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ULTRA FLOOD PLAIN The goal of modern development has created a clear separation between agricultural and industrial activities, between human and nature, a threat to human living. As we move forwards and slowly detach from nature, we neglect the power of it and forget how we once live with it. Ayutthaya is the city which illustrates such on-going situation clearly, from the day when water was city’s breath to the day when water become city’s catastrophe to local economy, society and environment. In planning for the prospect Ayutthaya we shall try to understand the formation of crisis, in order to determine the new balance between water, Ayutthaya living and Chao Phraya river basin.


Lower Chaophraya Basin

Kingdom of Thailand Natural area Watershed area Agricultural area Urban area Estuary line

Before 1350

1350-1868

ÅØ‹Á¹éÓ਌ҾÃÐÂÒ໚¹ Flood plain ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷Ѻ¶Á¢Í§µÐ¡Í¹àÁ×èÍ

µÐ¡Í¹·Ñº¶Á໚¹àÇÅÒ¡Ç‹Ò 6,000 »‚ ¨¹à¡Ô´ landform áÅСÒö´¶Í ÍÂظÂÒ໚¹áÍ‹§ÅØ‹ÁµèÓÃдѺ 3-6 Á.

¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÍÂظÂÒ໚¹µÐ¡Í¹·Õèä´ŒÃѺ ÍÔ·¸Ô¾Å¨Ò¡¹éÓ·ÐàÅ¢Öé¹Å§à»š¹´Ô¹ µÐ¡Í¹«Ö觻ÃСͺ´ŒÇ·ÃÒÂệ§ áÅдԹà˹ÕÂÇ

FLOODPLAIN EVOLUTION

µÒÁ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ

1868-1957

1957-2011

¾×é¹·Õè¢Í§ÅØ‹Á¹éÓ¡Ç‹Ò 12,578,125 äË áÅÐÁÕ¹éÓ¨Ò¡·ÐàÅ˹ع¢Ö鹨ҡ͋ÒÇä·Â »˜¨¨ØºÑ¹¡ÒâÂÒµÑǢͧàÁ×ͧ໚¹»˜ÞËÒ ËÅѡ㹡ÒâÇÒ§·Ò§¹éÓÃÇÁ·Ñ駡ÒÃ

3-6

àÁµ

ÁµÃ

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÷¡

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.

¡Ãا෾Ï

à·¾

ºÒ§

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àÁµ -6 Ò4 ÍÂظ Â

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ÃÃ ·¡.

Ãà ·¡. àÁµ 0-50 žº ØÃÕ 1

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÷¡. = ÃдѺ¹éÓ·ÐàŻҹ¡ÅÒ§ ÊÙ§¡Ç‹ÒÃдѺ¹éÓ·ÐàŻҹ¡ÅÒ§

Í‹ÒÇä·Â


1350 FLOOD CITY àÁ×ͧÅ͹éÓ ¹éÓâ´Âá·Œ ໚¹ä»äÁ‹ä´Œ·Õè¹éÓ¨ÐäÁ‹·‹ÇÁÍÂظÂÒµÒÁ Õé

FOOD PRODUCTION ¡Ò÷Ѻ¶Á¢Í§´Ô¹µÐ¡Í¹·Õè¾Ñ´¾ÒÁҡѺáÁ‹¹éÓ·Ñé§ 4 ÊÒ (áÁ‹¹éÓ਌ҾÃÐÂÒ áÁ‹¹éÓ¹ŒÍ áÁ‹¹éÓžºØÃÕáÅÐ ÃÍ´áÁŒ¹éÓ·‹ÇÁÊÙ§¶Ö§ 3-5 àÁµÃ LOGISTIC SETTLEMENT

á¾áÅÐ㵌¶Ø¹ÊÙ§

SOLID TERRITORY ´Ô ¹ á´¹áËŒ § FLUID TERRITORY ´Ô ¹ ᴹໂ  ¡

Water boundary

All of the evidence indicated that Ayutthaya is truly the water city. Since the beginning of rainy season. People learn to live and adapt cause people to change the way they live including their economic and cultural activities to connect with the water. FOOD PRODUCTION The abound of the soil around the area created from the deformation of the silt soil around Chao Praya river plain. The fertile land was developed to grow In season on rice (Kao Fang Loi) which could survive in 3-5 m. water height. LOGISTIC Ayutthaya location made it a transit hub. Natural and manmade canals were the main transportation network SETTLEMENT physical protecting barrier from enemy. City wall were built around the island to prevent built on stilt. City wall with 12.5 km. in length, 6 m. high, 5 m. thick and 16 fortress surrounded the boundary 5.50 m. 5.23 4.70 m. m.


