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f'k{kk lw= vad & 3] izfr;k¡ 2000

Hkkjr jRu lh- ,u- vkj jko

16 uoEcj] 2013 dks Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk ?kks’k.kk djus ds ckn 5 Qjojh] 2014 dks egku oSKkfud izks- fparkef.k ukxs”kk jkepanzk jko ¼lh,uvkj jko½ dks Hkkjr ds loksZPp lEeku ^Hkkjr jRu^ ls uoktk x;k gSA izks- jko rhljs oSKkfud gSa] ftUgsa ^Hkkjr jRu* ls lEekfur fd;k x;k gaSA buls iwoZ esa HkkSfrd “kkL=h lh oh jeu rFkk iwoZ jk’Vªifr o felkbyeSu MkW- ,- ih- ts- vCnqy dyke dks bl lEeku ls uokts tk pqds gSaA Ok’kZ 2014 dk Hkkjr jRu izks- lh,uvkj jko o fØdsVj lfpu rsanqydj dks iznku fd;k x;k gSA Hkkjr jRu ns”k dk loksZPp ukxfjd lEeku gSA bldh LFkkiuk o’kZ 1954 esa gqbZ FkhA ;g iqjLdkj dyk] lkfgR;] foKku vkSj [ksy ds {ks= esa iznku fd;k tkrk gSA o’kZ 2011 esa [ksy ds {ks= dks Hkh bl iqjLdkj esa “kkfey fd;k x;k FkkA izks- jko dks ;g lEeku Bksl inkFkZ o lajpukRed jlk;u (Solid State & Structural Chemistry) ds {ks= esa mRÑ’V dk;Z djus gsrq iznku fd;k gSA izks- jko dk tUe 30 twu 1934 dks csaxyq: esa gqvk FkkA 1951 esa mUgksaus foKku esa LukÙkd dh fMxzh eSlwj fo”ofo|ky; ls mÙkh.kZ dh rFkk 1958 esa iqjM~;w ¼PURDUE ½ fo”ofo|ky; ls MkWDVjsV dh mikf/k izkIr dhA mUgksaus lu~ 1963 esa Hkkjrh; izkS|ksfxdh laLFkku ¼IIT½] dkuiqj ls QsdYVh ds :Ik esa lsok ”kq: dhA 1946 esa ukscy fotsrk izks- lh- oh- jeu ds fo|ky; nkSjs ds le; izks- jko dh muls eqykdkr gqbZ FkhA izks- jko csaxyq: esa fLFkr Þtokgj yky usg: lsaVj QkWj ,Moakl lkbafVfQd fjlpZÞ ds laLFkkid rFkk orZeku esa blds v/;{k Hkh gSA varjkZ’Vªh; Lrj ij muds yxHkx 1500 fjlpZ isij o 45 iqLrdsa izdkf”kr gks pqdh gSaA orZeku esa izks- jko 32 lnL;h; iz/kkuea=h oSKkfud lykgdkj lfefr ds v/;{k gSA jko Hkkjrh; foKku laLFkku ds Bksl inkFkZ o lajpukRed jlk;u bdkbZ iz;ksx”kkyk ds laLFkkid v/;{k Hkh gSA izks- jko dks Hkkjr jRu ls igys ^in~e Jh* ] ^in~e foHkw’k.k* o ^dukZVd jRu* ls Hkh lEEkkfur fd;k tk pqdk gSA

lEiknd dh dye ls ---Þf'k{kk lw=Þ if=dk dk mn~ns'; fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks fu%'kqYd o lrr~ :i ls ikB~; lkexzh miyC/k djokuk gSA Þf'k{kk lw=Þ izR;sd efgus esa nks ckj 5 o 20 rkjh[k dks izdkf'kr gksrh gSA Þf'k{kk lw=Þ esa ikB~; lkexzh ds :i esa lelkef;d Kku] lkekU; foKku] dEI;wVj Kku o fo'o ifjn`'; ladfyr gSaA buds vfrfjDr Þf'k{kk lw=Þ dks fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, jkspd o Kkuo/kZd cukus ds fy, izsj.kknk;d ys[k Hkh izdkf'kr fd;s tk jgs gSaA

