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AIR ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO SEMESTER 1 2013 PRODUCED BY SHIQI TANG (sunny) 531504

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REZA ALI, EMERGENT


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CONTENT PART A EOI I : CASE FOR INNOVATION A.0 ABOUT ME A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING A.4 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS A.5 CONCLUSION A.6 LEARNING OUTCOMES

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PART B EOI II : DESIGN APPROACH B.1. DESIGN FOCUS B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 B.4. TECHNIQUE : DEVELOPMENT B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B.6. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL B.7. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES B.8. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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PART C : GATEWAY PROJECT C.1. DESIGN CONCEPT C.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS C.3. FINAL MODEL C.4. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES C.5. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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PART A EOI I CASE FOR INNOVATION

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A.0. 6

ABOUT ME PREVIOUS WORK


My name is Shiqi Tang (Sunny), 21 years old. I am an international student who has been in Australia for almost five years. My hometown is Yichang, which locates in the central part of China near the Yangtze River. I finished my high school in Adelaide and now doing architecture in the final year of the bachelor of Environment in Melbourne. The reason why I love architecture is because I like being rational in the design field. The creation of spatial relationships in a practical way is also attractive to me as it involves consideration of the human beings and the surrounding environment. I have limited experience with the digital architecture as the outcomes of my digital works let me feel less confident about them. However, with the practices in the past few semesters, I have improved my skills in using AutoCAD, Adobe series and Rhino. The difficulty that I usually have while I am using digital tools is the lack of creation. This is because of the lack of experiences and experiments of this sort of product. I wish I would enhance my digital skills, especially about Rhino, by the end of this semester.

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A.1. 8

ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE


FIG. 01

MAD ARCHITECTS, BEIJING 2050, The People’s Squeare

The understanding of architecture as discourse can be seen as the representation of ‘zeitgeist‘, that is the ‘spirit of the age‘. Since architecture contains a variety of domains, such as aesthetic value and new technologies, the discourse of architecture is approached differently through each period. Thus, the discourse of contemporary architecture, to me, is remaining convergent to culture by continually engaging with the society in new ways. This can be achieved by ‘capturing the forces that shape society as material to work with’ 1. Architecture is a synthesis of form, material, structure and performance2. These four components allow architecture to communicate with the community and allow it to represent the concurrent cultural values. By using the forces that shape society as concepts, responses of architectural form, material, structure and performance will become connected with these, thus new aesthetic compositions and effects will be created and brought to the contemporary age. As societal value is always changing in time, it is important for designers and architecture to constantly think and emerge with it and make new contribute to the architecture discourse.

The design of Gateway project for the city of Wyndham requires the encouragement of ongoing interest for the local people that should also have a continuing reflection of the city and the landscape. This concept can be seen as a search for the convergent between architecture and the local culture. Hence, the understanding of the local community should be reflected through architectural form, material, structure and performance. Two examples have been selected as the representation of this discourse. One is the proposal for Beijing 2050 by MAD Architects, the other one is the design for Oceanic Pavilion for Yeosu 2012 Expo by Emergent and Kokkugia. Both of the designs embedded the considerations generated from the forces that changed the society, therefore these architectural outcomes are convergent to culture. Although these designs also represent the futuristic formation ideas, but they meaning behind them are expanded beyond considerations of buildings alone3.

1. Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-6 2. Ana Martins, ‘ICD and ITKE learn from the lobster’, MARK, APR/MAY 2013, ISSUE 43, pp.49 3.Richard, Williams. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 111-115

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A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

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FIG. 02

MAD ARCHITECTS, BEIJING 2050, The People’s Square


Beijing 2050 is the project that envisions Beijing for the future that deals with the overcrowded urban context of Beijing4. Issues of growing population, conservation of historical fabrics and reestablishing of center are responded within the design. These three topics are urgent contradictions for the urban sprawl of Beijing, designers from MAD architects sought solutions for them through the establishment of architectural forms, materials, structure and performance5. Two projects included in this proposal will be discussed in the following section. The reason why it is relevant to the convergent with culture is because the concepts/ visions are based on the existed cultural effects from the current site. The renovation of Tiananmen (people’s park) (FIG.02) wants to express the evolution of the spirit as the site as a city center in the last decades has witnesses a range of different revolutions in China. The vision in future for a political center/ city square is believed to express more democratic and mature atmosphere. Hence, the designers recreated this city center to be filled with life and the green heart instead of maintaining artificial, flat and massive gathering space for political troops and processions. The consideration of performance is highlighted as the creation of such a green space allows the city to become a place to enjoy and appreciate. It would also help to release the stress from their daily life as the overcrowded city has already created intensive competitions between people.

4. MAD ARCHITECTS, Information, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35 5. MAD ARCHITECTS, Information, http://www.i-mad.com/#works_ details?wtid=4&id=35

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A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

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FIG. 03

MAD ARCHITECTS, BEIJING 2050, Hutong


Considerations of using form and structural responses are highlighted in the second project of Beijing 2050. This is about inserting futuristic bubbles into historical fabric. As the city developers has tear down the historic fabric of Beijing and many historic places are struggling with finding a way of conservation of the history while meeting the modern requirements for living. Designers aim to create bubble-like form in order to suite the spaces between the houses in Hutong (old 13 laneway in Beijing) flexibly. Sufficient and modern facilities would be introduced into building sectors like this to solve the problems for existing residences. It is also clear that the form and the structure are created through a series of computational design process. The ability to create spherical surface for dynamic structure bases are introduced through the computer aided designed which it not only provides efficiency during the design process but also provide benefits for the urban context.


A.1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

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FIG. 04 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo


FIG. 05 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo

Design by Emergent and Kokkugia for the Yeosu 2012 Expo, the Oceanic Pavilion pushes this idea further in the discourse. It is an excellent example that uses disciplines of architectural form, performance, structure and structure to reflect the contemporary culture and to represent a new aesthetic composition and effect. The lack of connections between the ecological environment the built world has become an increasingly debate over decades. In this project, Kokkugia aims to use the advance technology together with the establishment of architectural disciplines to create a space, which celebrates the ocean as a living organism and co-existence of human culture and ocean ecosystems. They considered that the role of architects is expanded to strength the association with the ecological environment and the built environment. The space they aim to be created should be ‘where the species selects its environment as much as the environment selects its species6’. An aggregation of soft membrane bubbles merged together with a hard monologue shell is structured from a series of computerized mathematical hierarchies that response the force of searching for connections between environment and humans. Although the second example is quite different in terms of the level of computerized design process involved, both of them used either materials or structure to create new aesthetic compositions and effects that would connect to the contemporary culture.

FIG. 06 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo

6. KOKKUGIA, Oceanic Pavilion, Projects, http://www.kokkugia.com

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A.2. 16

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE


FIG. 07 Computation architecture is part of the architecture discourse, which represents sophisticated scientific and technological aspects of the design. On the one hand, it promoted the architects to a new and efficient level that sometimes they have to think and represent their works through computer language. This means that at the first place, they have to know how things will work on a computer program. The way of thinking through a computational way is different to the traditional way of using concepts. On the other hand, it influences the design process that it offers infinite opportunities around a core concept. For instance, if an architect built a computer program to solve one design problem, the algorithm that describes the program would assist to explore different outcomes through various modifications7. In addition, it helps designers or architects to present their ideas in the way that other related professions would understand. For example, the use of CAD programs to analysis the architect’s idea for the other engineers8. Computerized design is influenced by the information age. Therefore, the use of computing program is becoming essential in each part of the design process. Design is the element connected between the goals and solutions9. Generally, it could be understood as the problem solver. The real world cases of architecture are always complicated due to geographical, structural, social and cultural factors. Computerization becomes very capable to resolve the complicated relationships via different approaches

of generating and analyzing data. Throughout the computation, all the information would be stored and organized, and everything will become related and meaningful. Once as one solution is announced, it will have the potential to offer maximized opportunities as various outcomes. It is then benefits the solution synthesis decision which more formdriven conceptual design outcome can be achieved. As this is the intuitive process where all the creative ideas would be generated, computerization assists the highest creative potential that was traditionally limited by structure and construction difficulties. This type of computerized design is quite different from the idea of using computer as a drafting tool that the design concept is already existed in your mind10. In considering with the informatics-based design in the contemporaryage,designs thatusecomputerized technology can be categorized into two groups. That is the computerization design and the computation design11. Computerization design is defined as using the tools to further develop the idea that has already conceptualized in designer’s mind. That is the process simply transfers or enters or manipulates the ideas on a computer. The computation design is however, on the contrast side that is the process of developing your conceptual ideas from a computerized tool. As the computerized software allow you to create a language-based database to develop your approaches. It concentrates on the creating of intelligent for and traceable creativity which are beyond the traditional conceptual searching process.

7.Keil, eds. ‘Algorithm’, pp.106. 8. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Introduction’, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 12. 9.Kalay, ‘Introduction’, pp. 13. 10. Brady Peters, ‘Introduction’, Architecture Design: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Mar/Apr, 2013, pp.10 11. Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, mA: elsevier), p. xi

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A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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FIG. 08 FOSTER+PARTNER KHAN SHATYR ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE


A recent architecture project in Kazakhstan designed by Forster and Partners would represent the idea of computerization design as the concept idea is driven from the landscape not from any computerized technology. However, the development of the form is through a series of parametric tools. Different parameter is designed to form a dynamic roof structure that also releases the tension forces transferred down to the ground. This is a typical representation of form-finding algrithm12 that is formed part of the parametric model for the overall development and defining of the building form. In the Forster and Partners practice, computational designers work as part of the internal specialist who will be involved in any stages during the design process depending on the needs of the project. This indicates that the using of computational program for the design of the object is embedded with every step during the whole procedure. Designers nowadays are not only the people who can draw ideas from the computational system, but also becomes the people who is able to customize the data in the written programs and delaminating different outcomes via the changes of each written codes12. Looking back to the architecture history, there is a connection between the modern ideas and the contemporary computerized approaches through architecture. One modernist’s idea which connects tightly into the nowadays design would be Le Corbusier’s ‘building as a living machine’. This theory argues the importance of a selforientated object that will improve the quality of life. Computation of architecture allows solution for different requirements in daily lives via analysis of series amount of elements and needs under a wield range of disciplines. Hence, it is the performance of the building structures that architects nowadays consider the most. Through the customizing of particular environmental and social condition for the particular region in computing programs, performances can be justified by changing each design ingredient. This performance-based simulations allows

12. Brady Peters, ‘Introduction’, Architecture Design: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Mar/Apr, 2013, pp.10

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A.2 COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

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FIG. 09 FORSTER+PARTNERS main chamber of the GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY HEADQUARTERS


architect to take a step forward to the performance of the building rather than leaving the building being used ‘passive, after-the-fact’13. Occupants are benefited in this type of design as the computational technology provides more accurate information of the particular conditions, which enhance the property of the building itself at an early stage.

