahead, when he stopped to whisper, ''Hush! they are talking in the lodge two men's voices one man, the man we want, is telling

side,

of his

dream

that the white

men were hanging

him.'

"In the rush one inmate of the lodge was seized by the throat; the other inmate dashed through the doorway,

escaping the clutch of the foreman of the pursuers on his

hair, as

h^d b?en cut short, but the foreman,

it

Scotchman, overtook and knocked him down

a

swift

with

the

This fugitive was the murderer.

butt of a gun.

"Quickly he was taken across the ford in the rrver, on a h ">rse, and the pirty traveled home-

tied securely

ward on

march, and

their four days'

ferry on the Thompson

A

of several miles.

river,

pipe

reached

finally

which would save

was there

smoked,

a

round

a

and

the

foreman pondered over the rhk of putting the prisoner in a canoe the other finally he sent an armed man to and placed

side,

other

in

in the

canoe one paddler

in the stern,

ing the hands of the latter.

About the middle

of

stream the prisoner upset the canoe, and, after

swam

The guard

to the opposite side.

ordered him to go back.

elled gun,

ed the murderer

deed

'If

they had killed

would have been

it

an-

the bow. and the prisoner in the middle, not ty-

well;

now

'Let

me

there, with lev-

me

land,' plead-

at the

wish to

I

the

diving,

time of the live,'

where-

He

wail-

ed and turned into the water, and the current took

him

upon the guard

down stream another man they

fired,

in

the hand.

within short gun range of the foreman and at a point,

and

s>hot

wounding him

killed

or

spit,

of gravel,

from

which

him, he crying out before he sank

that he did not wish his death avenged." It

by a grandson of the murdered trader was buried at the fort, the body being wrapped horse hide and enclosed in a box made of hewn is

stated

that Black in

a

boards. it

When

was decided

Early furs,

felled

the next brigade set out for the trip south, to

send Black's body with

it

to the Dalles.

in the journey it became necessary to convey the and Black's body, across a stream on foot, a tree

across

it

serving as a bridge.

While making the

53

passage over this narrow footway with the heavy and ciimbersome box containing the body, one of the Indians bearing it slipped and Indians and box fell into the stream. Before

it

was extracted, the water had penetrated every

portion of the interior and had such an effect as to render it

impossible to carry out the original determination to

convey the remains to headquarters and the unfortunate body was again buried, this time at Ducks, where it has since rested undisturbed.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE REIGN OF JOHN Building a Second Fort tion in a

TOD.

Tod's Resourcefulness

New Role A

Hostile Chief.

Vaccina-

57

CHAPTER

IV.

THE REIGN OF JOHN

OLLOWING He

TOD.

Samuel Black came John Tod.

man

described as being a

is

possessing

good looks, nor learned, polished nor refined, and as having lapsed into a stage of semi-savagery. In physique he was tall, neither

wiry, with of

facial

which he was

in

personal

he

was

with

up, will

to

fort

was

north side of the

a

drawbacks

man

a

Thompson

and

But defi-

from the ground and a strong

The

out.

it

on

built

race

arm

powerful help

of the

son, the Scottish.

a

of

spite

ciencies

characteristics

river

the in

original

the

at

flat

formed

the angle

by that stream and the North river. Tod built a new one on the opposite side of the main stream, differing little

from the

the*

Hudeorr's

forts afterwards built at other points

Bay Company.

It

buildings, used as stores, dwellings

within palisades

and bastions

at

15

feet

high, with

two opposite

angles.

of

consisted

and

S'hops,

by

seven

enclosed

gates on two sides

To

the older build-

ing were added strongly stockaded corrals for the hun-

dreds of horses bred and kept at this post.

Within the

58

dwelt

fort

the

with

trader

chief

their

three children, half a dozen

boy.

Protected only by

small

this

and supplies of

of trinkets

Indian

his

men and

halfbreed

large stock

a

force,

and

wife

a

kinds were kept on hand

all

with which to trade with the Indians, to the number of several

who made

hundreds,

Seven

point.

tribes traded here,

Kamloops their trading coming from Kootenay,

Okanagan, Similkameen, and other distant

for

illahies

that purpose.

Towering and

2,000 feet

known

Mount

as

above the valley of the Thompson city is a large eminence

Kamloops

overlooking

St.

Paul.

certain

Shuswap

chief,

traders

and

company's

the

bears

It

men

its

name from

same name by

that

given

but

christened

Lolo by the missionary Catholic

Baptiste

the

Jear. foi

priests,

already they had visited the post, Father Demers, wlu

afterwards became bishop, visiting

Tod began

before John

and

fort

almost

enjoyed

The

people.

his

regular

it

in

the

1845,

yeai

Lolo lived near the

reign.

absolute

over

authority

winter supply of salmon for

hi \isr

and by the Indians was procured, not from the waters of the Thompson, but from the Indians at at the fort

the

Fountain,

Lillooet.

of

party

supply and

It

on the Fraser

was

men in

la-rangoU

and

river, that,

Indians,

few miles above

a

Lolo

slx.ulu

the

for

due time a start was made.

Tod's surprise two days

later

e d

annual

H fish

Greatly to

Lolo returned, alone, and

good deal of beating about the bush, for the red man is not a lover of direct methods when more

after

a

circuitous

way can

be used,

it

transpired

that

he

had

learned of a conspiracy entered into by over 300 Indians, all

members

of

the

Shuswap

tribe,

to

capture the fort

John Tod.

61

Kamloops and

at

of

contents.

its

ful

murdering the inmates, rob it of fear, was resource-

after

Tod knew nothing

and had a thorough knowledge of the native charmind was soon made up. He briefly ex-

acter and his

plained the situation to his wife, wrote a

addressed to his superior officers

in

and bidding the halfbreed saddle horses, while Lolo was asleep in that one lad as his

sole

full

explanation

case he should

two of his

attendant, he

own set

his

fall,

swiftest

lodge,

with

out to quell

the threatened rising.

Lolo had a covetous eye upon a certain sorrel horse belonging to Tod and as he had made a request for this

when

animal

brusquely

reporting

refused,

was

it

the

conspiracy, a request matter for conjecture

a

whether the alleged uprising was a mere piece of deception to gain the horse as a reward for a fancied service, or whether he had the stern reality before him. By hard riding he overtook the party from Kamloops, at the point Lolo had left them, by noon and found they

had no knowledge of the conspiracy, though he discovered this without letting them become aware of it. Orders were given to look well to the condition of their arms and next morning they moved forward, and pres-

on reaching an open space, he detected signs of painted armed savages lurking behind trees

ently,

opposition;

and bushes;

men

clearly indicating a

dian

tated

lack

war

party.

of

women and

with

to

horses

the

the fort as

and

wanted

go," roared Tod.

and should disaster

quickly as possible. to

share

Then he

children

Calling to him a Cana-

named George Simpson, he bade him

quietly ride

only,

the

danger.

fall

back

befall,

to

Simpson

hesi-

"Damn

you,

carried out his scheme, daring.

62 as

it

P'.rty,

was simple.

who

their

would have torn him his

sword pnd

ili'iie.

tions,

made

he

the

it

and then delib-

aloft

Then,

unarmed,

manner

of evolu-

ground.

horse perform

tin-

pour a volley that been fired, he drew

to

had

them

raised

on

his

and while

speed towards the war

full

weapons

to pieces

pistols,

them

threw

erately

at

Riding

raised

all

Indians gazed, curious as to what

would

happen next, ho charged into their midst, lie smiled at them but they knew him and saw his smile was o\f anger, not mirth. He demanded what they

"We want

wanted.

demanded

in

turn,

Poor Lolo. he proceeded

to

see

Where

Lolo.

home

at

is

them

tell

They had heard

to

is

he?"

they

"Then you have not heard the news?

of

the

he

sick,"

Lolo

that

dread

replied

and then

had

the

smallpox!

scourge

and

they

had

way it had decimated the Indians of Oregon after the Whitmin massacre; a punishment >ent by the g"ds for wrong doing! He told them how much he loved his red brothers, that they must not come near the fort until he gave them notice and that learned,

too,

of

the

he had brought medicine to keep them from dying from the disease they dreTded so much. There was a complete revulsion of feeling; the man they would have cheerfully

killed,

they

hailed

as

savior

their

obey him when he bade them load salmon. He kept them employed while to

done and virus

then

would

others

vaccinated

suffice,

from the

instructing

many

as

this

his

them how

and flew

horses with

was being supply

of

to vaccinate

when they became ripe. And Shuswap conspiracy and, needless to

vesicles

so ended the great say,

as

his

Lolo received the sorrel he had so long and ardently

coveted.

63

In the "History of British Columbia" Bancroft

re-

an entertaining story of

how

with precise detail

lates

Tod subdued some unruly them

all

to pieces

Indians by threatening to blow and the country besides by explod-

The

ing three kegs of gunpowder.

Tod

facts as related by

himself are somewhat at variance with the historian's tale, but although the actual occurrence was romantic than Bancroft's version of it, it is interest-

picturesque less

ing enough and serves to

show

the need

of

constant

alertness on the part of these isolated fur traders in order

them through with safety and without loss of influence. and dignity The changes, and rumors of changes, in the comto carry

pany's

business

in

the

western department consequent

Oregan Treaty of 1846, tended to disturb the mind as to the future, though these changes, pracIndian tically, did not affect a band of Indians trading usually upon

the

at the fort,

but which did not

affiliate

permitted by Tod

with the Indians of

encamp in the neighany ''nation" borhood while waiting to proceed to a distant hunting ground on a further opening of the spring season.