20 March 201 4

A F re e E d u ca ti on a l M a g a zi n e

HkkoukRed cqf)erk vkSj lQyrk ÞHkkoukvksa dk lQyrk esa D;k egÙo gS \ D;k vkidh Hkkouk,¡ vkidh lQyrk dk QSlyk dj ldrh gaSAÞ ij ;s le>us ls igys nks “kCnksa ^HkkoukRed cqf)erk^ o ^lQyrk^ dks ifjHkkf’kr djrs gaSA HkkoukRed cqf)erk%& Lo;a o nwljkas dh Hkkoukvksa dks igpku us] le>us] lwpuk nsus vkSj fu;af=r djus dk lkeF;Z] HkkoukRed Ckqf)erk dgykrk gSA lQyrk%& vius }kjk r; fd;s x;s y{;ksa dks izkIr djukA eu esa lQy gksus dk vglkl gksuk] lPph lQyrk gSA ge ;gk¡ dqN fo”ks’k Hkkoukvksa dks le>us dh dksf”k”k djsaxsA tks gekjs dk;Z o dk;Z{kerk dks izHkkfor djrh gaS] mu Hkkoukvksa dk lgh fu;a=.k gesa gekjs y{; ds djhc ys tkrk gSA lcls egÙoiw.kZ rF; tks gesa le>uk pkkfg,] oks ;g gS fd Hkkouk,¡ uk rks vPNh gksrh gaS] vkSj uk gh cqjhA ;s ,d vkS’k/kh dh rjg gksrh gSaA ftldh vko”;drk rks gksrh gS ijUrq vR;f/kd lsou uqdlku nk;d gksrk gSA 1-½ izse&uQjr %& vki vius futh thou esa izse j[ksa] ijUrq dfj;j dh jkg esa izsEk o uQjr nksuks dks NksM+ nsA vPNs ls O;ogkj djuk] nksLrh j[kuk] lq[k&nq[k dk gky iqNuk] ;s vkidh lQyrk dh jkg dks vklku djsaxs] ijUrq bUgas izse ls vyx j[kasA 2-½ vk”kk&fujk”kk %& dfj;j vkSj futh thou nksuks esa gh vk”kk dk gksuk cgqr t:jh gSA vk”kk vkidks vkxs c<+us dh rkdr nsrh gSA yxkrkj vlQyrkvksa ds ckn fujk”kk vk tkuk LoHkkfod gS] ijUrq ml ls yM+s] [kqn dks izsj.kk nsA lQy O;fDr;ksa dh thofu;k¡ i<a+s vkSj lh[ksa fdl rjg mUgksaus vlQyrk ds le; [kqn dks izfjr fd;k FkkA 3-½ Hk; %& ftUnk jgus ds fy, Hk; lcls t:jh gS] Hk; vkidks lrdZ j[krk gSA gkjus dk Hk; vkidks thrus dh rS;kjh dh izsj.kk nsxkA FkksM+k Hk; vkidks vius y{; ls tksM+s j[ksxkA ijUrq T;knk Hk; vkidks Hkkxus ds fy, etcqj dj ldrk gS] Hk; lcls t:jh ijUrq [krjukd Hkkouk gS] bls fu;a=.k esa j[ksaA 4-½ xqLlk %& vf/kdrj yksx ekurs gSa fd xqLlk cqjk gksrk gSA bUlku dks dHkh xqLlk ugha djuk pkfg,A eSa ;s ugha dg jgk gw¡ fd vkidks xqLlk djuk pkfg, ;k ugha djuk pkfg,A eSa vkidks xqLls ds dqN :iks ls feykuk pkgrk gw¡A Û yksx ftUgas cgqr xqLlk vkrk gS vkSj xqLls esa os fdlh oLrq dks rksM+ nsrs gaS] fdlh dh tedj fiVkbZ dj nsrs gaSA gks ldrk gS xqLlk “kkUr gksus ij ;s yksx ekQh ek¡x ys ijUrq ;s yksx pyrs&fQjrs ce dh rjg gksrs gaSA gj dksbZ buls nqjh cukuk pkgsxkA tc nqfu;k vkils nqjh cukus yx tk;sxh] rks vkidh lQyrk lafnX/k gks tk;xhA Û yksx ftUgas NksVh&NksVh ckr ij xqLlk vkrk gSA ;s yksx vkØked rks ugha gksrs] ijUrq viuh ftUnxh ls “kk;n T;knk gh ijs”kku gksrs gSaA bl rjg ds yksxksas ls dksbZ g¡lh&etkd dk fj”rk ugha j[krkA D;ksafd ;s yksx fdlh Hkh etkd ij fp<+ ldrs gaSA vki lksp ldrs gks fd vxj vkidh ftUnxh ls g¡lh dks fudky ns] rks fQj vkidh lQyrk dk D;k eryc jg tkrk gSA Û yksx ftUgas dHkh xqLlk ugha vkrk gSA dksbZ muds lkFk fdruk Hkh cqjk djs] os lc dqN lgu dj ysrs gaSA eSa ugha tkurk fd mudk ;s xq.k D;k gS] ijUrq yksx mUgas dk;j le>rs gSaA ,sls yksxksa dh lekt esa bTtr de gksrh tkrh gSA dksbZ Hkh lQy bUlku buls fj”rk ugha j[kuk pkgsxkA Û vc eSa dgw¡xk fd xqLlk de djks] mldh vkØkedrk dks Hkh de djks] fu;af=r xqLlk vkids futh thou o dfj;j nksuksa esa t:jh gSA 5-½ /kS;Z %&/kS;Z lcls egÙoiw.kZ Hkkouk gS] ;g vU; Hkkoukvksa dk fu;a=.k djrk gSA tSls vkidks yxkrkj esgur djus ds ckn Hkh lQyrk ugha fey jgh gS] fQj Hkh vki /kS;Z ds lkFk esgur fd;s tk jgs gks rks ;g ^vk”kk^ cu tk;sxkA vkids y{; izkfIr ds jkLrs esa dksbZ ,slh leL;k vk;h ftlls vkids eu esa Hk; mRiUu gks x;kA /kS;Z vkids ml Hk; dh ek=k dks fu;af=r j[ksxkA vkidks fdlh otg ls xqLlk vk;k gS vkSj vki lkeus okys dks ihVuk pkgrs gks] rks /kS;Z vkidks ;g djus ls jksdsxkA

Anand Sharma

lykg] lq>ko ,oa fu%'kqYd izfr izkIr djus gsrq lEidZ djsaA vkuUn 'kekZ 7665050402 dey fd'kksj lSuh 9982745862 Hkjr lkyoh 9950116949

vUnj fo'ks"k -----LLP Act 2008 :- ist 4 ij

u;h HkfrZ;k¡ %& ist IBPS ijh{kk izfØ;k %& ist SSC CGL Model Paper %& ist English :- ist

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Þtks O;fDr viuh xyfr;ksa ds fy, Lo;a ls yM+rk gS] mls dksbZ Hkh gjk ugha ldrkAÞ & pk.kD; lelkef;d Kku ¼Qjojh½ 1 Qjojh Û dk¡xzsl usrk gjh”k jkor us mrjk[kaM eq[;ea=h in dh “kiFk yhA mUgksaus fot; cgqxq.kk dk LFkku fy;k gSaA Û egkjk’Vª ds eq[;ea=h i`Fohjkt pOgk.k us eqacbZ esa eksuks jsy dk mn~?kkVu fd;kA Hkkjr esa izFke ckj jsy 16 vizsy 1853 dks pyh FkhA Û Hkkjrh; ukS lsuk esa rV vk/kkfjr ijh{k.k lqfo/kk ¼,lchVh,Q½ dks vkbZ,u,l gal esa “kkfey fd;k gS] orZeku esa ;g lqfo/kk vejhdk rFkk ;wØsu ds ikl miyC/k gSA Û vejhdk ds dksykjkMks fLizaXl esa vk;ksftr Mso “kqYV~t varjkZ’Vªh; dq”rh VwukZesaV esa 74 fdXkzk- ÝhLVkby esa Hkkjr ds izoh.k jktk us Lo.kZ ind thrk] ogha 57 fdxzk- esa vfer dqekj us jtr ind thrk gSA 2 Qjojh Û 2 Qjojh&eujsxk fnolA Û vejhdh ukS lsuk esa tkWu XySu uked dkxksZ tgkt dks “kkfey fd;k gSA Û jktLFkku fØdsV ,lksfl,”ku ds mik/;{k ekuosUnz flag dk lM+d nq?kZVuk esa fu/ku gks x;k gSA Û ubZ fnYyh ds foKku Hkou esa vk;ksftr eujsxk lEEksyu esa jktLFkku ds Vksad ftys dks lEiw.kZ LoPNrk dk;ZØe ds fy;s rFkk Mwaxjiqj dh [kM+xnk xzke iapk;r dks eujsxk esa loZJs’B izn”kZu ds fy;s lEekfur fd;k x;k gSA Û j.kth VªkWQh ds Qkbuy esa dukZVd us egkjk’Vª dks lkr fodsV ls gjk;kA Û t;iqj esa vk;ksftr fljewj iksyks di ds Qkbuy esa vjkoyh ØqlsMlZ us lgkjk okWfj;lZ dks ijkftr fd;kA 3 Qjojh Û ^vki* ljdkj us vkjksi yxk;k gS fd Hkktik us mUgsa ljdkj fxjkus ds fy, 20 djksM+ dh is”kd”k dh gSA Û fnYyh ljdkj us voS/k dkWyksfu;ksa ds fu;eu esa /kka/kyh ds ekeys esa iwoZ eq[;ea=h “khyk nhf{kr ds f[kykQ tk¡p dh ek¡x dhA 4 Qjojh Û fØdsV f[kykM+h lfpu rsanqydj o Hkkjrh; oSKkfud lh,uvkj jko dks jk’Vªifr iz.ko eq[kthZ us jk’Vªifr Hkou esa Hkkjr ds izfrf’Br lEeku ^Hkkjr jRu* ls lEEkkfur fd;k gSA Û Hkkjr esa tUes lR; ukMsyk dks ekbØkslkW¶V dk u;k lhbZvks cuk;k x;k gS] os LVho ckWYej dk LFkku ysaxsA Û jktLFkku lqizhe dksVZ ¼tks/kiqj½ ds IkwoZ U;k;k/kh”k v”kksd dqekj ekFkqj dks lkrosa osru vk;ksx dk v/;{k cuk;k x;k gSA bl vk;ksx dh flQkfj”ksa 1 tuojh 2016 ls ykxw gksxhA bl vk;ksx ds vU; lnL; foosd jk;] jfFku jkW;] ehuk vxzoky gSaA Û jktLFkku efgyk okWyhcky Vhe us jk’Vªh; ;wFk okWyhcky Vhe pSfEi;uf”ki esa dkaL; ind thrkA 5 Qjojh Û jktLFkku ljdkj us fofHkUu vk;ksxksa ds v/;{k vkSj mik/;{kksa ls ea=h in dk ntkZ Nhu fy;k gSA jktLFkku ds izeq[k vk;ksx vkSj muds v/;{k %& jktLFkku efgyk vk;ksx & ykM dqekjh tSu jktLFkku jkT; vYila[;d vk;ksx & ekfgj vktkn jktLFkku jkT; oDQ cksMZ & fy;kdr vyh jktLFkku jkT; gt desVh & lyhe dkxth jktLFkku foeqDr]?kqeUrq ,oa v)Z?kqeUrq dY;k.k cksMZ & xksiky dslkor jktLFkku Hkwnku xzkenku cksMZ & jru yky rkEch exjk {ks+=h; fodkl e.My & lksgu flaag Û ^vki* ls fu’dkflr fo/kk;d fouksn dqekj fcUuh us fnYyh ljdkj ls leFkZu okil ysus dk fu.kZ; fd;k gSA 6 Qjojh Û jktLFkku fo/kkulHkk esa tek[kksjh o dkykcktkjh ij fu;=a.k ds fy, fcy ikfjr gqvkA Û vki ljdkj ds vkns”kksa ij Hk’Vªkpkj fujks/kd C;wjksa us dkWeuosYFk LVªhV ykbV ?kksVkys esa ,QvkbZvkj ntZ dhA 7 Qjojh Û :l ds lksfp “kgj esa “khrdkyhu vkssyfEid “kq: gq,A Û jkT;lHkk esa jkT;iky ekxzsV vYok dh v/;{krk esa dqyifr leU;o lfefr dh cSBd esa fu.kZ; fy;k gS fd ljdkjh fo”ofo|ky;ksa dh leL;kvksa ds fuokj.k ds fy;s lfefr;ksa dk xBu fd;k tk,xkA Û vejhdk fctusl if=dk QkWP;wZu dh lwph esa Hkkjr dh bafnjk uw;h nwljs LFkku ij rFkk pank dkspj 18osa uacj ij jgh gSaA 8 Qjojh jktLFkku ljdkj us jktLFkku eky ¼mRiknu] lIykbZ] forj.k vkSj O;kikj rFkk okf.kT; dk fu;=a.k½ dkuwu dks ykxw fd;k o bl dkuwu dh /kkjk 4 ds rgr ctjh dks eky ?kksf’kr fd;k gSA Øe'k% ist&3 ij