FIG. 10

FIG. 11 FORSTER+PARTNERS main chamber of the GREATER LONDON AUTHORITY HEADQUARTERS

The design of the main chamber of the Greater London Authority Headquarters is a representative example in addressing the performative approaches via using advance technology. It is also a true representation of the computation design as the perfomative criteria are tested at the beginning of design process and following through the entire form finding and construction stages. In considering the surrounding environment in relation to the later on energy performance, the design of the building is started with analyzing the exposure to direct sunlight at this site. The ‘blob’ like form is a result of decreasing 25% surface area, which would assist to reduce solar heat gain and heat loss through the building skin. It is suggested that there would be a higher deduction of solar heat gain comparing with a cube shape through out the year14. Although the dynamic form of the building is not welcomed through a traditional visual culture in London, the achievement in promoting a performance driven architecture is another ideology that should be considered under the architecture discourse.

13. Branko, Kolarevic. ‘Digital Morphogenesis’, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp.26 14.Kolarevic. ‘Digital Morphogenesis’,pp.25

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A.3. 22

PARAMETRIC MODELING


FIG. 12

ITO TOYO TAICHUN METROPOLITAIN OPERA HOUSE

Parametric modeling represents the change of using computerized design in architecture. It is not only a computation based new technology introduced in the design field, but it also provides entire new versions in both progressive stages and final outcomes in architecture. The idea of parametric modeling represents a union design idea15, which covers up various design-related disciplines. For example, when we use grasshopper to generate a Voronio 3D mesh on one surface, the property of the surface, no matter it is formed from single points or different curves, is connected to few other parameters, for instance, the division tab or the Voronio 3D mesh tab. Thus, the outcome of the design is a union that contains all different parameters. It is a continuing and corresponded object in considering the outcome of the parametric modeling. For example, when you change the property of one single parameter, the other associated parameters require adjustment to finalize a new outcome. Additionally, all these parameters are hold by one major principle that would ensure the consistency in the overall progress. Moreover, in the process of searching for explorations under the computerized system, designers are encouraged to learn as much as they can in the relationship between the computational

structure and the design structure16. Designers are taking advantages of studying new skills and languages in order to be more creative. However, there are some potential disadvantages in dealing with parametric modeling. The first is the development of a complicated database. In reality, considerations of the surrounding social and urban environment require variety of investigations and analysis. In order to produce an optimal design outcome, maximum information would be input into the database. Although it is a very coherence program, any corresponded changes within the program will decrease the efficiency and will require sophisticated checks as soon as the new outcome is released. As most of the program is from mathematic base like algorithm, the calculation process would reduce some humanism elements. The outcome of this can be treated like a machine rather than a coherent artistic design object. This is then becoming a barrier for designers who are willing to be creative for no restrictions. The aesthtic part of the parametric modelling is qiute limited and most people find this is very distracting. Despite the negative side of this new technology, the efficiency and benefits provided by this innovative design idea will encourage more focuses and trend towards being parametricsm.

15, Patrik Schumacher, “Parametricism”, 16. , Robert, Woodbury. ‘Introduction’, Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge, 2010) pp. 7-9

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A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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FIG. 13 ITO TOYO TAICHUN METROPOLITAIN OPERA HOUSE

An example that has a strong link to the parametric idea is the Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, designed by Toyo Ito. Toyo Ito believes that architecture has to follow the diversity of society, and has to reflect that a simple square or cube cannot contain that diversity. In order to consider the coherent use of the projects and the surrounding environment, the idea of the opera house is based on a continuous network via using curvy lines in both horizontal and vertical directions that will result different sectors to suite variety of purposes. The continuing curvy sponge-like shape is undertaken through a series

of parametric modeling, which the actual layers of the structure will be constructed largely through meshes of steel beams17. The parametric modeling is considered under a series of grid system driven from both 2D plans and 3D spatial arrangements. The design was driven by the ‘emerging grid system’ 18, which is based on the functional layout through a 2D drafting analysis. It is then developed in to a 3D object through the use of parametric tools that allows the use of mesh parameter to create different curve surfaces. Although all the inner

17. Design Boom, Toyo Ito: taichung metropolitan opera, Last Modified 23 March 2010, http://www.designboom.com/architecture/toyo-itotaichung-metropolitan-opera/ 18. Open Building, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, Last Modified 2010, http://openbuildings.com/buildings/taichung-metropolitanopera-house-profile-2039


FIG. 14

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FIG. 15 ITO TOYO TAICHUN METROPOLITAIN OPERA HOUSE

spaces are allocated into different sponge-like cells, it does seem like connecting into the whole building environment. The parametric modeling provides the opportunity for the emerging of each space in a less rational way that also aids on reduction of the traditional cubic feeling. Another crucial advantage of this design is the embedded fluent and continuing elements within the journey throughout the whole structure. According to the curvy shapes and the fluent connection among functional rooms, this design provides a

19. Schumacher, “Parametricism”

more smooth experience for users when they are actually walking around. Avoiding abrupt corners generates the engagement for both spatial and functional considerations in a ‘parametric sense’ that everything is controlled by the grid system and all activities can communicate with each


A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

other19.

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FIG. 16 ZAHA HADID ROCA LONDON GALLERY

The idea of ‘smooth’20 is visually maximized in Zaha’s design of the Roca London Gallery. The original idea was inspired by ‘water’. As water contains optimal adaptability towards the changes and innovations, it is then selected as a core concept for this gallery design. On the one hand, the idea of smooth manipulates the ‘water-shaped’ pattern in order to generate the journey within the art gallery. On the other hand, this smooth concept also brings a completely new vision for the interior spaces.

20. Schumacher, “Parametricism”

The continuing and endless curves from both horizontal and vertical layers are leading towards several mystery points. Due to the use of the smooth and continuing curves, all functional spaces within the buildinag are all jointed together by layers of the horizontal structures. There is no stop for one particular point within the room, all the walls, and ceilings even the doorways and windows are formed freely, which is like invitation for further exploring. If the idea of using cubic objects in design is


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FIG. 17 ZAHA HADID ROCA LONDON GALLERY

considered as isolation, this parametric idea is then becomes a creation of connection. If there were no any parametric modeling tool, this design would like an impossible mission to form. However, the idea of Zaha’s soft environment cannot be expressed strongly through the 2D floor plan. Because the overall range of different spaces is still a very square shape. It is unlike Toyo’s design that is formed originally from several floor plans’ arrangements. The soft and curvy environment is more pronounced in both

2D and 3D outcomes from Toyo’s Opera House, comparing with Zaha’s Roca London Gallery. The main difference between Zaha’s parametric design and Toyo’s is from the beginning of the concepts. The inspiration of water is already a 3D vision. However, Toyo used parametric modeling as a tool to form the finalized 3D outcome.


A.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING

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FIG. 18 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany Different from the previous two precedents, this precedent represents a specific parameters’ driving outcome. The pavilion that is designed by ICD / ITKE (Fig. 18 & 22) in 2012 is a true representation of the use of parametric design tools. This group of researchers and students uses computational and robotic processes to achieve the idea of prioritizing the elaboration of form over the subsequent materialization of architecture. This pavilion is based on biometric design that investigates the material and morphologic principles

21. Martins, ICD and ITKE learn from the Lobster

of the exoskeleton of a lobster (Fig.19). Through out series of processes of setting up parameters and definitions (Fig.20) to mimic the morphology of the exoskeleton shape from a lobster, the pavilion was made entirely by a six-axis robot coupled with an external seventh axis21. The process is very sophisticated and mathematical based. The use of creating scripts and definitions in order to search for the form and the fabrication strategies are very effective and efficient. As the parametric software has managed to finalize


FIG. 19

ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany

FIG. 21

ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany

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FIG. 20 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany both the shape of the design and the detail of fabrication, the construction from a computerized fabrication machine is used. This fabrication and construction are improved through the use of computationalandroboticprocesses.Theprocedures of winding more than 60km of resin saturated glass and carbon fibers that are around a temporary steel frame22 become less complicated (Fig.21). Fewer work forces are required to be finished by human forces; instead, robotic fabrication would produce more accurate and fluent outcomes.

22. Martins, ICD and ITKE learn from the Lobster

FIG. 22 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany It is believed that the use of parametric tools would provide a context for the development of strategies that surpass the current limitations of the building industry. It reduces lots of workloads in both the design process and the fabrication process, thus ecologicaldesignandeconomicdesignareenhanced. In addition, improvement for the convergent of form and materialization is also achieved through the address of various related factors from simulation and testing to the control.


A.4. 30

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS


Explorations of generating different mesh geometries in both 2D and 3D ways are the most interesting parts that I have been discovered during the algorithmic workflows within Grasshopper. The idea of experiencing the logic connection for different components in order to create the final outcome in this paramtric design tool is also a crucial focus during the exploraing process.

CUBE TO MESH

MESH TO QUAD TO FACEBOUNDARY

TUBE TO MESH

At the beginning of investigating mesh geometry in Grasshopper, experiment the mesh geometry for cubic shapes was not very challenge. The weld mesh tab helps to connect each mesh points tightly thus less gaps or overlaps would be generate after the new shape is created. Difficulties occurred when starting to use a circular shape to create mesh. As the surface is already in a very smooth condition, any adjustments for new mesh tab, especially mesh smooth tab, cannot be undertaken. By searching on the Internet and looking through different properties of each parameter and tool bars in Grasshopper, changes in order to form new mesh geometry were discovered. That is to reverse the definitions. Bars such as QUADRANGULATE to triangulate the surface or definitions like FACE BOUNDARY to decompose the wired structure of the original circular shape were applied to achive effective results. Further invetigations can be explored as a result of using face boundary tool to divide the geometry into new QUADRANGULATED elements, other mesh tools such as VORONOI 3D can be applied for constructing a new mesh. The reason why to include this experience in this section is because it emphasizes the processes of refining an optimal options for achieving the final outcom. Although some advocates believe that technology would become a barrier for being creative in design, it is not certainly the truth when

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A.4 ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

MESH TO QUAD TO FACEBOUNDARY TO LOFT

32 MESH TO QUAD TO FACEBOUNDARY TO VORONOI 3D


solutions could be found through the in-depth studying of the particular parametric modeling tool. The more understanding of the digital languages the more flexible and dynamic outcomes you will have automatically from the computers.