The news spread

to

widely, even so far as

Forks over 200 miles distant south.

Okanagan

"Nicola," a very

great chieftain and a bold man, for he had 17 wives," naively writes the trader, "ruled the Indians there,

claimed lordship over a territory as big as the half

and of

Scotland, stretching far into the present British Columbia,

an administrative dstrict which

The band permitted hereditary enemy of

still

bears his name.

encamp was, unfortunately, the Nicola's people. The old chief sat to

two days pondering, then jumped up and spoke to his warriors of the misdeeds of the encamping tribe which

for

r,4

had ventured into land under and he urged them,

tion,

if

his

own

(claimed) jurisdic-

they had the hearts of

men

and not of women, to wipe out those people. "Let us march!" exclaimed the young men. "Nay, not yet!" interposed Nicola, "for we lack ammunition."

What happened

"My

thus related by Tod: impending mischief was the desire gun and a quantity of ammunition as is

hint of

first

of an Indian for a

the price of ten skins, instead of, as usual, taking blankets

'We

and cloth as pay of the barter.

with the same story, but by that time

and said

coin's speech

are going to the

Next week another came

Blackfeet country,' said he.

I

had heard of

had no am.Tiunition

I

to

Ni-

spare,

whereupon, leaving his bundle of furs in the store, the hurried back to Nicola to report progress, or

Indian

rather failure, which so confounded the old chief that he

again 'This

sat,

man

for several of the

days,

Kamloops

I

was

t:>ld,

in

meditation.

fort,' finally said he, in a great

speech, 'shelters our enemies and refuses to trade;

we

and have our

re-

take the fort and

will

all

there

is

in

it

Spies told me of this decision venge on our enemies.' and of the approach of the Nicola war party, painted and prancing along the bank of the South Thompson river,

which caused the half-dozen French Canadians to flee hurriedly

as

a

at the fort

though the wife of one upbraided him

and caused many other white men

coward

who

were near to depart, as also the encamped band that was the cause of the mischief. "It sit

was now

down and

turn, like the old chief, Nicola,

I

my

tc>

pondering occupied minutes

Seizing an Indian who passed the fort dragged him roughly inside and compelled

instead of days.

gate on foot,

my

ponder, but

him

to bring

place

it

from the store

Then, opening the barrel, I over the doorway and directed the

spilled the contents all

Indian to bring bolted, but

I

me

and

a flint

got

a

the fort,

and

sat

I

steel,

on which request he

caught him, saying: 'Not yet;

to see that the flint will act.' last

gunpowder and

a barrel of

near the door.

good apparatus.

We

Thrusting the

the latter whitewashed as

with reproaches:

where

that

is

and

at

out of

from the war

when not meditating These

a canoe.

chief of yours?

I

a

addressed

I

at the fort, driving

'Begone, and quick!

woman

it

In about an hour the local In-

to wait.

war parley approached in from the bank of the river

am

man

then laid a train of powder to the mass of

down

dian, Lolo, or Paul, with a Nicola Indian

party

only wish

I

tried several

them

off

want not you;

Where

is

he

I

alone here, and Nicola fears with his whole tribe to

attack a single man,' and so forth. rel of

That was the

'bar-

powder' incident.

"Nicola, to

whom

the Indian

who had

seen the pow-

der spilling ran, held councils but did not risk an attack.

The Indians knew

the effect of a flask exploded, but

barrel, they conceived,

The end

might devastate the whole

of the matter followed the practice in such cases

of the civilized nations.

chiefs

a

district.

who knew me came

Several of Nicola's in peaceful array

principal

with assur-

ances that he had only been conducting a "reconnaissance

and was pleased to know that the enemies of had departed; his respect for the great company and its honorable local manager was immense; it was a misapprehension that he ever contemplated an en-

in force,"

his people

try into the fort without invitation; but he, personally,

hoped for an opportunity of enjoying that

satisfaction

66

according to recognized the south.

best

I

So

I

etiquette

could the baffled chieftain.

sonage, the very pink of courtesy, a

crusader and

followers

in

before

commanded any

the

enterprise

He was who sat entire

that

the experimental personal test of an

power."

departing

for

swept up the powder and entertained as a stately perhis

horse

like

devotion of his not

involve

unknown

explosive

did

A

CHAPTER V. NEW OUTLET.

Tod's Diplomacy with the Indians

End

of

Dual Occupancy

The Oregon Treatyof Oregon.

CHAPTER NEW

A

HE

unrest

Bay

Co.,

V.

OUTLET.

naturally

by the Hudson's

felt

on account of the doubtful result

of the diplomatic

discussions respecting the

international boundary caused the transfer of a

number

tricts

of horses,

and also cattle from

south of the 49th parallel to the

dis-

Kam-

loops station, where bunch grass pasture was plentiful.

Some

of these

came from Tod's old amused

farming station on the Cowlitz, and he

himself with the pretence that they recognized

Two hundred brood mares

him.

ded

and

in

were inclu-

the great band thus sent to Kamloops,

in the spring, foals

began

to appear.

Unfortunately, also, there soon appeared an addition to the

bands of wolves

in the locality, as if

these beasts

of prey had been following the progress of the diplomatic

negotiations. of

strychnine,

away, for

a

Vigilance was useless, but having heard sent to Walla Walla, 300 miles

Mr Tod

supply of

it.

The

sequel

is

best told by the

trader himself "It

happened that about

this

time

I

out in different places squaring logs to

had three parties

make new

build-

and to these

ings,

1

gave horse

flesh

and portions of the

poison for wolf baits, enjoining them strictly to take the

A man, Lamille, from one of up every morning. wood camps, on his way to the fort for a supply of provisions, placed, foolishly, a remnant of salt salmon he baits

these

had with him on one of these wolf baits

which

bait

had not been removed.

as he passed

it,

Later on a hungry

Indian, seeing the morsel, kindled a

fire

and

not only

ate,

the salmon, but the horse flesh wolf bait (which perhaps I

should have marked), and when Camille. on returning

that way, noticed the head of the Indian rising and fall-

ing in the long grass, he bethought him of the poison,

and galloped back

to the

fort

to

me what

tell

he had

seen. I been in such a difficulty as then. What knew not, but, running to the medicine chest, I took out some blue vitrol and we hastened to the scene. The Indian's teeth were set, but by forcing his jaws open a little I poured the vitrol down his throat. This almost

Seldom had

to

do

I

caused

immediately

violent

and

vomiting

he

survived,

but was an invalid for a considerable time.

The Indians generally, meanwhile, had been talking about the poison and this mishap to one of their number added much to their uneasiness. Several hundreds in a state of excitement

peared

and alarm, but not

at the fort to

ter speech

was made bv the

being entertained that

"What," ing

Had

said

I

How

I

in reply,

I

among you

trade?

demand

for?

could

war

explanations. chiefs

dress, ap-

Speech

the fear

af-

evidently

meditated poisoning the people.

"what do you suppose Is

I

in

it

get the furs

desired to poison you

I

am

liv-

not to obtain furs and to

I

if

you were poisoned?

could have done

it

long

A. C. Anderson.

73

You know that I sent for the poison to kill the ago. wolves that were killing the foals your foals as well as mine." Then, perceiving the entry into the hall of the

man who had

taken the poison,

ging him forward, ble

who

thief

this

"Here

said:

I is

seized him, and, drag-

the cause of your trou-

the white man's provisions

steals

such a hungry thief that he will eat what

is

meant

to kill

wolves."

This diversion and attack saved the situation,

for

the poor wretch technically had committed two offences

condemned by

sentiment

tribal

he had robbed from

a

man and

he had robbed what was akin to a "trap," and, moreover, he had stirred others against me, who had

white

saved his

own

life

lately by. the

skill,

cess.

was not pleased with

I

though

I

exercise of wonderful

had burned

medical

his gullet in the pro-

my own argument,

but

it

served the purpose."

While Tod, however, had charge of the fort, on May 15th, 18/16, A. C. Anderson, who then had charge of Fort Alexandria, the most southerly post on the Fraser except Fort Langley, set out with five the

purpose,

to

coast.

He

would

result in

survey

a

new

route

men of

detailed for

travel

to

the

had realised that the negotiations then pending between the governments of Great Britain and the United States with respect to the international boundary, on British

which

had

soil

for

new

a

to

take

some

distributing point being selected

the

time

place

of

proved

Fort Vancouver, unsatisfactory

on

account of the anomalous position in which the company found themselves by reason of the dual occupancy of the territory in dispute;. a

way

of reaching

it

Should such a new post be created, from Alexandria would be a neces-

They passed down

sity.

made an

their

and made

canoe

old

Kamloops lake, where they Deadman's creek in

crossed

camp;

first

their

way

to

the

Bonaparte,

Next day they traversed the Hat camping Marble canyon, reaching Pavilion rancherie and followcreek.

at

ing the Fraser to the Fountain.

Arrived at Lillooet they

crossed the Fraser, followed Seton lake, Anderson lake,

and

and Harrison

Lillooet

arriving at Fort

unable sent

to

lakes

Langley on

May

bring horses farther than

to

them

the

to

the

24th.