1967 SHIFT: FLOOD BLOCKED CITY àÁ×ͧ¢ÇÒ§·Ò§¹éÓ

SURFACE

PEOPLE

Ê‹§àÊÃÔÁ¡ÒÃŧ·Ø¹à¾×èÍ¡Ô¨¡ÒÃÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ Settlement

,743 % peo ple

an Urb

Roads and Railways

URBAN TERRITORY 5.50 m.

Rai

apart.

Area 3 21 42,2 .42% 71

1967 and economic development direction set by Investment Promotion Act for industry B.E. 2505 (1962) caused the development that set

Indu 68.4 stry 31 .6% %

»Å´»Å‹Í¢ͧàÊÕÂŧÊÙ‹´Ô¹áÅÐáËÅ‹§¹éÓ

Urbanisation Pop33.6 ula % tion 260 ,452 Local Manpower 35 84 5,88% 8p eop Non-Local Manpower11 38. le 2 8

·Õèá¡¢Ò´¨Ò¡¡Ñ¹ ´Ô¹á´¹áËŒ§áÅдԹᴹໂ¡ ¾Ö觾ÒÇÔ¶Õ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔ ´Ô¹á´¹¹Õé»ÃСͺ´ŒÇÂ

5.23 4.70 m. m.

88

peo

ple16%

AGRI TERRITORY

67,7

àËÁ×͹ã¹Í´Õµ

LOGISTIC áÅÐÇѵ¶Ø´Ôº ¨Ö§ä´Œ»ÃѺà»ÅÕ蹨ҡ¾×é¹·Õèà¡ÉµÃÊÙ‹ SETTLEMENT ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁáÅкÃÔ¡Ò÷ÕèÁÕÃÒÂä´ŒÊÙ§¡Ç‹Ò¡Òà ·Ó¹ÒÍÂÙ‹ÁÒ¡à¡Ô´¡ÒÃ⡌ҶÔè¹°Ò¹¢Í§ªØÁª¹

,833 177

,705

514 tion

1,25

ula

758,635

%

66.4

Pop

FOOD PRODUCTION à»ÅÕ蹨ҡ¡ÒûÅÙ¡¢ŒÒÇà¾×è;ÍÍÂÙ‹¾Í¡Ô¹ÊÙ‹¡Òà »ÅÙ¡¢ŒÒÇà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃÊ‹§ÍÍ¡ µÍºÊ¹Í§Ãкº

.58%Rai

pe6o1.2% ple

¡Ò÷ӹҨҡ¡ÒþèÖ§¾Ò¹éÓ·‹ÒáÅйéÓ½¹µÒÁ ¸ÃÃÁªÒµÔÊÙ‹¡ÒþÖ觾ÒÃкºªÅ»Ãзҹ«Öè§

Water 4 main boundary rivers with 200 km. in length 1,254 canals Off-season Rice Double Crop Rice 46.9% In-season Rice 53.1% In-season rice period overlap with impossible to detain water like the past Ayutthaya.


3,62 7M.

1

cu0.0m% .

Irrigation system through reservoirs, waterways, water distribution canals 938 km. waterways to serve 75% of agricultural area (941,727 Rai)

13 irrigation projects

1,9O8rga 8,91nic 9 6 t Wa 2% on ste

mil2i .8% on

mil i3.6% on

4%

µÃ8

à¡É

ton

M 2.8%

0.98

M 11.4 cu.m% . Agr icul ture 9,98 0.6 2k% W

2.76

Annual Surface Water Consupmtion

66

13,3

95

11,9

ton

Waste deposit from urban area

Annual Carbon Emission 9 34M7.2%

.g.