MESH TO QUAD TO FACEBOUNDARY TO LOFT

MESH TO QUAD TO FACEBOUNDARY TO VORONOI 3D

The challenges encourage you to learn more knowledge about this computational language. The more you understand, the more creative and flexible you would apply in the further experiment. Especially when you are trying to explore a new outcome, it would be necessary if you fully understand what kind of properties the current output contains. If there is a variation with the outcome you have and the new effect you are willing to add on, you must take another considerations of transform the language in between. For example, the case on the left hand side shows a disconnection between a FACE BOUNDARY outputs with the LOFT input. In this case, as the outcome of a face boundary is a list of different points, whereas, loft requires a list of curves to connect with. Thus a connection n between which can divide the curves into POINT LISTS is required, or searching for other points output such as VORONIO 3D is required. This Grasshopper feature also emphasizes the importance of creating language to form a unique, continuing and corresponded program for any future additions or corrections that is mentioned in the parametric. Connections occurred in each notions demonstrate the continuality and the union of the program itself, although they are contained by different codes. Overall, different practices in Rhino and Grasshopper suggest that algorithmic explorations and thinking is the process of understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code to explore new ideas and applying for any future potentials.

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A.5. 34

CONCLUSION


FIG. 23 ARANDA LASCH, THE MORNING LINE

The previous sections have shown the interest of using computational technology to create an innovative design, especially the interest of using parametrical modeling tool such as Rhino and Grasshopper. The advance of technology allows computation becomes one of the essential parts within the architecture discourse that is also able to contrast with other discouse to solve practical problems. The combination of design and mathematic provides opportunities for creating hitech projects that also reflect the contemporary world-wide social and culture factors. This design will use parametric modeling as the major tool in order to create continuing, unique and soft design. In addition, the idea of being a performative approach will be undertaken in contrasting with the use of computerized system to analysis the surrounding conditions. Furthermore, providing localized urban experience will be reflected through the spatial allocation and choosing of material. In contrasting of parametricism in this project, interests of a combination of biomimicry and patterning

elements will be explored future on. This core thesis contains the search of inspirations from organic elements that will reflect the background of the surrounding environment and further technologic exploration on tracing the inspiration. However, the original organic pattern will be refined in order to suit the performance circumstances. It will be an innovative design because of the idea of being logic. Additionally, the technology closes the gaps between pure designs and helps to understand the practical conditions. It will certainly be a rational design as each parameter is a connection of a certain definition that is from a mathematicalbased modeling scripts. This use of innovative technology will be beneficial for both developers and the occupants. As it is very cost efficiency for just use computational tools, large volumes of ideas can be explored at different design in considering with different approaches at each stage. Moreover, the accuracy of each design stage will be ensuring until the final project would be constructed.

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A.6. 36

LEARNING OUTCOMES


FIG. 24 ARANDA LASCH, THE MORNING LINE

37 With the help of readings like Kaylay and Woodbury, more in-depth understanding about the mathematical perspectives of the new technology is realized. Although these theories are quite abstract when they are demonstrated in the literal way, each week’s exercises of different parameters in rhino and grasshopper allow me to explore these languages in a practical way. Especially, the logic of using different definitions for different purposes is emphasized with each step towards the final outcomes. From the previous progresses of understanding the discourse of computational technology of architecture, I learnt that computation is not about developing the aesthetic side of a design, more importantly; the structure and the performance of the building are the core concerns within this new technology. Although the idea of parametricism is evident in the innovative forms of buildings,

the considerations for the performance of the building and for the occupations are also linked as part of the innovation. Previously, lots of crazy shapes created from parametricism idea were considered as less rational in an architectural design. However, after the exploring of different perspectives in this idea, every part of these crazy ideas is rational. This is because each of them has one mathematical links behind. The previous virtual environment design of a body lantern was created through Rhino. However, the paneling tool used for the reshaping of the curvy surface was lack of logic and control. Applying different control parameters in grasshopper and being able to connect with the previous rhino model improve the feasibility to adjust single points or elements. In addition, different curve lists or points lists analyzed in grasshopper would help to understand the model in much more details.


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PART B EOI II

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DESIGN APPROACH


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B.1. DESIGN FOCUS


FIG. 01

Spanish Pavilion, FOREIGN OFFICE ARCHITECTS, 2005

FIG. 02

Spanish Pavilion, FOREIGN OFFICE ARCHITECTS, 2005

BIOMIMICRY AND PATTERNING With the advance of technology, biomimicry becomes an innovative discipline in architecture discourse. It focuses on studying nature’s best ideas and then imitates these design and process to solve human problems. Under this discipline, it treats nature as a model, thus forms from natural elements, the process and systems driven from the nature would all be emulated through a design process. In addition, nature is also acts as a mentor in the process of biomimetic design, which would express a synthesized collection of form, material, structure and performance at different stages. Architecture is a complex discipline that is not only a representation of visual effects, but it is also a comprehensive entity of a symbolic realm and a spatial experience 2. The idea of biomimicry has the potential to provide various contexts to achieve these architectural considerations and allow flexible strategies to express them. This project will explore specifically about how to imitate an optimal structural outcome from biomimetic processes through series of parametric design technologies. There are numbers of practical examples about structure principles existed in nature; these are the evaluated examples that would help us to develop in the following week. In relation to the Gateway design process; this will form the core argument that includes the form design as well as meeting the optimal performance criteria.

Patterning is a tool that perforates and transforms particular elements in a repetitive or predictable manner. This is wide used in parametric design, as the digitalized technology would allow more precise trace of more fluent and soft outcome. The combination of the two streams would be applied further in the Gateway design. The idea of biomimicry would emphasis on the core ideas of forming a particular design for the local community in order to achieve a qualitative outcome as well as enhances the performance criteria after its installation. The reason why we use a biomimicry approach for the Wydham Gateway project is the aim of achieving natural designs. The efficiency, strength and general compactness3 of natural designs are believed to be the solutions that will response the long-term societal change. In addition, the project will draw people’s interests to the city of Wyndham through thr process of being by nature and using a biomimetic definition. The Spanish exhibition pavilion (Fig 01) in Japan is an example that represents the idea of biomimicry and patterning. The use of parametric modeling allows the designer trace the organic pattern (“honey cone’) (Fig 02) and distribute in a set order on the cubic surface. It is a combination of using biomimicry and patterning via parametric

1.The Biomimicry Institute, What is Biomimicry, http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2 Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262336_1%26url%3D, 2013, visited on 28/04/2013 2. Richard, Williams. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 114 3.Albertoi Sandro, Biomimetic Architecture, http://issuu.com/salberti/docs/theory3-23?mode=window, 2013, visited on 25/04/2013

41


B.1 DESIGN FOCUS

42

FIG. 03

ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY


tools. The designers used the natural as a model which allows the design porcess and the overall outcome to express a natural design that lies in achiving the efficiency and the dynamic for the society and the occupants.

FIG. 04

ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY

Another successful example that represents the biomimetic design is the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011(FIG 03). Inspiring by the morphology of sea urchins (FIG 04), this pavilion is an ideal approach of transferring the biometric structure into a usable architectural result. The spatial experiences are highlighted at both inner space and the public external space (FIG 05). One that provides a porous inner layer to create a semi-private space like the inner core of the searches. The other that allows a big opening which also aid on drawing public attention to the design.

FIG. 05

ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY

43


44

B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0


FIG. 06 Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom

OVERVIEW AND PROCESS VoltaDome (FIG 06) is an installation created by Skylar Tibbits that uses parametric design technology to generate a surface panel that intensifies the depth of a double curved vaulted surface. The support file asks us to use the idea of adjusting the combination of trimmed cones to attempt the similar dome outcome. It uses pointdefined space to randomly allocated the geometry thus an expression of intensity is achieved4. There are two major focuses of extension approaches, one contains investigations of densit VoltaDome is an installation created by Skylar Tibbits that uses parametric design technology to generate a surface panel that intensifies the depth of a double curved vaulted surface. The support file asks us to use the idea of adjusting the combination of trimmed cones to attempt the similar dome outcome. It uses point-defined space to randomly allocated the geometry thus an expression of intensity is achieved. There are two major focuses of extension approaches, one contains investigations of density of the volume and the other one contains explorations of applying the same definitions via testing other geometries. Under the first category, the

ANALYSIS AND THOUGHTS increasing number of cones would generate an increasing expression of intensity of the pattern. Random gaps or overlap surfaces would occur as the number approaches to the higher range. More interesting outcomes occurred under geometry testing section. Using the existed boundary to create 3D voronoi outcome provides another distinct outcomes, more comprehensive layers are generated through the increasing number of populated points. However, difficulties of trimming mesh joints creates chaotic expression, which also makes the geometry becomes much more complex. y of the volume and the other one contains explorations of applying the same definitions via testing other geometries5. These series of approaches can be aided on future investigations of biomimetic patterning. Through the controlling of various point-driven geometry, more flexibility and customized outcome can be applied. It is also a flexible combination that can be implemented on specific surface or adding on aesthetic features for structural components. The definition of trimming the top of the cone to frame openings can be applied into later on considerations of installing functional features or fabrication techniques.

4. Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom, http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html, 2011, Visited on 01/05/2013 5. Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom

45


B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 MATRIX

CHANGE DOMAIN OF SPLITING (0.8)

CHANGE NUMBER OF POINTS DISTRIBUTED (35)

CHANGE DOMAIN OF SPLITING (0.5)

CHANGE CONE TO CYLINDER JOIN CYLINDER WITH BASE CONE ADJUST DOMIN SIZE (0.2)

CHANGE DOMAIN OF SPLITING (0)

CHANGE CONE TO CYLINDER JOIN CYLINDER WITH BASE CONE ADJUST DOMIN SIZE (0.6)

46

CHANGE NUMBER OF POINTS DISTRIBUTED (10)

CHANGE CONE TO CYLINDER JOIN CYLINDER WITH BASE CONE ADJUST DOMIN SIZE (1.2)


CHANGE ORDER OF SPLITING POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D

POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D SCALE OF DOMIN (0)

47

CHANGE ORDER OF SPLITING POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D

POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D SCALE OF DOMIN (0.3)

CHANGE ORDER OF SPLITING POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D

POPULATE 3D VORONOI 3D SCALE OF DOMIN (0.8)


B.3. 48

CASE STUDY 2.0


FIG. 07 The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania

OVERVIEW The ZA11 Pavilion was designed as the flagship pavilion for the ZA11 Speaking architecture event in Cluj, Romania (Fig. 07). With the aim of creating public attention, advanced technology, the parametric design tool was selected to develop an iconic showcase. By using the fabrication method of connecting individual hexagon panels through plywood joists, the panel offers a flexible and comfortable sheltered space for the unfolding of different social events pertaining to the corresponding architecture festival. These include temporary bookshop, open-air cinema, tea part and so on. It is a sufficient design in terms of structural and the functional outcomes. The hexagon shape on the pavilion provides not only an atheistic achievement but also as a self support system that no extra structural members are required

ANALYSIS AND THOUGHTS to support it after it has been assembled. The various scales of the openings allow multiple uses and purposes that is also a highlight of creating a evaluated urban space. I think that if the hexagon cells can be developed under a gradation of layers through various thickness of each panel, it will provide more benefits in terms of structural stability for the project itself and visual experiences for the people. The most important understanding from this case study is the transformation from a 2D patterning surface towards a structural composition. The outcomes would be form driven. This also arises a core concern of finding out appropriate structural compositions, as the patterning cannot indicate context towards three-dimensional approach.

6. The ZA11 Pavilion, Information, http://www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitrie-stefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/, 2011, visited on 04/05/2013 7.The ZA11 Pavilion

49


B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 APPORACH ONE- SURFACE MORPH This approach uses several definitions under the transformation sector in Grasshopper. In order to generate the diamond shape from a surface, single polygon geometry has been created as a base module at the very first stage. Lofted surface is then created to trace the shape of ZA Pavilion. Applying the polygon shape on the surface via surface morph, thus repeating elements have been created through a certain order by the determinations of specific domains. The change of a polygon surface would have affect on the shape. An angled layer will occur due to the angle created for the base module. Although the overall shape is very similar to the ZA Pavilion as the base module is a diamond like shape, but there is no connection among the three layers as well as neighboring elements. Similarities and differences

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

50

APPORACH TWO- MAP SURFACE Alternative investigation of recreating the ZA Pavilion has been taken under the use of map surface tool in Grasshopper. Although this approach also starts with a surface(1 & 2), the result of using a extruded outcome suits the ZA Pavilion in a more precise way. Two streams have been undertaken at the start, one is to create the loft surface; the other one is to create a strip of populated 2D voronoi pattern (4) that has the same dimensions as the lofted surface. A structure is generated from the lofted surface via extrude individual curves (3). Combining the two streams via map surface would result a series of connected 3D voronoi cells under this particular shape. This is the result that is the closest we can approach to this ZA Pavilion. It is similar in the way of the compositions of the individual cells. However, the joint strategy is still different to the case study as the case study has decomposed each voronoi cells into separated panels with additional clip joints to connect in between.

1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

6.


FIG. 08

The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania

51

FIG. 09

The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania


B.4. 52

TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT


FIG. 10

Rock Erosion

As the location of the Gateway project is part of the journey towards the Great Ocean Road, we started to find biomimetic morphology about marine attributions and its relationship to the surrounding environment. Our interest of searching for a specific morphology that would represent a biomimetic expectation was drawn from the rock erosion and weathering process along the coast lines. The reason why this is an appropriate representation is because the essence of erosion contains both a transition process as well as a solid organic outcome. We believe that the idea of representing the transition procedure would reflect the sense of motion and speed generated from the freeway in an innovative and an iconic way. The idea of treating the surface pattern as a device that could response accordingly to the surrounding conditions is also an inspiring design intent to that would also aids on the sense of inclusiveness for this Gateway Project. The core consideration of using erosion for the Wyndham community is to create the expression of taking away the inefficient layers and exposing the efficient layer of the local community to the general public. Thus, in this way, a new representation of identity will be established.

FIG. 11

Rock Erosion

FIG. 12

Rock Erosion

In order to find the most innovative and suitable representations for rock erosion through parametric design, two directions have been considered. One is about developing surface biomimetic patterning and the other one focuses on searching for a pure biomimetic structural representation. Each step that has taken within these two directions embedded Kalay’s two ideas of searching for the technique to develop design outcomes. On the one hand, technique development should consider produce candidate solutions for considerations. This will improve the coherence and synthesis of the project as the more choices or outcomes you have, the larger amount of contradicting issues would be solved. This is evident through the production of matrices from both approaches. The other procedure that resolves these varieties of considerations is the procedure of choosing the right solution for further consideration and development. Analysis of the depth of the results and the appropriateness of the design intent is the reflection of this second progress of the technique development.

53


B.4 TECHNIQUE :DEVELOPMENT MATRIX The frist development of the surface patterning is inspired by the celluar shape of the Spanish pavilion, together with the continuing furthure technique explorations from the case study of the ZA11 Pavailion.

ERN ONE

- 2D VORONIO - OFFSET

- 2D VORONIO - OFFSET VORONOI PATTERN TWO EXTRACT - 2D VORONIO CONTROL - OFFSET -POLYGON EXTRACT CONTROL POLYGON POINTS POINTS CURVES - - CREAT CREAT CURVES

PATTERN 3: -COMBINE PATTERN ONE AND TWO - EACH UNIT IS CONNECTED

54 OFFSET SURFACE - CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - MAP THE - OFFSET SURFACE SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE (PANTTERN ONE) - LOFT

- LOFT

- CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE (PANTTERN TWO) - LOFT OFFSET

SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT

4A -MAP SURFACE TO LAYERED STRUCTURE -FAIL

-- CREATE OFFSET BASE STRUCTURE SURFACE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PANTTERN ONE) SURFACE - LOFT - LOFT - CHANGE PARAMETER FOR DISTANCE CHANGE DISTANCE

- CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE (PANTTERN ONE) - - LOFT OFFSET - CHANGE PARAMETER FOR DISTANCE SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE - LOFT CHANGE DISTANCE

OFFSET - CREATE BASE STRUCTURE SURFACE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PANTTERN ONE) SURFACE - LOFT - LOFT PARAMETER FOR DISTANCE - - CHANGE CHANGE DISTANCE

Main technique used in this section is applying Voronoi 2D - CREATE BASE STRUCTURE - CREATE BASE STRUCTURE patterns to a certain surface. This - OFFSET SURFACE - OFFSET SURFACE - MAP THE SURFACE ((PANTTERN - MAP THE SURFACEenclosed (PANTTERN ONE) strip actsTHREE) like surface - LOFT OFFSET - LOFT that defines the boundaries of SURFACE - CHANGE PARAMETER FOR DISTANCE - MAP THE biomimicry patterning. Main SURFACE - LOFT drawback of this is that the detail CHANGE of individual pattern form and DISTANCE cannot be manipulated and joints among it cannot be modified.


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE

-CURVE TO PIPE -BREP -POP GEO -VORONOI 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION

-CURVE TO PIPE -BREP -POP GEO -VORONOI 3D -SOLID INTERSECTION -SLIDER CHANGE

55

- SET OFFSET LINE SYSTEM - EXTRUDE - SOLVE INTERSECTION - SURFACE SPLIT

-LOFT CURVE -EXTRUDE -DIVIDE SURFACE -PLANER SURFACE

-HAXEGON -BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE MORPH

This series of approaches all focus on changing the internal partitions. Several ideas of using pipe to form a more fluent outcome are tested at the earlier stage. Instead of using just Voronoi 3D definitions, recreation of internal joints via planer, lunch box (hexagon layering) and bounding box have been tested. This set of outcomes is using relevant manner to explore new ideas beyond what the precedents have been given; however, none of them is a satisfied result due to the lack of flexibility in forms.


B.4 TECHNIQUE :DEVELOPMENT MATRIX Various technologies have been explored in this section in order to search apporaches beyond voronoi 2D patterning and also to search for ideas those would break down the origional strip form. Creating intersections of curves and joints of geomerty are implemented . More flexible and controlable outcome have been generated. Additionally, the complexity of the outcome is growing via the increase of number of dividing points and the intensity of the geomentry. However, as the starting point of all explorations are from a lofted surface, it is very hard to find a logic way to break down the surface and form some other structural outcomes. -POLYGON -BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE MORPH

56

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES -POINT ATTRACTOR -SLIDER CHANGE

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES -POINT ATTRACTOR -SLIDER CHANGE

-LOFTING CURVES -SHIFTING LINES

-BOUNDING BOX -SURFACE PLANER -SURFACE MORPH

-POLYGON -BOUNDING BOX -POINT ATTRACTOR -SURFACE MORPH


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE Inspiring by the use of Voronoi technique in previouse investigations, a three deminsional voronoi idea is generated after using Voronio 2D. With the aim of searching for some new inspirations that would consider both structural effciency as well as biomimetic design apporach, explorations of a skeleton mesh from

Voronoi 3D is applied. Through series of testing formations and justfying compositions, results of connecting each voronio cells’ edges are selected for further explorations. In this case, the structure is randamely distributed from the egdes of each voronio cells. The idea of dynamic and mimic natural outcomes can be found through these morologies. However, at this stage, we do face problems of cleaning up the edges and find sufficient data for joining them together. the edge joists.

57 - Change parameters for moving distance

- CHANGE BASE BOX TO MORE LINEAR

- Change parameters for moving distance

CHANGE PARAMETER FOR NUMBERS OF VORONOI UNITS 1. Create 3D Voronoi 2. Remove exterior faces 3. Move Voronoi cells away from each other 4. Loft together common faces 5. Create mesh and smooth connections


B.4 TECHNIQUE :DEVELOPMENT

58

FIG. 13

Biy Yar Memorial project, by Kokkugia, 2010

FIG. 14

Biy Yar Memorial project, by Kokkugia, 2010


SKELETON AND STRUCTURE

FIG. 15

VORONOI MORPHOLOGY, MAYTS

FIG. 16

VORONOI MORPHOLOGY, MAYTS

The similar idea of a floating skeleton structure has also been explored in the Biy Yar Memorial project by Kokkugia. The inverted monument is casted from bronze and generated through the interaction of agent-based components.This represents a relief from the monolithic stone that forms the core remembrance space. The gradation and dynamism through the organic shape indicate a sense of process at the central part of the building. Hence the organic and biomimetic morphology is well incorporated with the expression of movement. Testing of the skeletal morphology using various geometries and a wide range of materials from MAYTS provides potential possibilities utilizing similar 3D Voronoi techniques. The skeleton outcome is indeed a vital composition; however, constraints are existed from them because all of their approaches are limited at certain boundaries. For further development of our project, we wish to search for an expression that would be sustained by itself without demonstrating the base object’s edge.

