Issuu on Google+

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Contents

1. The Beginnings of Animation 2. Airside 3. Stroboscope 4. Thaumatrope 5. Eadweard Muybridge 6. Eadweard Muybridge at Kingston Museum 7. Animal Locomotion 8. Phenakistoscope 9. Zoetrope 10. History of Stop Motion 11. Flipbook 12. Mutoscope 13. Michel Gondry 14. Lipsyncing 15. PES 16. Zoopraxiscope 17. Praxinoscope 18. How to make a Praxinoscope part 1 19. How to make a Praxinoscope part 2 20. Proposal

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


The Beginning of Animation Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion.

A 5,000 year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhta has five images of a goat painted along the sides. This has been claimed to be an example of early animation. However, since no equipment existed to show the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in a true sense of the word. A Chinese zoetrope-type device had been invented in 180 AD. The phenakistoscope, praxinoscope, and the common flip book were early popular animation devices invented during the 19th century. These devices produced the appearance of movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but animation did not really develop much further until the advent of cinematography. Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. Originally, recorded live-action film images were projected onto a frosted glass panel and redrawn by an animator. This projection equipment is called a rotoscope, although this device has been replaced by computers in recent years. In the visual effects industry, the term rotoscoping refers to the technique of manually creating a matte for an element on a live-action plate so it may be composited over another background.


Airside

Airside is a creative agency working across the disciplines of graphic design, illustration, digital, interactive and moving image. I got alot of my inspiration from them when creating some of my older stop motions. I decided to look back at them to reflect on the evolution of animation. How do they compare to the images done by Muybridge or Rotoscoping? Founded in 1998 by Alex Maclean, Fred Deakin and Nat Hunter, Airside’s unique approach has won many awards including recognition from D&AD, Bafta and Design Week. In 2008 we were named the number two digital specialist agency in Design Week’s Creative Survey (November 2008). Airside was born in 1998 when three freelancers who shared a studio space joined forces. Since then, they’ve grown into a multidisciplinary creative studio that produces fun and innovative work. Partner Fred Deakin is a musician in the band Lemon Jelly. Airside’s work often marries sound and visual in interesting ways. All promotional material for Lemon Jelly to date including posters, album covers and videos has been produced by Airside. Lemon Jelly, a British electronica duo whos hits include “The Shouty Track” Airside were the creators of the music video where two cartoon-like characters being drawn by an unseen hand, then begin to head-bang to the beat of the music I remeber the shouty track music video from when I was in college and it sprung to mind when thinking about creating my animation. I enjoy the original drawing style and the childish manner of the characters / creatures within Airsides short films.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Stroboscope A stroboscope, also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. The principle is used for the study of rotating, reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating objects. Machine parts and vibrating strings are common examples. In its simplest form, a rotating disc with evenly-spaced holes is placed in the line of sight between the observer and the moving object. The rotational speed of the disc is adjusted so that it becomes synchronised with the movement of the observed system, which seems to slow and stop. The illusion is caused by temporal aliasing, commonly known as the stroboscopic effect. In electronic versions, the perforated disc is replaced by a lamp capable of emitting brief and rapid flashes of light. The frequency of the flash is adjusted so that it is an equal to, or a unit fraction below or above the object’s cyclic speed, at which point the object is seen to be either stationary or moving backward or forward, depending on the flash frequency.


Thaumatrope A thaumatrope is a toy that was popular in Victorian times. A disk or card with a picture on each side is attached to two pieces of string. When the strings are twirled quickly between the fingers the two pictures appear to combine into a single image due to persistence of vision. Examples of common thaumatrope pictures include a bare tree on one side of the disk, and its leaves on the other, or a bird on one side and a cage on the other. They often also included riddles or short poems, with one line on each side. Thaumatropes were one of a number of simple, mechanical optical toys that used persistence of vision. They are recognised as important antecedents of cinematography and in particular of animation. I attempted the method of two pieces of string through the card and even used super glue, but the faster I spun, the more the string would escape from between the two pieces of card. Someone told me to try holepunch either end and tie rubber bands to them and sure enough this worked! I even got to recycle my orginial Thaumatrope.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Eadweard Muybridge Whilst researching some of the many forms of stop motion and the history of animation, I stumbled upon Eadweard Muybridge who was part of the 19th century “invention frenzy”, where many new forms of entertainment aimed to produce accurate, lifelike images. Amongst these were the magic lantern, Phenakistoscope, Zoetrope and Praxinoscope. These devices were popular long before the Lumiére Brothers invented their cinematography in 1895, commonly heralded as the beginning of modern cinema. Eadweard Muybridge (1830 - 1904) is one of the world’s most innovative and influential photographic pioneers, whose extensive studies of humans and animals in motion played a critical role in the history of photography and the moving image, and continue to inspire us to this day. For the most of his professional career Muybridge lived and worked in the United States, but he bequeathed his personal collection to his hometown in England, which is held at Kingston Museum & Archive. I visited the Museum in order to learn more about the development of projection. Their extensive collection includes Muybridge’s original Zoopraxiscope projection machine and unique glass discs, many personalized lanterns slides, hundreds of collotype prints, rare early albums, a copy of the San Francisco Panorama, Muybridge’s own scrapbook and many other items that make this collection of major international significance. Picture: Muybridge’s original Zoetrope at Kingston Museum.


