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美國文學 作品年表

Washington Irving 華盛頓.歐文

1819 美

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow 《沉睡谷傳奇》

1843

Edgar Allen Poe

艾倫坡

1851

《黑貓》

The Black Cat 美

Harriet Beecher Stowe 斯托夫人

1865

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

《黑奴籲天錄》

1872 美

Mark Twain 馬克.吐溫

The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County 《卡城名蛙》

1882 美

1884 美

Jack London 傑克.倫敦

1904 美

Roughing It 《苦行記》

The Prince and the Pauper 《乞丐王子》

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 《頑童歷險記》

The Sea Wolf 《海狼》

1910 美

1922 F. Scott Fitzgerald 史考特.費茲傑羅

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

Abbie Farwell Brown 艾比.佛維爾.布朗

The Christmas Angel 《聖誕天使》

《班傑明的奇幻旅程》

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歐洲文學 作品年表 1599 英

William Shakespeare 威廉.莎士比亞

Henry V

Jonathan Swift 喬納森.斯威夫特

1726

《亨利五世》

Gulliver’s Travels 《格列佛遊記》

1764

Horace Walpole

霍勒斯.渥波爾

1861

《奧托蘭多城堡》

The Castle of Otranto

George Eliot

喬治.艾略特

Silas Marner

1849

《織工馬南傳》

Charles Dickens 查爾斯.狄更斯

David Copperfield

1884

《塊肉餘生錄》

Guy de Maupassant 居伊.德.莫泊桑

The Diamond Necklace 《項鍊》

1885

Henry Rider Haggard

亨利.萊特.哈葛德

King Solomon’s Mines

1886

《所羅門王的寶藏》

Robert Louis Stevenson

1892

羅伯特.路易斯.史蒂芬森

Kidnapped 《綁架》

1894 英

1897 Rudyard Kipling 魯德亞德.吉卜林

Rikki-Tikki-Tavi 《貓鼬》

Captains Courageous 《怒海餘生》

The Adventure of the Speckled Band 《花斑帶探案》

The Hound of the Baskervilles 福爾摩斯探案:《巴斯克維爾的獵犬》

The Lost World

1902

《失落的世界》

1912 英

1912 愛

10

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 亞瑟.柯南.道爾

George Bernard Shaw 蕭伯納

Pygmalion 《賣花女》


Unit 1

Henry V 《亨利五世》 —Synopsis by Tracy Schier

英國大文豪威廉.莎士比亞(William Shakespeare, 1564–1616)堪稱是世界上最重要的作家之一,他留下 無數膾炙人口的劇作與詩集。莎翁的戲劇創作可分為歷史 劇(history play) 、喜劇(comedy) 、悲劇(tragedy)以 及傳奇劇(tragicomedy,又稱「悲喜劇」),其筆下的人 物刻劃細膩,而且劇情錯綜複雜,可說是英國文藝復興時 期的巔峰代表。直至今日,他的作品仍有眾多學者深入研 討,並經常改編成不同形式於各地上演。 《亨利五世》為莎士比亞的編年史歷史劇四部曲的 最後一部(前三部為《理查二世》、《亨利四世第一部》、 《亨利四世第二部》),充分表現莎翁所處之伊利莎白時 代英國人的愛國精神。劇中英格蘭國王亨利五世(1387– 1422)被塑造成一名智勇雙全、精明幹練的領導者,與 他在《亨利四世》中玩世不恭的紈褲子弟形象相去甚遠。 劇中亨利五世致力於征服法國,在阿金庫爾戰役( The Battle of Agincourt )中,以其著名的聖克里斯本演說 (St. Crispin’s Day Speech)帶領英軍逆轉局勢、大敗法 國,為英國戰爭史寫下光榮的一頁。

插畫 / 郭璧如

11


Day 1 課文朗讀 正常 CD/MP3 Track 1

慢速 MP3 Track 73

To understand the title character of Shakespeare’s history play, Henry V, it is

5

20

members of the Church of England, the

best to look at the plays that come before

Archbishopu of Canterbury and the Bishop

it: Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2. In

of Ely, are discussing legal matters. They are

those works, the prince who will inherit

concerned that a pending5 bill6 will take

the throne1 of England is an immature2

a lot of property away from the Church.

