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Research Paper


TOPIC Understanding the system of ‘Graphical Wayfinding’ in hospitals (a public and a private hospital in Mumbai) and testing its efficiency.

GROUP MEMBERS Shivani Dhanuka Shraddha Vassa Suhani Nawalkha


CONTENTS 6 Acknowledgement 7 Timeline 8 List of Figures 9 List of Tables

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15 Introduction

27 Review of Related Literature

49 Methodology of the study

16 Context of the study

28 Process of Wayfinding

49 Research Type

17 Research Questions

29 Types of Wayfinding

18 Objectives of the Study

32 Areas of Wayfinding

19 Operational Definitions

33 Criteria of Wayfinding

of the Terms

37 Tools of Wayfinding 38 The Need for Physical Signage

and Method 50 Population and Sample of the Study 51 Tools of Data Collection 52 Procedure of Data Collection 53 Method of Data Analysis

39 Benefits of Good Signage 40 Wayfinding in Hospitals 42 Hospital Research 43 Why is Wayfinding the need of the hour?

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59 Analysis and Interpretation

87 Summary and Conclusions

97 Gallery

60 Online Survey

87 Brief Restatement of

97 Bibliography

65 Offline Survey 71 Checklist 74 Observation Sheet 76 Observation Pictures 78 Five Human Factors

Context, Objectives & Methodology 88 Major Findings of the Study 89 Implications and Conclusions of the Study 90 Suggestions for Further Research 95 Delimitations

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103 Appendices -Designed Tools for Data Collection -Collected Responses


Acknowledgement We owe thanks to a great many people who helped and supported us during the making of this research paper and during the entire module.

Our deepest thanks to our Primary Teacher, Ms Shweta Minocha for mentoring and correcting us throughout the entire paper with attention and care. She has always been supportive to ideas, guiding us with full energy and positivity and making necessary corrections as and when needed.

We express our thanks to our other faculty members Ms Rita Ashara, Ms Rashmi Thakur & Ms Mona Mehta for their continuous guidance and encouragement all throughout this module. It is their trust that made this design research paper possible.

We are also thankful to the respondents of our questionnaires both online and offline who gave their precious time to accomplish the project. We are also immensely grateful to the following people: Yesha Shah, Disha Rathor, Arti Patil, Krishna Agarwal, Vivek Nawalkha, Jyoti Dhanuka and Ronak Aswani

Lastly, our deepest sense of gratitude to those people who cooperated with us to study and explore more deeply about the challenges, giving their valuable time, support, knowledge and information.

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Deciding area of Study, Mind Mapping, Methodology of the study

2 Collecting Secondary Data, Five Human Factors

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7 Deciding tools of Data Collection, Conducting Primary Research

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Analysis & Interpretation of collected data, Proposing solution, Concluding the Research Paper

TIMELINE

Timeline

Fig.1. Timeline (Nawalkha, 2018)


List of Figures Fig.1. Timeline Fig. 2.1. Mind Map Fig. 2.2. Process of Wayfinding Fig. 2.3. Identification Sign Fig. 2.4. Informational Sign Fig. 2.5. Directional Sign Fig. 2.6. Regulatory Sign Fig. 2.7. Directional Sign Fig. 2.8. Identification Sign Fig. 2.9. Areas of Wayfinding Fig. 2.10. Criteria of Wayfinding Fig. 2.11. Components of Architecture Wayfinding Fig. 2.12. Directional sign Fig. 2.13. Situation and object identification Fig. 2.14. Destination information Sign Fig. 2.15. Orientation device Fig. 2.16. Tools of Wayfinding Fig. 2.17. Classification of Wayfinding Fig. 2.18. Types of hospital layout Fig. 2.19. Map of Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital Fig. 4.1. Tools of Analysis

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Fig. 4.2. Online Survey Analysis Fig. 4.3. Online Survey Analysis Fig. 4.4. Offline Survey Analysis Fig. 4.5. Offline Survey Analysis Fig. 4.6. Checklist Fig. 4.7. Sign for way to O.P.D. Fig. 4.8. Identification sign for cure for AIDS Fig. 4.9. Directions for different buildings Fig. 4.10. Regulatory Sign Fig. 4.11. Main Reception area Fig. 4.12. Dentistry Department Fig. 4.13. Identification Sign Fig. 4.14. Physical Landmarks at key decision points Fig. 4.15. J.J. Hospital, Outside Building Fig. 5.1. Proposed symbols of wayfinding for J.J. Hospital

List of Tables Table. 2.1. Types of hospital layout Table. 2.2. Hospital Research Table. 4.1. Data Analysis of Question 8 from User Experiences Table. 4.2. Data Analysis of Question 4 from User Expectations Table. 4.3. Observation Sheet Table. 4.4. Observation Sheet 9


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INTRODUCTION Could one, completely new to a surrounding understand how to use a large international airport or an urban rail transit system if there were no signs at all, or if the signs were a disparate mishmash of messages, graphics, and physical forms? Or when one first arrives in an unknown city, doesn’t he just want to know how to find the Metro or a taxi, and the only relief is relying on clearly visible and unambiguous signs to direct him? Or could one get himself through the maze of floors, disciplines, and services to the correct destination in a large metropolitan hospital, without following the signs and other visual clues that would hopefully get him to his doctor? (Calori, 2015)

Wherever one is, he is there because he managed to orient, navigate or remember the environment, put his knowledge and previous experiences into action and understand the virtual space around him. The question is, how does the brain manage to do this task, locate itself in an unknown or known environ and make sense of the surrounding. As per contributions by John O’Keefe & Lynn Nadel (1978), researchers have found the presence of ‘Place Cells’ in the hippocampus of the human brain, the area that registers and applies

Introduction

spatial information and helps the person in the very process of wayfinding.

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Context of the study Wayfinding is as old as the early humans, when visual information was communicated through marks on objects, such as cave walls. As cities grew and mobility increased, making the built environment more complex, people’s need to navigate and use their surroundings also grew. In the simplest language, the word wayfinding means what it says. It names the process of people finding their way. It describes how people communicate and interact with the environment around them, procuring information that would ultimately lead them to their destination. This, in turn, makes their job easier, helps them orient themselves and liberates them of the task of getting lost in their physical surrounding. The context of the following research focuses on understanding how do humans find themselves in places they want to be and when they want to be. The research revolves around comprehending and developing a sense of navigation that helps people to reach from point A to point B. The area of study selected has been kept on a micro level, considering a private (Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital) and a government hospital (Jamshedji Jeejeebhy Hospital) in Mumbai to find the current status of wayfinding and navigation systems in these spaces. To have a better grasp of the topic, the research is further cut to understanding a particular element of wayfinding, i.e., ‘Graphical Wayfinding’ in these hospitals. The various methods of data collection and analysis would further add to a better understanding of the

proposition of an effective method by which people can communicate with their space and environment.

Introduction

current situation and status of the problem statement. The research further aims at the

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Research Questions 1. What does a human brain first look for in an unknown environment? The foremost area that the research aims at finding is understanding how the human brain takes information from its spatial environment, making sense of its orientation and figuring out how to reach the destination.

2. Understanding the basic concept of wayfinding. Comprehending the entire process, elements, types, principles, criteria, areas of use, and tools of wayfinding and understanding how it can be applied in the selected area of study (hospital).

3. The status of cognitive wayfinding in an average human brain. This forms a part of the primary data collection where the current status of navigation abilities among different age groups will be found using an online survey on wayfinding. This would further help in taking the research ahead as to how the system of navigation in hospitals serves considering the cognitive abilities of different users. This could help understanding how different users with different past experiences and level of ‘knowing’

Introduction

react to the same set of wayfinding elements in their surroundings.

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4. Are navigation systems in hospitals effective? This research focuses on observing the various elements of graphical wayfinding and digging into their physical and spatial properties, understanding how they form a guiding path for


the user in a built environment. The requisite knowledge, skill, and competency of the users to perform the action would be considered before evaluating the performance.

5. Progressive Disclosure- Understanding the relevance of the right information at the right time. Understanding how reducing the amount of information that the user is exposed to at a given time could ultimately lead to a better grasp of instructions, be it directional, informational, regulatory or orientation.

Objectives of the Study The entire area of research will be surveyed by examining a particular element of wayfinding, i.e., concentrating on the ‘graphical aspect of navigation’. The same is bifurcated into orientation, directional information, destination identification, and situation and object identification. The entire objective of the study would revolve around understanding how people navigate in these hospitals using these elements, what contributes towards the efficiency of this navigation system & the functioning of a successful wayfinding structure. The hospital would be studied based on the checklists and observations that serve as a useful method of navigating, including consistency in design, readability factor and access routes.

Introduction 18


Operational Definitions of the Terms Cognitive Map: A cognitive map is a mental representation of physical location. Humans use them to find their way and to help recall important features of the environment. Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the “mind’s eye� to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information. ( Tolman E. C. , 1948)

Colour code: A system of marking things with different colours as a means of identification. The earliest examples of colour codes in use are for long distance communication by use of flags, as in semaphore communication. (Wikipedia)

Consistency in Design: It is a combination of both visual and functional consistency in a product design. It improves the usability and learnability of the product. Consistency will make the design better, easier to use, and practically invisible. It gives the user plenty of room to experience the design in the way intended. Consistency is the thread that ties together elements in a single design. It also ties together designs across a single campaign or brand, creating a product that is distinguishable, usable and effective. (Nikolov, 2017)

Introduction

Environmental Graphic Design (EGD): Environmental Graphic Design (EGD) embraces

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many design disciplines including graphic, architectural, interior, landscape, and industrial design, all concerned with the visual aspects of wayfinding, communicating identity and information, and shaping the idea of creating experiences that connect people to place.