Fraser ,lle

again,

had been

Fountain and had

Similkameen country, there

await

to

him.

On May to

hnd

28th he again

After

country.

Thompson but

he

Fort Langley and attempted

Hope mountains several

trying

passes he

who agreed much service.

Indian

river

was

left

over the

way

a

not

of

to

to the

Nicola

in

with a

fell

act

Finally

as

guide,

the

party

Bay where they found their horses awaiting them, and easily made their way to Kamloops

arrived at Vermilion

via Nicola lake, arriving at the fort

son was not

satisfied,

to find a better

he went to to

its

way.

on gth June.

Ander-

however, and next year he soug.ht Leaving Kamloops with five men

Nicola lake and

followed the

Nicola

river

Thence he followed the Indian village that stood where

junction with the

Thompson.

Thompson lo Lytton now is, and made the

his

way down

the Fraser as

A trip by and then them long, delay Langley a At the return point a Kequeloose, journey. began taken was cut a short above distance short Spuzzum,

far

as

the

village

canoe to

across to

the

of the did

mountains

Kamloops.

Sachincos (Yale).

not

to

Nicola

lake

and thence back

75

in

Early

Fort

1848

was

Yale

Factor James Murray Yale then

and

ley, in

1815.

to

the

Short

stature

to

in

of the

officers

was

he

a

brave,

that

as

Yale

Little

reckless,

fearless,

he

north of Fort Vancouver,

line far

followed the hostilities consequent

Whitman massacre

the

issued to

know

company, but in everything save

giant;

boundary

unrest

the

he was

company

good administrative ability. It was the Oregon treaty which placed the

of

conclusion of

international

and

Lang-

entered the service of the

possessed

the

Chief

who had

physique

was

by

charge of Fort

established

in

caused

that

orders

to

be

Interior posts to proceed to Fort

Langley in 1848 for their supplies instead of to Fort Vancouver. Three brigades set out, one from Alexandria, one from all

follow

one from Colville; the route they were

;ind

Kairloops to

was

Anderson.

traversed

that

But

proved

it

a

the

summer by

preceding

disastrous road and

was

it

condemned, the route by Hope being chosen instead, and Fort Hope was built during the winter of 1848-9

The road was made the next season name of the Hope Trail, was followed the

government road was made.

now

will

it

1860,

it

was

come

To

and,

under

until

1860

when

see

Hope

those

who

the

as a suprise to learn that in that year,

was the second largest town on the mainland,

rendezvous for the gold miners going to and returning from the Upper Fraser mines and Cariboo, one authority asserting "and a number

it

for

a

time

a

of Chinese have taken up their abode in

rapid

progress,

and

north and east of

roads

are

being

it.

It is

making

pushed forward

it."

Chief Trader, Paul Fraser, a son of Simon Fraser, the

discoverer

and explorer,

was placed

in

charge of

76

Fort Kamloops

in the

early so's.

He was

born

at Glen-

garry, Ontario, and entered the service of the Hudson's

Bay Company when nineteen years

He was

of age.

not

being too curt and overbearing, not alone towards his subordinates, but to his brother officers a

popular

The Hudson's Bay people had

as well.

own

officer,

a

method

of their

of enforcing discipline and punishing misdemeanors,

by the indiscriminate flogging and beating of the Indians and halfbreeds. Paul Fraser had ample faith in the efof

ficiency

his superiors.

ably

trivial

one of

administration

summary

this

and was considered

a

capable

For some

"club" law, reason, by

offense, not recorded but prob-

Fraser

enough,

of

officer, for this

administered to

Falardeau,

French Canadian, so severe a castigamen, tion that death resulted. It fell to one Baptiste, an his

a

make the coffin for the murdered man, for no other term adequately covers the mode of Falardeau's death. While so engaged, planing and shaping the

Iroquois, to

boards, Fraser passed by him and observing his occupa-

are

him

roughly told

tion,

good enough

Fraser a

moment

characteristic

for in

that

that

"rough,

rascal."

unpla ned Baptiste

boards

stared

at

amazement and then exclaimed with

bluntness,

"When you

die

you may not

have even rough boards to be buried in." As though a spirit of prophesy had prompted the frank reply, two Fraser was suddenly killed while camped on Mountain, Similkameen, and buried on the He was sitting spot without coffin of any description. in his tent reading, while his men were preparing their

months

later

Manson's

Some of these were engaged in felling a large which by some mischance crashed into the tent, crushing the life out of the man who had begrudged a

camp. tree,

few planed boards

in

the

coffin

man

of the

for

whose

death he was responsible.

There were three grades of service:

Bay Company's factor.

clerk,

next step being to chief trader, holder instead to

chief

trader

Hudson's and chief

Clerks received $100 to $150 a year with keep.

Promotion rarely came before

15

officers in the

20 years

of

a

salaried

service

came

14 or 15 years service, the

who

then became a share-

servant.

After a

the coveted

further

promotion to

chief factor according to vacancies, these being infrequent.

The

chief trader had charge of a post, several such posts

being under the direction of a chief factor.

CHAPTER

VI.

DAWN OF A NEW

ERA.

The Discovery of Cold. The Rush to the Fraser and Cariboo Trouble With the Indians Commander Mayne Visits Kamloops.

SI

CHAPTEIl

DAWN

N

OF A

sixth

the

new

era

the

fur

VI.

NEW

ERA.

decade of the igth century a

dawned upon

the country.

Hitherto

companies had monopolised one object was to secure furs

their

sreat abundance as possible.

and

it

in

In the

as

fifties

however, the presence of gold in the streams and rivers became known and Chief Trader

McLean, then loops,

in

who

dians

in

Kam-

Fort

of

charge

1852 purchased gold from the In-

had

obtained

Thompson

river.

between

Spence's

that gold in paying quantities

was

It

was

Bridge first

from

it

the

Nicomen,

at

and

Lytton

discovered.

Then

from several quarters came the report of fresh discoveries. Halfbreeds and Canadians from Fort Colville, forthe

merly

in

made

their

employ of the Hudson's Bay Company,

way

to

the

vicinity

of

Lytton,

found rich

soon becoming noised brought new comers from afar. McDonald and Adams, two partners engaged in mining on the Thompson and Fraser in 1857-8 took some gfold down to the lower bars

and

their

country where

abroad

success

McDonald

killed

Adams, took

his

gold

82

and coolly exhibited earnest and in

in

Fraser river from

it

at

its

Olympia.

The rush soon began men over-ran the

thousands of

1858

mouth

to

point on both the Fraser and

While thousands arrived

Lytton and above thai

Thompson

Iroiu \ariou&

them landing at Victoria and thrncr by was available to Fraser river points,

rivers.

pon.s f u>ost of v^h.it

ation

made

the

journey overland

against the

tection

travel in companies,

to

500 men.

The

transport-

large

from California.

number

For pro-

Indians they found it advisable to these being composed of from 400

route

taken was

in

the

main,

that

which Ross had followed forty years before when he was almost the sole white man in the whole southern

by way of Okanagan and Kamthem traveled with pack trains, others

Interior of the country,

Some

loops.

of

with oxen, the latter sold for beef on arriving at the

One

mines.

of

these

companies

from

California

and

Oregon was under the leadership of McLaughlin and lumbered 160 well armed men. At Walla Walla they were informed of the hostile attitude of several powerail

bands of Indians.

of the party

the river,

was

killed

when about

Before reaching the Columbia one

by the natives and to

after crossing

traverse a defile

fortunately detected an Indian scout spying

McLaughlin from behind

Both sides of the pass were ambuscaded by the Indians and severe fighting took place, three men being

a rock.

killed

and several severely wounded. While the engagein progress a detachment crossed tthe river

ment was

to outflank the Indians the

latter

abandoned

and their

after setting tire to the grass

position.

A

few days

later

the party suffered attack by mounted natives but ultimately a parley ensued and peace was patched up. It

Sir

James Douglas.

85

was not of much

were stolen and thefts

force, for cattle

and annoyances of daily occurrence until within three days journey of the Thompson river which they reached at a

point nearly

Others

Bridge.

Kamloops The Victoria British

midway between Lytton and Spence's by way of Okanagan lake and

carne

Gazette, the

these overland

parties

as

newspaper published in 1858, refers to one of

first

Columbia of August

17.

follow

1

-:

"Our Yale correspondent states that Mr. Tucker, formerly of Lehama, California, who had arrived at the Fork-* (By

this

Frascr

at

name

of the

the junction

Lytton wa

then

Thompson

designated)

in

a

with

t>

e

company

men, with 400 animal", from the Dalles, had been 30 days on the trip, and had a severe fight with the Indians on the road at Fort Okanagin, an old Hudson's Bay of 160

Company wounded. five

ain,

which they

lost

three

killed

and

si~

.Had beaten the Indians off with the loss of

horses."

The main

in

post,

fortune hunters

two

for

who came

points, the

above Lillooet.

overland

made

in

the

Forks (Lytton) and the Fount-

Those who came by sea and from

Washington Territory, mined in the vicinity of Hope and Yale. Twenty thousand men mined on the Fraser and Thompson in 1858, the major porlio:) of them beand the Forks. As Hope \vas the point of departure for the upper reaches by ib.3 Similkameen-Nicola irail, besides being the then head of navigation, it tween Hope

became

the

most

Townsites were

and Yale and prices.