59


B.4 TECHNIQUE :DEVELOPMENT MATRIX

FROM SOLID TO SKELETON >>>>>

60

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (5) -NO. OF COUNT (5)

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (60) -NO. OF COUNT (60)

-POPULATE GEO -VORONOI 3D -NO. OF SEEDS (20) -NO. OF COUNT (20)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.7) -BOX (1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.2) -BOX(1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.4) -BOX(1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.6) -BOX(1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE (0.01)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE (0.2)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.9) -BOX (1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (2)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (0)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME(1) -EXPLODE (0.95) -BOX (1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE (0.5)


SKELETON AND STRUCTURE

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (7)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (0)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.3) -EXPLODE (0.001) -SCALE OF BOX (0.3)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.05) -EXPLODE (0.01) -SCALE OF BOX (0.7)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -MESH SMOOTH (15)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.5) -EXPLODE0.4) -ORIGINAL BOX(0.6)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME(0.8) -EXPLODE (0.8) -BOX(0.8)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (10.98) -EXPLODE (0.98) -BOX (0.98)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (0.95) -EXPLODE (0.95) -BOX (0.95)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME (0.6) -EXPLODE (0.6) -BOX (0.8)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH TRAIANGULATED -VOLUME (0.8) -EXPLODE (0.8) -BOX (0.3)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -MESH QUAD -VOLUME (1) -EXPLODE (0.01) -BOX (1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -SOPHRE (0.1)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -SOPHRE (0.5)

-VORONOI 3D -BREP COMPOSENT -TUBE -SOPHRE (0.01)

>>>>>FROM SOLID TO SKELETON

61


B.4 TECHNIQUE :DEVELOPMENT

- ADJUST ALL PARAMETERS FOR BETTER OUTCOME

SKELETON DEFINITION ONE

62

SKELETON DEFINITION TWO This second group of metrics for searching of an appropriate representation from a skeleton mesh has made a great progress in terms of understanding the mesh skeleton definitions as well as the possible further approaches we can gain. The learning of the first mesh skeleton definitions allow me to understand the sequence of decomposing a solid voronoi cell into skeleton shapes. Although all the voronoi 3D has to be started within a box, the decomposing of each element through ‘explode’ and ‘recreating mesh’ would make the overall shape becomes more dynamic. Explorations of the second group starts with a solid and simple voronoi 3D box, however

the shape is becoming more dynamic and skeleton with the adjusting of the scale of each explodes components and the dimensions. The decomposing process allows you to turn a solid structure into pieces of connected surfaces. Moreover, surfaces would then be altered into skeleton structural shapes. With the consideration from the pervious section of being skeleton while being controllable with joints, exploration of skeleton shape with joints from series of spheres is selected for further investigation


SKELETON AND STRUCTURE

BIOMIMICRY EROSION IMITATIONS OF PATTERNING

IMITATIONS OF STRUCTURE

surface treatment

structural efficiency 63

VORONOI 2D PATTERNING

combination ornament with structure

VORONOI 3D SKELETON

REVEALING OF NEW IDENTITY


B.5. 64

TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPE


65

Due to the limitations that created from the explorations of the patterning models and culler celllike composition in the previous section, we started the explorations of fabrications and assembly of the first prototype based on the primary model we explored for the ZA11 pavilion. A further development has been inspired by the Voronoi skeleton technique that more flexible forms are resolved. This creates a new direction for our group to use not only opportunities offered from the change of patterning combination, but also the idea of seamless relationship between ornament and the structure representations.


B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE

The model is basically formed by a set of hexagon compositions, which are based on the computational rules set for generating voronoi 2D patterns. The overall shape is determined by the lofted striplike surface that an expression of dynamic and plastic is created.

66

The assembly sequence is begun with cutting off the individual hexagon shapes following by folding the edges to enclose each shape. Each cell is supported by the angled edge and the thickness of the material. The first prototype of this idea is constructed by 1mm cardboard. Because of the thinness of this cardboard, after assembly all the cells together, it becomes elastic and would have the potential to resist some tension forces.


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE

67


B.5 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPE

68

Fabricating this same idea via using thicker timber sheets is implemented in this section. Due to the hardness and thickness of the timber sheet, difficulties of beding the edges and difficulties of creating stable joints are rised through the develop process. As there is lack of elasticity of the material, thus the overall shape did not create a sense of dynamic and plastic.

This second prototype is not as good as the first one due to the poor joint conditions. The idea of jointed opening and uniqueness of the structure are failed to be expressed from a thick timber material. This also alters us to think about the materiality outcome together with the proposed expression from a digital model.


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE

69


B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE

1. Create 3D Voronoi 2. Remove exterior faces 3. Move Voronoi cells away from each other 4. Loft together common faces 5. Create mesh and smooth connections

70


SKELETON AND STRUCTURE

71

The idea of skeleton is to express the strongest core structural elements from a solid geometry. In order to search for an appropriate expression for the skeleton composition, a surface division model was created. This surface model is constructed via using of a 2.5mm thick Mont board. The thickness of the material together with the supporting from the edges allows the structure to be self-support. The other two straw models analysis the edge composition rules from the surface model, two different joints have been

developed. The second prototype uses traditional glue method as joints however each jointed edges would have the same length to deal with the supporting issue. The other straw model uses the tangling of steel wires to form the joint. This is the similar idea expressed from the matrix that uses spheres to smooth out the pipe joints. All three of them are succeful because of using the apporiate material and the allowing for extension of ideas from it.


B.6. 72

TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL


Inspired by the transition an organic system undergoes when influenced by a series of natural processes, this approach explores the effects of erosion and its connection with morphology of surface geomerty and structural reactions through parametric design. The complexity and gradation of these two apporaches not only mimics a particular material as it undergoes erosion but also is able to represent the sequences of the entire natural process. The organic cellular pattern was inspired by the Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005, by Foreign Office Architects. It is the approach that we wish to express the function from the combination of the form and the structure rather than isolating the ornament and the structure at two distinct extremes. The structure support is from the aid of parametric modeling through the compositions and layering techniques. The sense of being brought together is represented through the accordance of exposure elements after the action of peeling off which is affected by the erosion process. The investigation of the skeleton form is a further development of the biomimetic approach that we wish to take in order to architecturally represent that cultural identity of Wyndham. The development involves the exploration of a three dimensional Voronoi technique. By utilizing such a technique, the ways in which a solid structure can be decomposed into various hexagons and

also the skeletal composition amongst individual integrals were investigated. Computational parametric design allowed for an appropriate structural and aesthetic design solution to be developed. This approach aims to achieve the combination of a unique, form drawing effect8, one in which ornament is seamlessly connected with the entire structural organization. By looking at the rock as a raw cultural material, and imitating the erosion process through computational design to generate a culler celllike composition and a skeletal-like composition we sought to represent the invisible forces of contemporary culture. These forces are that of cultural unity and the willingness to search for a new identity in the local community. The skeletal form represents a relief not only surrounding the structure itself, but also a relief of the traditional cultural expectations that allows a contemporary anticipation for Wyndham. In this section, strategies are undertaken based on the matrix studied previously; however, specific developments of techniques are investigated beyond the digital tools. In terms of structural materiality, in keeping with the main focus on the biological process of erosion used to generate the form, we have explored the change in materiality from paper to timber. Methods such as reshaping the model via using plaster casting and reshaping the model via burning are generated to search for more design opportunities.

8. Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-10

73


B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL Inspirations of examination material are drawn from the following projects. Although the two precedents have distinct outcomes due to the use of different material, emphasizes of the relationship of casting or molding process and the end result are similar, evocative and enlightened our exploration processes.

A successful example of using casting technology to generate a biomimetic design is from Archim Menges. In order to produce the porous panel, the team focused on using a rigid frame with an equally rigid back-panel (archim) to layer out the different casting process. Identical porous frames are created and attached on top of the membrane to allowing the casting of a hollow shape.

74 FIG. 17

The process of using different frames to layer out the casting process and the technology of creating hollow space are very inspiring. With the consideration of testing different materiality, a similar process can be applied by casting plaster into the pervious prototype frames (both paper and timber) and combining the different compositional outcomes among them.

FIG. 18

Archim Menges Porous Cast

9. Archim Menges, Porous Cast Process, http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4389, 2012, visited on 04/05/2012


Solar Sinter is the project by Markus Kayser that uses the solar powered laser cutter to create three dimensional objects through the burning and melting of silica sand. This idea of converting a powdery substance via a heating process into a solid form is very impressive which also inspires us to recreating a model from the existed material we used for our model via adding on extra influences. Moreover, the essence of erosion which is about creating new layers to the existed objects is also evocated in this way.

75 FIG. 19

FIG. 20

Markus Kayser Solar Sinter

Markus Kayser, Solar Sinter, Project, http://www.markuskayser.com, 2012, visited on 05/05/2012


B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

SOAKING PAPER MODEL To mimic the effects from soaking, three major steps have been taken. Firstly, spraying water on the paper model to soften the material. Soking it into the mixture of bleach and acid for one night. By the time I took it out, all the material is corrosied and becomes very soft. However, the hexagon cells are still remained. Exposing it to the sunlight as soon as it was taken out of the water allows an increasing of strength for the material. Through this serise of mimic soaking erosion effects, the most evoctive outcome is the remaining of the structure due to the hexagon shape and the elasticity of the material. 76


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE

BURING TIMBER MODEL Burning is another way used to search for an outcome from this sense of erosion and revealing. The direct contact to the fire source for the timber model created sudden structural collapse due to the poor capacity of the strength of the joints. The most interesting outcome from this investigation is the recreation of the shape from the burning effects. The original straight edges are disappeared and a new organic and plastic shape is generated.