Key Decision Point: Along each route, there are certain places such as a car-pedestrian exit, a main building entrance area, a corridor intersection or a lift area- where most people need to make a decision about which way to go. These are referred as the key decision point. Decision points are where the navigator must make a wayfinding decision. A sign embeds additional information into the space to direct the navigator’s next navigational choice. ( NHS Estates, 2005)

Landmarks: A prominent or conspicuous object on land that serves as a guide to enable people to establish their location. A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can also be applied to smaller structures or features that have become local or national symbols. ( Wikipedia)

Legibility Distance: Legibility is a key factor in visual communication for the built environment. It varies by viewing distance, location, typeface, style, colour in the text versus the background and other physical condition. But the basic parameters for a legible typeface include: •

Clear, easily defined letterforms

Large x-height

Medium weights and stroke widths

If the messages on signs, displays, screens, interpretive graphics, or other environmental/ experiential graphics are not readable, they are not effective. `Significant research has been devoted to the relative legibility of typefaces and, in particular, legibility is a major factor in Introduction

signs and other communications designed for public buildings and spaces.

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Navigation: The process or activity of accurately ascertaining one’s position and planning and following a route. It is concerned with determining position, location, distance traveled and course to a known destination. Navigation, in a broader sense, can refer to any skill or study that involves the determination of position and direction. (Oxford Dictionaries)

Progressive Disclosure: Progressive disclosure is the principle of providing only the steps, data, and information required for a given task. This improves usability by presenting only the minimum data required for the task at hand. It helps maintain the focus of a user’s attention by reducing clutter, confusion and cognitive workload. Progressive disclosure says: “Make more information available within reach, but don’t overwhelm the user with all the features and possibilities” (Spillers 2004).

Signage: Graphic designs, as symbols, emblems, or words, used especially for identification or as a means of giving directions or warning. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience. This is typically manifested in the form of wayfinding information in places such as streets or on the inside and outside buildings. Signs vary in form and size based on location and intent, from more expensive banners, billboards, and murals, to smaller street signs, street name signs, sandwich boards and lawn signs. Newer signs may also use digital or electronic displays. The main purpose of signs is to communicate, to convey information designed to assist the receiver with decision-making based on the information provided. (Random House)

Introduction

Spatial Orientation: The natural ability of animals to maintain their body orientation in

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relation to the surrounding environment (physical space) at rest and during motion. ( Golledge. Jacobson. Kitchin. Blades, 2000)


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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

•Identification •Informational •Directional •Regulatory

Types

Areas of use

Wayfinding Mindmap

•Supermarket •Hospital •Malls •Transport •Educational institutions •Airport

Benefits Users •Boosts local business •Best use of assets •Customer empowerment •Fulfilling experience

Tools of wayfinding

Review of Related Literature

Process

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•Orientation •Route decision •Route monitoring • Destination

Criterial elements

•Human help •Visual clues •Mental map •Digital kiosks •Physical signage •Physical Map •Compass •Architectural •Graphic -Orientation -Destination identity -Destination information -Situation of object identification •Audible •Tactile

Fig. 2.1. Mind Map (Nawalkha, 2018)

Business •Cost effective •Silent salesperson •Reinforce brand


Process of Wayfinding

Fig. 2.2. Process of Wayfinding (Dhanuka, 2018)

Wayfinding is divided into four different processes:

Orientation is the process of figuring out where a person is, relative to his destination or other known areas. He can orient himself by checking kiosk maps, looking for landmarks, or reading signs which identify a location. Route Decision is deciding how a person is going to get from one point to another. He can decide on a route by looking at maps, following directional signs, or simply by seeing his destination in the distance. Route Monitoring is determining whether or not a person is still on the path and heading in the right direction. Often the easiest way to confirm a path is by using the paving or other

lost along the way. Destination Recognition is being able to recognize when a person has reached his destination. Signage is very helpful as it maintains clear lines of sight from a trail to potential attractions like neighbourhood centres or recreational facilities. (Livablestreets, 2017)

Review of Related Literature

ground material. He can also use signs or other verbal cues to confirm that he hasn’t gotten

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Types of Wayfinding Signs deliver information, and in wayfinding signage, only a handful of different types of signs are necessary to deliver information. To create a useful system of wayfinding signage, there need to know what these signs serve. Here’s a breakdown of types of wayfinding system:

Identification signs are visual markers located at a destination to identify the desired destination, space or place in an environment. It describes the nature, personality, character and even its historic content of a destination in words or icons. It symbolizes arrival at the location. e.g. building, rooms, facilities. (Fig. 2.3, Fig. 2.8)

Informational signs reveal the features and facilities of a place or space. e.g. directories, maps, notices. (Fig. 2.4)

Directional signs provide necessary cues to keep people moving to the various destinations within a given environment. It points the way to a destination. Directional signs almost always display arrows to point out specific paths—such as left, right, straight ahead—to

Review of Related Literature

destinations. e.g. wall-mounted or overhead signs, directional arrows. (Fig. 2.5, Fig. 2.7)

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Regulatory signs are used to regulate movement and activity for user safety, comfort and site management by providing information and instructions about known dangers and warning against unsafe behaviours. It generally describes the dos and don’ts of a particular place. e.g. fire exits, no smoking, authorized personnel only. (Fig. 2.6)(Micheal, 2017 & Dalton, 2014)


Fig. 2.3. Identification Sign (Bravo, 2017)

Fig. 2.5. Directional Sign (Zeller, 2018)

Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.4. Informational Sign (Serrano, 2016)

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Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.6. Regulatory Sign (Zunder, 2016)

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Fig. 2.7. Directional Sign (Church, 2016)

Fig. 2.8. Identification Sign (Anonymous)


Areas of Wayfinding

Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.9. Areas of Wayfinding (Dhan uka, 2018)

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Criteria of Wayfinding Wayfinding is about effective communication, and relies on a succession of communication clues delivered through our sensory system of visual, audible, tactile and olfactory elements.

Fig. 2.10. Criteria of Wayfinding (Dhanuka, 2018)

There are four primary wayfinding elements: architectural, graphic, audible, and tactile communication.

Architectural Cues depict how spatial organization, destination zones, and information sequencing can be built through environmental design and communication which can subconsciously guide a user to navigate around. It has

Review of Related Literature

several wayfinding components which can be better understood in a form of a

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diagram (Fig. 2.11.) Graphic communication is the visual display of information in form of text, pictograms, maps, photographs, models, and diagrams. It is the most direct way for people to find their location. Visitors are required to observe, read, learn and comprehend these systems as they make their way to their desired destination.


Graphic wayfinding elements have four different categories under its head which can be explicated as follows:

1. Orientation devices such as maps, site plans, floor plans, building and floor directories are used to help people to develop a mental map of a large complex. These devices should help people to determine where they are, where their destination is, and what the best route is to their destination. (Fig. 2.15) 2. Directional identification guides people along a route to a destination and is given after they have had the chance to orient themselves to the general setting. Most often this includes signs with arrows and elevator button panels. (Fig. 2.12) 3. Destination information provides details about the desired destination once the user arrives. Typically, it includes building signage, floor numbers, and room identifiers. (Fig. 2.14) 4. Situation and object identification informs visitors about situations such as local hazards, changes of status (e.g., train schedules) and identifies objects such as fire extinguishers. (Fig. 2.13) (Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access)

Audible communication undertakes communication through verbal instruction and public broadcasting systems via PA systems, talking signs, infrared signs and water fountains. It is useful for people with perceptual or cognitive impairments.

Tactile communication is communicated through feel and touch. It makes the use of

impaired. Additionally, it is a benefit to all the visitors and not only the disabled. (Apelt, Ron. Crawford, John. Hogan, Dennis, 2017)

Review of Related Literature

raised letters, Braille, and textured floor coverings to assist users who are visually

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Review of Related Literature 35

Fig. 2.11. Components of Architecture Wayfinding (Hunter, 2010) (Dhanuka, 2018)


Fig. 2.12. Directional sign (Mohabier)

Fig. 2.13. Situation and object identification (Pixabay)

Fig. 2.14. Destination information Sign (Anonymous)

Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.15. Orientation device (Paggiaro)

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Tools of Wayfinding Good tools and clues are considered to aid in successful decision making and clear recognition of pathways and destinations. Tools of good wayfinding are components designed to support spatial orientation and cognitive mapping. Redundancy and overlap of these tools are also helpful to assist people with varying cognitive skills. They do so in the

Review of Related Literature

following ways (Fig. 2.14.)