20 March 201 4

lkekU; foKku jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k vkWDlhdkjd%& og inkFkZ tks bysDVªkWu xzg.k djrk gS vFkok ftldk vip;u gksrk gS] vkWDlhdkjd dgykrk gSA vipk;d%& og inkFkZ tks bysDVªkWu R;kxrk gS ;k ftldk vkWDlhdj.k gksrk gS] vipk;d dgykrk gSA ean o rhoz vfHkfØ;k,¡ rhoz vfHkfØ;k %& ,slh jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k tks rhoz xfr ls gksrh gS rFkk ftuds osx dks vklkuh ls ekik ugha tk ldrk gS] rhoz vfHkfØ;k dgykrh gSA rhoz vfHkfØ;k,¡ vk;uksa ds chp gksrh gSaA mnkgj.k%& vEy&{kkj mnklhuhdj.k vfHkfØ;k rhoz xfr dh vfHkfØ;k gSA ean vfHkfØ;k %& os vfHkfØ;k,¡ ftudks iw.kZ gksus esa feuVksa] ?k.Vksa] fnuks vkSj dHkh&dHkh o’kksZ le; yx tkrk gS] ean vfHkfØ;k dgykrh gSA mnkgj.k%& yksgs ij tax yxuk ean vfHkfØ;k gSA mRizsjd %& og ckg~; inkFkZ tks Lo;a vifjofrZr jgrs gq, jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k ds osx dks cny nsrk gS] mRiszjd dgykrk gSA bl izfØ;k dks mRiszj.k dgrs gSaA mRiszjd ds izdkj 1- /kukRed mRizsjd 2- _.kkRed mRiszjd 3- Lor% mRiszjd 4- tSo mRiszjd mRiszjd o/kZd %& os inkFkZ tks mRiszjd dh fØ;k”khyrk esa o`f+) djrs gSa] mRiszjd o/kZd dgykrs gSaA mRiszjd fo’k %& os inkFkZ tks mRiszjd dh fØ;k”khyrk esa deh djrs gSa] mRiszjd fo’k dgykrs gSaA vfHkdkjd o mRiszjd dh HkkSfrd voLFkk ds vk/kkj ij mRiszj.k 1- lekaxh mRizsj.k %& lekaxh mRiszj.k og fØ;k gS ftlesa jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k esa vfHkdkjd o mRiszjd dh HkkSfrd voLFkk leku jgrh gSA 2- fo’kekaxh mRiszj.k %& fo’kekaxh mRizsj.k og fØ;k gS ftlesa jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k esa vfHkdkjd o mRiszjd dh HkkSfrd voLFkk fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA mRØe.kh; o vuqRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k,¡ mRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k %& mRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k og vfHkfØ;k gS tks nksuks fn”kkvksa esa pyrh gS rFkk dHkh iw.kZ ugha gksrh gSA vuqRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k %& vuqRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k og vfHkfØ;k gS tks ,d fn”kk esa iw.kZ gksrh gS vFkkZr~ ftuesa fØ;kdkjd iw.kZ :Ik ls mRikn esa cny tkrk gSA vuqRØe.kh; vfHkfØ;k,¡ vxz fn”kk esa pydj iw.kZ gks tkrh gSA

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"Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value."

