fa.cit.y /â€˜feisiti:/ portmanteau. face + city The relationship between identity and inhabiting the city.
Shimali Burah 110015486
o-Stop City was created in the 1960’s as a representation
of societal balance, where the roles of humans are made redundant through consistent ‘factory’ and ‘supermarket’ urbanization. The idea of identity within this city was envisioned as that of the ‘nomad’: the wanderer.
This project is an exploration into that theoretical city’s relationship to a subject as intimate as one’s individual identity. It features studies of No-Stop, an analysis of identity, the development of a fictitious program that explains how an individual might legitimately occupy a hypothetical infinite city that is in itself a satiric analysis of modern architectural commercialization, and a series of exercises that link these together.
PROJECT FACITY - THE NO-STOP CITY NAME SHIMALI BURAH STUDENT ID 110015486 MODULE MARCH LEVEL 4 | HT40003 DESIGN RESEARCH UNIT
PREFACE CHAPTER 01 CITY ARCHITETTURA RADICALE NO-STOP CITY THE CONSUMER EPIDEMIC SELECTION CHAPTER 02 IDENTITY THE DEFINITION THIRD-CULTURE KID THE ERADICATION OF IDENTITY THE IDENTITY OF THE NOMAD
CHAPTER 03 THINKING NO-STOP & THE FACE THE FACE-MARK A FICTIONAL PROGRAMME: THE NOMAD
CHAPTER 04 MAKING LAYERING CASTING CREATING METHOD STATEMENT: THE ‘OBJECT’
LIST OF REFERENCES
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
cit.y /â€™sidÄ“/ noun.
A large and permanent human settlement.
rchizoom Associati was formed in 1966 by six graduates
of the Faculty of Architecture from Florence University, part of a force of architects coined under ‘architettura radicale’. Their work and research culminated in the development of their hypothetical Utopian project, No-Stop City, between 1969 and 1972 (Stauffer, 2002).
Figure 1: Members of Archizoom Associati Left-to-right: Paolo Deganello, Lucia Bartolini, Massimo Morozzi, Unknown, Dario Bartolini, Gilberto Corretti, Andrea Branzi
o-Stop City features an infinite grid of nondescript
structures that extends beyond the vanishing point. Archizoom developed several different plans of this infinite city, and depicted it as an indoor space. Production and consumption are arranged freely on the same level, with artificial lighting and ventilation used to create a fully standardized environment with no entrances or exits (Stauffer, 2002). In No-Stop City, manmade structure and natural landscape confront each other at random intervals, allowing the eye to be drawn to subtleties in the city’s aggressively repetitive infinity (Varnelis, 2006). It was a model of homogenous urbanization, used by its creators to serve as a ‘scientific analysis of the contemporary urban condition’ and defined as an ‘extension of the model of the factory into society’ (Stauffer, 2002). The modern city was therefore reduced to a ‘continuous urban field’, viewed as being an endless interior that was comprised of the basic elements of built structures: columns, elevators, walls, etc. (Aureli & Tattara, 2007).
Figure 2: The Different No-Stop City Plans
the consumer epidemic.
The theoretical basis for No-Stop City rests on the premise that the modern city is in every respect the product of industrial capitalism. - Stauffer, 2002
rchizoom saw its city as a representation of societal balance,
leading to complete ‘equality in the shape of conformity’ (Stauffer, 2002). Inside, there existed ‘no hierarchies nor spatial figurations of a conditioning nature’ (Varnelis, 2006), and the city lacked any significant landmarks (Stauffer, 2002). This intentionally monotonous design was to bring about total equality between its inhabitants, with everything available to everyone. The proposal was founded on two urban models: the factory and the supermarket. The factory represented a controlled system of mass production of homogenous services or spaces, and the supermarket was viewed as a rational system for organized mass consumption.