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Fig. 2.16. Tools of Wayfinding (Dhanuka, 2018)


The Need for Physical Signage The physical world still exists and we still live in it and we still need to find our way through it. There are now multiple channels for communicating wayfinding information—digital and static—but the basic need for orientation still exists. Looking to the future, there has been much speculation whether mobile computing devices with digital mapping and augmented reality applications will spell the end of physical signs. While personalized digital applications have the potential to really simplify things for users, the answer is still no, for many reasons, three of which are: Physical signs don’t need a mobile device, signal, or battery power to operate; tech also somewhere has the potential to make users anxious—especially those who are older and/or less comfortable with the digital world—feel lost before the journey even begins; and not everyone is equipped with mobile computer devices. And even if they are, if the power goes out, that little blue dot on the smartphone map doesn’t exist, but physical signs do and we suddenly realize how essential they are to conducting our life. While there’s no doubt that the various wayfinding applications on such devices have enhanced the way millions of people navigate the built environment—and will continue to do so—the word enhance is key. Humans are a long way from completely tech-driven

is a belief that physical signs are here to stay and that mobile digital devices offer rich opportunities for augmenting the communication function of those physical signs. (Calori. Vanden-Eynden, 2015)

Review of Related Literature

wayfinding, and determining the right mix of digital and traditional signage is critical. There

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Benefits of Good Signage For Users: • Good signage leaves a good impression in the mind of the visitor and ensures that the building successfully achieved that which it was set up to do. This, in turn, leads to less frustration and stress for the visitor. • For urban spaces such as town centres, these communities also seek to ensure that tourists and residents alike discover and use as many of the community’s assets as possible. Coming across these assets of the community, and without frustration, leaves the impression in the minds of visitors of an easy space to navigate, thereby increases the chance of repeat visits. • Well-designed signage and environmental graphic programs also serve to enhance the aesthetic and psychological qualities of an environment. • When a visitor understands his or her spatial orientation using the signage, it creates a sort of customer empowerment, improving cognitive skills in spatial understanding and sense of control in their mind. (Brightonsigns, 2016)

For Business: • A sign can help plant the seed for future sales in a business.

Review of Related Literature

• Signs serve as a type of silent salesperson for a business. Exterior signs draw attention to

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the place of business and help differentiate it from others on the street. Interior signs help the business in impulse sales when added to special displays. • Signs can be an essential component of a business’s overall marketing strategy. A sign that contains a business’s logo can help reinforce its brand. Signs are also used to draw attention. (Joseph)


Wayfinding in Hospitals Airports and hospitals have one very important thing in common: Lots of anxious visitors trying to find their way, many of whom have never (or rarely) been there, while at the same time dealing with issues related to expanding campuses and separate, specialized facilities. The result? The hospital maze continues to grow. Patients, visitors, and even new physicians need more help than ever before to navigate hospitals. And this makes the importance of wayfinding system as important as ever. Before studying further, it becomes crucial to get a hold on classification and layout of the hospital which can be best explained below.

Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.17. Classification of Wayfinding (Dhanuka, 2018)

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Classification of Hospitals Depending on how hospital functions, the method of classification of hospitals is of paramount importance in research.

Typology of Hospital Form In terms of the legibility of layouts, it is important to understand how hospitals are spread out as they influence wayfinding factor. It can be shown as a breakdown in three types namely,

Review of Related Literature

Table. 2.1. Types of hospital layout (Khan, 2011)

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Fig. 2.18. Types of hospital layout (Khan, 2011)


Hospital Research

Table. 2.2. Hospital Research

Review of Related Literature

Fig. 2.19. Map of Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital (Nawalkha, 2018)

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Why is Wayfinding the need of the hour? Anxiety: Hospitals are already filled with anxious visitors and patients facing potential diagnoses and treatment options. Trying to find their way through complex facilities only exacerbates this anxiety. In most cases, these visitors and patients have never been there before. The last thing they need to worry about is how to get where they need to go without getting lost. Confusion and fatigue: Hospitals are crowded, fast-moving places, the terminology is likely unfamiliar, and patients must often go to multiple destinations during a visit. Patients’ feelings of anxiety may be compounded by fatigue and confusion related to injury or disease. Lost appointments: A recent study shows that one of the main reasons patients miss their appointments is because they get lost trying to find their doctor’s office. Often times, the situation worsens as they try to navigate a sprawling medical facility. Lost productivity: If the overall user experience is not satisfactory, the hospital can lose future patients, revenue, as well as productivity. Losing to competitors: Competition to attract patients has only increased over the years and the recent healthcare reform changes have only magnified this trend. As hospital

Review of Related Literature

organizations work harder than ever to build connections within their communities, it is

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extremely important to consider the entire patient experience from home, to doctor’s office. Ensuring that visitors can navigate a hospital’s campus easily is a huge step toward a positive user experience, which translates to patient loyalty. (Aruba)


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METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Research Type and Method From the various types of study, the one selected for this research is descriptive. In this case, the current area would be a private and government hospital in Mumbai, and the research would involve observing, describing and documenting the functioning of the graphical method of wayfinding. An accurate and systematic study would form a cornerstone for understanding how navigation systems in health care centre function effectively and a descriptive study is the best way to get to it, since it, would take into account the current status of the situation.

With respect to methodology, a quantitative approach would add to a better understanding of the area selected. A quantitative methodology would serve with objective answers,

Methodology of the Study

whether people understand the icons and symbols, whether its patient-focused or not,

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if they have barriers in understanding the directional information or finding where the directory is. Such objectivity would further help to create a generalised output without much distraction.


Population and Sample of the Study For the Research, the population would be the target group within the physical boundaries, the ones on whom the objective of the study applies the most. This study would primarily focus on the total population of different types of patients and visitors in the private (Kokilaben Dhirubai Ambani Hospital) and government (J.J. Hospital) hospital selected in the area of research.

Based on population, the sampling unit would consist of the number of people within a feasible reach to understand the topic and oversee how navigation system functions in these areas. With respect to types of samples, probability sampling would be taken into account to build up the research work. Under probability sampling, two techniques (simple random and stratified random) would be considered. The sample group of visitors and patients in these hospitals would have equal chances of representing when collecting the data through surveys, thus forming a part of the simple random technique. Also, a certain number of different users group would be chosen for an online survey as diversity in responses received would be the best approach to answer this survey question. The sample would be stratified as this general public would be classified based on their age group while Methodology of the Study

collecting online data.

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Tools of Data Collection For the study, to reach a diverse and scattered group of people, questionnaires targeting the respondents (visitors and patients) would be created. Visitors would answer quantitative (closed-ended) questions explaining their navigation experiences and hindrances while understanding and using them. Another method to assemble data would include an attitude scale where the target sample (online users of diverse age groups) would be asked to answer questions based on their likeness evaluating their general cognitive understanding of navigation. This would form the starting point of collecting the primary data, helping in getting an understanding of their level of ‘knowing’ when it comes to orienting and moving around in space. A checklist and observation sheet measuring the efficiency of the systems

Methodology of the Study

adopted by these hospitals would also form a part of the primary data collection.

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Procedure of Data Collection After selecting and finalizing the tools, the next step in the research involves the actual process of data collection. For this particular research, the area of study (private and public hospitals) under investigation would be reached, and after seeking prior permission from the hospital heads, primary data would be gathered. Since most of the data would be based on first-hand experience (interviews, observations, and questionnaires), the statistics would be supported by face-to-face conversations with the respondents. In this case, the sample group of patients and visitors would be approached to take the investigation further. This would add to obtaining a better insight into their experiences and thoughts on the current status of graphical wayfinding in hospitals. Formal observation of users and space would also be made for discovering more about their behaviours and uses of existing spaces. This would be done by observing the environment, the behaviour of the people involved and their body language.

Secondary data obtained through the websites, blogs, online videos and books and journals would also form a part of the research. This would further help in getting a better hang of the topic in detail. To support the collection, data details would also be gathered using Methodology of the Study

photographs, video recording, and visual illustrations.

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Method of Data Analysis To arrive at a conclusion, the data assembled will be reviewed and processed thoroughly. To analyze the data, a quantitative method will be employed for the design research paper. A three-step process will be followed for the same. The raw data (questionnaires, observations, and checklist) will be firstly edited, providing for the information gaps, misclassifications and error. This would help in getting through the analysis with a better approach. Later, a system of coding (keeping the color key in mind) will be generated, which will later be tested and verified. The last process will be data presentation, where the raw data collected will be taken to an advanced level with the help of infographics and tables. After organizing the raw data through editing, coding, and later data presentation, a critical interpretation of the total number of figures and numbers would be done and attempts to find the reasons of the significant number of people involved would also be evaluated. This could later form a base

Methodology of the Study

for the design brief and proposed solutions.

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Analysis and Interpretation

Tools of Analysis:

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Fig. 4.1. Tools of Analysis (Nawalkha, 2018)


Online Survey Wayfinding (the process of orienting and navigating yourself spatially) becomes an important element when a person is exposed to an unknown environment. A human brain will always tend to know exactly where it is, try to remember the route somehow or know how far it is from the destination. An understanding of the physical surrounding is thus important to move forward. This level of ‘knowing’ varies from person to person, depending on their spatial and cognitive abilities that are developed based on past experiences, level of route monitoring and presence of mind. A screening of the same could help spatial designers, environmental graphic designers, and interior designers along with architects and planners to prepare a surrounding that caters to their needs. One way of testing the level of understanding in individuals is to develop an abstract model (mental model of innovation) and do pilot testing to verify the user-efficiency and adaptability of the system. Another method could include developing a set of questions that could generate a desired output for the problem statement.

The same has been done through a Wayfinding Questionnaire (WQ), presented as a screening instrument for navigation-related problems faced by individuals in general. The

answer certain questions using a Likert scale. The raw data was collected by the means of an online survey. The same reveals the level of route understanding in individuals, which would help to go further with the research statement.