Al b e rt E i n ste i n

lelkef;d Kku ¼Qjojh½ Û jktLFkku esa ctjh dh dherksa ds fu/kkZj.k dk vf/kdkj ftyk dysDVjksa dks fn;k gSA ctjh dh tek[kksjh o dkykcktkjh dks jksdus ds fy;s jkT; ljdkj us 1200 D;wfcd QhV ¼48 Vu½ dh LVkWd lhek fu/kkZfjr dj nh gSA Û chlhlhvkbZ ds v/;{k ,u- Jhfuoklu varjkZ’Vªh; fØdsV ifj’kn~ ds vxys pS;jeSu gksaxsA Û Hkkjr ds ;wds Hkkacjh us :l ds ,ysDlkanz dqnz;koRlso dks gjkdj ,Vhih pSysatj VwukZesaV thrk rFkk bl VwukZesaV dk ;qxy Hkh Hkkacjh us vius tksM+hnkj ekbdy ohUl ¼U;wthySUM½ ds lkFk thrk gSA 9 Qjojh Û jktLFkku ljdkj us viuk eq[;ky; 10 fnu ds fy;s Hkjriqj laHkkx ij LFkkukUrfjr djus ds lkFk gh 60 fnolh; dk;Z ;kstuk dk “kqHkkjEHk fd;kA Û Hkkjrh; vksyfEid la?k ds v/;{k in ds fy;s ,u- jkepUnzu ¼chlhlhvkbZ v/;{k ,u- Jhfuoklu ds HkkbZ½ rFkk mik/;{k in ds fy;s jktLFkku ds tukZnu flag xgyksr dks pquk x;k gSA Û dsUnzh; is;ty ,oa LoPNrk ea=ky; }kjk tkjh fjiksVZ esa ^fueZy Hkkjr vfHk;ku* ykxw djus esa flfDde dks bdykSrs jkT; dk ntkZ feyk gSA 10 Qjojh Û vkbZih,y&6 esa LikWV fQfDalx dh tk¡p ls tqM+h eqn~xy lfefr us psUubZ lqijfdaXl ls tqM+s gq;s xq:ukFk e;Iiu dks nks’kh ekuk gS rFkk jktLFkku jkW;Yl ds vthr pansyk] vafdr pOgk.k o ,lJhlar dks Hkh LikWV fQfDalx dk nks’kh ekuk gSA Û usiky ds u;s iz/kkueU=h ds :Ik esa lq”khy dksbjkyk pqus x;s gSaA Û funZyh; fo/kk;d jkechj “kkSdhu ds leFkZu ysus ls fnYyh ljdkj vYier esa vk xbZ gSA KkrO; jgs fd vki fo/kk;d fouksn dqekj fcUuh us igys gh leFkZu ys fy;k FkkA Û gkWySUM dh jkt/kkuh gsx esa lEiUu baVj “kwfVax pSfEi;uf”ki esa jktLFkku dh fu”kkusckt vIkwohZ pUnsyk us pkj ind thrs gSaA Û vejhdk ds fteh okdj us iscys chp us”kuy xksYQ VwukZesaV dk f[krkc thrkA 11 Qjojh Û varjk’Vªh; vksyfEid la?k us Hkkjrh; vksyfEid la?k ij yxs izfrca/k dks gVk fn;k gSA ;g izfrca/k 2012 esa gq;s pqukoksa esa /kka/kyh ds QyLo:Ik yxk FkkA Û ^n fganwt&,u vkYVjusfVo LVksjh* ds ys[kd vejhdh osaMh MksfxulZ gSA Û tSlyesj esa e: egksRlo “kq: gqvkA Û rsyxkauk ekeys dk fojks/k dj jgs vka/kz izns”k ds N% lkalnksa ¼dkaxzsl½ dks ikVhZ ls fu’dkflr dj fn;kA

20 March 201 4

Free Membership f'k{kk lw= fu%'kqYd 'kS{kf.kd if=dk fo'ks"krk;sa  gj ekg dh fnukad 5 o 20 dks izdkf'krA  u;h HkfrZ;ksa dh lwpukA  fudV Hkfo"; esa gksus okyh ijh{kk dk ekWMy isijA  fdlh ,d ijh{kk dh lEiw.kZ izfØ;kA

lEidZ lw= ^f'k{kk lw=^ dh vxyh izfr;k¡ izkIr djus o fu%'kqYd lnL; cuus ds fy;s lEidZ djsaA  vkuUn 'kekZ 7665050402  dey fd'kksj lSuh 9982745862

irk %& 226] x.ks'k uxj] ;qfuojflVh jksM+] mn;iqj  0294&2470402 12 Qjojh Û jsyos ea=h efYydktqZu [kM+xs us varfje jsy ctV is”k fd;kA jsy ctV rdjhcu 64300 djksM+ :Ik;ksa dk gSA Û jktLFkku Hkktik izns”kk/;{k ds fy, v”kksd ijukeh dks fu;qDr fd;kA Û bZjkuh VªkWQh ds Qkbuy esa dukZVd us “ks’k Hkkjr dks gjkdj ikapoha ckj fotsrk cukA 13 Qjojh Û yksdlHkk esa rsyxkauk fcy ij vka/kz izns”k ds lkalnks us mRikr epk;k rFkk v/;{k ehjk dqekj us 18 lkalnks ¼vka/kz izns”k½ dks yksdlHkk dh “ks’k dk;Zokgh ds fy, fuyfEcr dj fn;kA Û jkT;ikyks ds lewg dh cSBd esa tutkfr lykgdkj ifj’kn~ xBu dh flQkfj”k dh x;hA ;g cSBd jk’Vªifr iz.ko eq[kthZ dh v/;{krk esa t;iqj esa vk;ksftr gqbZA Û rhjnakt f[kykM+h nhfidh dqekjh us fQDdh dk LiksVZ~l ilZu vkWQ n bZ;j dk iq:Ldkj thrkA

cSMfeaVu f[kykM+h ihoh fla/kw us cSzdFkwz LiksVZ~l ilZu vkWQ n bZ;j dk f[krkc thrkA 14 Qjojh Û 49 fnu rd ljdkj pykus okys fnYyh ds eq[;ea=h vjfoUn dstjhoky us tuyksdiky fo/ks;d ds fo/kkulHkk esa is”k u gksus ds dkj.k in ls bLrhQk ns fn;k gSA Û ykbykt chekjh ls ihM+hr cPpksa dks bPNk e`R;q ds vf/kdkj dk dkuwu ikfjr djus okyk csfYt;e igyk ns”k cu x;k gSA Û ef.kiqj dh bjkse “kfeZyk pkuw us vke vkneh ikVhZ }kjk yksdlHkk pquko yM+us dh is”kd”k dks vLohdkj dj fn;k gSA KkrO; gks fd bjkse “kfeZyk pkuw fookfnr l”kL= cy fo”ks’kkf/kdkj vf/kfu;e ds f[kykQ fiNys 14 lky ls vkej.k vu”ku ij cSBh FkhA Û Hkkjrh; QqVcky egkla?k us dIrku lquhy Ns=h dks QqVckyj vkWQ n bZ;j ls lEekfur fd;k gSA

3


Þegku lius ns[kus okyksa ds egku lius ges”kk iwjs gksrs gSaAÞ

vCnqy dyke

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

LLP ,d fyxy QeZ] tks fo”oHkj esa miyC/k gaS] mls Hkkjr esa Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) Act 2008 ds lkFk is”k fd;kA ;g Act 1 vizsy 2009 ls izHkkoh gSA LLP esa lk>snkjh o dEiuh nksuks ds Qk;ns “kkfey gSA lk>snkjh dh rjg pykus esa vklku o dEiuh dh rjg vyx ls fyxy bUVhVh LVsV~l vkSj fyfeVsM ykbcfyVhA eq[; fcUnq % 1- LLP blds lk>snkjksa ls vyx Entity gksrh gSA ;g vius uke ls Assest j[k ldrh gSA 2- dkWjiksjsV “ks;j gkWYMjks ds foifjr LLP esa lk>snkj O;olk; dk izcU/k dj ldrs gSaA 3- ,d lk>snkj fdlh vU; lk>snkj ds Misconduct ds fy, ftEesnkj ugha gksrk gSA 4- de ls de nks lk>snkj vkSj vf/kdre la[;k dh dksbZ lhek ughaA 5- dsoy ^ykHk ds fy,^ (for Profit) O;olk; gh LLP cuk ldrs gSaA 6- LLP esa lk>snkjkas ds vf/kdkj o dÙkZO; :Û Lkk>snkjksa ds e/; vuqcU/k esa r; gksrs gSa] Û Lkk>snkj vuqcU/k dks vius vuqlkj r; djus ds fy, Lora= gksrs gSa] Û Designated lk>snkjkas ds dÙkZO; dkuwu (Law) ds vuqlkj gksrs gSaA 7- LLP esa okf’kZd vdkmUV j[kuk gksrk gSA ;|fi dqy jkf”k 25 yk[k ;k okf’kZd VuZ vkWoj 40 yk[k ls T;knk gksus ij gh vkWfMV dh t:jr gksrh gSA ,d LLP okLro esa Qk;nsean gksrh gS D;ksafd bls cukus esa de [kpZ] pykus o O;oLFkk djus esa vklkuh] U;qure iw¡th dh t:jr ugha gksrh gSA ijUrq LLP esa ifCyd ls i¡wth ugha tqVk ldrsA