A

important place on the mainland. and surveyed at Langley, Hope

laid out

lots

were sold by auction, bringing good it was when he

writer thus describes Yale as

VH

saw

on July zSth,

it

little

"We

1858.

arrived nt Fort Yale in a

than nine hours from Fort Hope.

less

probably 700 or 800 people here, nenrlv miners, living

in

nil

There are

of

whom

are

canvas tents, ard waiting for the river

saw no drunkeness or

wlessness of any kind. was A number of miners and Everything peaceful quiet. were at work on the river bank, with rockers, and most to fall

I

I

1

them making

by washing the loose dirt and cobble stones." (At that time there were 2000 miners working between Yale and Hope, taking out from $10

of

to $yo a

a living

day on the bars).

Gallon's express")

morning with Snyder, river.

my

"T slept at Mr. Johnson's (of

and breakfasted next

tent

that

night,

old

San

Francisco friend.

Henry M.

whom I found tenting a little way down the He gave me a good breakfast consisting of fried

-ahmui. bacon, hot bread ami coffee, cooked by himself,

and served tailor ..II-!

in

fashon !td

tin

plate- and cups

on

the fare

fnml.

the

each 1

had

man a

Bitting

sharp

down

appetite

full justice."

but one public eating house in the town, and the invariable diet is bacon, salmon, bread, tea and coffee,

"There

is

and the charge is $1 a meal. No milk or butter is ever The eating house is kept in a log house partly covered with bark, and with a dirt floor. Everything is done seen.

in the

same room, which

is

not more than 12 x 14 and

consequently exceedingly cramped as an oven." tilla,

It

was on

that

for space

is

and as hot

that the Umamade her first make the trip from

same day

the pioneer steamer to reach Yale,

trip to that

town, taking

>Hope> the return

trip

five

hours to

was made

in

51

minutes, her ad-

vent being the occasion for general rejoicing, the miners firing off rifles and revolvers and yelling themselves

87

hoarse to celebrate

event.

the

Yale

became

then

the

head of navigation and this speedily brought about a new order of things. The Hope route became a secondary matter and a reversion to the old Anderson route,

pack trains between Yale and Spuzzum being in operAt Spuzzum, Frank Way

ation in the following month.

had erected a bridge and

a

The

this

first

pack trains over

mile above he ran a ferry.

route reached the Forks

rival

on September loth road, a land and water

There was, however, a route, between Harrison

river

and Lillooet.

new and

(Lytton)

(In 1860 a

better read

was

opened between Yale and Lytton, which afterwards became the famous Cariboo wagon road). The river

was worked also up

for

miles

140

Thompson

the

ence with the Nicola

to

15

river.

from Hope, and

up-stream

miles beyond the confluBoston Bar became quite

a settlement, and by October, 1858, Lytton had 50 dwel-

Miners worked up above that town and by Nolings. vember there were 3,000 working near Fountain.

Commander Mayne in

describes Lyttun, which he visited

1859, as then consisting "of an irregular

row

some

of

dozen wooden huts, a drinking saloon, an express a large court-house as yet unfinished and two

office, little

buildings near the river, which had once belonged to the

Hudson Bay Company, but which were now inhabited by the district magistrate. The gentleman happened to be absent from Lytton, but

took up

my

thinking

we should

quarters

in

find

found

I

his constable,

the court it

preferable,

house.

we

and

at

Next

once day,

pitched our tent

without, but the clouds of dust which swept over Lytton

continuously soon

But

this

made

had not

all

us glad to seek

its

shelter again."

happened without some

trouble

88

The Indians had taken

with the natives.

were

there

and

frequent

whites

the

transportation

to

between

disturbances

mining and the

native*

mining ground and charges for canoes. At Hill's Bar the native*

over

by

threatened to clear the entire country of the white men.

Governor

many

both

rated

Douglas

roundly, but

a prospector

hope was never again two Frenchmen were killed on the

of

full

1858,

As soon

Rig Canyon.

as

and

Indians

natives

who went up the Frascr seen. On August 7th., trail

above the

news reached Yale

the

miners, well armed, and headed by Captain

forty ieft

Rouse,

At Boston Bar they were

for the scene of the murder.

joined by 150 miners congregated there, and on inc i^th

party encountered

the

pitched battle

a

canyon,

the

Indians at the

took

place

and

head of the seven

braves

were sent to the happy hunting grounds, and the Indito ans were driven out. The party thereupon returne 1

Yale. of

Referring to this expedition the Victoria Gazette

i2th

Sept.,

1858,

says:

"Our Yale correspondent James Stewart, who has ?fter

being

perfectly

states

that

he learned from

from up river, that that it was useless to

just arrived

satisfied

mine under the present state of affairs, his of their provisions and buried the rest, sold some party

attempt to

and started down the river for

this

place,

when

just at

the head of the Big Canyon they had a fight -*ith the Indians, killing nine, and among that number WHS one

Quite a number were wounded, and three taken prisoners. The miners routed the Indians, who took chief.

refuge

in

the mountains.

Five of their rancheries were

burned." Further fighting took place a few days

lat:r,

but th*

89 _/

,

leader

the

of

peace with

soon the

whites,

trail

was

of

the

September,

M. Snyder, made

II.

miners again.

with

alive

same

Douglas

year,

Yale and for better preservation pointed

a

ten

commissioner,

ers

in

Early

visited

again

pea~e he ap-

the

and

troopers

constables, a similar disposition at

of

of

trea:ics

Thompson, and

the Indians as far as the

all

was made

'en

special

Hope, and

nt

Lytton a commissioner (Captain Trevallis), ten troopand a warden of the river were appoint-'d. Langley

was expected

to

be the capital of British Columbia, ?nd

made

great preparations were

who were they

to

arrived,

Captain

25

of

under

them,

outbreak

at

Yale.

whole for^e there and

a

report

Col.

which arose out of

man named McGowan couple

November,

Colonel

1^58,

Moody and

of justices

of

reached Vicloiin

Moody

at

was reinforced

blue jackets and marines from the culty,

Royal Engineers

In

Grant.

The following January an

for the

be stationed there.

a

'iy

T

Satellite.

of

took ,

hi*

arty

The

of

diffi-

petty squabble, in which

a

prominenttly, between

a

figured

the

once

peace.

Fortunately

it

ended

without any serious

consequences, though it premised one time to be the cause of grave disturbance. It was soon after this that the site of New Westminster at

was

examined

Mayne and

by Lieutenant, afterwards Admiral, Dr. Campbell on behalf of Col. Moody.

After 1858 the Thompson, the first, ground where gold was mined, received bui little attention and the mining population was never great, though the gold was, and In 1858, extensively d-stributed all along its course. Tranquille creek was prospected for a distance of 40 miles. In 1859 five men were making $300 a day with

is

90

and others took out $10 to $t2 a day with 1860 there were 200 Chinese mining at

sluice boxes,

the rocker.

In

mouth of

the

Up

the creek, and in the following year 150 1

ir.im-Ts

averaged $16 a day

the vicinity of the creek.

in

however, there was no mining done on the North river and saye for the little done at Tramto this time,

quille,

Kamloops was out

Hope, Langley and Yale.

the forts at

and

ful

of the hurly burly that agitated

The more peace-

less exciting pursuit of trading with the Indians

engaged the whole attention of the Hudson's Bay and men, and peace and quiet prevailed.

The condition is

esty's a

of affairs at

described

well

mp

the

through

in

the year 1859,

by Commander Mayne of Her Maj-

engaged

Plun-me<-.

ship

Kamloops

officers

districts

Thompson and Harrison

in

surveying,

bordering on

rivers.

He

says:

who made the

"It

Fraser,

was eight

morning when we came in sight of KamThe view from where we stood was very beauA hundred feet below us the Thompson, some

o'clock in the loups. tiful.

300

yards

wide,

flowed

leisurely

past

us.

Opposite,

directly towards us, and

meeting the larger rirer nearly at right angles, was the North river, at its junction with the Thompson, wider even than that stream,

moving

;ind

between

them stretched a wide

delta

of

alluvial

plain, which was continued some eight or ten miles until the mountains closed in upon the river so nearly, as to only just leave a narrow pathway by the water*! edge

At

this

fork,

and on the west side stood Fort

loops, enclosed within village

of

the

mountains were covered wild flowers.

Kam-

was the

and opposite Both the plain and with grass and early spring

pickets;

Shuswap

Indians.

it

91

We

descended

to

river

the

side,

and

our

Indian.

companions shouted until a canoe was sent across, in which we embarked and paddled across to the fort. Kamloops differed in no respect from other forts of had seen, being a the Hudson Bay Company that mere stockade enclosing six or eight buildings, with a 1

Introducing ourselves to Mr. gateway at each end. the McLean, Company's officer in charge of the fort nnd district, we were most cordially received, and with the

hospitality

common

stay in his quarters

At

here.

this

few days we must remain

time the only other officer at this fort

was Mr. Mason.

Roman

these gentlemen, invited to

to

for the

Catholic

With them, however, was staying a who, having got into some

priest,

trouble with the Indians of the

Okanagan country, had

thought it prudent to leave that his abode for a time at Kamloops.

"The

district

and take up

which these gentlemen lead at their inland he necessarily duil and uneventful; but have their wives and families with them, and grow, they life

stations

must

I believe,

exchange

describe here, of the until

mode

so attached to this

to care to

in as

it

of existence as rarely

for another.