Although unrealistic at the time, Archizoom indicated with NoStop City that ‘universal accessibility to consumer goods obviates the market, thereby making obsolete the metropolis’s concentrating function’ (Varnelis, 2006). Today, the beginnings of the No-Stop City hypothesis are being realized. With the development of global communication and information technology, capitalism has progressed through the contemporary consumer epidemic and the necessity of the ‘metropolis’ is removed; why go outside to buy something when you can order it online?
Figure 3: Archizoomâ€™s Perspectives of the No-Stop City
he No-Stop City plan highlighted here features a grid of columns, elevators, toilets and appliance units. It was selected for featuring the trees that weave into the landscape at random intervals, yet maintaining its definition as a city that represents a uniform infinity. The plan featured is an extended version of the original (highlighted in red). The artificial elements have been mirrored along the column grid, while the trees have been scattered across and drawn at random, as would be the case within nature.
Figure 4: Selected No-Stop City Plan, 1:500
i.den.ti.ty /,ÄŤâ€™den(t)edÄ“/ noun. e
The characteristics determining who or what a person or thing is.
n pyschology, identity is described as the qualities, beliefs,
personality, looks and/or expressions that make up a person. In Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History, author Erik Erikson focused on the question of identity as not only being defined by the roles of one’s biological and psychological foundations, ‘but also of cultural contributions to the ways in which one both shapes and is shaped by the surrounding milieu’ (Kroger, 2007). If identity can therefore be defined as something that both shapes and can be shaped, we may subsequently take a position in the theory of how the urban landscape begins to contour our identities. The settings of our experiences are rooted in physical context, and a single street’s direction may have altered the routes our lives have followed. Conversely, our presence in the city may have even altered the city’s identity. For the purposes of this analysis, the definition of personal identity is examined from the viewpoint that while the physical urban context has some influence on its development, it is the less-tangible aspects of our surroundings (relationships, links to cultural background) that truly impacts our growth.
Figure 5: Thumbprint Scan
third culture kid.
y parents were born and raised in Sri Lanka. I, however,
was born in Muscat, the port-capital of the MiddleEastern country of Oman. At the age of two, we relocated to Abu Dhabi, and at thirteen, we moved to Dubai. When I was eighteen, I arrived in Dundee. I believe that the formative years of my identity took place while I was living in Dubai. Although my family eventually resettled in Sri Lanka three years ago, the image of My City features miles of landscape untouched by man, glass and steel bursting out of sand, and moving between air-conditioned micro-cities that were built for us consumers. In My City, I am one face in a dappled sea of faces.
Figure 6: Home?
globalisation & the eradication of identity.
At the exact moment that our culture has abandoned repetition and regularity as repressive, building materials have become more and more modular, unitary and standardized; substance now comes pre-digitized.
- Koolhaas, 2001
n his essay Junkspace, Rem Koolhaas frames his revulsion at
the idea of the shopping mall, the airport, the hotel, combined into the “endless building” united by air-conditioning. The essay serves as a powerful lament to commercial architecture and its rapid spread across the globe. If Archizoom’s No-Stop City can be distilled to “an acute and sarcastic analysis of the reality in which we now live” (Aureli & Tattara, 2007), the same can be said for the idea of Junkspace, which according to Koolhaas is the true effect of modern commercialization.
Figure 7: â€œthe reality in which we now liveâ€?
Convergence [of the contemporary city] is possible only at the price of shedding identity. - Koolhaas, 1998
t can be argued that No-Stop City, with its removal of any
distinguishing feature in the urban landscape, is a proposal for the eradication of identity, even as it becomes a setting where individuality gains more importance than ever. Koolhaas reasons in his essay The Generic City that the continuous homogenization of the world has the effect of stripping character from the landscape. Individual identity becomes simultaneously vital and endangered, while architecture and the city are declared as elements of the past: “It’s over. That is the story of the city. The city is no longer. We can leave the theatre now…” (Koolhaas, 1998). However, it is possible that if the city was to become truly generic, there would be a stronger focus on strength of character; that a balancing act of the dull and the vital might ensue.