Annual Waste Water 3 B 6.5MOD5 cu-.8m.5 m . m

,480

kW

9.3%

42%

90.7 %

58% Indu stry

Indu stry

87.4 %

WATER & ENERGY CONSUMPTION

on

66,0% 75 t

Annual Solid Waste 1 8

an

Urb

Annual Energy Consupmtion 1 99 U ,739.4% rban

cu.m .

Annual Underground Water Consumption 24M88. 6%

Indu stry

Fore igne rs 3 5.1%

mil i on bah t

Tourism Revenue 4,41100% 0

S

66,2.2% ervice 12.6 35 % mil i on

Cost of investment 32 96 4,27.4% 5m il io n GPP 4 97

NUmber of tourist 6,513040% Foreig ,638 ner s1 peo 8,7% ple

ECONOMY WASTE

5.50 m. 5.23 4.70 m. m.

Contaminated agricultural area


2011 SHIFT:

àÁ×ͧªéÓ¹éÓ FLOOD CHOKE CITY

2050 ÍÂظÂÒ¨Ó໚¹µŒÍ§àÅ×Í¡á¹Ç·Ò§¢Í§¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàÁ×ͧµ‹Í¨Ò¡¹ÕéÇ‹Ò¨ÐÁØ‹§à¹Œ¹ ä»ã¹·Ôȷҧ㴠ÃÐËÇ‹Ò§ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ·ÕèÊÌҧÃÒÂä´Œ¨Ó¹Ç¹ÁËÒÈÒÅãËŒ¡ºÑ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´(GPP 97%) ÍÕ¡·Ñé§à»š¹¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ·Õèዧ·ÃѾÂҡùéÓáÅоÅѧ§Ò¹ä»¨Ò¡¾×é¹·Õèâ´ÂÃͺ ¡Ò÷ҧ

ËÅҡŧÊÙ‹·ÕèÃÒºÅØ‹ÁáÁ‹¹éÓ਌ҾÃÐÂҵ͹ŋҧ ¡ÃзºÍ‹ҧÁËÒÈÒŵ‹Í¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÍÂظÂÒ 1.2 ŌҹŌҹºÒ·áÅСÒÃàÅÔ¡¨ŒÒ§ áç§Ò¹ à¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁ¡çäÁ‹ÊÒÁÒö㪌໚¹ ¾×é¹·ÕèÃͧÃѺ¹éÓ䴌͋ҧàµçÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÂѧÁÕ ¾×é¹·Õè¹ÒºÒ§Ê‹Ç¹ÂѧÁÕ¡ÒÃ

¢Í§àÁ×ͧãËŒÊÍ´ ·Õ¨è ÐࢌÒÁÒã¹¾×¹é ·ÕÍè ¹Ñ à¹×Íè §¨Ò¡µÓá˹‹§·Õµè §éÑ ¢Í§ÍÂظÂÒ໚¹¨Ø´ logistic

ÅØ¡¢Öé¹ÁÒà»ÅÕè¹ á»Å§¡ÒÃÇÒ§¼Ñ§àÁ×ͧ, ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒáÃкǹ¡ÒüÅÔµµÅÍ´¨¹

URBAN TERRITORY AGRI TERRITORY


92% 76%

%

7%

3.1%

0.00

12.2 % 6%

16%

%

61.2

16.6

15%

%

33.6

66%

60%

100 %

100 %

176 %

9 399.9 3%

200 %


Sustainable

Flood as Natural Capital àÃÒµŒÍ§Áͧ¹éÓ

㹺ÃÔº·¢Í§ÍÂظÂÒ

·Õè¨ÐËѹ¡ÅѺÁÒá»Å§·ÃѾÂҡùéÓ·ÕèÁÕÁÒ¡ã¹¾×é¹·Õèãˌ໚¹Çѵ¶Ø´ÔºµŒ¹·Ø¹

Ecological Sound Economical Viable

Ecological Sound Economical Viable-

Social y Accessible Social / Local Root -

Social y Accessible Social / Local Root -

Social and Ecological Exchange

Social and Ecological Exchange -


¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒùéÓã¹¾×é¹·Õè¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÍÂظÂÒáÅо×é¹·ÕèÃÒºÅØ‹Á ਌ҾÃÐÂҵ͹ŋҧµŒÍ§ÍÒÈѾ×é¹·Õèà¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁ·Ñé§ËÁ´à¢ŒÒÁÒ໚¹ ¡Åä¡ËÅÑ¡ â´Â¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾à´ÔÁ¢Í§¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕÅѡɳÐ໚¹