wastrel. However, the prince matures until u

10

As Henry V begins, two high-ranking

25

To counter7 this, the two church officials

he is seen in the final act of Henry IV, Part

suggest Henry support a certain law so

3

2, looking at himself and saying “Presume

he can take control of French wealth.

not that I am the thing I was . . . I have

In addition, they tell Henry that he also has

turn’d away my former self.”

a legitimate8 claim to the French crown. 翻譯請見第 18 頁

The young Henry has grown up.

15

He has just taken over the throne after

high-ranking (職務)高階的(文中第 19 行)

the death of his father and is facing

為「形容詞 + 現在分詞」構成的複合形容詞。high 亦可搭配

challenges inherentu to his kingship.u He has put aside the childish behavior of his

high + 現在 / 過去分詞

youth and also outgrown his shallow,

high-class 高檔的;高級的 high-flying 高飛的 high-definition 高解析度的 high-powered 馬力大的 high-pressure 高壓的

4

idle friends. 文中第 10 行的 . . . I have turn’d away my former self 中 的 turn’d 等於 turned,turn’d 是莎士比亞原來的寫法。

12

過去分詞或名詞構成複合形容詞,兩個字之間須用連字號連接︰

high + 名詞


Vocabulary

u

Q 表示大考出現過的字彙

1. throne [qron] n.

王位;寶座

Language Spotlight

不成熟的;發育未全的 (字首 im- 表「不;無;非」之意) 反 mature [m4`t]8r] adj. 成熟的 v. 變成熟 補 premature [~prim4`t]8r] adj. 過早的;早產的

1. take over

接掌(控制權或職務等) • The United Kingdom took over Hong Kong in the second half of the 19th century.

Nadia’s boyfriend is quite immature, and I don’t understand why she’s going out with him.

3. presume [pr6`zum] v.

英國在十九世紀下半葉接管了香港。

片語動詞 take over 也可直接組合成複合名詞 takeover,其他例子包括:

假定;推測

Since it is 2:00 p.m., I presume you’ve already had lunch. 無所事事的;閒置的

My idle younger brother just lies on the sofa all day, reading comic books.

5. pending [`p5nd6;] adj. Q 6.

片語動詞

複合名詞

字義

break up shut down take out

breakup

分手

shutdown

停工

takeout

外帶

2. put aside

懸而未決的;迫近的

將……撇開;把……擱置一邊

The decision to pass the new tax law is still pending.

put aside 在文中指試圖將問題、紛爭等拋開,以達成

bill [b6l] n.

某種目標,即「把……擱置一旁」的意思。

法案

• Let’s just put our differences aside and start working on the project.

The bill is being considered right now by the government, and it may soon become a law.

7. counter [`ka8nt0] v.

就讓我們拋開歧見開始進行這件案子吧。

對抗;反駁

put aside 還表示「將……存起來以便使用」之意,

The rock band spoke to the press to counter rumors that it was breaking up.

Q 8.

bishop [`b6]4p] n. (英國國教及天主教的)主教

(文中第 21 行)

2. immature [~6m4`t]8r] adj.

idle [`a6dy] adj.

大主教(字首 arch- 表

「主要的;首」之意)

Queen Elizabeth II has been on the British throne for more than half a century.

Q 4.

archbishop [~3rt] `b6]4p] n.

legitimate [l6`d.6t4m4t] adj. 反

例如:

合法的 非法的

illegitimate [~6l6`d.6t4m4t] adj.

抽出時間(以做…… )

動手寫寫看

u

wastrel [`westr4l] n.

u

inherent [6n`h6r4nt] adj.

u

kingship [`k6;~]6p] n.