Figure 8: Hall of Faces - â€œthe eradication of identityâ€?
The Generic City is always founded by people on the move, poised to move on. This explains the insubstantiality of their foundations.
- Koolhaas, 1998
y generation can be broadly characterized by a lack
of desire to stay permanently tied to one location, almost pursuing the nomadic existence of No-Stop City. In The Generic City, identity is seen as being ground ‘down to meaningless dust’ with the growing avalanche of tourists on their ‘perpetual quest for “character”’ (Koolhaas, 1998). As the world grows more interconnected and society moves from heterogeneous to homogeneous, are individual identities stripped in favour of a stronger community identity? The term ‘melting pot’ can no longer apply so exclusively to the United States of America, but can be observed in several populations in major cities all over the world.
Figure 9: The City of the Captive Globe, by Rem Koolhaas
the identity of the nomad.
n the infinite city, people are nomads that wander unclothed
and camp where they please. The city is reduced to the essentials of functionality, and the distinct lack of social and spatial hierarchy is seen to be an ideal of nomadic culture.
A link can be drawn between my life and Archizoomâ€™s nomad. In the space of less than twenty years, I have considered my home to be two continents, four countries, and five different cities. However, as would likely be the case within the featureless No-Stop City, I believe that my identity within these cities has been forged by my relationships to the people within them, and only tempered with the cityâ€™s urban fabric. While all versions of No-Stop feature distinct similarities, the plans themselves illustrated different environments in which the city might operate. One can only speculate that the parallels between My City and No-Stop City influenced the selection of the Archizoom plan to a certain degree; that the mere act of selecting a particular plan may in fact be viewed as an intrinsic portrayal of our identities. With its utilitarian service shafts and unapologetic dominance over the natural landscape, it is arguably a hypothetical concentration of the essence of the city that I personally identify with.
Figure 10: Sri Lankan Gypsy Snake Charmer Sri Lankan Gypsy people are the countryâ€™s only nomadic ethnic group, also known as Ahikuntakas or Kuravans.
think.ing /’θiŋkiŋ/ noun.
the process of using one’s mind to consider or reason about something.
n No-Stop City, people wander and do not settle in any one
location. There are no possible landmarks, and the concept of being ‘lost’ could therefore not exist. There is no social hierarchy, needs are provided for, and everyone is considered equal. In this blur of surroundings, are you just another face in a sea of faces? No-Stop features a removal of any significance to the surroundings, and the evolution of personal identity would therefore be unable to connect to any physical sense of belonging in terms of ‘place’. If the face is the first physical representation of an encounter, relationships in the No-Stop City would then be defined by distinctly specific features of the face; the face becomes a tangible anchor. If there are no Landmarks, one of the possible consequences is the reliance on the Face-Mark. This concept of the Face-Mark is an amalgamation of the immediate physical impression that one leaves upon first encounter; the instant registration of any significant features; the aura that weaves around the memory of an individual. The Face-Mark would act as a landmark in the realm of human interaction, where the infinity would otherwise obstruct the ability of people to anchor themselves.
Figure 11: The Contours of the Face-Mark Author’s face contoured in the style of ‘Pop Art’ - a prevalent art movement during No-Stop’s creation
a fictional program.
o navigate the implications of occupying a terrain as
unfamiliar as the No-Stop City with an element as personal as oneâ€™s face or identity, it can be contextualized and placed within an understandable setting from a human perspective. What better way, then, than to assert its possibility through fiction? The following piece therefore attempts to trace themes of anonymity, individuality, the nomad, the face-mark, and that of human psychology within the No-Stop context.
Figure 12: Fiction Cover
ohn’s feet hurt. How long had he been walking for? He glanced
down at his Interface Ring: 20,000 steps since this morning. Not too bad, for a Settler.