Photos taken by me at Kingston Museum,

Muybridge invented his Zoopraxiscope in summer 1879 for use in widespread lectures on the art and science of animal locomotion. This unique projection device was intended to help prove the accuracy of Muybridge’s motion photographs to a frequently disbelieving audience, by reanimating versions of his photographic sequences in a convincing and spectacular way. The Zoopraxiscope builds on a long global history of interest in moving image projection dating back to Plato, the Han dynasty and the Ancient Egyptians. However, it extended a particularly strong trend towards experimentation with projection and the moving image present during the 19th century, which led to the invention of many new devices, and an explosion of scientific lectures and magic shows which brought exciting new forms of entertainment to mass public audiences. In fact, Muybridge’s Zoopraxiscope served to amalgamate key in creating a projection device known as the magic lantern and a moving image toy dubbed the Phenakistoscope.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Animal Locomotion

Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion which used multiple cameras to capture motion, he used banks of cameras to photograph people and animals to study their movement. The models, either entirely nude or with very little clothing, were photographed in a variety of undertakings, ranging from boxing, to walking down stairs, to throwing water over one another and carrying buckets of water. Between 1883 and 1886 he made a total of 100,000 images, working under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania. They were published as 781 plates comprising 20,000 of the photographs in a collection titled Animal Locomotion. As most of Muybridge’s work is based on the intricate movements of animals, I decided to do the same with my pieces. A book on Eadweard Muybridge called “Studies in Motion: The hauntings of Eadweard Muybridge” (2006), tells the story of his obsession with cataloguing animal motion. So I shall take a close look at animals in flight, swimming and your everyday motions, then document them onto my animations.


Phenakistoscope The phenakistoscope was an early animation device that used the persistence of vision principle to create an illusion of motion. The phenakistoscope is the predecessor of the zoetrope. The phenakistoscope use a spinning disc attached vertically on a handle. Around the center of the disc, a series of pictures was drawn corresponding to frames of the animation; around its circumference was a series of radial slits. The user would spin the disc and look through the moving slits at the disc’s reflection in a mirror. The scanning of the slits across the reflected images kept them from simply blurring together, so that the user would see a rapid succession of images with the appearance of a motion picture. I made Phenakiscope because as I understand, they are reasonably easy to recreate, and I was interested in seeing the effect of movement they made. Capturing the illusion on camera is pretty hard work and I had to go back and do some minor adjustments to get it show on camera. If the series of radial slits are too narrow, you wont be able to capture it on camera - rather just the back of some spinning card. Also I had to make the hole in the middle larger for a more loose spin. I have recorded my work.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Zoetrope A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. It consists of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. Beneath the slits on the inner surface of the cylinder is a band which has either individual frames from a video/film or images from a set of sequenced drawings or photographs. As the cylinder spins the user looks through the slits at the pictures on the opposite side of the cylinder’s interior. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from simply blurring together so that the user sees a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, the equivalent of a motion picture. Cylindrical zoetropes have the property of causing the images to appear thinner than their actual sizes when viewed in motion through the slits. Again when trying to film my efforts, it was hard to capture them and have the same effect as actually being there. My first issue was that when spinning my Zoetrope, The slits would sway freely and needed securing at the top. Then not only would it go around, but it would also rock left and right as spinning it on a stick wasnt stable, so not practicle to document. I came up with the idea to attach a second plate underneath the zoetrope, almost like a base, so i super glued it onto the wooden stick and then once dried - a further filler. This made my Zoetrope considerably more steady and then was able to film a demonstration


History of Stop Motion Stop motion (also known as stop action) is an animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous sequence. Stop motion animation has a long history in film. It was often used to show objects moving as if by magic. The first instance of the stop motion technique can be credited to Albert E. Smith and J. Stuart Blackton for The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1898), in which a toy circus of acrobats and animals comes to life. Aardman Animations, Ltd., also known as Aardman Studios, or simply as Aardman, is an Academy Award-winning British animation studio based in Bristol, United Kingdom. The studio is known for films made using stop-motion clay animation techniques, particularly those featuring Plasticine characters Wallace and Gromit. However, it successfully entered the computer animation market with Flushed Away (2006).