浪蕩子;揮霍者

王權;君主身分

grow 成長

law

超出

法律

out

number

超出

數量

out-

答案請見第 18 頁

D Sheila 太睏了而無法繼續開車,因此她請老公接手駕駛。 Sheila was too sleepy to continue driving, so she asked her husband to ________ ________ the wheel.

固有的;內在的

字 首

out

put + 時間 + aside

我喜歡每個週末留幾個小時來照顧我的花園。

參考字彙

超過

存錢(以買…… )

• I like to put a few hours aside every weekend to take care of my garden.

Sally is not the legitimate owner of this house because the ownership documents are not in her name.

out

put + 金錢 + aside

字首 out- 有「超過;過度」之意。

outgrow [ ~a8t`gro] v.

長大而不再……;長得比……快(大、高) (文中 17 行 outgrown 為過去分詞)

outlaw [ `a8t~l7] v.

宣布……為不合法

outnumber [ ~a8t`n9mb0] v.

數量上超過……;比……多(第 16 頁第 17 行)

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documents11 that prove their guilt, and they all begin to beg for mercy. Henry gives a bitter speech and forgives them for their crimes personally. Nevertheless, 20

they are all sentenced to death for treason.12 Meanwhile, the French king is worried about an attack, as his advisers warn him that Henry might turn out to

25

be a dangerous enemy. The dauphin dismisses 13 this talk, saying that Henry is a foolish man who will easily be defeated.14 Then the English ambassador enters and asks the king to surrender15

30

his crown to the rightfulu heir,16 Henry. The ambassador also informs the French king that Henry was not happy about the dauphin’s insulting gift.

Day 2 課文朗讀 正常 CD/MP3 Track 2

翻譯請見第 18 頁

慢速 MP3 Track 74

Henry calls in the French ambassadors. They have been sent by the dauphin, u the king’s son, rather than by the King of France. They tell Henry that the dauphin 5

believes Henry is still the playful young man he once was, and they give Henry an insulting9 gift—a barrel of tennis balls. Henry sends the ambassadors back to France with the message that he plans to

10

fight for the French crown. England then comes to life as it prepares for war with France. Henry learns that three English noblemen u have been paid by France to kill him.

15

14

Henry confronts10 the conspiratorsu with


Vocabulary Q 9.

Q 表示大考出現過的字彙

2. beg/cry/plead for mercy

throw oneself at/on sb’s mercy

insult [6n`s9lt] v., n.

侮辱;羞辱(作名詞時唸作 [`6n~s9lt],文中 insulting 為現在分詞作形容詞用, 指「羞辱人的;無禮或冒犯的」)

動詞 beg、cry、plead 皆表示「請求;乞求」。 mercy [`m-si] 為名詞,表「慈悲;寬容」,第 16 頁 13 行的 merciful [`m-s6f4l] 為形容詞,意為「仁慈 的;慈悲的」。

I didn’t want to insult Tanya, so I lied and told her that her new furniture looked great.

• The crying mother knelt down before the soldiers and begged them for mercy.

10. confront [k4n`fr9nt] v.

質問某人(用法為 confront sb with/about sth);面對(挑戰、困難等) 補 confrontation [~k3nfr9n`te]4n] n. 對質;面對

If you think your boss is giving you too much work, then why don’t you confront him about it?

Q 11.

document [`d3kj4m4nt] n.

那位哭泣的母親跪在士兵面前,請求他們開恩。

3. sentence sb to sth

將某人判……刑 sentence 在此作動詞用,表示「宣判 ; 判決」,亦

可作名詞用。其用法如下 :

文件;公文

I showed my friend Larry the documents that had been sent to me by a lawyer.

12. treason [`trizx] n.

謀反罪;叛國罪

The spy, who had been selling government secrets to enemy countries, was convicted of treason.

Q 13.

dismiss [d6s`m6s] v.

Q 14.

defeat [d6`fit] v., n.

無期徒刑

sentence sb to life、life sentence

十年徒刑

sentence sb to 10 years、 a 10-year sentence

Sentence Patterns

Henry confronts the conspirators with documents that prove their guilt . . .