He had to have come from somewhere. There had to be a ‘birthplace’, like in the old days – a place where you planted your roots. That was in a time when the world had warred with itself, deaf to the pleas of the planet. A time before the New World, before the NoStop City, before someone had decided that the wars must end and humankind should be born equal.
John had left in search of his birthplace about 20 days ago, and he could feel a difference in his body. His muscles were stronger, tighter. It wasn’t strange for a Settler to feel this kind of strength, but it was an alien feeling for him.
As a Settler, he had chosen to stay within one group of people for the majority of his life – people he had known for as long as he could remember. They wandered as a pack, and never very far in any direction. They were nomads, divided into the Wanderers and the Settlers – the Wanderers anchored themselves to their memories of the Settlers, since the landscape offered no recourse to identify their locations, while the Settlers stayed within an invisible boundary. It wasn’t ideal, and it certainly wasn’t as accurate as it might have been in the old days, but it was something. This New World was made of an infinite grid of columns, of vents, of overhead lighting. The only things that might bear any individual character were the trees. Food was provided through the countless cabinets that were arranged between those infinite columns – replenished every day, no one in No-Stop died of starvation like in the old days. He had always questioned the motive of the Wanderers. Why would you roam alone? Why wouldn’t you settle with friends, find warmth and safety, strengthen bonds within a group? A man named
Maslow had once argued that humankind needed these things after their basic requirement for sustenance was met. John thought that becoming a Settler was probably the only way to achieve any semblance of that now. He felt restless sometimes, as did everyone in his group, but wouldn’t it be worse to wander?
Could he still call himself a Settler now? He missed his friends, but…this was something that he needed to do, he just knew it. He had done it before. He had been born to a different bunch of Settlers, hadn’t he? His mother had pushed him to wandering when he was ten, knowing that he would never want for food or drink, and knowing that he had to find his own path. He had wandered until he found his Settler group, and there he had stayed until twenty days ago.
A Wanderer knew the way of the land, better than a Settler. To be expected. They might not know their exact location, but they had a sense for getting it near right. John didn’t have those kinds of senses, yet, and it was frustrating him. How did they do it? The tiles couldn’t be marked, everything he encountered looked exactly the same, and while the trees had their own personality, after a while, even they started to blend into the endless background.
She found him when he was beginning to question the logic of this journey. How was he to find his mother’s Settler group, the first marker that might lead him to his birthplace, when he didn’t even know if he was headed in the right direction? She smiled at him, nodded, told him that her name was Jane. “John Doe,” he had replied, shaking her hand. She had cocked an eyebrow at him, asked if he had somehow wandered too far from his Settlers. How did she know that he wasn’t a Wanderer, like her? “The way you walk,” she had said. “You don’t know where you’re going.”
A statement, not a question. He felt flustered. Angry. “Do you?” “Yes.” “Where?” “The end of the New World.” He paused. She was crazy. Everyone knew that the world was round, there was no end or beginning. “You think I’m mad,” she offered, smiling at him. “No.” She explained anyway. “I think it must start somewhere, this infinity,” she said. “Our ancestors had beginnings and ends to their factories and their malls, before they magnified it to this. So there must be a beginning and an end. A wall, most likely.” She made it sound like they were somehow caged in the New World. Lunacy. …Why did her madness ring with truth?
She joined him on his wandering. She taught him to look for key features in the Settlers they encountered, to make memories, to learn the swells and hollows in the land. “We call it the Face-Mark,” she told him one day. “This way of identifying a locality based on the Settlers. It relies on memory, on the people that colour the land with their presence, on the birthmark on a woman’s cheek. Settlers…” she shook her head. “It’s difficult because they don’t vary. The Wanderers, what few of us are out here, we have calluses, scars. Settlers may as well be trees.” “What purpose do the other Wanderers have, for roaming?” he had asked. “You search for the end. What about them?” She had been silent to that. Contemplative. “I have questioned that myself. Some, because they cannot stay in one place. Others…
have you heard of Maslow?” John was startled. “Yes. I thought he was a Settler legend.” She had laughed. “Settlers only have the half of it. Maslow theorized one more level that Settlers have conveniently forgotten: Self Actualization.” It sounded familiar. A long-forgotten memory. “Achieving your full potential,” she continued, her eyes twinkling. “You Settlers don’t really know about it, you don’t really achieve it. Wanderers…I think they look for a way to do it.” He was thoughtful for a few minutes. “Do you think that this is why I journey for my birthplace?” he finally asked. “Yes.”
mak.ing /â€˜mÄ kiNG/ noun.