Analysis and Interpretation

target group involves males and females from different age groups who were asked to

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Analysis and Interpretation

Analysis:

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Fig. 4.2. Online Survey Analysis (Vassa and Dhanuka, 2018)


Analysis and Interpretation

Fig. 4.3. Online Survey Analysis (Vassa and Dhanuka, 2018)

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Interpretation/ Value Judgment Process:

Out of the 100 people survey, 72% were males and the rest (28%) were females. Although the survey was distributed equally, a greater number of males preferred to respond to it. This might be due to greater access to mobile devices which might be handy at the moment the survey was distributed. The age was categorised into 5 groups i.e., 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55 & up. The survey catered mostly to the age group of 35-54 which account for 70% of the sample. This also served the purpose of understanding their level of spatial understanding which would further help with the research question as this is the group which is likely to visit hospitals often as compared to the people belonging to the age group of 18-34. When asked about their ability to walk back a route they’ve just walked up, 39% (29 males and 10 females) rated their likeliness as ‘occasionally’ signifying they face difficulty at times remembering the routes they’ve walked once. While approximately half the population rated themselves good and extremely good while recollecting their way back a route, meaning this inheritance is present in almost half of them. Regarding the determination of the front entrance, nearly 48% disagreed with this ability, in the sense the front entrances are not placed efficiently enough to be located by almost half the people. This could be kept in mind while designing further projects by the concerned authorities.

Analysis and Interpretation

The significance of a landmark while monitoring and determining a route should be kept

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in mind as nearly all the respondents (97%) rated themselves between average to very good while remembering what side of the landmark they’ve seen before. This could serve as a later proof that the sense of navigation and orientation could be increased by proper placement of these landmarks at key monitory and decision points, as people remembering


the route through the help of visual cues. While orienting themselves in an unknown environment, 13% face acute difficulty in doing so, implying the new physical environment poses a challenge to understand their location. While a majority (70%; 57 males, 13 females) believe they can position themselves better when placed in an unknown setting. This data serves as an evidence that the status of navigation system which guides the people functions appropriately in most of the environments which seem new to people. The presence of an effective signage and directional system becomes the need of the hour, as 61% of the sample group still faces anxiety and fear when asked to go to a new destination. The reason could be a poor sense of direction or misunderstood navigation signs. Often the principle of progressive disclosure isn’t kept it in mind while guiding the user. Too much information ends up exposing them to confusion and lost sense of navigation. A simple and systematic system could thus bring down this fear and make them take to new destinations and locations. Human resource possesses extreme value and every institution can benefit when these are put to best use. If the users are given proper directions at proper places, it is evident that 67% of them can understand, find and follow their way on their own. An effective wayfinding signage system is thus crucial to keeping the human resource focused, productive, and free from interruptions. While 33% still are likely to face problems while understanding the route, which paves a way for better presentation and deliverance of this information using different tools and techniques of communication.

better solutions and strategies that ultimately result in a better sense of navigation. This could prove to be favourable as majority of the sample group (62%) takes it in a zealous manner, accepting the challenges and taking ahead onto it. While 16% still feel hesitant in

Analysis and Interpretation

Accepting new routes to known destinations gives a chance to designers to come up with

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doing so, implying there is need to make the existing system better instead of going on with new routes and practices. The majority show a good sense of direction (58%, 48 males, and 10 females) rating themselves between 4 to 5. This is mostly an inherited quality, more biological than acquired and can be kept in mind while design navigation spaces for this public.

Offline Survey The last step of collection of raw data included a questionnaire through the means of a survey. The area of study has been reduced to only the visitors and patients of the J.J Hospital (Mumbai). A sample group of 20 visitors and patients was taken to move further with the survey. The aim of the questionnaire was to find out the level of understanding that people (regular as well as new patients and visitors) have while interpreting and processing the information presented to them through the graphical method of wayfinding. All the elements of orientation, directional, destination, and situation and object identification were considered before preparing the questionnaire.

Analysis and Interpretation

To get a better grasp of the topic, the questionnaire is further divided into three parts: User

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information, User experience & User expectation. The analysis forms a basis of the proposed suggestions and conclusions that ultimately serve as the main research question.


Analysis: 18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55 and up

NO

YES

SEX RATIO Male Female 20%

30%

25%

15%

10%

AGE

70%

visitors are able to identify the main entrance to the building easily

52%

None

48%

Family Friend member

Other

67% Visitors are able ďŹ gure out the way to their destination all by themselves

38%

15%

80%

0%

Companion

62% 62% Visitors have to ask people for help for way to their desired destination.

38%

Ability of the visitors to follow with the overall signage system in the hospital

45% Text

50% Both 5% Graphic Preference of the kind of elements on signage that the visitors ďŹ nd easier to read

Fig. 4.4. Offline Survey Analysis (Vassa and Dhanuka, 2018)

Analysis and Interpretation

62%

5%

66


30%

YES

NO

70% 30% visitors had to take trip back to reception to seek help

6/10

85%

visitors are able to understand the information shown on signages and directories well

visitors would prefer hand-out hospital maps to be provided at the reception desk

55%

45%

The ďŹ gure depicts whether the visitors take notice of any colour-codes used while walking around the hospital

20% 75% Analysis and Interpretation

visitors do not take notice of emergency exit signage available in hospital

67

100%

visitors would like information regarding doctors availability or changes in any schedule to be displayed.

visitors agreed that landmarks help in navigation

38%

62% visitors are satisďŹ ed with the numbering/ naming system for departments and oors

62%

Fig. 4.5. Offline Survey Analysis (Vassa and Dhanuka, 2018)


Interpretation/ Value Judgment Process:

Out a total of 25 questionnaires distributed, the completion rate amounted to 80% (20 people) who formed the base for computing the analysis and interpretation of the collected data. 11 males and 9 females filled the questionnaire, catering to different age groups of 1824, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55 and up. From the analysis, it is evident that almost half the people (52%) belonged to the age group of 25-44, as hospitals have increasingly a higher proportion of older persons and people with a disability. The first part of the questionnaire was based on user information. It is clear that a majority (80%) prefer to come with a family member, as compared to the 15% who are accompanied by none. This 15% becomes vulnerable to more chances of getting lost if the graphical method of navigation systems doesn’t function properly. The following questions were investigated in the second section of the questionnaire. These questions are based on user experience.The first question of this section of the questionnaire sought to identify whether the main entrance of the building is easy to identify or not. The result establishes the fact that 70% of the visitors/ patients said yes implying that most of them could be regular to the hospital or the fact that visitors have an ease in finding their way due to presence of multiple entrances and routes for the same as opposed to a single way entry. This further proves way in which the internal spaces in hospitals are designed directly impacts on the way in which people are able to interpret and find their way around. With respect to seeking help to reach their desired department, it is established that more

this result, an impression that most of the people are not able to find their way and have to ask for help for reaching their destination is inferred. Viewing in this sense, it can be stated that there is a need to improve the wayfinding system in this hospital.

Analysis and Interpretation

than half of them (62%) needed some sort of assistance or the other while navigating. With

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There were 13 visitors/patients (68%) who were able to follow the overall signage system of the hospital. This finding suggests that the regular visitors might have developed a strong sense of cognitive abilities and spatial understanding of the place, whereas the new visitors find it difficult to follow the navigation system in the hospital due to an unknown environment. Similarly, unable to follow the route, 30% take a trip back, while the 70% prefer to manage on their own yet. Considering the plight of the patients, it is necessary to develop a system that empowers and provides a sense of control, given the number of people who wouldn’t seek help in the first place. The data related to two questions (interdependent on each other) involving the ability of the people to figure out the way to their destination and the clarity of the numbering system for departments and floors to find the destination reveals the same ratio of answers, where 67% say yes, while the rest (33%) still face issues with the same. The statement reveals that at least one-third population could be exposed to the frustration, stress and the unpleasant sensation of being lost while navigating, which in turn poses serious problem.

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

9

45%

No

11

55%

Table. 4.1. Data Analysis of Question 8 from User Experiences

The table above indicates the understanding of colour-codes used around the hospital. As

Analysis and Interpretation

observed, there were less than half of the visitors who noticed any colour-codes. This finding

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could be attributed to the fact that there are not many colour-codes used in the hospital and even if they were used, it wasn’t so clear for the visitors to understand it. The following questions were investigated in the third section of the questionnaire which dealt with user expectation.


The preference for a hand-out hospital maps amounts up to 85% suggesting that the visitors want to get a better understanding of the hospital and they will be able to go wherever they want to, without seeking for someone’s help. With this, even the staff could be promoted with more productivity and efficiency. The presence and significance of a physical landmark in remembering the route directions proves as a useful tool to guide people in the required directions which is clear from the fact that 85% believe to navigate freely and confidently with the help of ‘mind maps’ which can be formed at key decision points because of a monument, intersection or artwork during the patient journey. When asked what kind of signage are easier to read, 50% showed interest in a combination of text and graphic which can serve as useful information for various designers and architects while designing for further expansion or renovate for the same. To ensure there is a coordinated approach, wayfinding must be developed as an integral part of the overall design strategy. 45% still believed in the power of only textual data for navigation, which is intriguing and gives an idea of the number of literate population.

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

20

100%

No

0

0%

Table. 4.2. Data Analysis of Question 4 from User Expectations

The table above indicates the agreed need for information regarding doctor’s availability

result establishes the fact that handy information supplied at the entrance or reception desks serves useful for these patients regarding their appointments, saving their time, avoiding chaos and hustle for the same and therefore improving the overall functioning of the hospital.

Analysis and Interpretation

or changes in any schedule to be displayed at the reception to these patients/visitors. The

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Checklist Another method to collect data was the use of a one-page, non-technical checklist which helped in keeping in mind important elements of graphical wayfinding in the selected area of study.