LLP cukus dh izfØ;k %& Ragisterar of Companies 1- Lkk>snkj o Designated lk>snkj r; djsA 2- Designated Partner Identificaton Number (DPIN) o fMftVy gLrk{kj izek.k i= izkIr djsA 3- LLP dk uke lkspks vkSj irk djks fd ;s miyC/k gS D;kA 4- LLP ds vuqcU/k dk MªkW¶V cukvksaA 5- LLP vuqcU/k vkSj vU; nLrkost tek djkvksA o Incorpoprate Certificate izkIr djsA

Men improve with the Years

I am worn out with dreams; A weather-worn, marble triton Among the streams; And all day long I look Upon this lady's beauty As though I had found in book A pictured beauty, Pleased to have filled the eyes Or the discerning ears,

Delighted to be but wise, For men improve with the years; And yet and yet Is this my dream, or the truth? O would that we had met When I had my burning youth; But I grow old among dreams, A weather-worn, marble triton Among the streams..

From The Wind Among the Reeds

^vko';drk^ ds fy, fu%'kqYd foKkiu nsus dss fy, lEidZ djsa& 7665050402] 9982745862 dejs fdjk;s ij nsus gSa 1- dkydk ekrk jksM+] csduh iqfy;k ds ikl ,d dejk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks fdjk;s ij nsuk gSA lEidZ djs & izse izdk'k lkyoh 9928744558 2- dkydk ekrk jksM+] iatkch ckx ds ikl ckyduh lfgr ,d dejk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks fdjk;s ij nsuk gSA lEidZ djs & 9882745862

Home Tutor Service gkse VwVj ds :i esa dk;Z djuk pkgrs gks rks vkt gh jftLVjs'ku djsA fyad bit.ly/udrtutor vkids cPpksa ds fy, gkse VwVj dh vko';drk gks rks ge ls lEidZ djsA

9829866968

20 March 201 4

u;h HkfrZ;k¡

South Eastern Cool Limited

in uke& ekbfux ljnkj in la[;k& 700 vafre fnukad& 25 ekpZ] 2014 vk;q lhek& 18 ls 30 o’kZ ¼4 vizsy] 2014 rd½ ;ksX;rk& 10 $ 2 o Mine & mine surveying esa fMIyksek nksuks vfuok;Z p;u izfØ;k& fyf[kr ijh{kk o lk{kkRdkj vkosnu& vkWuykbu o vkWQykbu nksuks

web site:- www.secl.gov.in

SSC – SI, ASI

in uke& fnYyh iqfyl o dsfUnz; l”kL= iqfyl cy (CAPF) esa lc balisDVj dsfUnz; vkS|ksfxd lqj{kk cy (CISF) esa vfllVsaV lc balisDVj vafre fnukad vkosnu Hkkx 1 %& 9 vizsy] 2014 vkosnu Hkkx 2 %& 11 vizsy] 2014 ;ksX;rk& LukÙkd vk;q lhek& 20 ls 25 o’kZ ¼1 tuojh 2014½ p;u izfØ;k& isij 1 % fyf[kr (only screening) isij 2 ¼fyf[kr½ rFkk lk{kkRdkj vkosnu& vkWuykbu

web site:- ssc.nic.in ssconline2.gov.in

ijh{kk frfFk& isij 1 % 22 twu] isij 2 % 21 flRkEcj

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in uke o la[;k& LVs”ku dUVªksyj % 98 dLVej fjys”ku vfllVsaV % 234

JEn (Electrical) : 89 JEn (Electronics) : 1 36 JEn (Mechanical) : 35 JEn (Civil) : 32 Maintainer : 570

vafre fnukad & 15 vizsy 2014 ;ksX;rk & JEn, LVs”ku dUVªksyj & 3 o’kZ bUtfu;fjx fMIyksek dLVej fjys”ku vfllVsaV & LukÙkd o 6 lIrkg dk dEI;wVj dkWlZ izek.k i= vk;q & CRA, JEn & 18&28 o’kZ Maintainer & 18&25 o’kZ vkosnu & vkuykbu

website : delhimetrorail.com direct link : bit.ly/metrojob

Professor and Associate Professor

in la[;k & 26 vafre fnukad & 5 vizsy 2014 ;ksX;rk & fMxzh o 10 o"kZ dk vuqHko vk;q & 55 o"kZ (Professor), 50 o"kZ (Associate Professor)

website: www.rpsc.rajasthan.gov.in

4


Contact for

Sponsorship & Advertisement at

9982745862 (Kamal Kishore)

I n sti tu te of b a n ki n g P e rson a l S e l e cti on (I B PS ) ;g International Testing Model ij ETS dh rjg dk;Z djrh gSA ;g ilZuy lysD”ku esa cSad ds vUnj izeks”u o ckgj ls fu;qfDr;ksa ds fy, ijh{kk vk;ksftr djokrh gSA blesa dk;Z djus okys ilZuyl~ cSafdx] ba';ksjsal] euksfoKku] lwpuk rduhdh o f”k{kk ds {ks= ls gksrs gSaA dsoy 2010&11 esa IBPS us viuh DykbUV laLFkkvksa ds fy, yxHkx 79]236 fjDr inksa ij fu;qfDr ds fy, nl fefy;u mEehnokjksa dk ijh{k.k fd;kA

Clints of IBPS

os lHkh cSafdx o ba';ksjsal {ks= dh laLFkk,¡ tks IBPS ds }kjk vius fjDr inksa ij fu;qfDr;ksa ds fy, ijh{kk djokrh gaSA fuEu gSa& 21 ifCyd lsDVj dh cSad] 22 dkWijsfVo cSad] 11 izkbosV cSad] 8 lsUVªy Qkbusal bUlfVV~;wlu] 9 ba';ksjsal lsDVj] 23 izkbosV lsDVj vUMjVsfdax] 62 xzkeh.k {ks=h; cSad vkSj 13 fo”ofo|ky;A

1

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20 March 201 4

Twitter

The idea behind twitter is that you broadcast to anyone who chooses to follow you, simple messages also known as "tweets". Likewise you can choose to follow people and receive their messages. Twitter also has: • The ability to send direct messages to users instead of broadcasting to everyone, • Mobile options to send and receive tweets via SMS messaging on your cell phone, • Search options allowing you to find other Twitter users near your location, • An API that allows 3rd party developers to develop some great applications.