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B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

BURING PLASTER MODEL (PAPER) The new model is in an enclosed and solid structure. All hexagon cells are filled with plaster, more sense of density is created through the use of plaster. By contacting the cells directly to the fire source, the original paper material is burnt away and new layers and material is revealing from this process. However, due to the lack of gaps for ventilation, fire extinguishes very quickly. Plaster cells experienced minimal effects from burning.

BURING PLASTER MODEL (WOOD) Similar outcomes have been created from the plaster-filled timber model. As timber is an organic material, more dynamic effects are generated from the burning. First of all is the minimal damage on the structure as the solid plaster cells provide support to the original openings. It can still be self-supported after a serious fire damage and the connections between each cells become closer and tighter. Moreover, the coal like texture surface seems like to express the burning effects from a gradual sequence.

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This is an interesting process as we are actually imitating the erosion process of the actual model we have made. Through these testing processes, we understand that there are more opportunities provided beyond the inspirations from digital modeling tools. The idea of taking away and revealing something new is the most interesting aspect I have discovered through the process. This context will allow the design to express the essence of process rather than a solid outcome. Additionally, it will offer more possibilities for combinations of new materials to express a sense of process in relation to the surrounding environment. These will aid on contextual believes to the design of a Gateway for Wyndham, as the growing population is urgent to search for a new identity to represent their local community.


PATTERNING AND STRUCTURE

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B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

REVEALING (STRAW SKELETON MODEL) Different from the reveling effects from burning, burying the model within the sand and imitate the wind erosion process afterwards offer more perspectives of structural stability and the connections about the ground. By repeating the wind blowing process, the top layers are taken away gradually thus the core structure is exposed. The final structure is embedded within the natural ground and turns out to have more connections with the ground, in this sense, the sand.

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This testing process gives us idea about justifying the structural components of this straw model and distinguishing what are the core compositional approaches from a skeleton model. Additionally, the natural process of burying and reveling provides another understanding of making connections of the model to the site.


SKELETON AND STRUCTURE

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B.7. 82

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


SURFACE

- keep voronoi surface

PIPE SKELETON - find edges of voronoi meshes - connect end points - create pipes

PIPE SKELETON - create pipes along edge curves to form the skeleton

PIPE SKELETON SELECTED - choose different edges and curves

PIPE SKELETON SELECTED - choose different edges and curves - change pipe diameter

Further development of searching for appropriate fabrication techniques of the skeleton model is considered in this section. As the previous lesser cut models of the first approach experienced difficulties about bending the panels and assembling the components, considerations of preciseness of a skeleton model have raised and the new 3D print technology is taken into considerations. In order to produce 3D print model, investigations about structural composition becomes the main focus. Explorations of various form-defined strategies have been further added onto the previous results. This process includes defining individual edges of each Voronoi 3D components and the recreation of connections from them. By using ‘EXPLOD’ to define new surfaces within the set box, the primary structure has been selected freely which is beyond the previous cubic boundaries. Recreation strategies of the surface edges include applying single stripes and joining pipes as well as adding individual sphere have been undertaken to search for the most appropriate composition for a 3D print model. The most successful approach is using the pipes to form the structure and connected by various spheres that help to smooth out all the joints.

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B.8. 86

LEARNING OUTCOMES


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Considering the developments for the design of the Gateway project, I believe that we have produced a true parametric design as we used the algorithmic exploration at the first step before any form-driven design idea is generated. The different levels of engaging with the algorithmic definitions allow me to look at the parametric design in depth. Parametric design program such as grasshopper is an efficent tool that allows us to translate an abstract idea (such as rock erosion) into an actual solid architectural result. It also helps us to develop a series of logic approach through the effective connections and controls among all the definitions. I was impressed by the level of extension that brought for each parametric design outcomes from our explorations. There are always lots of unexpected outcome that would

direct you to some other fields you did not know before. We also extended our exploration process to the fields that other than using digital tools. Testing of material via soaking and burning from paper to timber and plaster demonstrates a different three dimensional outcomes. These results provide more practical information about influences from ‘natural processes. The combination of the two directions adds on innovativeness and culture relevance to the Gateway project. Further development of searching for the balance of the two will be the core and essential creteria towards a final outcome.


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PART C

89

PROJECT PROPOSAL


C.1. 90

DESIGN CONCEPT


CORE CONCEPT As erosion is a very strong concept that can fully be represented through the idea of biomimicry, the core considerations of further development will be to enhance the representation of the connection between the community and the gateway as well as increase the urban experience. The discussion from the presentation has allowed us to think beyond the parametric field by incorporating actual physical actions/erosion processes into to the design and model. This notion has the potential to develop a sense of unification and involvement through the construction of the actual gateway design. ‘Architecture should connect with local culture and remain convergent with the local community by constantly capturing the forces that shape the society’1. As Wyndham has an urge to enhance the connection between people and the land due to its fast population growth, our design for the western interchange gateway aims to represent architecturally the notion of cultural unity for the city of Wyndham. The idea of rock erosion is explored further in this section to demonstrates both the surface transition and the morphology of the structural reaction under a local context.

The previous parametric explorations established a unique and form-drawing effect2 that the ornament (culler pattern) is seamlessly connecting with the entire structural organization. In order to present this design in a true community context, our concept extends beyond a gateway design. To apply the erosion idea in real context, a technique of burning is introduced to further develop this biomimetic design. We believe that further development of incorporating the burning into the construction process will not only imitate the change in surface from an erosion process but will also add a sense of humanity to the digitalized product. This in turn will create a sense of involvement and unity for the local community. The Burning Man Festival that crosses the world is an example of using fire and the notion of burning to connect people together and allow them to be involved together in the process. Through this, participants would experience the sense of unity as well as being able to create individual experiences. This process will create a new beginning for the city of Wyndham as it is a procedure that allows for a new identity of Wyndham to be revealed.

1. Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5 2. Moussavi,The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 7

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C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Burning and Local Culture To further develop the idea of erosion, the process of burning will be fully explored and implemented to in order to best emphasize both the erosion process and the sense of unity to the local community.

FIG. 01 BURNING MAN FESTIVAL,USA

Among other techniques previously investigated, such as soaking, bearing and revealing, burning was found to be the most efficient way of exposing the core structure and recomposing structural supports. The process of taking away the inefficient layer and revealing the central element of the structure with new a structural composition is representative of the journey of seeking a new identity for the city of Wyndham. Moreover, the power of burning will also enhance the sense of unification for the local community. An example can be drawn from the Burning Man Festival that crosses the world. The idea is to use fire and the notion of burning to connect people together and allow them to be involved together in the process3. Participants will also gain individual experiences and memories from the celebration. Hence, the notion of burning is not only to be a design feature of the gateway, it would also become part of the Wyndham story. The process of burning will be treated as a celebration of the new identity of Wyndham. The participation of this celebration is a true moment that unities the local people together. The imprints that remain on the design will not only be an expression of erosion, it will also be a memory of the local people.

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FIG. 02 BURNING MAN FESTIVAL, USA

The idea of burning will also create long-term benefits since what turns into ash will become a natural fertilizer and will allow new things to grow. Thus, as time goes by, the idea of erosion will continue on the structure and new things will grow, creating a sense of emergence between the landscape and the structure itself.

3. Burning Man Australia, ‘What is Burning man Festival’, Last Modified 2013, http://burningmanaustralia.com/


FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Sitting and Scale

In order to maximize the experience from both directions (entering the city of Wyndham and leaving towards Melbourne), site A is believed to be the most suitable place for the design. Site A is a linear site with an approximate length of 800 meters, running from east to west. The widest part is located at the center with approximately 50 meters in length and the thinnest parts are down the two ends with approximately 5 meters in length.

Identify site boundaries (site A)

Identify the traffic flow around the site

Traffic flow on the Princess Highway is divided into two roads of opposite directions by Site A. Therefore, site A is enclosed by two public areas (the freeway) and thus becomes a semi-public Spatial division area. In reflection of the above analysis, two side Allowing the design to be experienced features/experiences will be achieved as will the at both side of the site. One side is spatial3.allocation theisproject Burning Manneeded Australia,for ‘What Burning location. man Festival’, Last Modified 2013, http://burningmanaustralia.com/ facing towards the gateway and the other side is facing towards the site. Access onto the site is required since the design is aimed to achieve a community celebration. Development of a freeway ramp for entering and exiting the site will be required to become part of the design.

Establishment of access Creating highway ramp and allowing access into the site.

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C.2. 94

TECTONIC ELEMENTS


ESTABLISHMENT OF FORM

PLAN

PERSPECTIVE entering the tunnel

PERSPECTIVE side structure

As our main intention is to design a form that is both ornament and structural, we started to develop the overall form based on the voronoi 2D pattern. In order to maximize experiential qualities, we sought to develop a tunnel-like form to emphasize the idea of erosion on both side of the gate. The three point triangular shape was developed from the annual wind rose map of Victoria. As wind is part of the erosion process, the three points represent the major wind directions. By filling in the extruded voronoi cells in this form, on the one hand it is able to represent the morphology of a weathered surface and also provide structural support. The green dots on the left hand side represent the structural components at the three points. The length of each structural component is different due to the curved shape that connects on top of it. This direct extrusion of the voronoi cell from the surface is a representation of the combination of pattern and structure.

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C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

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ESTABLISHMENT OF FORM Although the previous exploration of the form considered the combination of ornamentation and structural supports, the width of the surface was not thick enough to emphasize the structural aspects and so we felt that the outcome did not strongly represent the structural aspects.

ZA11 PAVILION

In order to find a true representation for a form that would emphasize these two aspects strongly, we will take a step backward to search for inspiration from the previous works we have investigated. The shape of the enclosed loop from ZA 11 Pavilion inspired us to consider a simple wall like structure. This is sufficient to represent the two aspects as a wall is a true representation of structure and the voronoi cells can react as a decorative pattern for this structure while also being supportive to transfer loads. Instead of using an enclosed loop, we have divided the shape into two parts to allow for opening at both ends. It also helps to maximize the experience at both interiorly and exteriorly.

BREAKDOWN OF LOOP

CURVED WALL WITH TWO OPEN ENDS

To establish this idea on the actual site, the design has to consider the previous criteria about traffic flow, spatial division and access. Two walls are located at each long edge of site A in order to maximize the experiences for drivers travelling on both roads. The length for each wall is approximately 550 meters. This will also increase the acoustic performance for the inside. People will feel a sense of secureness in between the protection of the two walls while they visit the site. Forms of the walls vary as they are derived from the shape of the highway at opposite directions. The height of the wall is five meters in order to block the view from the truck drivers from the outside towards the inner side of the wall.