The process of making or producing something.
o meld the city with the face, the selected plan is analysed
as layers. Instead of simply cutting into the city and inserting a face, an arbitrary cut of the city is considered. What might be created if, instead of a superficial cut, the plan were to be examined in terms of removing different elements?
Figure 13: The No-Stop City Plan
Figure 14: Trees
Figure 15: + w(9 x 9) Columns
Figure 16: + (3 x 3) Columns
Figure 17: + Vents
Figure 18: + Toilet Units
Figure 19: + Appliance Units
Figure 20: No Trees
Figure 21: No (3 x 3) Columns
Figure 22: No Columns
Figure 23: No Vents
Figure 24: No Toilets
Figure 25: No Appliances
he removal of columns instantly removes the rigidity of perceived boundaries, while eliminating trees creates an atmosphere of an infinite, stifling uniformity.
No-Stop plans varied in the availability of non-essentials to its urban fabric: furniture, housing, trees, toilets; columns and vents are constant. As such, in an effort to stay true to No-Stop City as it was originally envisioned, the selected plan is one in which the trees and toilet units are removed: the purest form of the plan. After all, if unclothed nomads were envisioned to have populated No-Stop, what purpose would there be for the walls of a toilet cubicle?
Figure 26: Selected Plan
dentity can be captured in many ways â€“ a personal journal, a
fingerprint, a photograph. For this project, the idea of identity was captured through creating a model of the face.
Figure 27: The Process of Face-Casting
he first plaster-casting attempt resulted in a deformed,
distorted model due to the manner in which the cast was left to dry. However, unrecognisable as it is at first, it is becomes noticeably familiar the longer it is viewed.
Figure 28: Face Cast 01
of an â€˜objectâ€™.
ith the experience of the first attempt, the second
resulted in a much more accurate model that was then used for further experimentation in the creation
Figure 29: Face Cast 02
his process looked at the different ways that thinking and
making could be merged; primarily, the way the face could be warped to legitimately accept the insertion of the No-Stop City plan.
Figure 30: Different Layers of Facial Contours
Figure 31: Contours based on section-cuts of 3D face scan
Figure 32: Contours 01 + Selected Plan
Figure 33: Contours based on tracing the play of light on face-cast model
Figure 34: Contours 02 + Selected Plan
Figure Figure 35: 37: Making Making the the Model model -- Hammered Hammered Nails nails (columns) (Columns) into into MDF MDF
Figure Figure 36: 38: Making Making the the Model model - Inserting the Contours contours
Figure 37: 39: Making the Model model - Using string to guide the nailing of the grid
Figure Figure38: 40:Making Makingthe theModel model--Inserting Insertingvents vents(black (blackboxes) boxes)into intothe theâ€˜objectâ€™ object
method statement: theâ€˜objectâ€™.
his final object is one in which the idea of the Face-Mark is developed as a literal landmark.
In the same way that the No-Stop plan was analysed, the dimensions of the face were experimented with as a series of layers. These layers are then redefined from face contours to land contours. The selected No-Stop City plan was then experimented with until a suitable scale was achieved, where the columns retained their grid quality and the contours were still easily read. In this object, the plan rests at a 1:100 scale. Raw, untreated cardboard sheets were used for the contoured land. Nails were used to represent the columns, scaled to represent 3 metres in height and symbolic of the inhospitable environment that is No-Stop City.