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5

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(CWE) 1 . CWE Specialist Officer 2. CWE PO/MT 3. CWE Clerical 4. CWE RRB website: ibps.in IBPS Online Mock Test Link: bit.ly/ibpstest

Follow "Shiksha Sutra" on Twitter link: https://twitter.com/ShikshaSutra username: @ShikshaSutra

la lh

4

lEiw.kZ lwph ds fy, fyad bit.ly/ibpslist ij tk;sA IBPS }kjk djok;s tkus okyh la;qDr fyf[kr ijh{kk,¡

<+k

j

1- egkjk.kk izrki o vdcj ds e/; ;q) tgk¡ gqvkA ¼4½ 2- Ja`xkj gkj ds jpf;rk pkSgku oa'k ds 'kkld ¼3½ 4- feyuk ¼3½

Åij ls uhps 2- Hkhy L=h o iqj"kks }kjk ,d lkFk feydj xk;s tkus okyk xhr ¼4½ 3- ^ujlh th jks ek;jks^ fdlus fy[kk ¼4½ 5- ,d ok| ;a= ¼2½

Job is snap shot but career is a live motion film

There is a definite difference between getting a job and making a career. Job is snap shot but career is a live motion film. I define career to have five irreducible components: 1 . It should help you discover and develop an identity. 2. It should ignite passion in you.

3. It should contribute value to the society. 4. It should provide you a decent living. 5. It should make you feel successful. In my opinion a career that lacks any of these is employment and not career in the real sense.

Ashutosh Sharma (In book Campus to Corporate)

5


SSC CGL Exam Model Paper lkekU; cqf)eÙkk o rdZ'kfDr

1 .) TAP : PAT : : DAM : ? a) BUND b) MAD c) STOP d) AMD

15-½ ;fn (x-y) dk 30 izfr”kr] (x+y) ds 20 izfr”kr ds cjkcj gks rks x, y dk fdruk izfr”kr gSA

2-½ 08 % 09 % % \ % 81

a) 25 b) 20 c) 30 d) 24

3-½ fuEu esa ls fHkUu dks NakVksA

16-½ ,d 400 :i;s vafdr ewY; okyh Vh&”kVZ dks 360 :i;s esa csp fn;k gks rks NwV dh nj Kkr djksA

a) 64 b) 1 6 c) 27 d) 36 a) 441 b) 256 c) 481 d) 361 4-½ “kCnksa dks lkFkZd Øe esa fy[kksA i) y[kuÅ ii) mrj izns”k iii) bf.M;k v½ ,f”k;k

iv) fo”o

a) i, ii, iii, v, iv b) iv, i, ii, iii, v c) v, i, ii, iii, iv d) v, i, iii, ii, iv

5-½ 3]7]13]21]31]\ Js.kh dks iwjk djksA

a) 33 b) 36 c) 41 d) 43

M ] P dk iq+= gSA Q] O dh iksrh gS] O tks P dk ifr gSA M dk O ls D;k fj”rk gS\ a) iq+= b) iq=h+ c) ek¡ d) firk 6-½ fd

7-½ yM+dksa dh ,d iafDr esa] JhukFk ck,¡ ls 7osa LFkku ij rFkk osadV nk,¡ ls 12osa LFkku ij gSA ;fn os nksuksa ,d nwljs ls viuh fLFkfr cnyrs gSa rks JhukFk ck,¡ ls 22osa uacj gks tkrk gSA iafDr esa dqy yM+dksa dh la[;k gksxhA

a) 1 9 b) 31 c) 33 d) 34

¼iz”u 8&10 ds fy,½ fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa esa rhu rÙo fn;s x;s gSa ftuds e/; laca/k dks osu vkjs[k ls crkvksA

a)

b)

c)

d)

8-½ fpUrk] cqf+)] cy 9-½ “kkd] vkyq] can xksHkh 10-½ ukbVªkstu] cQZ] gok la[;kRed vfHk;ksX;rk

11-½ (256) 0.1 6

X (1 6)0.1 8 = ?

a) 4 b) 64 c) 1 6 d) none of these 1 2.) 3

4096

a) 1 5 b) 1 2 c) 22 d) 1 6 13-½ 2744 dks NksVh ls NksVh fdl la[;k ls xq.kk djus ij ;g iw.kZ cu tk;sxkA

a) 5 b) 7 c) 8 d) 1 4

14-½ nks la[;kvksa dk ;ksx 45 o mudk xq.kuQy 500 gS rks mu la[;kvksa dk e-l- Kkr djksA

a) 5 b) 9 c) 1 0 d) 1 5

20 March 201 4

a) 1 2 b) 1 0 c) 1 5 d) 1 7

17-½ ,d lky ds ckn ewy/ku o feJ/ku dk vuqikr 5%6 gS rks C;kt dh okf’kZd nj Kkr djksA

a) 1 2 b) 1 6 c) 1 8 d) 20

ABC esa] dks.k BAC=90 fMxzh vkSj AB=1 /2(BC) gS rks dks.k ABC Kkr djksA 18-½ f=Hkqt

a) 60 b) 30 c) 45 d) 1 5 19-½ ;fn a=23 o b=-29 gS rks 25a 2+40ab+1 6b 2 dk eku gksxkA a) 1 b) -1 c) 0 d) 2

20-½ fuEu esa lcls NksVh la[;k gS&

a) 6 1 2

b)

c) 4 5

d)

3

4 3

lkekU; lpsruk 21-½ “ksdy eqnzk dgk¡ dh gS \ v½ dsU;k c½ bZjku l½ btjk;y n½ bZjkd 22-½ ‘Half of Life’ iqLrd ds ys[kd dkSu gSa \ v½ oh-oh fxjh c½ oh-,l ukbikWy l½ lyeku :”nh n½ i- jfo”kadj 23-½ Hkkjr esa miHkksDrk fnol euk;k tkrk gS& v½ 24 vDVqcj c½ 22 fnlEcj l½ 24 fnlEcj n½ 20 ekpZ 24-½ dkSulk laoS/kkfud vf/kdkj] ewy vf/kdkj ugha gS \ v½ thus dk vf/kdkj c½ cjkcjh dk vf/kdkj l½ Lora=rk dk vf/kdkj n½ lEifr dk vf/kdkj 25-½ gkbMªkstu ce vk/kkfjr gS& v½ ukfHkdh; fo[k.Mu ij c½ ukfHkdh; lay;u ij l½ vkf.od ÅtkZ ij n½ fo[k.Mu o lay;u ij 26-½ ___ dk fyaxkuqikr lcls T;knk gSA v½ fQuySaM c½ fLoV~t+jySaM l½ nh uhnjySaM n½ LohMu 27-½ ,f”k;k fØdsV di 2014 dk fotsrk gS& v½ ckaXykns”k c½ Hkkjr l½ ikfdLrku n½ Jhyadk 28-½ lalkj dh lcls xgjh >hy gS& v½ osEcukM c½ ckbdky l½ U;klk n½ fpYdk 29-½ ,fMMkl dk czkWM ,EcslMj dkSu gS \ v½ fojkV dksgyh c½ jksfgr “kekZ l½ lfpu rsanydj n½ ;qojkt flag 30-½ ysM isfUly dks cukus esa mi;ksx fd;k tkus okyk inkFkZ gS& v-½ ekbdk c-½ ysM l-½ dkcZu n-½ xzsQkbV