It

may

be well to

few words as possible, the position in these districts, of which

Hudson Bay Company lately

they

formed

Those who have seen seaports, can

the

the

sole

white

"fur traders"

population.

only

at

their

form but a very inadequate idea of the men

of the inland stations.

"Inland, you

find

men, who, hnving gone from Eng-

or more frequently Scotland, ab buys of 14 and 16, have lived ever since in the wilds, never seeing any of their white fellow creatures but the two or three land,

92 stationed

them, except when the annual

vvitli

ade called at their posts.

They

are almost

and

their

wives

older

servants

have

halfhreed

'large

families,

of

children

the

fur

being of

generally

them

to

the

utmost,

as

it

effectually

Com-

the

Marriage has always been encouraged

pany.

brig-

married

all

amongst

attaches

man

a

and tends to pr-vent any glaring immorality among the subordinates, which if not checked, would soon lead to an unsafe familiarity with the neighto, the

country,

bouring

Indians,

post very

difficult,

"The day

and

render

our

after

maintenance

the

of

the

not impossible.

if

arrival

at

Kamloops,

we went

across North River to the Indian village, to pay a visit to the chief of the Shuswap tribe, who was described

o us as being somewhat of a notability. site

of

Here was the

North West Company which some twelve years back, after the murder of Mr. Black the old fort of the

(the officer in charge of

moved by

No is

dcubt the old

subject to

visit

it)

by the Indians, had been

re-

his successor to the opposite side of the river.

indeed,

summer all

was preferable

site

floods.

to the

new, which

Only the year before our

the floors had been started

by the water,

and the occupants of the fort buildings had to move about in canoes.

"The building

more

like

a

into

regular

which we were introduced was

wooden house than an Indian

hut.

In the centre room, lying at length upon a mattress stret-

ched upon the floor, was the chief of the Shuswap Indians. His face was a fine one, although sickness and pain had worn it away terribly. His eyes were black, piercing and restless, his cheekbones high, and the lips, naturally thin and close, had that white, compressed look which tells

I

95 so surely of constant suffering.

Such was

Paul, as

St.

Hudson Bay Company called him, or Jean Baptiste Lolo, as he had been named by the Roman Catholic priests who were in this district many years before." This wa^ the same Lolo with whom Mr. Tod had much experience. Crippled as he was, the old chief accompanied Commander Mayne and Dr. Campbell to the mountain already menthe

tioned as overlooking the fort, which they ascended and

Mount St. named Roches that in summer the native to gather edible moss and

which, in honor of their guide, they christened

Near

Paul.

des

it

stands another elevation

Femmes, from

women

often

the fact

frequented

it

This moss or lichen, (L. jubatus)' was prepared by being boiled and pressed into cakes, in which

wild berries.

form

it

"The

was

eaten.

interior of the hut

is divided into compartments you upon entering, may see a lire burning in each, with six or eight indiriduals huddled about it their

and,

dusky forms scarcely distinguishable in the clouds of white'blinding smoke' which had no other outlet than the door' or sometimes a hole in the roof.

orary hut

is

Their temp-

constructed of thin poles covered with mats,

but these are generally used only in the summer,

and

and not

upon

their

usual,

however, from some superstitious reason, or be-

fishing

expeditions

travels.

It

is

cause of sickness breaking out, to leave their village with

everything standing, and never return to them."

Commander Mayne

also

mentions that he went "to

see the bands of horses driven selected

for

food.

in,

and those pa>t work

There were some two hundred or

three hundred horses of all sorts and ages at the station. Just outside the fort were two pens, or corrals as they

and into these the horses were driven.

called them,

few colts were chosen for breaking

whose bre-^inf time was was upon horse flesh it

mares,

and

for

in,

A

and then the old

past,

were selected that

principally

the

driven out to be killed, skin-

people of the fort lived

ned and salted down."

Commander Mayne had his

He

composition.

a spice of the romantic in missed seeing the Fur Brigade

which was daily expected at the time of his visit to Kamand he says: "It was not without regret that I loops missed seeing the Fur Brigade. It is one of those insti-

way

give

of

/before the

come

will

approach of

soon, perhaps

some 200

their

and beautiful country, which must

of this wild

tutions

horses,

way through

The time

civilization.

when such

& light as a train

laden with fur packages, winding

the rough mountain passes of British

Columbia, will be as unfamiliar as that of a canoe upon its

rivers.

but

it

is

No doubt the change will be for the better, Of course it is sometimes hard to bejieve it.

much more

practical to ascend the Fraser in a river steaman Indian canoe * * * make the

boat than to

journey in long before I should prefer the former method of locomotion to the latter when the weather is

but

fine.

it

will ibe

With

all its

many

marvellously pleasant

inconveniences, there

is

something

canoe travelling, with

in

quil, gliding motion, the

regular,

splashless

its

dip,

tran-

dip of

the paddles, the wild chant of the Indian crew, or better time to still, the songs of the Canadian voyageurs, keeping

the pleasant chorus of Soldat."

"Ma

Belle

Rosa," or "Le Beau i

o 9 a>

o o

73

O a>

Q.

O

O o I

CHAPTER

VII.

THE SEARCH FOR GOLD. Excitement in Southern British Columbia of the

Cariboo Road

The Building

The First Passing-

of Yale.

101

CHAPTER

VII.

THE SEARCH FOR GOLD.

N

1861 the presence of gold in the bars of

the

North Thompson and

attracted attention.

water

Barriere

river,

branches

its

first

Jameson Creek, Clearriver

(where a party

Frenchmen made $50 a day), Adams river, Moberly creek and other streams made of

a

things

and

in

tion

little

livelier

1862 there

by

the

party

who

across

the

tion of the

arrival

had

around the old fort

was

still

of

made

prairies

a

further addi-

an

adventurous

the

and

long

while

a

trip

por-

original party descended the Fra-

portion followed the North them were drowned and the remainder Among them was nearly perished for lack of food.

ser to

Piver.

one

Quesael,

Two

woman

another

of

'having in her care three children and adding

number a few miles above Kamloops. Among those who came in this party were the late Samuel

to the

Mo.ore,

J.

A. Mara, C. T. Cooney, G. C. Tunstall, the late

James Mclntosh,

etc.,

each of

whom

has since that long

102

ago day done

his

share to build up the town and vic-

inity.

Prior to the Fraser river excitement, gold was mined

on the upper Columbia, as early indeed as 1856, Governor Douglas having in that year announced the fact to Miners earned from $10 to $40 a the Colonial Office. day, but with their usual restlessness and fickleness, the

news

new

of a

rush

"strike"

away was aroused over the

to

new

was

sufficient

field.

In

to cause

them

to

1863-4 an excitement

the placer ground in the Kootenay near the valley boundary line, but this was not so intense as the Big Bend excitement which occurred shortly after-

wards.

Wild Horse Creek,

was the scene 1863, in

on

it

May

of

1864,

a tributary of the

and, according to

August, 5,000

Kootenay

river,

Kootenay flurry. Discovered in four hundred miners had staked claims the

men were

Hudson Bay Factor MacKay, by in the district. One tenth of

these remained for the winter at Fisherville

the principal

town on the Creek which was reached by two routes; one from Colville via Pend d'Oreille,, the other from Fort Hope, via the Similkameen, Rock Creek and In 1866, Fisherville was pulled down Pend d'Oreille. Farms were located on to allow the site to be mined.

camp

or

Kootenay Valley, and as the Indians abundance of horses, the miners had no

the benches in the

there had an difficulty in

moving trom creek where $18

grofund, Perry Creek,

was taken

to creek to try for to $30 a

new

day to the man

out, being the chief.

Rock Creek, in 1860, was a busy mining centre, the creek near its mouth yielding from one to two ounces Mission Creek and several others empty. ng into a day.

105

Okanagan 1859-61,

were

lake

from two

all

mined about the same

date,

dollars to forty dollars a day being ob-

tained.

W. McKay was

In 1863, the late Jos.

Hudson's Bay

fort

at

Kamloops and

in

charge of the

Cox

G.

Vvilliam

held the office of gold Commissioner and police magistrate at a salary of

400

a

year.

Ly

Y.iK-

(

n an<

Lil-

gold commissioner. Tn 1861, Kamloops was honored with a visit from Governor Doi.ylas looet each

had

its

who made Lake

to

Moberly

the trip by way of Kamloops, and Okanagan Rock Creek, returning by way of the Dcwdneytrail,

determined

There wa Harrison

then nearly completed.

to

build

already river

to

the in

1862 Douglas Frascr.

use the water and land route via

Douglas and

struction of which 500

In

wagon road along the

men

Lillooet,

con-

the

in

anxious to get to the Car-

iboo country where gold had then just been found were employed, Governor Douglas agreeing' to land at, Douglas all provisions and supplies at Victoria prices if

the

men would

was done,

in

turn to and build the road,

height and the projected at

once pushed.

all

1862 the great rush to Cariboo

A

new road along

of which

was

at

its

was

the Fraser

writer describing the road and

Vale,

Us starting point, in 1863, says:

"Since the Fragcr River excitement of 1858, Yale

always been a hustling, busy

little

place,

lias

and notwith-

standing the competition of the Douglas route, that via Yale has always retained its popularity." (This must

have reference

to

the

trails

along the

Fraser.)