The coach jumped for joy when his players defeated the visiting team. 把……讓與;(使)投降

請見課文第 15 行

The police told the bank robber to surrender his weapon, otherwise they would shoot him.

16. heir [5r] n.

sentence sb to death、death sentence

經過漫長的審判,陪審團認為那名男子謀殺罪成立,並且 判處他死刑。

戰勝;擊敗

15. surrender [s4`r5nd0] v.

判處死刑

• After a long trial, the jury found the man guilty of murder and sentenced him to death.

不予考慮;摒除

Many people dismissed Stan’s business plan as a stupid idea, but little did they know that in a few years, it would become a huge success.

prove + N. prove + that + S. + V. prove sb/sth (to be) + adj. 證明……

繼承人

You couldn’t tell from the simple way he dresses, but Marty is actually the heir of a Russian billionaire. 參考字彙 u

dauphin [`d7f4n] n.

u

nobleman [`nob4lm4n] n.

u

conspirator [k4n`sp6r4t0] n.

u

rightful [`ra6tf4l] adj.

王儲;太子

prove 可作及物動詞,表示「證實;證明」,後面接名 詞或名詞子句,本句和第 16 頁第 30 行的 Henry V proves his worthiness as a king 皆為此用法。 • You’ll have to work very hard to prove that you can handle this job. 你得努力工作,以證明你有能力勝任這份工作。

貴族(複數為 noblemen)

prove 亦可作不及物動詞用,用法為 prove (to be) +N./adj.,表示「證實為;(結果)成為」。

陰謀者

合法的;正當的

• The lab experiment proved to be a success, and the scientists found a cure for the disease. 實驗室實驗證實是成功的,科學家們找到了治療該疾病的 藥方。

Language Spotlight

1. rather than 而非…… rather than 在文中作對等連接詞,前後接詞性相 同的字詞,連接兩個不定詞時後面的 to 通常省略。 • Ruben decided to stop betting rather than risk losing all the money he had won. 魯班決定停止下注,而非冒險輸掉他已經贏到的錢。

請求開恩

動手寫寫看

答案請見第 18 頁

D 我知道 Brian 偷了我的錢,但我無法證明是他做的。

____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

15


Day 3 課文朗讀 正常 CD/MP3 Track 3

慢速 MP3 Track 75

Henry’s forces arrive in France, and

5

25

The French army was larger and better

he gives a famous speech to his troops. It

equipped, 20 but the English army had

shows that he knows his men well, and he

the heroic21 Henry leading it. The English

asks them to be brave for their country.

end up inflicting22 on the French one of

“Follow your spirit, and upon this chargeu

the most stunning defeats in the history

cry, ‘God for Harry! England and Saint

17

George!’”

30

of warfare.23 With this victory, Henry V proves his worthinessu as a king. 2 翻譯請見第 18 頁

The English army arrives at the town 10

of Harfleur and begins to fight the French

Discussion Starter

soldiers. As the battle is being won by the

What characteristics should a good king have? Do you think Henry V was a good king?

English, the governor of the town surrenders to Henry. This is Henry’s first victory, and the

參考答案請見 p. 18

king promises to be merciful in order to win the hearts of the townspeople. 15

More battles follow, ending with the famous Battle of Agincourt. Henry’s forces are dramatically18 outnumbered, and he is worried because many of his men are sick. He rouses his troops with an inspiring

20

speech that happens on the day of the Feast of St. Crispin. Referring to his soldiers, Henry says, “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers; for he today that sheds19 his blood with me shall be my brother.”

16

The Feast of St. Crispin 聖克里斯本節 為每年的十月二十五日,是基督教的節日( feast [ fist ] 指 「宗教節日」)。該節日是紀念基督教的殉道者 Crispin 及 Crispian 兩兄弟,他們是生於西元三世紀的羅馬貴族,因 其基督教信仰而受羅馬皇帝的迫害,逃至現今法國的蘇瓦松 ( Soissons),他們白天向高盧人傳教,晚上則以補鞋為生, 因此他們也是鞋匠的守護者。後來兩兄弟遭到逮捕,並被斬首 處決。阿金庫爾戰役剛好發生在這一天,英王亨利五世在當天 對英軍發表的演說又稱為 St. Crispin’s Day Speech。


Q 23.