Figure 41: 39: The ‘Object’
Figure 40: The ‘Object’ VIew 01
Figure 41: The ‘Object’ VIew 02
Figure 42: The ‘Object’ VIew 03
Figure 43: The ‘Object’ VIew 04
conclusion. “Home”, for me, has never been a city. Home is the conversation over dinner with my parents, the romps in the garden with the dogs, and the movie nights under duvets on the couch.
- Author’s Journal, 14th April 2014
o-Stop City served as a warning for the development of
modern architectural commercialization; it represented complete social equality at the cost of individual identity. This introspective project was aimed at developing an ‘object’ that linked the infinite city with the author’s identity. The nomadic existence I have lived can be linked to Archizoom’s idea of the wanderers that populated No-Stop. Dubai, the city that I believe was the backdrop during a significant period of my development, contains several parallels with the No-Stop plan highlighted in this analysis; it can be speculated that the selection of this plan is therefore a representation of identity in itself. While still unrealistic, globalization can be said to have progressed to a point where No-Stop City is perhaps a little closer to being realized than when it was first conceived.
If such a city as No-Stop truly existed in some unimaginable reality, what might become of individual identities? Does the stripping of character from the landscape simultaneously annihilate the personality of the individual, as Koolhaas states in his essay on the Generic City? This project takes the position that there would in fact be a remarkable focus on people if the city’s bustle was replaced by bland. Without a landscape to anchor to, people would focus on identity, or the face. Such is the idea of the face-mark: the memory of a physical representation of a person that simultaneously weaves around their personality. The final ‘object’ therefore aims to act as a physical manifestation of this concept of the face-mark. Following the contours of the face and replicating it as the contours of No-Stop City creates a literal landmark, while the use of nails to represent columns acts as a constant reminder of the inhospitable environment that is the No-Stop City.
here are a few people that I would like to thank for their tireless efforts in helping to finish this project to the best level that it could be.
Firstly, my profound thanks to my tutors Lorens Holm and Cameron McEwan, for their useful comments, remarks and engagement through the process of this research unit. To the wonderful people who provided their much-needed artistic insight and proof-reading skills: Adnan Faraz, Aehshaan Burah, Gavin Tong and Atousa Shiran. Special thanks to Francisco Jose Rodriguez Barrientos for his constant support and, more importantly, for his help in building the final object. I had hammered my thumb over five times before he took over. And finally I would like to thank my parents, Shihaan and Fazwina Burah, for Skyping me from over a thousand miles away and keeping me sane on a course that is rigged to keep your stress levels at their maximum. I am forever grateful for your love.
list of references. Aureli, P. V. & Tattara, M. (2007). Dogma: 11 Projects. London: AA Publications. Koolhaas, R. (1998). The Generic City. In: Sigler, J. ed. S, M, L, XL. New York: The Monacelli Press. pp. 1248 - 1264. Koolhaas, R. (2002). Junkspace. October 100, pp. 175-190. Kroger, J. (2007). Identity Development: Adolescence Through Adulthood. California: SAGE. Stauffer, M. T. (2002). Utopian Reflections, Reflected Utopias: Urban Designs by Archizoom and Superstudio. AA Files (47), pp. 22-36. Varnelis, K. (2006). Programming After Program: Archizoomâ€™s No Stop City. PRAXIS (8), pp. 83 - 91.
additional bibliography. Ballantyne, A. (2007). Deleuze and Guattari for Architects. London: Routledge. pp. 61 â€“ 79. Branzi, A. (1995). Agronica: a partial utopia. In: Manzini, E. & Susani, M. eds. The Solid Side. The Netherlands: V+K Publishing, pp. 103 120. Etchells, F. (1986). Towards a New Architecture. Translated from the French, by Le Corbusier. New York: Dover Publications. (Originally published in 1931). Gourdet, E., Pleasance, S. & Schelstraete, E. (2006). No-Stop City: Archizoom Associati. Orleans: Editions HYX. Hejduk, J. (1985). Mask of Medusa: works 1947 â€“ 1983. New York: Rizzoli. Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press.