"The

great government works which have been carried on in the valley of the Fraser above Yale during the past summer, have had a beneficial effect on the prosperity

10-i

of the place,

and caused

of lots in the town.

passable

Vale

By

for

a considerable rise

in

the middle of next

May

wagons, Williams creek

to

have

will

(lake

the value a road,

been is

completed from no doubt meant) a

160 miles. The road from Yale to Lytton which goes through the precipitous channel the Fraser, known as the Big Canyon, has been con-

distance of (6.$

of

miles)

structed Pike's built

great cost

a

at

six

Riffle,

by the

miles

Royal

the

to

and

From Yale

colony.

six

Engineers;

chains,

from

road

the

Pike's

Riffle

to

was to

Chapman's by Mr. (afterwards Sir J. W.) Trutch, for $47,000; from Chapman's Bar to Boston Bar, 11 to 12 miles, by Mcssers Spence and bar, a distance of 8 miles,

Trutch

bridge over the

known

is

here

Spence

(the

as

Thompson

Spence's

mentioned

constructed

river at the place

Bridge,

the

though

the

which

still

bridge

has

long since been washed away) for $75,000, from Boston 1-2 miles, by Mr. Spence for $88,000, Mr. Spence employed 600 men on this work which he completed in four months. The engineering: difficulties

Bar to Lytton, 32

fm.ountcrcd

carrying out the above wuik

in

hare been

considerable, and a bridge has yet to be thrown across the is

river

(Fraser)

completed.

one of the

before

There

main roads

Mr. Spence,

in

is

the

chain

of

no doubt that

communication

this

will

become

into the Interior of the country."

connection with Mr. Trutch, built

the

Fraser and

bridge at Spuzzum across the new road was soon thronged with pack trains and heavily laden freight wagons bound for the Cariboo mines or the Hudson's Bay posts at Kamloops and elsewhere. The road is now a thing of the past; for since the C.P.R. came into being it is no longer passable;

suspension

the

ft

M (D

w'

1U9

bridges have given way, rock slides block up the roadcribbing has tumbled into the turbulent waters of

\v:iy,

Fraser, and

the

mourns

timer"

the "old

who

sees these things

old

road and the good old days

With the working out

of bar diggings in the vicinity

for

spent on

the

good

it.

of Yale and

the inauguration

of regular stage lines to

Cariboo, Yale gradually lost a considerable part of her population and the town lost much of its bustle and stir.

The forwarding

merchandise to Cariboo and other

of

intermediate points by pack trains, mule teams, ox teams ("bull

teams" they were called) and other meant of con-

veyance, engaged the attention of

many men who have

prominence in the province and many way houses were kept for the public convenience, and

since risen to side

the

proprietor's

like

eminence.

In

their

1863

the

post

at

Hudson's

Kamloops,

opposite the second

march

by others who have attained a

profit,

site,

cently

to

to

moved

again

south

the

bank,

advisable to

make another

west end of the town

Standard, was erected their present

in

commodious

re-

1885.

quart-

In 1864 the Columbia river bars attracted attention

ers

of

moved

it

in the

the

occupied by

1894 they

Company time

there they remained until the

of progress rendered

change and the building In

Bay this

the gold

the

miners and

with the discovery of gold in

Big Bend a busy time carne for Kamloops, which

was on the

direct route of travel to the

government opened

Shuswap Lake, and

a in

trail

1866,

new

mines.

The

from Kamloo.p.s by way of the wagon road was extended

Cache Creek to Savona at the foot of Kamloops Like. Meanwhile the H. B. Co., the late J. W. McKay f

'>rm

110

being then

in

charge, the only available local source of

anticipation of the

supplies,

in

Marten

during

winter

the

of

built

rush,

Steamer

the

1 he

1865.

following

the rush began and the Marten made regular from Savona to Seymour, at the head of Shuswap Lake, the fare being $10 for passengers, and freight

spring trips

Each

rates $20 a ton. \vith

trip

miners, thousands

the

flocked

litle

to

boat was crowded

new mines and

the

Seymour, form which point the rest of the journey was made by trail, became quite a thriving town, of which, however,

some

little

trace

is

left at

Kamloops

this time.

gain-

from the excitement and the improvement was such that Messrs. Mara and Wilson opened ed

benefit

up a store to

ply on

in

1867.

to a point 120 miles

tune,

who

The Marten was

these waters

built

the

the

steamer

first

and ascended the North River

from

its

first

house

mouth. in

Wm.

In 1868

Kamloops,

built

Forthe

flour mill in the interior of B. C., the burrs

coming from Buffalo and costing $1,200 for the pair. A short time after the road was completed to Savona it was defirst

cided to extend

it

to

Kamloops, and the

Intosh had the contract for building

it.

late

James Mc-

CHAPTER

VIIT.

THE COMING OF THE RAILWAY. Knd

Crown Colony Days British Columbia Becomes a Province Growth of Kamloops.

of the

w ft)

n"

o

s.

I'

CO

115

CHAPTER

VTIT.

THE COMING OF THE RAILWAY.

OWARDS

the

latter

part of that

memor-

able decade, the sixties, the question of con-

federation

became

province and

in

a

burning issue

we

1868

find

that

in

the

an

im-

portant convention was held at Yale to consider

the

attended

question,

by

the province,

from

the

delegates

gathering

from

all

parts

those from the interior

Yale, C. Evans,

J.

being of

being

McLardy and H.

Havelock; from Lytton, R. Smith;, from Lillooet, Dr. Featherstone; from Lac la Hache, Dr. Brouse; from Williams Lake, Hon. F.

Barnard; from Quesnelle Mouth, .1. C. Armstrong; and Resolufrom Cariboo, C. W. King and E. H. Kabbit. tions were unanimously passed favcring immediate admission to the Dominion of Canada. This was the firoi representative assembly in B. C. at which this momentous issue was discussed. It was not, however, until 1871 that confederation

One B. C.

was accomplished.

of the conditions of the compact entered into

by and the Dominion was the construction of a trans-

continental

railway.

Of

the disappointments

and post-

ponements and heartburnings before that condition was fulfilled

there

is

no need

to

enlarge in this

necessaiiiy

IF(J

brief synopsis of events, suffice

1880 that the

until in the

province but once begun,

Andrew Onderdonk, on or the

was

Cisco,

7,000

it

was

it

n<">t

was pushed vigorously.

familiarly referred to

amount involved to

to say that

by everybody

road as "A. O.," was the contractor and

off the

Emory Over

it

sod of the C. P. P. w;is turned

first

Savona,

for that

portion of the road from

including

$ir, 200,000,

an

the

average

cantilever

bridge

of $43,000

per

men were employed, sawmills were

at

mile.

built

by

powder factory was erected and operated between Yale and Emory, machine shops were built at Yale and although for a time the main offices were at Emory, it was soon found that Yale was better the contractor, a

adapted for the management's once more put on the airs of a stir

headquarters city,

and

Yale

and the bustle and

surpassed that of 20 years before.

It

was

a

wide

open town, money flowed like water, good wages were earned and freely spent and for a lively place, few western

towns could compare with property jumped to e tores

and

nection

built

with

residences,

New

the

Town

resurrected Yale.

regular

men

put

steamtvrit

up

con-

Westminister was soon supplemented affairs, with most uncom-

coaches

from down the river.and

progressed eastward, as

little

high figure, business

not very elegant

with trains fortable

a

l>y

as

the

road

trains running in tbtvt direction

well.

Supplies

for

the

partly by pack train,

and

finally

it

were taken partly by wagon, but this was expensive and slow

road

was decided

to build a

steamer to run the

canyon of the Eraser and convey the supplies more economically to the farther camps. The steamer Skuxzy was built at the Big Tunnel, east of Spuzzum, and a f **r

ff

S

119

some diFculty

a

was found

skipper

willing to essay the

caking the vessel through the boiling, eddying,

task of

treacherous rapids as they foamed through the dangerous

canyon. to

Finally

and with

try

two brothers named Smith consented J.

W.

Burse as engineer, aided by a

powerful steam winch and capstan and 150 Chinamen hauling on the ropes the

first

load of freight was safely

and distributed along the river. Several trips were made up and down, Lytton being the farthest point carried

reached.

Subsequently

the

Skuzzy

Keefer's and there remained until 1884,

was

tied

when

the machin-

up

at

was removed, taken to Savona and placed in the newly built hull of the Skuzzy number two.. With the passing of the period of activity coincident ery

with railway construction, Vale again

fell

into desuetude,

quiet reigned where bustle had prevailed; the

streets,

once

thronged with men, became deserted, and gradually sinking farther and farther from the halycon days of yore, houses, deserted and

desolate, sank

into

decay; stores,

and warehouses, cheerless and empty, gave silent witness of a greatness that had been but was not Twice offices

Yale rose to a state of prosperity and affluence and twice has

it

who

fallen into peaceful rest;

will say

it

may

not

become and permanently remain a hive of industry? Yale but experienced the same fate that befell many other towns. Lytton, too, was once a bustling again

little

were Savona, Eagle Pass Landing

Ashcroft

town, so

Bridge.

lake shared the

same

fate

the

a*

that

came

and Spence's

head of Shuswap to

them

all

save

But such places as endured have flourished, striking examples of the surAshcroft,

varied

only in

vival of the fittest.

degree.