Checklist J.J. Hospital, Byculla Multilingualism Readability factor-distance/visibility Usage of symbols Directory Receptionist availability Visual cues (landmarks) Fire safety instructions Fire safety plans Service for physically challenged Ramps/disabled access Disabled toilet provision Patients rights and responsibilities Analysis and Interpretation

No entry zones

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Service areas Locating lifts and staircase Ground oor plan Fire safety exits

Fig. 4.6. Checklist (Vassa, 2018)


Interpretation/ Value Judgment Process:

This part of gathering and analysing data proved helpful to estimate the effectiveness in the design and planning of the surrounding of the hospital. A checklist made it possible to scrutinize the current status based on elements of the graphical wayfinding to figure if the people could 1. Determine their location within a setting, 2. Determine their destination 3. Develop a plan that will take them from their location to their destination

The observations lead to various inferences. In terms of multilingualism, the various directional information, signages, and destination identification signs cater to both Marathi and English speaking community. This serves useful especially for those who understand only the local language. The typeface was a clear, straightforward type design, sans-serif with easily recognisable letterforms. The readability is also pretty decent, giving a clearly understood message. This element helps in controlling the huge amount of people traveling around the campus. A set a defined symbol lacks throughout the entire hospitals, giving way to confusion and stress among the already tensed patients and visitors. A set of easy to recognise, consistent and understandable symbols paves a feeling of mental satisfaction among the users in the long run. The presence of a directory informing people about the various departments and their destinations at required spaces can avoid tough situations in

symbols, a human help is what people look for. As observed, the receptions for different building sites weren’t really clear when one enters. The overall efficiency decreases when the first step towards reaching your destination isn’t clear. There can be visual cues found

Analysis and Interpretation

cases of emergency. For those with difficulty in reading and understanding text and graphic

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at particular intersections which ultimately help in forming mental maps and better sense of direction. The services for physically challenged is also provided at particular places like access ramps at entrances, wide lifts, and door entrances. But toilet provisions for wheelchair patients, tactile and audible communication methods could be instilled in the system to cater a wide range of people. The use of regulatory signs has been put well into use with clear indications of no entry zones, various patients’ rights, and responsibilities, fire extinguishers etc. Elements of destination identification like department and room recognition, lifts and staircase also form a part of the design space. Observations also reveal that little importance is given to safety exits and plans, which can pose a serious threat to the hospital in whole. This can be kept in mind during the time of planning a new healthcare

Analysis and Interpretation

facility or redeveloping an existing one.

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Observation Table

Analysis and Interpretation

Table. 4.3. Observation Sheet

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Analysis and Interpretation 75

Table. 4.4. Observation Sheet


Observation Pictures at J.J.

Fig. 4.7. Sign for way to O.P.D. (Dhanuka, 2018)

Fig. 4.8. Identification sign for cure for AIDS (Dhanuka, 2018)

Fig. 4.9. Directions for different buildings (Dhanuka, 2018)

Fig. 4.10. Regulatory Sign (Nawalkha, 2018)

Fig. 4.11. Main Reception area (Vassa, 2018)

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Fig. 4.12. Dentistry Department (Vassa, 2018)

Fig. 4.13. Identification Sign (Dhanuka, 2018)

Fig. 4.14. Physical Landmarks at key decision points (Nawalkha, 2018)

Fig. 4.15. J.J. Hospital, Outside Building (Dhanuka, 2018)

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The Five Human Factors Visitors & Patients: Physical: The moment a visitor or a patient enters the hospital building, he is exposed to a variety of options (digital kiosk, screens, and notice boards) that he can interact with physically in order to navigate his way around. Physical route maps, color coded signs, elevator buttons & door handles to his destination.

Cognitive: The visitor or patient, as he makes his way to his destination is often flooded with thoughts such as how to find the reception, how to reach his destination in the right way and figure out the way back. The mental thought process cumulates reading signs, understand color codes, looking for directional information, observing physical cues and landmarks, making route decision at key points and getting adjusted to the new environment.

Social: The visitor or patient may be alone or accompanied by a family or friend. The visitor or patient on reaching the hospital gate may ask the watchman about the main entrance inside the building. As the visitor or patient enters the building, he enquires at the reception about some information on the destination he wants to reach. While navigation on the way

and easy to seek help in direction around the built environment. Inside the elevator, the patient or visitor communicates with the operator for which floor he would like to get to. The patient is mostly accompanied by a family or relative. So most of the communication is done by them on the patient’s behalf.

Analysis and Interpretation

to the destination, the visitor and patient interact with people who look comforting, familiar

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Cultural: A proper wayfinding and signages system binds all the patients, visitors and doctors together by providing them with the right information at the right time. All of them have a mutual feeling to live a healthy lifestyle, instinctive to avoid getting lost in a complex environment and to take the shortest & best route to his destination.

Emotional: There are chances that the visitor may get perturbed on seeing critical patients on wheelchair or bed while he navigates on his way. Whereas a patient suffering from a disease or seeking help for an ailment is mostly in a vulnerable situation when entering the hospital. A confusing mismatch of navigation guide is sure to disorient the passenger, thus creating a situation of anxiety and tension. He may get scared, worried, stressed out, frustrated and confused upon losing the way. A sense of relief and mental satisfaction might surround him once he finds the right way to his desired department.

Environmental Graphic Designers: Physical: EGD generally working in close association with the complex discipline of wayfinding and placemaking, can have significant impact on how people experience the physical world (here, hospitals) in a more meaningful and appropriate manner. They interact with photomechanical reproduction techniques and computer-driven cutting devices, aided accurate large-scale rendition of graphic elements, such as typefaces and symbols, on signs physically to come up with effective techniques of navigation. They also intercommunicate

Analysis and Interpretation

with three-dimensional forms and materials, working in scale, interpreting architectural

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drawings, and basic drafting.

Cognitive: An EGD has to keep a lot of prerequisite knowledge in mind before starting out any project. The meticulous specification of all the elements going into the making of signage


to meet the reality of each situation, to stay in balance, and deliver sophisticated excellence in design has to be kept in mind while designing areas catering to health services. There is also a need to understand human psychology as well as basis architecture, industrial design, compatible materials, color theory, and graphic design and most importantly typography that is easy to read and has character, often to reinforce the style and standards of the place, institution, or company which stands behind it.

Social: Since all sorts of complex institutions are starting to realize the importance of appropriate spatial designs, the requirement of an EGD has become a necessity for these service providers. An environmental graphic designer, along with the facilities of architects and planners, works in close association with large corporations, small businesses, nonprofit institutions, events and community initiatives. The business community has started taking an interest in the design process which makes the EGD work in close associations with them too.Certainly, EG designers are often part of the consultant team assembled by architects for a building design or renovation project, but EG design has finally come into its own, as well. All this has happened, in part, because people have recognized that signage and EG design have a unique branding power.

Emotional: The EGD save the people from being lost or disoriented which is an anxietyproducing situation. When people are faced with a proper, intelligently conceived navigation source and wayfinding system, they immediately relax — even though they don’t

experiential manner, creating a strong emotional connection and an automatic contact (all subconsciously) with the environment. (Calori. Vanden-Eynden, 2015)

Analysis and Interpretation

know why. The Environmental Graphic Designer help people deal with space in a more

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Doctors and Staff:

Physical: These are the people who have been properly trained to get their way around the hospital. Being familiar with the surrounding also means more physical experiences. Doctors and staff may have separate entrances and elevators to navigate in the area. They also have a greater access to information, rooms and destinations & rights as compared to other people in the hospital.

Cognitive: There is a prerequisite for the staff to know about the various routes, destinations, emergency exits, safety rules and regulations, facility and leisure rooms and other services provided by the hospital. They know how to give verbal directions to people, guide them on their way, write and draw directions down, and be informed about the changes in the hospital environment to assist the patients, visitors, and other new people.

Social: The doctor and staff interact with mostly new patients and visitor while assisting them to find their way around the hospital area. They also communicate with new staff and doctors, and other service providers to help them get accustomed to the new surroundings while ensuring they also do the same while helping others. There is also a possibility that the doctors sit with architects, planners, and spatial designers to give them a better insight regarding how to go design the routes and destinations in the best way possible. This would further help not only them and the staff to navigate, but make it easier for them to guide

Analysis and Interpretation

others.

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Emotional: The challenge of supporting and helping patients and their families can seem daunting especially while dealing with critical conditions at the same time.


82


83


84


85


86 ( Haimerl, 2017 )


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Brief Restatement of Context, Objectives & Methodology Being well oriented, understanding and knowing the routes a person has taken and is planning to take becomes a necessity when it comes to wayfinding. This research paper aimed to find the level of understanding that people have when it comes to spatial orientation and navigation. The context of the study focussed on getting a better grasp as to how people find their destinations in a particular area of study selected, i.e., hospitals. To dig deeper into the entire process, the research was further cut to down to only a particular element of wayfinding- ‘graphical wayfinding’. The type was descriptive, observing the current situation, evaluating it and drawing inferences for the same while the method chosen was quantitative. The research was conducted in a private (Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital) and a government hospital (J.J. Hospital) in city of Mumbai, intending to

Summary and Conclusions

understand the psychology of the visitors and patients and their experiences while traveling

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in the hospital. The research further targeted J.J. to conduct various methods of data collection through surveys, observation sheets, checklists and human factor/experiences. An online questionnaire also formed a part of the data collection to add to the observations and understanding. This was later analysed through the system of quantitative coding, generating an array of interpretations and further proposed design briefs.


Major Findings of the Study The initial secondary research paved way for a number of curious questions hidden behind the vast topic of wayfinding which becomes a subset of Environmental Graphic Design (EGD). The research opportunity introduced the researchers about the basic terminology of wayfinding, the underlying process, criteria, various elements, tools, principles, and area of uses along with its delimitations and precautions to be kept in mind while applying the same to the selected area.