Le Corbusier. (1987). Journey to the East. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Maslow, A. H. (2013). A Theory of Human Motivation. 1st. ed. New York: Simon and Schuster. McLeod, S. (2007). Maslowâ€™s Hierarchy of Needs. [online]. Simply Psychology. Viewed 28 December 2016. <http://www. simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>.
list of illustrations. Cover Image: Author’s own Preface Image: Author’s own Chapter 01, City Image: Author’s own Figure 1: Members of Archizoom Associati Centro Studi Poltronova. (n.d) Members of Archizoom Associati. [online]. Viewed 12 December 2016. <http://www.centrostudipoltronova.it/ author/admin/page/13/>. Figure 2: The Different No-Stop City Plans, Author’s own Figure 3: Archizoom’s Perspectives of the No-Stop City Gourdet, E., Pleasance, S. & Schelstraete, E. 2006. No-Stop City: Archizoom Associati. Orleans: Editions HYX. Figure 4: Selected No-Stop City Plan, 1:500. Author’s own Chapter 02, Identity Image: Author’s own Figure 5: Thumbprint Scan, Author’s own Figure 6: Home?, Author’s own Figure 7: “The reality in which we now live”, Author’s own Figure 8: Hall of Faces – “the eradication of identity”, Author’s own
Figure 9: The City of the Captive Globe, by Rem Koolhaas Koolhaas, R. 1994. Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press. Figure 10: Sri Lankan Gypsy Snake Charmer Strzelecki, J. 1998. Snake charmer and cobras, Sri Lanka. Viewed 5 January 2017. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Snake_charmer(js). jpg>. Chapter 03, Thinking Image: Author’s own Figure 11: The Contours of the Face-Mark, Author’s own Figure 12: Fiction Cover, Author’s own Chapter 04, Making Image: Author’s own Figure 13: The No-Stop City Plan, Author’s own Figure 14: Trees, Author’s own Figure 15: + (9 x 9) Columns, Author’s own Figure 16: + (3 x 3) Columns, Author’s own Figure 17: + Vents, Author’s own Figure 18: + Toilet Units, Author’s own
Figure 19: + Appliance Units, Author’s own Figure 20: No Trees, Author’s own Figure 21: No (3 x 3) Columns, Author’s own Figure 22: No Columns, Author’s own Figure 23: No Vents, Author’s own Figure 24: No Toilets, Author’s own Figure 25: No Appliances, Author’s own Figure 26: Selected Plan, Author’s own Figure 27: The Process of Face-Casting, Author’s own Figure 28: Face Cast 01, Author’s own Figure 29: Face Cast 02, Author’s own Figure 30: Different Layers of Facial Contours, Author’s own Figure 31: Contours based on section-cuts of 3D face scan, Author’s own Figure 32: Contours 01 + Selected Plan, Author’s own
Figure 33: Contours based on tracing the play of light on face-cast model, Author’s own Figure 34: Contours 02 + Selected Plan, Author’s own Figure 35: Making the model – Hammered nails (columns) into MDF, Author’s own Figure 36: Making the model – inserting the contours, Author’s own Figure 37: Making the model – Using string to guide the nailing grid, Author’s own Figure 38: Making the model – Inserting vents (black boxes) into the object, Author’s own Figure 39: The ‘Object’, Author’s own Figure 40: The ‘Object’ View 01, Author’s own Figure 41: The ‘Object’ View 02, Author’s own Figure 42: The ‘Object’ View 03, Author’s own Figure 43: The ‘Object’ View 04, Author’s own
FaCity: The No-Stop City No-Stop City was created in the 1960’s as a representation of societal balance, where the roles of humans are made...
Published on Jan 20, 2017
FaCity: The No-Stop City No-Stop City was created in the 1960’s as a representation of societal balance, where the roles of humans are made...