120 In

1868

Peterson

John

east of the then

little

On

house and stables, which

parcel

land

of

and afterwards purchased

village,

an additional 320 acres. a

a

pre-empted the are

pre-emption standing,

still

he

built

a

short

This location

distance east of the railway station.

is

of

interest as this land, the Peterson ranch, constitutes the

new town stages,

of

Kami oops.

carrying

the

combined

flour

new

far

as

express the

Savona,

finally

to

Okan-

procuring lumber led to about

industry

and lumber

then east of the town.

as

Kamloops and

difficulty in

establishment of a

the a

The

to

Barnard's

1870

ran

mails,

system soon extended agan mission.

In

mill

was

built

1875,

when

on the

flat,

Messrs. Mara, Wilson, Mclntosh

The last named gentleman was the government agent at Kamloops at that time, and met an untimely death, while engaged in the performance of his duty, at the hands of the McLean and

and Usherwere the owners.

Hare gang, four

in

number,

murderers were hanged 31,

at

in

New

December,

18/9.

The

Westminster, January

1881.

The year waters, the

1878

Lady

saw another steamer

built

Dufferin, the property of

Wm.

on

these

Fortune.

The boat d d a general carrying business, running tetween Savona and Spallumcheen. The Spallumcheen,

owned by Mara & Wilson, number of years.

also plied on the

same waters

for a

Apart from the settlement that had been quietly and steadily going on in the district for some time, another important factor was at work

in this

decade

in assisting

up Kamloops, and this was the fact that from its position Kamloops would be a place of some importance on the line of the proposed Canadian Pacific Railto

build

121 It

way.

had been

the intention to carry

Bute

to the coast at

Inlet,

and

sent out to survey the North for a route

in

Thompson and

from the Clearwater

road out

the

surveyors were

1872

to explore

Cariboo wagon

to the

road, with the view of getting to Bute Inlet via cotin,

but this idea was abandoned and

ately decided to bring the line

son to Kamloops and then carry route

the

since

to the salt water

it

Lord Dufferin

adopted,

Chil-

was ultimdown the Noith Thompit

by

Kam-

visited

loops in 1876.

Kamloops was 1878,

the

line

given

being

under Premier Alex. afterwards sat

communication

in

by the Liberal Government

Mackenzie.

F.

J.

Barnard,

who

House of Commons as representwas the contractor for this work.

the

in

telegraphic

built

ative for Yale district,

K^mlnops was now

fairly

on her

feet,

and

boasted

The Dominion Hotel was

of hotels as well as stores.

in

Me

Mclntosh *

Phadden, anJ -he Cosmowas conducted by John Peterson Xz Dassonville. politan Mara & Wilson had the only store in the village, the

the hands of

Hudson's

store

BayCompany's

being

some

dis-

little

it, where near the bridge the old buildings are yet standing. In 1880 there were three stores, three Father hotels, two blacksmith shops and a school.

tance west of

Grandidier was the his

abode

first

Kamloops

in

resident clergyman

in

clergymen attended to the

1878.

He

taking up

and other

visiting

spiritual welfare of the people.

In that year, A. Watson, of Victoria, built the Peerless

steamboat for onist,

The mouth

tion."

the

J.

Mara

A.

to run, according to the

Col-

"between Cook's Ferry and the head of navigaPeerless of the

made

a

trip

to

Harper's

Bonaparte (near Ashcroft),

mill,

in

at

June,

122

i88i,

the

without using a line on the journey, accomplishing 20

distance,

miles

made one

subsequently

up stream, in five hours, and trip to Cook's Ferry (Spence's

command.

Bridge), Captain John Irving being in

Kam-

loops reached out for trade in those days, perhaps pro-

more than

portionately

although trade was not

today,

The Standard

always of the briskest.

(a Victoria

paper that long ago ceased to have issue of

its

"Times

being),

newsin

the

Kamloops are The has mill been under present. Shuswap water for the past month. The Tranquille mill is run~ The steamer Lady Dufferin is ning night and day. dull

June

1880, says:

12,

at

making regular

every

trips

Tuesday to Spallumcheen. from Tran-

flour are being shipped

Large quantities of

Savona's Ferry, Cariboo and other places."

quille mill to

In

December,

1880,

J.

F.

McCreight was appointed a

judge for the inland country, to

May,

1881,

by steamer the

at

Selkirk

saw Major Rogers to

sit at

set

Kamloops.

out from Kamloops

Eagle river to look for a pass through

range

for

the

C.

P.

R.

construction

on

which was now going forward with vigor. A pass was subsequently found, and the route was again changed. The Yellow Head Pass was abandoned, and an entirely new route was selected, the line reaching Kamloops by the South

Thompson

instead of by th

North branch.

about the same time in the press the claims of as the proper capital

f

At

Kamloops

the Mainland were put forward

and discussed. In

the

same year increased mail

service

was given

to points east, reached by wagon road from Kamloops. So far a semi-monthly mail had been given, but in the

spring

of

1881

the

mail

contract

from

Cache Creek

123

Okanagan Mission (now known as Kelowna), via Kamloops and Spallumcheen, giving a weekly service for four years, was awarded to J. B. Leighton The Province was in 1882 in the throes of the fourth to

general

election

since

(Provincial)

Confederation,

and

Mr. Mara was elected for the third consecutive term,

him being associated Preston

with

Bennett,

who had

represented the same district in the previous legislature,

and

who was one

C. A. Semlin,

Yale

to

represent

that

of the trio selected

district

in

the

first

from

legislature

of the con joint Province. Mr. Bennett never sat in the fourth

parliament,

an

attack

August

9,

for

a

few days

after

the

election

he had

hemorrhage lungs, and died on of Mr. John Tait, local residence the at 1882, of

of

the

manager of the Hudson's Bay Company's post since The vacancy caused by Mr. Bennett's death was 1872. filled

by G. B. Martin, who continued

until the general election of 1898,

by

F. J. Deane,

1903

by

who

F. J. Fulton.

in

turn

to represent

when he was

was defeated

in

Yale

defeated 1900 and

CHAPTER FROM FORT TO Social

Life

in

Old

Kamloops

Town

TX. CITY.

Setting

Incorporation.

Out

the

New

127

CHAPTER

IX.

FROM FORT TO

OCTAL

life in

CITY.

was not mark-

the earlier days

ed by the lines that characterize

The people were almost

it

to-day.

one family, and at times they met for jollity and pleasure; in dances balls and impromptu winter, like

horse-racing and other sports on such public holidays as

was

were observed.

at hand.

slowly

but

whistle

of

C.

P.

But R.

locomotive the

in

a

was

change

coming

The

nearer.

steadily

the

Savona, and

at

The

shrill

was soon heard

winter

of

1884

point and grading was now a busy under was way. Kamloops Karaloops stream of and comwith constant a people going place, without its visitors. not was it and distinguished ing, of

the

October, 1882, had

roadbed

the

seen the Marquis of

loops and three years his successor

between that

to the

later the

Lome

Marquis

of

Governor-Generalship,

in

Kam-

Lansdowne, visited

the

town.

Up

to

1884

Kamloops, but its

no newspaper had been in

that year the

appearance as a

Kamloops

published at Inland Sentinel made

publication.

This was

128

not, its

however, the beginning of the paper.

founder,

first

established the paper at

miles below Yale, on

Mr.

railway,

May

times

the

Inland

the

brought

Uag-an

removing

1880,

29,

Moving with

afterwards.

shortly

Mr. Hagan, Emory, a few to

Yale

and

the

Sentinel

to

Kamloops, where it has remained. In that same year the first firemen's company was established, the meetings at which it was formed being held

in

Spelman's

(Cosmopolitan)

The following month

a

in

hotel,

movement was

set

August. on foot to

Arrangements were soon

build a hospital in Kamloops.

made, and the contract for the building was given to W. A. Simmons. The hotels in 1884 were of some imfor

portance,

half

the

population

lived

in

them.

The

where the Queen's hotel now stands, Arlington, & Nichols. At a later date the buildSears was kept by ing was removed bodily to the east end of the street and was named the Oriental, now Leland ho^el, near

Frank Rushton doing the honors as host for a time. Ratchford, recently the superintendent of the Pro-

Jos.

vincial

politan and Desormier the fession

was

J.

T.

was represented by Dr.

Vancouver, It

The late Ed. Edwards the CosmoColonial. The medical pro-

home, ran the Kamloops house.

Cannell had the Dominion,

a

and

treat

Dr. to

down

Offerhaus.

see

the

S.

J.

now

latter,

Tunstall,

of

clad

in

now

of

Spallumcheen. his

dressing

through the only street then feed and groom his little to possessed, Kamloops

gown,

cayuse.

stalk

W. W.

to the stables

Spinks,

now

judge of the county court,

was then practising as an attorney, and for some time was the only member of the bar in town. The housekeeper of the present day would be staggered were our

storekeepers to revert to the prices of 1884. $6 per

100 Ibs.;

ham and bacon

So cents to $1.50 per

and eggs 75 cents and lumber

A

iSS/,

to

fell

Yale

cabinet

lb.;

tea

Hay

sold at $25

per ton,

$30 per thousand. 1884,

also

Works, which

and

for

Oct.,

who was

30

pork 25 cents; sugar 25 cents

dozen.

a

at $20 to

visitor in

Premier,

lb.;

Flour was

cents per

latter

Wm. Smythe, then Commissioner of Lands

was Hon. Chief

after

portfolio,

his

death

in

Vernon, one of the three members which then for the first time secured

G.