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C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

STRUCTURAL EXPLORATIONS

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FLAT

CURVE

FLAT

CURVE EXPLORATIONS OF FORM

The process of searching for the most appropriate structure includes both Grasshopper model and the physical model. The change from a flat surface towards a corrugated surface required an increase in the number of dominated curves in between the top and the bottom of the wall. In order to develop the variation of the form at both side of the wall, more dominated curves were added (increasing from 3 horizontal curves to 5) at both sides. The curved surface applied on both side of the wall is more aesthetically pleasing. With the consideration of structural stability, the bottom of the wall has to be thicker than the higher level in order to transfer the load down to the ground. In order to test the practical structural stability some sketch models were made by filling in individual cells with plaster. Through these explorations, it was evident that the flat structure and the curved structure (thicker at the bottom) can be self-supported. The flat model with less thickness failed to be self-supporting. Therefore, for the final model, we will apply the corrugated approach at both side of the wall and increase the thickness for the bottom section to become structurally reliable.

FINAL CURVE STRUCTURE


SKETCH MODEL (SELF-SUPPORT)

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SKETCH MODEL (SELF-SUPPORT)

SKETCH MODEL

SKETCH MODEL (SELF-SUPPORT)


C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

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PLAN


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FREEWAY RAMP PRINCESS HIGHWAY TRAFFIC DIRECTION PROJECT LOCATION VEGETATION


C.3. 102

FINAL MODEL


PERSPECTIVE - ENTRANCE

OVERVIEW The final model is made at a scale of 1:50. We only selected a 5-meter long section out of the 550 meters long wall. There were three major procedures undertaken for the construction of the wall. The first step is to fabricate the framework. The material that is used for the framework was 1.2 mm mountboard. The joints were connected by super glue. Later on, the casting process was quite significant, however, due to the wet weather; the plaster did not dry very quickly. The final process, that of burning, is a successful approach as it fully represents how the outer layer of this wall is ‘erosion‘ away. And the imprints on the light surface are also evocative.

NORTH ELEVATION

A fully developed consideration of the practical construction method was formed after the presentation. The use of shortcrete of white concrete will be the core construction technique that will tie this organic shape together as one continuing and coherent wall without any breakdown for the purpose of construction. Detailed material and construction consideration was also researched. Material of the framework will still be a cheap and efficient material -- construction cardboard. The connection is formed by VHM 3mm double-sided construction tape, which is the same technique used to construct the windows of skyscrapers.

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C.3 FINAL MODEL

1.FABRICATION FRAMEWORK

The construction of the 1:50 detail model began with fabrication of the individual cells. The partition we have selected is part of the crooked section near the Princess Highway with a length of a meter. Individual cells are made of 1.2 mm Mount board in order to allow tension forces between the cells. Since the timber concept model we made in the previous section was very poor in tension and we were unable to join them as a whole, cardboard would be the most appropriate material for the framework.

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2.CASTING PLASTER Plaster is cast immediately after the assembly of the framework. Since the framework is not enclosed, it is tilted down to the ground to allow plaster poured into individual cells. Since the partition is very long, we divided it into three parts and decided to pour the plaster at different times. Because the weather was very wet, the plaster did not fully dry out. The length and the cast elements created difficulties for us to tilt up. It is not efficient to have two tilt processes in reality since it will add unnecessary complexity to the construction process. In addition to this, the 700 meter long wall will be divided into various small parts to cast and jointed together.


3.BURNING FRAMEWORK

After the plaster dries out (not fully), the cardboard framework is connected with the inner plaster cells. A new self-supporting form is created through the combination of the two materials. The burning process begins at the outer edge since it is not fully covered by plaster. Although we did not add on any chemical product to speed up the burning, the mount board was burnt dramatically via the blowtorch. The framework was decomposed into various layers under the fire and then starts to peel off from the outer edge towards the inner plaster connection. Although most of the framework still remains as connections among all the plaster cells, some plaster edges are exposed with the imprints of burning on the surface. Since the plaster cells are light in color, the burning imprints exist significantly. This is a successful process because it demonstrates the idea of erosion through a practical process; Additionally, the outcome of this process allows for the continuation of the erosion process that will naturally take place in the long term. The variation of the final outcome also emphasizes on the beauty of humanity. That is, the imperfection which we created, which distinguishes the outcome of the mass production through the digital tools. The breakdown of this standard voronoi pattern through burning allows for it to become valuable and exclusive to the land of the people from Wyndham.

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C.3 FINAL MODEL

DETAIL 106

SIDE

FRONT SCALE 1:50


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C.3 FINAL MODEL

LONG TERM VISION

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CONTINUING EROSION PROCESS Plants growing on the wall

The burning effects will accelerate the natural erosion process because the ashes that are left behind would allow for the opportunity to grow plants on the wall. In the long term, the design is not only a gateway but also it is a medium that allows the emergence of the local landscape. Thus it continually serves the change of the landscape due to the different plants growing along at different seasons. As time goes by, the framework will eventually be eroded away, and thus new structural joints will be created through the connection of the plants. There is no need for maintenance, since the nature will continue to shape this project and gradually turn the wall into part of the local natural landscape.

CONTINUING EROSION PROCESS (DETAIL) Growing of moss on concrete cells


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CONTINUING EROSION PROCESS Experiences of the inside


C.3 FINAL MODEL

1:500 MODEL (PART)

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ENTRANCE 1:500 MODEL (PART)


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PERSPECTIVE OF THE OUTSIDE


C.3 FINAL MODEL

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF ACTUAL INSTALLATION In-situ Shortcrete

FIG. 03 SHORTCRETE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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FIG. 04 THE METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE, TAICHUNG

The consideration of the actual design is developed from the feedback of the guests. With the consideration of form continuity, the construction method of the wall has to be a continuing and fluent process. Thus, instead of casting parts of the wall and construct them together on the site, introduction of in-situ shortcrete will solve the problem of keep the continuity. In reality, the construction process will still start with fabrication of framework on the site. The design of Taichung Metropolitan Opera House by Toyo Ito is an example of using shortcrete to construct a continuing structure4. Toyo Ito used a continuing curvy sponge-like shape to divide the space within his design. All of the external walls are continued without any breakdown. With the aim of delivery this fluent langue in reality, the construction is undertaken via the use of layers of reinforced mesh and together with the shortcrete technique. Therefore, the coherent of the design for our project can be achieved through the shortcrete of white concrete. There is no breakdown of any parts of the wall. Additionally, it also enhances the efficiency of construction via the reduction of assembly and tilt processes. The material of the framework will still keep as cardboard, however, it is the three layer corrugated cardboard that is used for practical construction purpose in reality. The connection between the cardboard made cells is created by VHM 3mm double-sided construction tape to increase the strength.

FIG. 05 THE METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE, TAICHUNG

4. ARCH2O, ‘Toyo Ito: Taichung Metropolitan Operal’, Last Modified 2013, http://www.arch2o.com/taichung-metropolitan-opera-toyo-ito/


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C.4. 114

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


ALTERNATIVE FORM DEVELOPMENT

2D Voronoi Pattern on a Twisted Surface

Several alternative forms were developed during the form searching section at the beginning of the design process. The idea of producing a tunnel like form that would allow cars driving underneath and to experience the erosion process was applied in all of these forms. All of them use the same Voronoi 2D dimensional patterning definitions. Variations are dependent on the primary form boundaries, various cell density, and the thickness of individual voronoi cells.

2D Voronoi Pattern with Increasing Density and Thickness

2D Voronoi Pattern with Increasing Length and Thickness

These approaches are not very successful as the extrusion of individual cells are relay on Rhino rather than Grasshopper. Moreover, although there are explorations of trying out new forms, they are lack of considerations of structural appropriateness and stability.

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C.4 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

2D Voronoi Pattern on a Surface and Extrusion

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2D Voronoi Pattern on a Twisted Surface and Extrusion with Increasing Density

2D Voronoi Pattern on a Curved Surface and Extrusion

2D Voronoi Pattern on a Curved Surface and Extrusion


FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF VORONOI 2D PATTERN

To further develop the control of voronoi 2D pattern in order to generate more resolved results of the design, explorations of applying point attractors were undertaken in this section. Since Voronoi 2D pattern is generated through randomly populated points within the set boundary, we believe that the use of point attractors will optimally allocate the different sizes of openings according to the site condition, that is, to have larger openings at the central part where the crooked section of the road is. The density of the number increases gradually along with the decreasing of the opening diameters towards the two ends of the strip.

PATTERN 3: -COMBINE PATTERN ONE AND TWO - EACH UNIT IS CONNECTED

Although the application of point attractors on 2D pattern was very successful, we failed to transmit this 2 dimensional idea into the final three-dimensional structures. The reason why it was unsuccessful was because the morph box definition failed to collect data from the modified two-dimensional pattern. An alternative method used to resolve the control of openings and in turn achieve our intended idea is to divide the openings into three horizontal layers and adjust the thickness of individual layers.

VORONOI PATTERN TWO - 2D VORONIO - OFFSET - EXTRACT CONTROL POLYGON POINTS - CREAT CURVES

Previouse Pattern

Pattern by Point Attractor

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C.5. 118

LEARNING OUTCOMES


PARAMETRIC DESIGN EXPERIENCE The study of parametric design this semester has convinced me that parametric design is an efficient and innovative approach in the contemporary world. The precedents such as the pavilions designed by ICT institution are very appealing in the way that it achieves the aesthetic representation and the efficiency of construction at the same time by the same media (computer/ machines). It is a very adaptable tool as certain scripts define it. You can easily apply these scripts or definitions easily anywhere or to any design you are willing to create. At the same time, you can have variations from the original scripts due to different contexts you applied to it. During the exploration of how to represent of our erosion idea, we borrowed some voronoi skeleton definitions from the Grasshopper Forum, but the outcome was significantly different from the original design idea due to the different base geometry and location of populated points. I do believe that my skills and knowledge of parametric design has developed significantly over the course. The process of searching and analyzing the precedents in grasshopper is a practical way of gaining experience using digital tools. During the explorations of approaching a similar outcome via grasshopper, I began to understand how individual definitions work and can be incorporated together. The connection between each definition is rational as they are bound with certain relationships that are only represented as inputs and outputs. Through the experience of parametric design, I have found that it is necessary if one really wants to increase the efficiency of fabrication process. However, it is very difficulty to develop a true parametric design from scratch because the design contexts are required to be tightened at the beginning of your design process.