à¾×èÍãËŒªØÁª¹¹Ñé¹æÊÒÁÒöµ‹ÍÂÍ´¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàËÅ‹Ò¹Ñé¹ä´Œ´ŒÇµÑÇàͧ

WATER DETENTION NETWORK


2050 àÁ×ͧÃÙŒ·Ñ¹¹éÓ : Living with Flood 2012 PROJECTION 2050 78.6%

PROPOSE 2050

21.4%

94.16%

AREA 74.41% 78.6%

21.4%

78.6%

21.4%

78.6%

21.4%

74.41%

WATER

PRODUCT

GDP

12.2% 87.8%

6%

394%


2012

PROJECTION 2050

PROPOSE 2050

SETTLEMENT 399.9%

99.4%

29%

ENERGY

92%

8%

WASTE KUNMING CHIANGMAI

KUNMING CHIANGMAI

CHIANGMAI

QUINHON

QUINHON MAP TA PHUT RAYONG

CORRIDOR

MAP TA PHUT RAYONG

DON MUEANG

DAWEI

DAWEI

176%

TOURIST

MAP TA PHUT RAYONG

DON MUEANG


2050

àÁ×ͧÃÙŒ·Ñ¹¹éÓ : Living with Flood

1. Agriculture + Water Infrastruture

2. Agriculture + Food 3. Agriculture + Energy & Waste Exchange 4. Agriculture + Industry

5. Agriculture + Tourism

Number of Tourist

Energy Usage

Waste Production

Area Water Retention Area

agricultural++

Product Value per Unit

à¡ÉµÃ++


AGRI + WATER INFRASTRUCTURE ¹éÓáÅŒ§

¹éÓ·‹ÇÁ

¹éÓàÊÕÂ

Flood Drought Waste Water


AGRI + FOOD

ὡ


AGRI + ENERGY AND WASTE EXCHANGE


AGRI + INDUSTRY

KUNMING

INGREDIENT AND RAW MATERIAL IMPORTING 77,962.5 MILLION DOLLAR US.

CHIANG MAI

Creating an economic corridor connecting North to South from Dwai to Kanchanaburi and Bangkok to Ho Chi Min City as well as the building of a high-speed train will convert Ayutthaya into a goods, labor, investment, and other economic activities. This is equipped the town with an ability to increase its agriculture productivity. Cheap agriculture products can be import from the neighboring countries and to be manufactured, processed, and value-added with more material variety.

Economic Corridor

DAWEI

AYUTTHAYA

BANGKOK

DON MUEANG LAEM CHABANG MAP TA PHUT

SISOPHON HO CHI MINH CITY

CHIANGMAI

1,956,400 ton LAEM CHABANG

KUNMING

BANGKOK MAP TA PHUT RAYONG

Regional Processing Center

District Market/Processing Center

DISTRIC PROCESSING CENTER

Source:

R&D

REGIONAL PROCESSING FACTORY

DISTRIBUTING HUB

DON MUEANG


AGRI + TOURISM AND RECREATION

SARABURI

CHIANG MAI

KUNMING,CHINA

BANGBAN

32

Water Attraction

Future Attraction

KOH MUEANG

BANGPRAMHA SUPANBURI 3268

Cultural Heritage Attraction BANGKOK

SENA

Natural and Agricultural Attraction

tourists into the city. At the same time, Ayutthaya also needs to

WATER ACTIVITY AREAS

Monkey Cheek Festival Raft Accomodations Floating Tent

KUNMING

KUNMING

276

,982

487

501

DEC

KUNMING

KUNMING

Lop buri

,488

,384

,218

521 ,876 284

296

300

DON MUEANG BANGKOK

OCT

,147

,076

,028 301

,502 302

,071 304

,971 305

,022 309

,485 310

316

6,53

326

4,63

8

,292

ciagri ty culture

,768

528

529

SEP

,133

AUG

,809

,403

JULY

532

JUNE

,164

538

BANG SAI

Handicraft Attraction

535

MAY

,878

APRIL

543

MAR

546

557

FEB

,273

574

00,9

62

JAN

11,5

2010 2050

,508

the city’s agricultural tradition, local environment, and technology.