F.

district,

representation.

The next year saw many advances made. The HudBay people moved their store into the town. A new steamer, the Kamloops, was built early in the year, r.nd was bunched in April, the machinery being that son's

from the Myra. below YD It-

the

stern-wheeler that had

come

to

transport

of

Fail ing to !oi

a

mined to build

a

an

formerly run

arrangement with Mr.

Mara

Ondcrdonk

deter-

supplie.->,

Mr.

steamer to ply on these waters, using

machinery from a discarded steamer, the Skuzzy, which had made several eventful trips through the canyon of the Fraser. A hull was built at Savona, t!-e the

machinery

installed,

The Skuzzy was put a

floating

hotel

for

and then a compromise arranged. to

the

good

use,

however, serving as and moving along

tracklayers,

with them, as they came on towards and beyond '."amloops. The Skuzzy was afterwards bought by Mr. Mara,

and In

is

now

July,

lying beside the 1885,

the

railway

Peerless, sheer

track

reached

and on November 7th of the same year,

hulks.

Kamloop-,

at 3 o'clock in

130 the

afternoon, the

Port

Moody

through train from the east to

first

arrived.

same year John Peterson disposed ot his :anch town to the townsite syn

In the

lying to the east of the old of which

dicate,

Messrs. Mara,

The new

members. R. H. Lee.

Ward and Pooley were

townsite was surveyed at once by

Government decided to build a Government Agent Tunstall choe the present central site, and in that same year its conThe old court house struction was entered upon.

new

In

destroyed by

washed, with

fire

three years ago,

the cells

served

that

space

many

1885 the

house.

court

opening court

as

matters of grave

was

direct

a log cabin, white

room,

the

into in

confined

which,

moment have come

judges of both the County and Supreme courts.

day was deemed

a sort

Supreme court judge favorite was looked

of festival,

the

and

steadily,

coming its

Court

and the coming of a

and Mr. Justice Walkem was the forward to with a zest that is

not seen in the present and

With

indeed,

before the

of

the

more prosaic C.

P.

R.,

age.

the

town grew

being made a divisional point at once

added largley to its growing population. In early days, water was carried from line river in buckets, 01 hauled in barrels, but with the growth of the town these means became altogether inadequate. The late Mr.McIntosh, who was never lacking in enterprise, met the want and supplied the town from a reservoir into which

up

was pumped from the river. By private entown was supplied with electric light. terprise In 1893 the city was incorporated, and the water and light services were acquired by the municipality by purchase. the water

also the

Two new

plants have since been put

in.

131

In 1896 the presence of copper-gold ore was discovered

on Coal

not far from the place wuere a few years

hill,

Major Vaughan and others had mined with

previously

more or

less

success

for

Development has pro-

coal.

gressed steadily and the Iron Mask mine lar shipper, and other properties give arriving at the

But

ated very

little

Chas

tests.

was

House

Commons.

excitement until

F.

Houghton was

first

Dewdney province), who sat

by

ernor of the

a regu-

local

representa-

chosen, but his term

Edgar

He was

18/1-72.

(afterwards for Yale

appointment as Indian commissioner.

Lieut-gov-

from 1872 until F. J. Barnard

stepped into his shoes, to be himself replaced by

Mara,

who

constituency of

W.

J.

A.

occupied the seat from 1886 until his defeat

by Mr. Bostock of 1900,

of

Dominion elections crethe last two or three con-

short, the parliament only lasting

succeeded

his

of

now

indications

near future.

in the

mention has been made of

little

tion in the

same stage

is

at the general election, 1896, in the united

Yale-Cariboo.

In

A. Galliher of Nelson,

the

general

was elected M.

election P.,

and

two constituencies, Duncan Ross was elected

in 1904, the district being divided into 1

Kootenay and Yale-Cariboo,

for the latter, H. Bostock being created a senator in the

same year.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER TWO. Alexander Ross, then

Company,

first visited

in the service of the Pacific

the vicinity of where

Fur

Kamloops now

May Kith, 1812. He had been preceded, however, by David Thompson, the Nor'wester, who explored the Thompson river early in 1811, and David Stuart, one of the stands on

On September 16th, accompanied by three men, two of whom, Montigny and Boullard, were Canadian voyageurs, left Fort Okanagan, near the junction of the Okanagan and Columbia rivers, on a journey to the unexplored north, leaving Alexander lloss, mentioned above, alone in charge of the then newly established post, his sole "civilized companion being," as Koss puts it, "a little Spanish pet dog from Monterey, named Weasel.'' Intending only to be absent a month, it was not until March 22nd, 1812, that Stuart and his companions returned to Fort ukanagan. Of his journey he gave the following account: "After leaving this place'' (Fort Okana-an) "we bent our course up the Oakinacken, due north, for upwards of 250 miles, till we reached its source; then crossing a height of land fell upon Thompson's River, or rather the south branch of Eraser's River, after travelling for some time amongst a powerful nation called the She Waps (Shuswaps). The snow fell while we were here in the mountains, and precluded our immediate return; and after waiting for fine weather the snow got so deep that we conpartners in the Pacific Fur Company. 1811,

Stuart,

sidered it hopeless to attempt to get back, and, therefore, passed our time with the She Waps and other tribes in that quarter. The Indians were numerous and well disposed, and the country throughout abounds in beavers and all other kinds of fur: and I have made arrangements to

134

establish a trading post there the ensuing winter.

<>rithe

February we began our homeward journey, and spent just twen'y-five days on our way back. The distance may be about 350 miles." 2'^th

of

Karly in 1812, the first meeting of the partners in the Fur Company was held at Fort Astoria, and among

Pacific

the resolutions passed was this one: ''That Mr. David Stuart proceed to his post at Oakinacken, explore the country northward,

and establish another post between that and

New Caledonia." The new post suggested in this resolution was to be at Kamloops and thither Mr Stuart despatched Ross thus describes the expedition: May I started with Boullard and an Indian, with sixteen horses., on a trading excursion, and following Mr. Stuart's route of last winter, reached the She Waps oil Thompson's River, the tenth day. and there encamped at a place called by the Indians Cumcloups. near the entrance of the North branch. From this station I sent messages to the different tribes around, who soon assemHere we stayed for bled, bringing with them their furs. ten days. The number of Indians collected on the occasion could not have been less than 2. 000,'' (and the one white man, "Not Ro.-'S, alone amongst them with his trading outfit!). expecting to see so many, I had taken but a small quantity of goods with me; nevertheless, we loaded all our horses so anxious were they to trade, and so fond of leaf tobacco, that one morning before breakfast I obtained one hundred and ten beavers for leaf tobacco, at the rate of five leaves per skin, and at last, when I had but one yard of white cotton remaining, one of the chiefs gave me twenty prime beaver skins for it. Having finished our trade, we prepared to return home: but before we could get our odds and ends ready, Boullard, my trusty second, got involved in a love affair, which had nearly involved us all in a disagreeable scrape with the Indians. He was as full of latent tricks Alexander Ross.

"Un

the

t^th

as a serpent

of

is full

of guile.

Unknown to me,

the old fellow

had been teasing the Indians for a wife, and had already an old squaw at his heels, but could not raise the wind to

With an

pay the whole purchase money.

me

to unload one of

air of effrontery

my

horses to satisfy the demands of the old father-in-law, and because I refused him, he threatened to leave me and to remain with the savages. Provoked by his conduct, I suddenly turned round and horsewhipped the fello.v, and, fortunately, the Indians did The castigation had a good effect, it brought not interfere

he asked

the

amorous gallant to

his

senses

the

behind. "

squaw was

left

In the same year, on August 25th, Mr. Stuart, with men and merchandise, set out from Oakinacken for "She Waps," and four months later, December 20th, Mr. Ross, who had

been again left in charge of Port Oakinacken, left the fort " pay a visit to his chief at "Cumcloups, where he arrived on the last day of 18 2. He found that Mr. Stuart had just established himself in his winter quarters, and that the Northwest Company following hard on his heels, had built a post alongside of him, "so that," wrote Koss, "there was opposition there as well as at Mr. ('larke's place, withM. La Roque, the out the trickery and manoeuvring. Northwest clerk in charge, and Mr. Stuart were open and candid and on friendly terms." With Mr. Stuart, Ross re mained for live days, and then returned to Port Uakinacken, following a new route. He wrote: "But I chose a bad season We got bewildered in of the year to satisfy my curiosity. to

1

and our progress was exceedingly slow, tedious and discouraging. We were five After suffering hunger days in making as many miles." and privations, shared by man and beast, Ross reached an Indian camp where a day was spent to recuperate, "procured some furs, and then, following the course of the Simthe mountains and deep snows,

ilka-meigh river, got to Oakinacken at the forks," reaching the fort on January 24th, 1813.

On May

13th Mr. Stuart with his

men and

furs, arrived at

Fort Okanagan from the "She Waps, " in reference to which post he wrote: "1 have passed a winter nowise unpleasant: the opposition, it is true, gave me a good deal of anxiety

when

it first

arrived, but

we agreed very

well,

and made as

much, perhaps more, than

if

we had been enemies

I

sent

out parties in all directions, north as far as Fraser's Kiver, and for 200 miles up the south branch. The accounts from all

quarters were most satisfactory. The country is everyin furs and the natives very peaceable."

where rich

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2


The Thompson country