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Flip Books A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are essentially a primitive form of animation. Like motion pictures, they rely on persistence of vision to create the illusion that continuous motion is being seen rather than a series of discontinuous images being exchanged in succession. Rather than “reading” left to right, a viewer simply stares at the same location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn. The book must also be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to “read” a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. The first flip book appeared in September, 1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnett under the name kineograph (“moving picture”). They were the first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular (as in the older phenakistoscope).


Mutoscope Devised in 1894 as a simple paper toy using photographs to show moving pictures on the flick-book principle, by late 1897 the Mutoscope had evolved into a cast-iron automat viewer for public arcades; and spawned the Victorian era’s most successful film company, which used its large-format 68 mm wide images to gain lucrative contracts for exhibition in vaudeville and music-hall theatres across Europe and America. The partnership behind the American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. included the engineer Herman Casler, the entrepreneur Elias Koopman, the salesman and machinist Harry Marvin, and Edison’s chief Kinetoscope investigator William KennedyLaurie Dickson (1860-1935), who not only contributed early mechanical advice but became one of Biograph’s leading film-makers in 1896-1901. Although AM&B’s Mutoscope was the most successful and long-lived of many flip-card viewers, the term became generic as numerous other companies made similar apparatus well into the 1920s, the best known being the 1896 Kinora of the Lumière brothers, popularized by Charles Urban in Britain from 1902 as a device for home moving-picture portraits.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Michel Gondry Born in Versailles, France in 1963, Gondry is considered one of the most innovative film directors of recent years. His firm grip on fantasy and magic allows him to create in a different manner to his peers. No limits seem to exist and each new creative idea is tackled with enthusiasm. I got alot of ideas when looking at his lego stop animations. I created a short music video chorus based on his work with the White Stripes. Sharing his skewed views became one of his goals and he aimed high. Advertisements for Smirnoff Vodka and Gap quickly followed. Gondry has been extremely influential, creating a slew of copycat work that just never quite hits the mark like he does. The Smirnoff ad was particularly important as he invented a technique, the bullet time, which was later used in the movie, The Matrix. His advertisement for Levi 501 jeans “Drugstore� hold the Guinness World Record for the amount of prizes that it garnered. All this led to several bands and musical artists lining up for collaborations, many of which have gone down in video clip history. Daft Punk, Beck, The Chemical Brothers, The Foo Fighters or Radiohead are just a few examples.


Lip Syncing Another manifestation of lip synching is the art of making a character appear to speak in a prerecorded track of dialogue. The lip sync technique to make an animated character appear to speak involves figuring out the timings of the speech (breakdown) as well as the actual animating of the lips/mouth to match the dialogue track. The earliest examples of lip-sync in animation were attempted by Max Fleischer in his 1926 short My Old Kentucky Home. The technique continues to this day, with animated films and television shows such as Shrek, Lilo & Stitch, and The Simpsons using lip-synching to make their artificial characters talk. Lip synching is also used in comedies such as This Hour Has 22 Minutes and political satire, changing totally or just partially the original wording. It has been used in conjunction with translation of films from one language to another, for example, Spirited Away. Lip-synching can be a very difficult issue in translating foreign works to a domestic release, as a simple translation of the lines often leaves overrun or underrun of high dialog to mouth movements. Early video games did not use any voice sounds, due to technical limitations. In the 1970s and early 1980s, most video games used simple electronic sounds such as bleeps and simulated explosion sounds. At most, these games featured some generic jaw or mouth movement to convey a communication process in addition to text. However, as games become more advanced in the 1990s and 2000s, lip sync and voice acting has become a major focus of many games.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


PES & Jan Švankmajer PES (born Adam Pesapane, 26 May) is a director and animator of numerous short films and commercials.

I was almost 100% influenced by PES after being recommended them by my tutor Sophie.His stop animations are so humourous but awinspiring at the amount of time and effort gone into making one video. I heard that Roof Sex took 20 days of non-stop photo taking. Jan Švankmajer