,453

Merit Giving Boat Racing

,511

the ancient city from the over capacity visitors. Futhermore, Ayutthaya should also distribute visitors to surrounding area outside

Par suk Saraburi

long stay trip one day trip

DON MUEANG

Technology Attraction Uthai District

long stay trip one day trip

DON MUEANG

Cultural Heritage Attraction

Koh-Mueng & Bang Sai District

long stay trip one day trip

DON MUEANG

Attraction

Sae Na District

Source:

long stay trip one day trip

DON MUEANG

Water Attraction

Bangban District


CHAINAT - PASAK CANAL

CHAO PRAYA RIVER

NOI RIVER

THA CHIN RIVER

PASAK RIVER

2 0 5 0

ULTRA FLOOD PLAIN

December January

February

DRY SEASON

March

April

May

June

RAINY SEASON

July

August September October November

FLOOD SEASON


New Settlement Expo Logistic Dykes

Green Facilities Reservoir

High Speed Train

Agriculture Plain

Water Plain

Polder

Energy Plant Polder

River / Canal

Irrigation Canal

Highway / Railway

LAYERS PIXEL SPACE

2050

2012

PLAIN RICE PLAIN

WATER PLAIN

ANCIENT CITY PLAIN WATER PLANTS PLAIN

TREATMENT PLAIN

+ Fruit trees

2012 2050

Energy trees

Agro forestry

PLANT POLDER

2012 2050

Low density

High density

RESIDENCE POLDER

2012 2050

2012 2050

INDUSTRIAL POLDER

FACILITY POLDER

2012 2050

MEGA POLDER

POLDER


FLOOD DETENTION NETWORK HUB OF GREATER CHAOPRAYA FLOODPLAIN

HYDRO AGRICULTURE


AGRI-INDUSTRY AREA

AGRI-TOURISM


GREATER ULTRA FLOOD PLAIN ÍÂظÂÒ໚¹Ë¹Ö§è ã¹ 8 ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´·Õµè §éÑ ÍÂÙã‹ ¹·ÕÃè ÒºÅØÁ‹ áÁ‹¹Óé ਌ҾÃÐÂҵ͹ŋҧ·Õ¡è ÓÅѧ

Ayutthaya is one of the 8 cities in the lower Chao Phraya Flood Plain, which are facing development challenge and water

FLOOD AREA Kingdom of Thailand

ªÑ¹ҷ

ºŒÒ¹ËÁÕ Å¾ºØÃÕ

Í‹Ò§·Í§ ÀÒªÕ ÍÂظÂÒ ºÒ§»ÐÍÔ¹ ¹¹·ºØÃÕ

ÊÃкØÃÕ

+

=

ÃѧÊÔ»·Øµ Á¸Ò¹Õ

¡Ãا෾ ÁËҪѠÊÁطûÃÒ¡ÒÃ

GPP

PIXEL

WATER ECONOMIC CORRIDOR


FLOOD WAY = WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

WATER DISTRIBUTION DURING DROUGHT

WASTE WATER TREATMENT

FLOOD WAY = WATER ECONOMIC CORRIDOR

FLOOD DETENTION CAPACITY

EXPANSION ´ŒÇ water economic corridor áÅÐ

HUB


¨Ñ´·Ó¢Öé¹à¾×èÍ»ÃСͺ¹Ô·ÃÃÈ¡Òà WATER BRICK ÀÒÂ㹧ҹʶһ¹Ô¡’55 Published as supplemental material for the Architect Expo 2012

ºÃÔÉÑ· ©ÁÒ ¨Ó¡Ñ´ áÅзÕÁ§Ò¹ / Shma Company Limited and Team

¹Ò§ÊÒÇ ÈÈÔÁ¹ÑÊ ËØ‹¹ÊØÇÃó / Miss Sasimanas Hoonsuwan ¹Ò§ÊÒÇ ¹À¨Ã ÈÃթѵÃÊØÇÃó / Miss Napajorn Srichatsuwan


2050 Ultra Flood Plain - Ayutthaya