The information when applied to collect the primary data made for an interesting, informative and ultimately fulfilling experience. The research revealed that the operation of spaces and the complementary elements should be self-evident, humane and selfmanifested which wasn’t entirely the case at the J.J. Hospital. With the coming of the digital age and portable mobile devices, people can be easily informed about their orientation with innovations like Google maps, getting quick access to their location and destination on a single click. Many hospitals have taken this advantage of the digital realm, keeping an upper hand with technology, providing users with mass customised information within seconds of time. J.J. Hospital serves as one of the biggest medical facilitators of Mumbai but still lacks

wayfinding needs like easy readability and understanding of signages, multilingualism, directional information at the entrance, location of stairs, lifts and other destination points can be found throughout the sector, the system still ignored elements that create an impact on the user subconsciously, helping them find their way in a much easier and faster manner,

Summary and Conclusions

the dynamism an institution should display during this time. Though some basic and primary

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making the functioning more effective overall. The understanding of the wayfinding process also made the researcher uncover the absence of use of signs/symbols/graphics at various departments which becomes a necessity when it comes to communicating with the different linguistic and limited language proficiency population. Other important features of navigating like directory, floor plans, and informational kiosks still lack in the physical environment. These need to be looked into so that the spatial navigation can become calm and as pleasant as possible.

Implications and Conclusions of the Study To get completely lost is perhaps a rather rare experience for most people in modern cities. There is always a support of others and of special wayfinding devices: map, street numbers, route signs, bus placards. But let the mishap of disorientation once occur, and the sense of anxiety and even terror that accompanies it reveals how closely it is linked to sense of balance and well being. A continuous sense of spatial awareness is also associated with less stress and more productivity.

This research paper demystified the fascinating process of providing the necessary clues Summary and Conclusions

and environmental information that help people orient themselves and intuitively wind

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their way. The research helped in finding the underlying mental puzzle of orientation, codify the steps to a comprehensive design solution and navigate the public process of initiating and successfully concluding the project.


A good designed environment and layout of the hospital has the power to push people to their selections more than any reason they consciously know of. It can make patient areas visually calm and restful through the use of carefully selected color and artwork. The role of psychologists, anthropologists and ethnographers-all professionals trained to understand human behaviour has now become important to help environmental graphic designers predict how a given form would be understood and used. User testing and rapid prototyping (make something quickly, give it to the target users, watch to see what they make of it, revise and repeat) should become a typical practice to improve the overall experience of the end user. In this sense, effective wayfinding which forms a basis for these elements clearly ties into the idea of “branding� when the design is helping to establish an environment that delivers an image and experience consistent with and appropriate to the goals of the institution or place.

So, if people solve a wayfinding problem on their first visit and can remember the solution and are unlikely to experience problems on the return journey or on subsequent visits, the hospital has successfully triumphed in designing a good wayfinding strategy.(Gibson ,2014)

Suggestions for Further Research the problem areas, a set of solutions to make the existing system more comprehensive and effective have been proposed to conclude research paper. The solutions are specifically designed for J.J. Hospital after analysing the problem statement through interviews, surveys, and observations.

Summary and Conclusions

After analysing the collected primary and secondary data, drawing inferences and targeting

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Quality Audit:

Developing an effective wayfinding system requires an understanding of what information people are likely to require. Upgrading or making modifications by undertaking quality auditing time to time to identify opportunities for improvement accompanied by compliance to legislation can be a fruitful technique to go ahead with creating better wayfinding strategies. The same can reveal all kinds of gaps and errors and minimise the possibility of disorientation on part of both the staff and the patients. The hospital can start by identifying a manager to carry out the coordination of tasks, includes a process for auditing wayfinding and conducting a site survey that applies to new buildings, redevelopment projects, and existing facilities.

Identifying the problem points:

Another method could be to start off by answering certain key questions to prompt good wayfinding practices. 1.

Is there a clear set of agreed wayfinding principles?

2. Is there a clear understanding of the attributes and preferences of patients, visitors and staff traveling to, from and around the healthcare facility? 3.

Has patient, carer and visitor input been recorded and used to inform the wayfinding

Summary and Conclusions

strategy?

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4.

Has there been an audit of signs and other wayfinding tools conducted to identify ‘hot

spots’ and areas for improvement? 5.

Are wayfinding systems part of the accreditation and quality improvement systems and

programs of the hospital?


Answering these could open up new areas of improvement for the hospital to begin their transformation journey.

Starting with the basic:

A good first impression lasts long, even when it comes to institutions like hospitals and clinics. An efficient and friendly and welcoming reception creates all the difference in developing a comfort level for the clients. A reception is mostly the first and the last things a patient/visitor witnesses and thus it is on the frontlines of keeping customers happy and things running smoothly. In terms of improving wayfinding strategies, a reception at the major entrances of the J.J. Hospital (which are multiple) can implement the following set of systems to enhance the patient experience in general: 1.

Displaying the appointments of individual patients at the correct time and with the

correct doctor. The patients can be given an appointment number that can be displayed on screens placed near the reception and waiting areas to avoid hustle and chaos in the hospital environment. 2.

Welcoming entry experiences which include access to information through hand-out

maps, brochures or information displayed on physical/digital screens that display clear directions at and around the reception area. 3.

Use of volunteers at the front desk to give directions or to walk patients to their

destinations individually. This is beneficial especially for people who cannot comply with

confirm directions.

Summary and Conclusions

the texts and graphics. This also allows the Wayfinder the opportunity to ask questions and

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Developing a system of consistent signs/graphics/symbols:

The observations at the J.J. Hospital reveal the absence of these visual communication devices throughout the zone. Various departments, regulatory and informational signs and some facilities remain unmarked in the area of symbols. Symbols can be effective in helping visitors navigate healthcare facilities. Testing shows that patients found signage incorporating graphic symbols easier to understand than purely text-based signage. As a result, this solution deals with proposing a set of 20 Symbols in Health Care designed for

Summary and Conclusions

use in healthcare wayfinding systems at the J.J. Hospital.

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Blood Bank

Cardiology

Central Medical Reference Library

Community Medicine

CVTS

Dentistry

E.N.T. Department

General Surgery

Neurology

Ophthalmology

Orthopedics & Traumatology

Paediatrician

Pathology

Pharmacology

Physiotheraphy

Psychiatry

Radiology

Radiotherapy & Oncology

Urology

Fig. 5.1. Proposed symbols of wayfinding for J.J. Hospital

Summary and Conclusions

Anatomy

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Delimitations The small size of sample for the offline survey formed one major delimitation of the research. An accurate result cannot be obtained until and unless the sample size is proportionate and unbiased to the amount of the population. The hospital functioned on a vast level and getting access from the authorities for undertaking research through survey, pictures & video recording was a tough task. The solution proposed for graphical method of wayfinding for healthcare facilities in this research paper does not prescribe a particular wayfinding system nor does it suggest terminology that should be adopted by healthcare facilities for wayfinding, as it takes into consideration only a single hospital of Mumbai, i.e. J.J. Hospital. Although the terminology, sign designs & sign types that are used are clear and consistent across the design brief, it does cater to the needs of other hospitals. Complex areas of healthcare facilities such as Emergency, Mental Health, and Heart Care have wayfinding needs that should be dealt with as part of their functional briefing and clinical safety processes. These areas are not covered in detail by this document. Designers and managers should refer the most current policies and standards of the hospital before taking

Summary and Conclusions

further actions.

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Chap IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Five Human Factor: Calori, Chris. Vanden-Eynden, David. (2015). Signage and Wayfinding Design. Available at: http://gen.lib.rus.ec/book/index.php?md5=371BA886F5A5B3145E52B1D9D1965A4C [Downloaded: 12 January, 2018]. Chap V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Conclusion: Gibson, David. (2014). The wayfinding handbook. Available at: https://ratnacahayarina.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/david-gibson-the-wayfinding-handbook.pdf [Downloaded:12th January 2018] QUESTIONNAIRE Khan, Nayma. (2011). Ecology of Patients’ Experience in Wayfinding Situation In The Hospitals of Bangladesh. Available at: http:// www.clevelandclinic.org/collective/postproceedings/Mon_230pm_Khan,%20Nyma.pdf [Accessed 12 January, 2018] H G Claessen, Michiel. M A Visser-Meily, Johanna. K de Rooij, Nicolien. Postma, Albert. J M van der Ham, Ineke. (2016). The Wayfinding Questionnaire as a Self-Report Screening Instrument for Navigation-related Complaints After Stroke: Internal Validity in Healthy Respondents and Chronic Mild Stroke Patients. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/acn/article/31/8/839/2527838 [Accessed 12 January, 2018] Survey Monkey. Making Signage and Wayfinding Accessible Questionnaire. Available at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/ ZXYM5K9 [Accessed 12 January, 2018] CHECKLIST Health Infrastructure. (2014). Wayfinding for Healthcare Facilities. Available at: http://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/GL2014_018.pdf [Accessed 12 January, 2018] MISCELLANEOUS Canva.Available at:https://www.canva.com/create-a-design [Accessed 2 February, 2018] Typeform. Available at: https://www.typeform.com/ [Accessed 23 January, 2018] EasyHindiTranslation. FREE English to Hindi Translation - Instant Hindi Translation. Available at: http://www.easyhindityping.com/ english-to-hindi-translation. [Accessed 15 January 2018].