Reading Comprehension 1. According to the passage, how has Henry changed in Henry V, compared to his character in Shakespeare’s previous plays? (A) He has become more wasteful. (B) He has made new friends. (C) He has become more mature. (D) He has become more religious. 2. Which is a true statement about a character or characters in the play? (A) The King of France’s advisors think Henry might be a dangerous enemy. (B) The son of the King of France thinks Henry is a good tennis player. (C) Three French noblemen wanted to kill Henry. (D) Henry was very pleased by the dauphin’s gift. 3. What do we know about the Battle of Agincourt? (A) St. Crispin held a feast to celebrate its victory. (B) The English army was greatly outnumbered. (C) The French townspeople chose to fight for the English. (D) The French army easily won it. 答案請見第 18 頁

Vocabulary

Q 表示大考出現過的字彙

17. saint [sent] n.

聖徒;極善良、有耐心的人(後接人 名時常縮寫為 St.)

Rita is a saint for putting up with her husband’s unclean habits.

Q 18.

dramatically [dr4`m1t6kli] adv.

急劇地;引人

warfare [`w7r~f5r] n. 戰爭(事);交戰狀態 To be a good chess player, it helps to understand the strategies of warfare.

參考字彙

Q

u

charge [t]3rd.] n.

u

worthiness [`w-\in4s] n.

命令;指示 值得尊重;有價值

Language Spotlight

refer to

指涉;提及

動詞 refer [r6`f-] 有「提到;涉及」之意。

• In this university, graduate students are allowed to refer to their professors by their first names. 在這所大學裡,研究生直呼教授名諱是被允許的。

refer to A as B 將 A 稱作 B;指 A 為 B • Jeremy refers to his new sports car as his baby. 傑瑞米將他的新跑車稱作他的寶貝。

動手寫寫看

答案請見第 18 頁

D 雖然你已經向我描述她的長相,但我仍不知道你講的是誰。

You’ve already described to me the way she looks, but I still have no idea who _____ _____ _________ ____.

Sentence Patterns

The English end up inflicting on the French one of the most stunning defeats in the history of warfare.

請見課文第 27 行

注目地

end up + V-ing/adj./N./介系詞片語

Tom looks dramatically better now that he has quit smoking.

19. shed [ ]5d] v.

流下;流出(動詞三態同形)

It’s odd that Kathy didn’t shed a tear during her brother’s funeral.

Q 20.

equip [6`kw6p] v. 配備;使具有能力或資格(文中 equipped 為過去分詞作形容詞用) I will equip you with all the necessary tools to start the building project.

21. heroic [h6`ro6k] adj.

英勇的;英雄(式)的

The heroic acts of the firefighters were repeatedly shown on the evening news.

22. inflict [6n`fl6kt] v.

給予(打擊、損傷等);強加

The flood inflicted massive damage on the country’s weak economy.

結果竟……;最終……

此片語表「結果竟…… 」 ,通常指達到先前未料到的結果。

• If you join that street gang, you’ll end up dead. 如果你加入街頭幫派,你最終會丟掉性命的。

end with sth 以某事作結束 end up with + N. 得到……的結果 end with 接名詞表示「以某事結束」,文中第 15 行的 ending with the famous Battle . . . 即為此用法。end up with + N. 指「得到……結果」,強調「結果如何」。 • Mark ended up with the first prize in the singing contest. 馬克在歌唱比賽中最後得到第一名。 片語

inflict sth on/upon sb/sth

用法 受詞較長時可移至後面,文中的受詞 one

warfare 為 inflict 的受詞。

of the . . .