On facebook

facebook.com/shikshasutra

English Language & Comprehansion

Directions(Q.31 -33) Which of the following

phrases (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below, each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold type to make the sentence grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is, mark (e) as the correct answer. Q. 31 She is a healthy girl, she always uses to go for morning walk. (a) Using to go (b) is going (c) has gone (d) goes (e) No correction required Q. 32 Yesterday I could not resist my temptation and out of curiosity, I peep into the room. (a) peep at the room (b) peeped at the room (c) have peeped into the room (d) peeped into the room (e) No correction required Q. 33 I met the boy who was my friend’s brother and whom name was Akash. (a) and whose name is (b) and whose name was (c) and who name was (d) and whom name is (e)No correction required

Directions(Q. 34-36) In these questions

sentences are given below with blanks to be filled in with an appropriate word(s). Four alternatives are suggested for each question. Choose the correct alternative out of the four. Q. 34 That hardly counts, _______ (a) does it? (b) doesn't it? (c) do it? (d) don't it? Q. 35 An optimist thinks that all _____ well with the world. (a) shall (b) will be (c) is (d) was Q. 36 The examination will begin _____ Monday. (a) from (b) in (c) at (d) on

Directions (Q. No. 37-38) Out of the four

alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the given word. Q. 37 Adversary (a) Poverty (b) Contestant (c) Opponent (d) Antagonistic Q. 38 Dishonour (a) Infamy (b) Glory (c) Uncouth (d) Wicked

Directions (Q.No. 39-40) Choose the word opposite in meaning to the given word. Q. 39 Implicit (a) Explicit (b) Implied (c) Explained (d) Exquisite Q. 40 Capture (a) Catch (b) Detain (c) Liberate (d) Stop

Answer at page 8 6


ÞrUgk cSBdj u ns[k] gkFkksa dh ydhj viuh mB cka/k dej vkSj fy[k ns] [kqn rdnhj viuhÞ

&Lokeh foosdkuUn

 fo'o ifjn`'; la;qDr jk’Vª la?k ¼4½ U;klh ifj’kn~ Û U;klh ifj’kn~ Hkh la;qDr jk’Vª la?k dk vax gSA U;kl ifj’kn~ dh LFkkiuk dk eq[; m)s”; ftu jk’Vªksa esa iw.kZ Lok;r “kklu ugha gaS] ogk¡ ds ukxfjdksa ds fgrksa dh j{kk ds fy, la;qDr jk’Vª la?k ds v/khu U;kl ifj’kn~ dk xBu fd;k x;kA Û vkLVªsfy;k] U;wthyS.M] vesfjdk vkSj fczVsu] bu jk’Vªksa dks U;kl dk Hkkj lkSaik x;k gSA Û U;kl ifj’kn ds dqy lnL;ksa dh la[;k 12 gS ftu esa pkj izcU/kd ns”k gS rFkk rhu lqj{kk ifj’kn~ ds LFkk;h lnL; phu] Ýk¡l o :l gSa rFkk ckdh ds ik¡p lnL;ksa dk fuokZpu egklHkk }kjk rhu o’kksZa ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA ¼5½ varjkZ’Vªh; U;k;ky; Û ;g Hkh la;qDr jk’Vª la?k dk vax gSA Û varjkZ’Vªh; U;k;ky; dh LFkkiuk U;k;ky; lafof/k uked varjkZ’Vªh; le>kSrs ds vUrZxr dh xbZ FkhA Û l;qDr jk’Vª la?k ds lHkh lnL; varjkZ’Vªh; U;k;ky; lafof/k ds fgLlsnkj gSA Û varjkZ’Vªh; U;k;ky; ds 15 U;k;k/kh”k gSA Û bldk dk;kZy; gsx esa fLFkr gSA varjkZ’Vªh; U;k;ky; dk [kpZ la;qDr jk’Vª la?k ogu djrk gSA Û Hkk’kk,¡%& vaxszth o Ýsap Û v/;{k%& ihVj Vksedk ¼Lyksokfd;k½ Û jftLVªkj%&fQfyIis dksofj;j ¼csfYt;e½ ¼6½ lfpoky; Û Lkfpoky; dk ew[; iz”kklfud vf/kdkjh egklfpo gksrk gSA Û egklHkk ds fu;eksa ds vuqlkj fo”o&Hkj ls pqudj fu;qDr fd;k x;k varjkZ’Vªh; deZpkjh oxZ egklfpo ds v/khu vkrk gSA Û egklHkk }kjk fuEu dh fu;qfDr dh tkrh gS%& 1-½ egklfpo 2-½ ”kj.kkFkhZ ekeyk ds mPpk;qDr 3-½ fuf/k ekeyk esa izca/k funs”kd Û Lka;qDr jk’Vª ds egklfpo bl izdkj ls gSa%& Ukke ns”k fVªXokos ys; ukosZ Mkx gEej”kksYM LohMu ;w- FkkaV cekZ dVZ okYMghe vkfLVª;k tsfo;j isjsl n dqb;kj is: cq=ksl cq=ksl ?kkyh feL= dkWQh vUuku ?kkuk cku dh ewu nf{k.kh dksfj;k

20 March 201 4

lu~ 1946&52 1953&61 1961&71 1972&81 1982&91 1992&96 1997&2006 2007& orZeku rd

la;qDr jk’Vª la?k dh izeq[k ,tsafl;k¡ 1-½ ;wusLdks %& ;wusLdks dh LFkkiuk 4 uoEcj] 1946 dks gqbZ FkhA bldk eq[;ky; isfjl ¼Ýakl½ esa fLFkr gSA bldk eq[; mn~ns”; f”k{kk] foKku] vkSj laLd`fr ds ek/;e ls U;k;] fof/k ds “kklu ,oa ekuoh; vf/kdkj vkSj ekSfyd Lora=rkvksa ds izfr lEeku O;Dr djukA bldh fuEu laLFkk,¡ gSa %& 1½ lkekU; lHkk 2½ dk;Zdkjh ifj’kn~ 3½ lfpoky; blds lnL; ns”kksa dh la[;k 196 gSaA bldk izeq[k dk;Z lnL; ns”kksa ds lkFk “kSf{kd] oSKkfud o lkaLd`frd dk;ZØeksa ds fodkl esa lg;ksx djuk gSA 2-½ varjkZ’Vªh; eqnzk dks’k %& varjkZ’Vªh; eqnzk dks’k dh LFkkiuk 27 fnlEcj] 1945 dks gqbZ FkhA bldk eq[;ky; okf”kaxVu Mh-lh ¼vesfjdk½ esa fLFkr gSA blds eq[; mn~ns”;& Û cgqi{kh; Hkqxrkukssa dh O;oLFkk ls fofue; izfrca/kkas dks lekIr ;k de djukA Û varjkZ’Vªh; Lrj ij ekSfnzd lg;ksx dh LFkkiuk djukA Û varjkZ’Vªh; Lrj ij O;kikj esa larqyu cuk, j[kukA Û fofue; njksa esa fLFkjrk cuk, j[kukA Û Hkqqxrku vlarqyu dh ek=k o vof/k esa deh djukA blds lnL; ns”kksa dh la[;k 188 gSaA blds fofue; dh eqnzk ,lMhvkj gSaA 3½ varjkZ’Vªh; Je laxBu %& varjkZ’Vªh; Je laxBu dh LFkkiuk lu~ 1919 dks gqbZ FkhA bldk mn~ns”; Jfed oxksZa dks lHkh rjg ds lkekftd ,oa vkfFkZd “kks’k.k ls cpkuk gSA blds lnL; ns”kksa dh la[;k 183 gSaA bldk eq[;ky; tsusok ¼fLoV~tjyS.M½ esa fLFkr gSA bldh fuEu rhu “kk[kk,¡ gSa %& 1½ varjkZ’Vªh; Je dk;kZy; 2½ lapkyd e.My 3½ varjkZ’Vªh; Je lEesyu 4-½ [kk| o Ñf’k laxBu %& bldh LFkkiuk 16 vDVwcj] 1945 dks gqbZ FkhA bldk mn~ns”; thou o iks’k.k ds Lrj dks c<+kuk gSA bldk eq[;ky; jkse ¼bVyh½ esa fLFkr gSA blds lnL; ns”kksa dh la[;k 192 gSaA blds izeq[k dk;Z fuEu gSa %& 1½ fofHkUu ns”kksa ds ^Hkwfe vkSj ty lalk/ku fodkl^ esa lg;ksx djukA 2½ [kk| o Ñf’k laca/kh lwpuk ,d= djuk] mudk izlkj ,oa fo”ys’k.k djukA bldh izeq[k laLFkk ^fo”o [kk| ifj’kn~^ gSA