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Anonymous. Retail icon. Available at: https://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon/146257 [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. OCHA Visual Information Unit, US. Road. Available at: https://thenounproject.com/term/road/4436/ [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Mounir Ahmed. Sport icon. Available at: https://www.123rf.com/photo_45758683_stock-vector-sport-icon-stadium-sign.html [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Anonymous. Streetscape. Available at: http://martinlaviero.com/img/icons/streetscape.png [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Anonymous. Supermarket shopping cart icon. Available at: http://www.free-icons-download.net/supermarket-shopping-cart-icon-17839/ [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Siwat V. Theme park. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/501226/carousel_circus_entertainment_festival_merry_go_ round_roundabout_theme_park_icon#size=128 [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Yusifov Amin. Tourist icon. Available at: https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-tourist-backpacker-flat-icon-travel-tourism-man-backpack-hiking-colorful-solid-pattern-white-background-eps-image91887336 [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Pvhc.net. (2017). Education Icon. Available at: http://www.pvhc.net/Education-Icon20ycuklaru/ [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Anonymous. Information. Available at: http://www.wechianti.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/info-point_chianti-768x506.jpg [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018]. Criteria of Wayfinding: Anonymous. Architecture Icon. Available at: https://www.freepik.com/free-icon/economic-architecture-building-of-stacked-containers_718436.htm [Accessed 24 Jan, 2018]. Squirrels LLC. Visual Icon. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/220335/eye_fill_visual_icon#size=128 [Accessed 24 Jan, 2018]. Anonymous. (2006) Speaker Icon. Available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Speaker_Icon.svg [Accessed 24 Jan, 2018]. Anonymous. Tactile Icon. Available at: https://www.flaticon.com/free-icon/tactile-instruction_14169 [Accessed 24 Jan, 2018]. Paggiaro, Francesco. Map. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/person-holding-outlined-map-793088/ [Accessed 23 Jan, 2018] Mohabier, Henk. Directional Sign. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/black-and-white-building-close-up-clouds-440170/ [Accessed 23 Jan, 2018] Anonymous. Door Signage. Available at: http://www.primesignprogram.com/mercyhurst-university.php [Accessed 22 Jan, 2018] Pixabay. Signage. Available at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/barb-wires-barrier-billboard-building-209717/ [Accessed 23 Jan, 2018] Hunter, Susan. (2010). Design Resources. Available at: https://udeworld.com/documents/designresources/pdfs/ArchitecturalWayfinding.pdf [Accessed 28 January, 2018] Tools of Wayfinding: Montego. (2017). Digital Interactive Kiosk Stock Illustration. Available at: https://www.canstockphoto.com/digital-interactive-kiosk-52744315.html [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Anonymous. Compass. Available at: http://more-cliparts.net/cliparts/compass-line-art.html [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Anonymous. Digital Signage. Available at: http://mvixdigitalsignage.com/ [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Anonymous. Physical Signage. Available at: http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs166/1101538339397/archive/1119502576923.html [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Anonymous. Physical Signage. Available at: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-illustration/blank-white-metallic-outdoor-advertising-stand-679996171 [Accessed 28th January, 2018] (extra) Yupiramos. Map. Available at: https://www.123rf.com/photo_76784962_stock-vector-paper-map-with-pin-location-vector-illustration-design.html [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Anonymous. Mobile Device. Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5667869640667a43818a7497/t/57313718 2b8dded92ff5e8c9/1473133304759/Mobile+Phone+Policy [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Johanna. (2012). Person. Available at: http://www.clker.com/clipart-blue-person-symbol-5.html [Accessed 28th January, 2018]

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Anonymous. Cognitive. Available at: http://moziru.com/explore/Mind%20clipart%20cognitive/ [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Caserta John. Location. Available at: https://thenounproject.com/term/location/11205/ [Accessed 28th January, 2018] Classification of Hospitals: Anonymous. Hospital Icon. Available at: https://www.gettyimages.in/detail/illustration/hospital-icon-royalty-free-illustration/183996189 [Accessed 23 Jan, 2018]. Typology of Hospital form: Khan, Nayma. (2011). Ecology of Patients’ Experience in Wayfinding Situation In The Hospitals of Bangladesh. Available at: http:// www.clevelandclinic.org/collective/postproceedings/Mon_230pm_Khan,%20Nyma.pdf [Accessed 12 January, 2018] Chap IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Icons for Tools of data collection: Creative stall. Checklist. Available at: https://thenounproject.com/term/checklist/784595/. [Accessed 3 February, 2018] V, Simvat. Online survey, questionnaire, survey, web surveys icon. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/555949/online_survey_questionnaire_survey_web_surveys_icon#size=128. [Accessed 3 February, 2018] V, Simvat. Comment, feedback, questionnaire, select, survey icon. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/555946/comment_feedback_questionnaire_select_survey_icon#size=128. [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Introduction to Human Factors. Aailable at: https://ihf.co.uk/product/intro-hf/. Hamzah, Zamroni. Gender Icon. Available at: [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Infographics: Cdn2.iconfinder.com. Location. Available at: https://cdn2.iconfinder.com/data/icons/mini-icon-set-map-location/91/Location_28-512.png [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Aluna1. Roundabout road graphic black white landscape sketch. Available at: https://www.istockphoto.com/in/vector/roundabout-road-graphic-black-white-landscape-sketch-illustration-vectorgm661878566-120656419?esource=SEO_GIS_CDN_Redirect. [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Creative Agency bresign. Locations, map, maps, navigation, route, travel, trip icon. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/829546/locations_map_maps_navigation_route_travel_trip_icon#size=128 [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Flaticon. User localization placeholder. Available at: https://www.freepik.com/free-icon/user-localization-placeholder_747702.htm [Accessed 3 February, 2018] Chap V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Symbols: Central Medical Reference Library icons - Google Search. 2018. [ONLINE] Available at: https://icons8.com/icon/440/library. [Accessed 01 February 2018]. Anatomy icons - Google Search. 2018. Available at: https://thenounproject.com/term/human-anatomy/41300/ [Accessed 01 February 2018]. Pvhc.net. E.N.T. Department icons. Available at: http://www.pvhc.net/img63/hthbywhfanouyyqhuzmp.png. [Accessed 01 February 2018]. To Uyen. Blood Bank icons. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/1580321/blood_blood_drop_donation_hand_health_ care_medical_transfusion_blood_donation_icon#size=128. [Accessed 03 February 2018]. Aha-Soft. Psychiatry actions. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/392320/care_headache_hypnosis_patient_psychiatry_psychology_sick_icon#size=128. [Accessed 02 February 2018] http://mygiants.marion.k12.in.us. Pharmacology. Available at: http://mygiants.marion.k12.in.us/images-websites/image/tctc/graphics/TCTC_icon_Pharmacology.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018].

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Simpson, Nicola. Ophthalmology icons. Available at: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/341115/diagnosis_eye_care_eyesight_ophthalmology_icon#size=128. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Punejointreplacement.com. Orthopaedics and Traumatology icons. Available at: http://www.punejointreplacement.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/orthopedics-icon.png. [Ac-cessed 02 February 2018]. http://surgery.arizona.edu. CVTS icons hospital. Available at: http://surgery.arizona.edu/sites/default/files/iconphysician_0.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Johnson, Sarah. Community Medicine icons. Available at: https://cdn.dribbble.com/users/259723/screenshots/2851172/medical_app.gif. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Leighwigan, Ashton. Paediatrics icons. Available at: http://www.bridgewater.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/About-our-service.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Currae.com. General Surgery Department. Available at: https://www.currae.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/general-surgery-icon.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Allmedtech.com. Urology icons. Available at: https://sep.yimg.com/ay/yhst-12533177228474/urology-supplies-19.gif. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. TanyaStock. Pathology icons. Available at: https://thumb1.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/301456/220936507/stock-photo-glass-button-icon-with-white-healthcare-sign-or-symbol-220936507.jpg. [Accessed 02 February 2018] Vexels. Dentistry icons. Available at: https://images.vexels.com/media/users/3/127559/isolated/preview/cd5ebd52d4a9292b154a2b46aaab72f9-dentistry-flat-iconby-vexels.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Pluspng.com. Nephrology icons.Available at: http://pluspng.com/img-png/nephrology-png-nephrology-234.png. [Accessed 02 February 2018]. Keyscriptsllc.com. Radiology icons. Available at: https://www.keyscriptsllc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/radiologyIcon-495x400.jpg. [Ac-cessed 02 February 2018]. Checklist: Wallpaper Safari. Notebook paper wallpaper. Available at: https://wallpapersafari.com/w/PA8QhU/ [Accessed 31 January, 2018] POSTCARD Baker, John. (2018) You Are Here. Ă‚vailable at: https://unsplash.com/photos/3To9V42K0Ag. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Pexels. (2017). High St Brooklyn Bridge Signage Mounted on Blue Steel Post. Ă‚vailable at: https://www.pexels.com/photo/high-stbrooklyn-bridge-signage-mounted-on-blue-steel-post-634038/. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Ritchie, Deanna. (2017). Which Way To Go? Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/wORTURlz7jg/info. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. 35mm. (2017). Direct, sign, tunnel and underpass. Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/IstXvxHGoA4/info. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Intraversato, Anthony. (2017). High Speed. Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/USPz1_Aa8Uw. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Dooley, Ian. (2017). Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/aaAllJ6bmac. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Elker, Soner. (2017). Sign, signboard, handlettering and business sign. Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/jhtPCeQ2mMU. [Accessed 31 January 2018]. Popov, Dmitri. (2017). Sign, color, colorful and direction. Available at: https://unsplash.com/photos/HN2M5L1VgZ8/info. [Accessed 31st January, 2018]