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中文翻譯及課後練習解答

Translation & Answer Key

Henry V 《亨利五世》 Day 1 想了解莎士比亞歷史劇《亨利五世》中這位作為劇作名稱 的人物,最好先回顧先前的作品《亨利四世第一部》與《亨 利四世第二部》。在這些作品中,這位即將繼承王位的英格 蘭王子是個不成熟的浪蕩子。然而,到了《亨利四世第二 部》的最後一幕,王子展現出成熟的樣子,他看著自己並說 道:「別以為我仍是老樣子……我已捨棄昔日的我。」 年輕的亨利已經長大。他在父親過世後剛剛即位,而且正 面臨身為王者必有的種種挑戰。他已拋開了年輕時的幼稚行 為,也不再與那些膚淺、整天無所事事的朋友們廝混。 《亨利五世》故事一開始,兩名英國教會的高層,即坎特 伯里大主教和伊里主教,正在商議法律問題。他們擔心一個 懸而未決的法案將會奪走教會許多資產。為了因應此事,兩 位神職人員建議亨利支持某項法律,這樣他就能掌控法國的 財庫。此外,他們還告訴亨利說他也是法國王位的合法繼承 者。 動手寫寫看解答

take over

Day 2 亨利召見法國使節。他們是由國王的兒子王儲,而非由 法國國王所派遣。使節告訴亨利,王儲認為亨利仍是以往 的紈褲子弟,並送給亨利一份羞辱的禮物:一桶網球。亨 利將使節遣回法國,並要他們傳遞他打算奪回法國王位的 口信。 英格蘭在準備對法戰爭之際變得活躍起來。亨利得知三 名英國貴族被法國收買要謀害他。亨利持證明他們罪行的 文件質問謀反者,於是他們全都開始向亨利求饒。亨利義 正詞嚴地訓斥他們一番後,表示個人已原諒他們的罪行。 但是他們仍因意圖謀反而被判死刑。 在此同時,法國國王正為英格蘭進攻一事憂心忡忡,因 為其顧問大臣提醒他亨利可能會是個難纏的敵人。王儲駁 斥此種言論,並表示亨利是個不堪一擊的愚人。接著英國 大使進宮要求法國國王讓位給合法的繼位者亨利。大使也 告知法國國王,亨利對於王儲那帶有羞辱意味的禮物甚感 不悅。 動手寫寫看解答

I know Brian stole my money, but I can’t prove that he did it.

18

Day 3 亨利的軍隊抵達法國,他對士兵們發表了一場著名的 演說。演說內容顯示他相當暸解他的部屬,並要求他們為 國家勇敢奮戰。 「跟隨你的心,一聲令下後大喊:『天佑亨 利!天佑英格蘭和聖喬治!』」 (編按: Harry 是 Henry 的暱稱,King Henry 以此自稱,表示他也融入軍隊中為 其中的一員。聖喬治原為羅馬騎兵軍官,因教殉職,公元 五世紀封聖。之後聖喬治便成為英格蘭的守護聖徒。) 英軍抵達哈福勒爾鎮,開始攻打法軍。在戰事逐漸由英 軍攻克時,哈福勒爾鎮的鎮長向亨利投降。這是亨利的第 一場勝戰,而他也答應以仁相待,以贏得鎮民的心。 隨後又發生多場戰役,最後一場是著名的阿金庫爾戰 役。亨利的軍隊寡不敵眾,他也因許多士兵病倒而憂心。 他在聖克里斯本節那天發表了一席激勵人心的演說而鼓舞 了士氣。提到他的士兵,亨利是這麼說的:「我們這少數 人,幸運的少數人,我們這群緊緊相依的弟兄;今日與我 淌下鮮血者,便與我情同手足。」 儘管法軍勢力龐大而且裝備更精良,但英軍有英勇的亨 利領軍。結果英國給了法國戰爭史上最震撼的一擊。由於 這場勝利,亨利五世證明了自己足以勝任一國之君。

Discussion Starter 參考答案 A good king needs to be courageous and decisive since he must earn the respect of his own people and of other countries. Therefore, I do think that Henry V was a good king. He was not afraid to go to war, and his courage inspired his soldiers to continue fighting for victory.

Reading Comprehension 解答 1. C

2. A

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you are referring to

Note

3. B


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