5. Moussavi,The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 6

PHYSICAL MODELING EXPERIENCE During the development of our erosion concept, we gained the opportunity to develop our design further beyond the parametric field. It was very beneficial to have a comparison of the outcome from the computational design and the outcome from a traditional design exploration. Parametric design is a very efficient way of producing sophisticated results in terms of formal composition. Moreover, the fabrication process is very efficient due as one can use rhino and grasshopper to unroll and label each component. However, due to the efficiency side of the computational design, there is somewhat less exclusiveness or uniqueness in final design outcomes. Most of the groups will end up with very similar results if they using the same basic scripts (e.g. sectioning or voronoi). The introduction of applying ‘humanity’ to emphasize erosion through an actual burning process is a valuable exploration both conceptually and practically. The outcome that results from fire is unpredictable. The actual beauty of such imperfection was what we sought to deliver in this project. Architecture has to relate back to the people and the landscape. It is not sufficient to design a project in a way that symbolizes nature or the culture; it has to capture the forces that shape the local community and continue to reflect change5. I believe that through the design of our project I have come to understand this idea of how architecture can represent this conditionality and change together with the consideration of creating urban experiences and a sense of local cultural unification. It also has allowed me to realize that architecture is a broad discourse and it is beneficial to incorporate multiple disciplines within your design in order to respond to complex design contexts.

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1.Richard,Williams. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 2005. pp. 103-115 2.Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-6 3.“Digital Morphogenesis”, Patrik Schumacher, “Parametricism”, NZ Architecture, Last modified 23 September 2010, http://www.nzarchitecture.com/ blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrik-schumacherparametricism/ 4. Yehuda E. Kalay, ‘Introduction’, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 11-13.

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REFERENCE

5. Brady Peters, ‘Introduction’, Architecture Design: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, Mar/Apr, 2013, pp.10 6. Branko, Kolarevic. ‘Digital Morphogenesis’, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp.25-26 7. Design Boom, Toyo Ito: taichung metropolitan opera, Last Modified 23 March 2010, http://www. designboom.com/architecture/toyo-ito-taichungmetropolitan-opera/ 8. Open Building, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, Last Modified 2010, http://openbuildings. com/buildings/taichung-metropolitan-opera-houseprofile-2039 9. Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-9 10. Ana Martins, ‘ICD and ITKE learn from the lobster’, MARK, APR/MAY 2013, ISSUE 43, pp.49 11. MAD ARCHITECTS, Information, http://www.imad.com/#works_details?wtid=4&id=35 12. KOKKUGIA, Oceanic Pavilion, Projects, http:// www.kokkugia.com


Fig. 01 MAD ARCHITECTS, Beijing 2050, http:// www.i-mad.com/#works_details?wtid=4&id=35

toyo/toyo20.jpg

Fig. 02 MAD ARCHITECTS, Beijing 2050, http:// www.i-mad.com/#works_details?wtid=4&id=35

Fig. 15 Ito Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://www.designboom.com/cms/images/erica/-toyo/toyo20.jpg

Fig. 03 MAD ARCHITECTS, Beijing 2050, http:// www.i-mad.com/#works_details?wtid=4&id=35

Fig. 16 Zaha Hadid, Roca London Gallery. http://www. rocalondongallery.com/imgs_front/pods_img01.png

Fig. 04 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo, http://www.kokkugia.com

Fig. 17 Zaha Hadid, Roca London Gallery. h t t p : / / a d 0 0 9 c d n b . a r c h d a i l y. n e t / w p - c o n t e n t / uploads/2011/10/1319491820-mg-5148-1000x666. jpg

Fig. 05 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo, http://www.kokkugia.com Fig. 06 Emergent and Kokkugia, Oceanic Pavilion, Yeosu, 2012 Expo, http://www.kokkugia.com Fig. 07, Foster+Partner, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, Computational Technology, http://www. theverymany.net/uploaded_images/070718 _ test005_PShop-732983.jpg Fig. 08 Foster+Partner, Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/data/ projects/1438/img5.jpg Fig. 09 Forster+Partner, main Chamber of the Greater London Authority Headquarters. http://www. fosterandpartners.com/data/projects/1027/ img0.jpg Fig. 10 Forster+Partner, main Chamber of the Greater London Authority Headquarters. http://www. fosterandpartners.com/data/projects/1027/img4.jpg Fig. 11 Forster+Partner, main Chamber of the Greater London Authority Headquarters.http://www. fosterandpartners.com/data/projects/1027/img5.jpg Fig. 12 Ito Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/ building2039/media/DSC_7324%2B.jpg Fig. 13 Ito Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/ building2039/media/2005_1213_220434AC.jpg Fig. 14 Ito Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://www.designboom.com/cms/images/erica/--

Fig. 18 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany, http:// www.recitymagazine.com/media/1.768.1365941031. Roland%20Halbe_university_of_stuttgart_recity_ magazine_15.jpg Fig. 19 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany, http:// www.recitymagazine.com/media/1.768.1365941031. Roland%20Halbe_university_of_stuttgart_recity_ magazine_15.jpg Fig. 20 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany, http:// 121 www.recitymagazine.com/media/1.768.1365941031. Roland%20Halbe_university_of_stuttgart_recity_ magazine_15.jpg Fig. 21 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany http://www. recitymagazine.com/media/1.768.1365941031. Roland%20Halbe_university_of_stuttgart_recity_ magazine_15.jpg Fig. 22 ICD/ITKE, Pavilion 2012, Germany http:// www.recitymagazine.com/media/1.768.1365941031. Roland%20Halbe_university_of_stuttgart_recity_ magazine_15.jpg Fig. 23 Aranda Lasch - The Morning Line. http://farm4. staticflickr.com/3618/3480659883_c2ea25a5fa_z.jpg Fig. 24 Aranda Lasch - The Morning Line. http:// farm7.staticflickr.com/6038/5905355753_88c38b8c6 4_o.jpg Cover page: Renze Ali, Emergement. http://www. syedrezaali.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/ EMERGENT_Reza_Ali_11.png


1.The Biomimicry Institute, What is Biomimicry, http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/ frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fweb apps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3F type%3DCourse%26id%3D_262336_1%26url%3D, 2013, visited on 28/04/2013 2. Richard, Williams. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 114

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REFERENCE

3.Albertoi Sandro, Biomimetic Architecture, http:// issuu.com/salberti/docs/theory3-23?mode=window, 2013, visited on 25/04/2013 4. Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom, http://www.sjet.us/MIT_ VOLTADOM.html, 2011, Visited on 01/05/2013 5. The ZA11 Pavilion, Information, http://www. archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitriestefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/, 2011, visited on 04/05/2013 6.Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-10 7. Archim Menges, Porous Cast Process, http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=4389, 2012, visited on 04/05/2012 8. Markus Kayser, Solar Sinter, Project, http://www. markuskayser.com, 2012, visited on 05/05/2012


Fig.01 Spanish Pavilion, Foreign Office Architects, 2005, http://www.architecture.com/Images/ RIBATrust/Awards/RIBAInternationalAwards/2005/ SpanishPavilion_530x371.jpg Fig. 02 Spanish Pavilion, Foreign Office Architects, 2005, http://www.architecture.com/Images/ RIBATrust/Awards/RIBAInternationalAwards/2005/ SpanishPavilion_530x371.jpg Fig. 03 ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY, http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-researchpavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

com/images-medium-large/1-rock-erosion-3-kohkut-jennifer-bright.jpg Fig. 11 Rock Erosion, http://image. shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_ logo/381370/381370,1269067600,4/stock-photopatterns-in-the-rock-caused-by-erosion-49083856. jpg Fig. 12 Rock Erosion, The Great Ocean Road, by Sunny Fig. 13 Biy Yar Memorial project, by Kokkugia, 2010, http://www.kokkugia.com

Fig. 04 ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY, http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-researchpavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

Fig. 14 Biy Yar Memorial project, by Kokkugia, 2010, http://www.kokkugia.com

Fig. 05 ICT AND ITKE, PAVILION 2011, GERMANY, http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-researchpavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/

Fig. 15 VORONOI MORPHOLOGY, MAYTS, http:// 123 matsysdesign.com/category/projects/voronoimorphologies/

Fig. 06 Skylar Tibbits - VoltaDom, http://www.sjet.us/ MIT_VOLTADOM.html

Fig. 16 VORONOI MORPHOLOGY, MAYTS, http:// matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/ IMG_3939_1024.jpg

Fig. 07 The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania, http:// www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitriestefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/

Fig. 17 Archim Menges Porous Cast, http://www. achimmenges.net/?p=4389

Fig. 08 The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania, http:// www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitriestefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/ Fig. 09 The ZA11 Pavilion, 2011, Cluj, Romania, http:// www.archdaily.com/147948/za11-pavilion-dimitriestefanescu-patrick-bedarf-bogdan-hambasan/ Fig. 10 Rock Erosion, http://images.fineartamerica.

Fig. 18 Archim Menges Porous Cast, http://www. achimmenges.net/?p=4389 Fig.19 Markus Kayser Solar Sinter, http://www. markuskayser.com Fig,20 Markus Kayser Solar Sinter, http://www. markuskayser.com


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REFERENCE

1.Farshid, Moussavi and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). ‘Introduction’, The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-10 2. Burning Man Australia, ‘What is Burning man Festival’, Last Modified 2013, http:// burningmanaustralia.com/ 3. ARCH2O, ‘Toyo Ito: Taichung Metropolitan Operal’, Last Modified 2013, http://www.arch2o.com/ taichung-metropolitan-opera-toyo-ito/


Fig.01 BURNING MAN FESTIVAL 2012, USA, http://i. dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/08/31/article-219615114C3A185000005DC-439_964x694.jpg Fig. 02 BURNING MAN FESTIVAL 2012, USA, http:// do512blog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/124_ burning_man.jpg Fig. 03 SHORTCRETE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS, http://melbec.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/ Richardson-St-Basement-Shotcrete-500x500.jpg Fig. 04 Ito Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://www.designboom.com/wp-content/ uploads/2013/03/TMOH_08.jpg Fig. 05 IIto Toyo, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House. http://brabbu.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ Taichung-Metropolitan-Opera-House-ConstructionToyo-Ito1-e1363703775916.jpg

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