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Offline Survey

Checklist & Observation

Collected Responses

103

Online Survey

Appendices


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Online Survey

JJ

Hospital Age: Gender: User Information: 1. Who are you accompanying with? a. None b. Family member c. Friend d. Other 2. How many times have you visited this hospital? User Experiences:

Offline Survey

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Is the main entrance to the building easy to identify? a. Yes b. No

3. Do you have to ask people for help for way to your desired department? a. Yes b. No 4. Are you able to follow with the overall signage system of the hospital? (observe and follow the arrows) a. Yes b. No 5. Do you have to take trip back to reception to seek help if any? a. Yes b. No

Checklist & Observation

2. Can you figure out the way to your destination all by yourself? a. Yes b. No

6. Can you understand the information shown on signages and directories well? a. Yes b. No

Collected Responses

105


JJ

Hospital 7. Are the numbering/naming system for departments and floors clear enough to find your destination? a. Yes b. No 8. Do you notice any colour-codes used while walking around the hospital? a. Yes b. No 9. Do you take notice of emergency exit signages available in hospitals? a. Yes b. No User Expectations: 1. Would you prefer hand-out hospital maps to be provided at the reception desk? a. Yes b. No 2. Do you feel colour, artwork, monument, intersection, building or any other landmarks used helps you in navigation? a. Yes b. No 3. Which kind of elements on signage do you find easier to read? a. Graphic symbol b. Text c. Both graphic symbol and text 4. Would you like information regarding doctors availability or changes in any schedule to be displayed at the reception? a. Yes b. No

This survey is purely for educational purposes.

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उम्र:

ललिंग:

Online Survey

प्रश्नावली

उपयोगकर्ाा के ललए जानकारी: आपका गंतव्य विभाग क्या है?

2.

आप ककसके साथ आए हैं?    

कोई नह ं

परििाि का सदस्य दोस्त अन्य

आप इस अस्पताल मे ककतनी बाि आए हैं?

3.

उपयोगकर्ाा अनुभव: क्या आपके ललए इमाित के मख् ु य प्रिेश द्िाि को पहचानना आसान है?

1.  

हााँ

नह ं

 

हााँ

नह ं क्या आपको िास्ते में ददशा के ललए सहायता के ललए लोगो पछ ू ना पड़ता है?

3.  

हााँ

नह ं क्या आप अस्पताल के समग्र संकेत प्रणाल को समझ सकते हैं?

4.  

हााँ

नह ं

Checklist & Observation

क्या आप अपने आप आसानी से अपने गंतव्य का िास्ता समझ सकते हैं?

2.

क्या आपको सहायता प्राप्त किने के ललए रिसेप्शन पि यात्रा िापस लेनी पड़ती हे , यदद कोई होती है तो?

5.  

हााँ

नह ं

 

हााँ

नह ं

Collected Responses

क्या आप संकेतकों औि ननदे लशकाओं पि ददखाए गए जानकाि को अच्छी तिह समझ सकते हैं?

6.

107

Offline Survey

1.


विभागों और फर्श के लिए नंबर / नामकरण प्रणािी क्या आपके गंतव्य को खोजने के लिए पयाशप्त है ?

7.  

हााँ

नहीं क्या आप अस्पताि के चारों ओर घम ू ते समय ककसी भी रं ग-कोड का ध्यान रखते हैं?

8.  

हााँ

नहीं क्या आपने अस्पताि में उपिब्ध आपातकािीन ननकास के संकेतों की सच ू ना लि हैं?

9.  

हााँ

नहीं

उपयोगकर्ता उम्मीदें : क्या आप ररसेप्र्न डेस्क पर प्रदान ककए जाने िािे हाथ-आउट अस्पताि के नक्र्े पसंद करें ग? े

1.  

हााँ

नहीं क्या आपको िगता है कक रं ग, किाकृनत, स्मारक, चौराहे , ननमाशण या उपयोग ककए गए ककसी भी अन्य

2.

स्थिचचह्न नेविगेर्न में आपकी सहायता करता है?  

हााँ

नहीं ककस प्रकार के तत्िों को आप आसानी से पढ़ पाते हैं?

3.   

ग्राकफक प्रतीक टे क्स्ट

ग्राक़िक प्रतीक और टे क्स्ट दोनों क्या आप डॉक्टर की उपिब्धता या समय में पररितशन के बारे में ररसेप्र्न पर जानकारी चाहते हैं?

4.  

हााँ

नहीं

यह सिे केिि र्ैक्षिक उद्दे श्यों के लिए है ।

108


Online Survey

CHECKLIST AT J.J. HOSPITAL

Factors of effective wayfinding (Graphical)

Offline Survey

Multilingualism Readability factor-distance/visibility Usage of symbols Directory Receptionist availability Visual Cues (landmarks) Fire safety instructions Fire safety plans Service for physically challenged Ramps/ disabled access Disabled toilet provision Patients rights and responsibilities No entry zones Service areas Locating lifts and staircase Ground Floor plan Fire safety exits

Checklist & Observation

                

Collected Responses

109


OBSERVATIONS AT J.J. HOSPITAL Location:

Graphic Wayfinding     

Are text and graphic devices and the location of signage throughout the system consistent? Are common names displayed rather than obscure or technical names (e.g., use Ear, Nose, and Throat rather than Otorhinolaryngology)? Are familiar or easy-to-learn pictograms to reinforce text and to bypass language-based information used? Is the numbering system used in buildings intuitive and simple? Are colours that are easily recognizable by name such as blue, orange, grey used in signage?

1. Orientation       

Are maps provided as part of pre-visit information? Is a "you are here" symbol provided to help in orientation? Are visitors provided with level and room numbers for all destinations, listed alphabetically for building directories? Is a map provided on each level with it’s room numbers and tenants identified? Are the hours of service displayed in a prominent area near or on the building entrance as well as in the vestibule area? Are key movement paths visible on the return journey? Do staff at the main reception understand how to guide people towards their destination?

2. Directional Information      

Is directional information provided at the entrance? Have more than five messages and five lines of text been avoided in a single directional sign? Have signs been placed in transitional areas to reassure people that they are on the correct route? Has signage been placed in intersections to ensure that those coming from all directions can detect the information? Does directional information allow for people who know exactly where they are going, and for people who do not? Are stairs and lifts readily apparent from the main public space of the building?

3. Destination Identification     

Have the room number signs been placed beside doors so that they can be easily detected when the door is open? Have public amenities (e.g., restrooms) and restaurants been identified with pictograms, text, and Braille? Are entrances to the facility shown? Are key landmarks shown? Is the main reception within clear view of the main entrance to the facility?

4. Situation and Object Identification  

Is there use of pictograms, text, and color-coding to label all emergency equipment. Are all information desks and kiosks identified with signage?

110


Online Survey

Online Survey

30

20 Female 48%

Male 52%

10

Offline Survey

0 18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55 and up

Gender

Age

80 No 30% 60

40

20

0 None

Family

Friend

Other

Who are you accompanying with?

1. Is the main entrance to the building easy to identify?

70

56

Checklist & Observation

Yes 70%

No 38% 42

28 Yes 62%

14

Yes

No

2. Can you figure out the way to your destination all by yourself?

111

3. Do you have to ask people for help for way to your desired department?

Collected Responses

0


70 Yes 30%

56

42

28

14 No 70% 0 Yes

No

4. Are you able to follow with the overall signage system of the hospital? (observe and follow the arrows)

5. Do you have to take trip back to reception to seek help if any?

60

No 38%

45

30

Yes 62%

15

0 Item 1

Item 2

7. Are the numbering/naming system for departments and floors clear 6. Can you understand the information shown on signages and directories well? enough to find your destination?

112


Online Survey

Offline Survey

30

20 Female 48%

Male 52%

10

Offline Survey

0 18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55 and up

Gender

Age

80 No 30% 60

40

20

0 None

Family

Friend

Other

Who are you accompanying with?

1. Is the main entrance to the building easy to identify?

70

56

Checklist & Observation

Yes 70%

No 38% 42

28 Yes 62%

14

Yes

No

2. Can you figure out the way to your destination all by yourself?

113

3. Do you have to ask people for help for way to your desired department?

Collected Responses

0


70 Yes 30%

56

42

28

14 No 70% 0 Yes

No

4. Are you able to follow with the overall signage system of the hospital? (observe and follow the arrows)

5. Do you have to take trip back to reception to seek help if any?

60

No 38%

45

30

Yes 62%

15

0 Item 1

Item 2

6. Can you understand the information shown on signages and directories well?

7. Are the numbering/naming system for departments and floors clear enough to find your destination?

Yes 20%

60

45

30

15

0 Yes

No

No 80%

8. Do you notice any colour-codes used while walking around the hospital? 9. Do you take notice of emergency exit signages available in hospitals?

114


Online Survey

No 25%

90

60

30

Yes

No

10. Would you prefer hand-out hospital maps to be provided at the reception desk?

11. Do you feel colour, artwork, monument, intersection, building or any other landmarks used helps you in navigation?

30

20

Offline Survey

Yes 75%

0

10

Graphic symbol

Text

Both graphic symbol and text

12. Which kind of elements on signage do you find easier to read?

13. Would you like information regarding doctors availability or changes in any schedule to be displayed at the reception?

Checklist & Observation

Yes 100%

0

Collected Responses

115


Profile for Shivani Dhanuka

Research Paper - Wayfinding  

Research Paper - Wayfinding  

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