Computer Education dEI;wVj ds izdkj 1- dke ds vuqlkj Û fo'ks"k dEI;wVj Û lkekU; dEI;wVj 2- MsVk gsUMfyax ds vuqlkj Û ,ukykWx dEI;wVj Û fMftVy dEI;wVj Û gk;fczM dEI;wVj 3- vkdkj o izn'kZu ds vuqlkj Û ekbØks dEI;wVj Û feuh dEI;wVj Û esuÝse dEI;wVj Û lqij dEI;wVj 1- ,ukykWx dEI;wVj %& ;s ,ukykWx rduhd HkkSfrd fØ;kvksa dk izk:i cukdj ml fØ;k dks yxkrkj tkjh j[kus ds fy,] funsZ'k nsus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Û HkkSfrd fØ;kvksa dks xf.krh; lehdj.k esa cnyrk gSA Û blesa ,EiyhQk;j ckWDl mi;ksx gksrk gSA Û bl dEI;wVj esa iw.kZr% 'kq) ifj.kke ugha feyrs gSaA 2- fMftVy dEI;wVj Û fMftVy i)fr mi;ksx esa vkrh gSaA Û fMftVy dEI;wVj esa dsoy nks vad 0 vkSj 1 gksrk gSA bUgs ckbujh la[;k dgrs gSA Û ;s 8 Bit ds :i esa MsVk j[krs gaSA 3- gk;fczM dEI;wVj Û blesa nksuks ,ukykWx o fMftVy ds xq.k mi;ksx esa vkrs gSaA Û blesa Modulator Demodulator mi;ksx esa vkrs gaSA Û ,ukykWx ladsrksa dks fMftVy o fMftVy ladsrksa dks ,ukykWx esa ifjofrZr djrs gaSA 4- ekbØks dEI;wVj Û bls nks dkj.kks ls ekbØks dEI;wVj dgk tkrk gSA 1 blesa ekbØksizkslslj gksrk gSA 2 bldk vkdkj NksVk gksrk gSA Û bl ij ,d le; ij ,d vkneh gh dke dj ldrk gSA Û mnkgj.k %& ilZuy gkse dEI;wVj] ,T;qds'ku ekbØks dEI;wVj] ilZuy dEI;wVj] ysiVkWi dEI;wVj 5- feuh dEI;wVj Û ;g lu~ 1959 esa cukA Û ;s NksVh vyekjh ds cjkcj gksrs Fks bl dkj.k bUgsa feuh dEI;wVj dgrs gSA Û blesa fotqvy fMLIys ;wfuV vkSj ,d dh&cksMZ ds lkFk Vsi Mªkbo o ykbu fizaVj gksrk FkkA Û bldk izeq[k dEI;wVj P.D.P. 11 gSA Û ;s ekbØksdEI;wVj ls 5 ls 50 xquk rsth ls dke djrs gSaA Û bl dEI;wVj esa usVofdZax djds yxHkx vkB VfeZuy tksM+s tk ldrs gaSA Û ;s dEI;wVj 8 ekbØks dEI;wVj ds rqY; gSA Øe'k% vxys vad esa ---

7


Þthrus okys vyx phtsa ugha djrs] oks phtksa dks vyx rjg ls djrs gSaAÞ

&f”ko [ksM+k

English Question

1 . ) ye s/n o q u e sti on : with helping verb Is the train late? (answer can be : yes or no) Isn’t the train late? (expect the answer : yes, but may be no) with question tag the train is late, isn’t it? (yes) the train isn’t late, is it? (no) 2 . ) WH q u e sti on : WH question can be begin with 1 . Interrogative pronouns : who, whose, whom, what, which 2. Interrogative adjectives : what color, which child, whose turn. 3. Interrogative adverbs : when, where, why, how, how long, how far, how often, how soon

rdZ 'kfDr lkn`';rk igyh vkÑfr ls nwljh vkÑfr esa ifjorZu ns[kdj] rhljh vkÑfr ds fy, pkSFkh vkÑfr [kkstuh gksrh gSA

1 .)

2.)

who, whose, whom apply only to persons. ¼dsoy O;fDr;ksa ds fy, mi;ksx gksrs gSSaA½

Who has taken my pen ? Ram has taken my pen. Whose is this book ? It is ram’s book. Whom do you want to meet ? I want to meet Anuj.

3.)

What can be used for persons as well as things. ¼O;fDr;ksa o oLrqvksa nksuks ds mi;ksx gksrk gSA½

What is in your pocket ? My hand kerchief. (a thing) What is he ? He is a teacher. (a person)

4.)

Which applies both to persons and thing .

Which is used when we have to select some person or thing from a given group. ¼Which dk mi;ksx fdlh leqg esa ls dqN O;fDr;ksa o oLrqvksa dks p;u djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA½

Which of you is the captin? Which of these books have you written? Who dkSu

Whom

fdlls@fdldks Which fdldk Which child fdldk cPpk When dc Why D;ksa How long fdrus le; ls

Whose fdldk@fdldh What D;k What color dkSulk jax Whose turn fdldh ckjh Where dgk¡ How dSls

5.)

6.)

Answer of SSC CGL Exam Model Paper 1 .) b, 2.) a, 3.) c, 4.) a, 5.) d, 6.) a, 7.) c, 8.) c, 9.) b, 1 0.) d, 11 .) a, 1 2.) d, 1 3.) d, 1 4.) a, 1 5.) b, 1 6.) b, 1 7.) d, 1 8.) a, 1 9.) a, 20.) c, 21 .) c, 22.) b, 23.) c, 24.) d, 25.) b, 26.) d, 27.) d, 28.) b, 29.) b, 30.) d, 31 .) d, 32.) d, 33.) b, 34.) a, 35.) c, 36.) a, 37.) c, 38.) a, 39.) a, 40.) c

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Answers: 1 .) d, 2.) c, 3.) d, 4.) c, 5.) b, 6.) d 8


Shiksha Sutra - Issue 3