PES

Receiving a B.A. in English Literature at the University of Virginia, PES migrated to film as a storytelling medium. His use of everyday objects and stop-motion animation to create original material is instantly recognizable. His work has been recognized in the United States and internationally, especially the short films “Roof Sex”, “KaBoom!”, “Game Over”, and “Western Spaghetti”. An early influence on PES’s animation style is the work of Czech surrealist Jan Švankmajer. After hearing that PES was influence by someone, I just has to check them out. Straight away I could see the connection between them, particularily in the over excentuated sounds. Jan Švankmajer (born 4 September 1934) is a Czech surrealist artist and filmmaker. His work spans several media. He is known for his surreal animations and features, which have greatly influenced other artists such as Tim Burton, Terry Gilliam, the Brothers Quay, Shane Acker, and many others.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Zoopraxiscope The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures. Created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879, it may be considered the first movie projector. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892-94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, then colored by hand. Some of the animated images are very complex, featuring multiple combinations of sequences of animal and human movement. The device appears to have been one of the primary inspirations for Thomas Edison and William Kennedy Dickson’s Kinetoscope, the first commercial film exhibition system. Images from all of the known seventy-one surviving zoopraxiscope discs have recently been reproduced in the book Eadweard Muybridge: The Kingston Museum Bequest (The Projection Box, 2004). This is when Eadweard began creating a series of chronophotographs and then painting them onto the glass discs. Thus the birth of his animal locomotion book. Phenakistoscopes ha already been redesigned as projection devices in various forms since around 1831. However, there was one important difference between these instruments and Muybridge’s Zoopraxiscope, which was the proximity of their projections to photographic accuracy. Where other projecting phenakistoscopes could only animate images drawn from the imagination, the Zoopraxiscope was unique in that it projected images directly informed from motion sequence photography. The Zoopraxiscope uses two disc: a glass image disk and a shutter disc, which revolve in different directions. This is a technique necessary to give the impression of movement in porjection. However, it also makes the projected image appear unaturally tall and thin because of a process called ‘anorthoscopic shift direction’ or the ‘wheel phenomenon’. Beause of this, Muybridge actually had to artistically manipulate the images on his Zoopraxiscope discs to make them appear accurate and lifelike when projected.


Praxinoscope The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. Like the zoetrope, it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder. The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned. Someone looking in the mirrors would therefore see a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, with a brighter and less distorted picture than the zoetrope offered. In 1889 Reynaud developed the Théâtre Optique, an improved version capable of projecting images on a screen from a longer roll of pictures. This allowed him to show hand-drawn animated cartoons to larger audiences, Again I tried to make my own interpretation, this one was the most challenging as there are no guides on the internet, in books or even at the Kingston Museum. After figuring our that the mechanism works on a bearing, rather like a skate or bike wheel, I set off to takle making it. Creating the decohedron shape in the centre was by far the most awkward part about it, that and the drilling into metal that is involved.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


How to Make a Praxinoscope When I decided to make a praxinoscope, I had very little information about how to make it. All I could find was some articles from the books on the history of cinema and some pictures found from internet, and none of them provided me the practical information such as how to determine diameters of inner mirror house and outer drum etc... However, one day, I cam across a very important document from the internet which seemed to give us all necessary figures to make a praxinoscope. I say “seemed” because the document was written in Hungarian which I couldn’t understand. Then I struggled hard with online dictionaries and finally were able to figure out all necessary size information for the praxinoscope. Now let’s start the photo tour of Making a Praxinoscope! Drilling holes! ... a basic skill. Drill a hole big enough for a metal rod in the centre of a sweet or biscuit tin.

Attaching the bearing unit to the bottom of the outer drum, onto your metal rod. The rod has to be attached to base (I have used a block of wood) and secured with nuts.


The drum is now set on the base. It goes round and round! You can also see the base board of inner mirror house placed inside the drum to determine exact location.

Applying mirrors around the inner house. It takes 12 narrow strips of mirror which means our praxinoscope requires 12-frame film.

Well, it works perfect as a praxinoscope now. All you need to add is a 12 frame film.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Independent Practice Proposal Currently in my independent practice I have been making stop movies and learning about Chronophotographs for the use of short films that currently have no message or meaning. I am also gathering a few photography skills in the making as I am having to take hundreds of frame by frame shots. I’ve also been delving into the history of animation and where stop motion films began. I’ve been practicing making my own Zoetropes and other forms of vintage use of motion within illusion. Although I am still unsure of what area of graphic design I am most interested in, I am enjoying where my independent practice is taking me. I have been playing around with different methods of animation and examining some mainstream illustrators such as PES and Airside. Looking at the way their short films are both so different but attractive, and the different methods of animation available to me. I have been doing a lot of investigating and mock up ideas but would like to take this a lot further, to create a more professional look on my work and to really learn the ins and outs of flash, and, if the courage hits me, to maybe tackle 3D studio programs. Inside of this I would like to study about what it is in Internet virals and animated television adverts that really sell to consumers. What short clips get messages across better than others and why. Following this perhaps move on from my meaningless stop movies and I could attempt to create the ultimate viral?! Research methods would be: Visual, literary, field research and visits of some sort to find more illustrators. Resources I will use: Computers and programs (Flash, Illustrator, iMovie) and feedback from my peers

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

SOPHIE COSTELLO


Independent Practice