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Avgvi evsjv eB †kªwY:cÂg

†bvU


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Avgv‡`i GB †`k  k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB KjKvKwj  gayi aŸwb, cvwLi WvK| Rv`yNi

 †hLv‡b cyi‡bv w`‡bi Avðh© wRwbmcÎ cÖ`k©‡bi Rb¨ msiÿY Kiv nq|

Rbc`

 †jvKvjq|

w`MšÍ

 w`‡Ki †kl|

RvM

 Lo cvZv w`‡q cvwb‡Z Pvcv †`Iqv|

†kŠwLb

 wejvmx|

k¨vgwjgv  k¨vg, meyRvf is we‡kl| Nivwg

 L‡oi Ni wbg©vZv|

RvwZmËv  RvwZiƒc ev RvwZi cwiPq| ms¯‹…wZ

 K…wó|

ˆZRmcÎ  evmb-†Kvmb| Kzjw½

 gvwUi N‡ii †`qv‡ji †QvU †Lvc|

DcPvi

 Dcv`vb|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ evsjv‡`‡ki kn‡ii GKwU eY©bv wjL| DËi: f~wgKv: cÖK…wZi iƒcmx Kb¨v Avgv‡`i wcÖq gvZ…f~wg GB evsjv‡`k| XvKv evsjv‡`‡ki ivRavbx| GwU GKwU wekvj kni| Avgv‡`i GB †`k kxl©K iPbvq GB †`‡ki kni mg~‡ni g‡bvÁ eY©bv †`qv n‡q‡Q| Ae¯’vbMZ I evwYwR¨K ¸iæZ¡ we‡ePbvq kni¸‡jvi g‡a¨ e¨vcK cv_©K¨ cwijwÿZ nq| Z‡e MVbMZ I mvaviY Dcv`vbMZ wewfbœ mvgÄm¨ kni¸‡jvi g‡a¨ †`Lv hvq| kn‡ii eY©bv: †QvU-eo A‡bK kni i‡q‡Q G‡`‡k| Gme kn‡ii DuPz DuPz BgviZ¸‡jv BU, KvV Avi cv_i w`‡q ˆZwi| GLvbKvi cÖk¯Í iv¯Ív¸‡jv wcP Avi wm‡g‡›U Mov| Gme iv¯Ívq P‡j evm, UªvK, wiKkv, A‡UvwiKkv, mvB‡Kj BZ¨vw` hvbevnb| iv¯Ívi cv‡k dzUcv_ a‡i c_Pvix †nu‡U hvq| Kg©gyLi GB kn‡ii Kg©Rxex gvby‡liv bvbvb Kv‡R e¨¯Í _v‡K| †KD Awdm-Av`vj‡Z KvR K‡i, †KD K‡i e¨emv-evwYR¨| Kj- KviLvbvq KvR K‡i kªwgKiv| bvbv †ckvi gvbyl RxweKvi ZvwM‡` kn‡i G‡m wfo K‡i| Kv‡Ri duv‡K duv‡K †eov‡bvi Rb¨ kn‡i i‡q‡Q cvK© I D`¨vb| Aemi mg‡q kn‡ii †jvKRb MvQcvjv I dz‡j dz‡j mvRv‡bv cv‡K© †eov‡Z hvq| QywUi w`‡b †KD †KD hvq Rv`yN‡i, †KDev hvq c„ôv-1

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

wPwoqvLvbvq| wPwoqvLvbvq i‡q‡Q c„w_exi bvbv †`‡ki wewPÎ me RxeRš‘| †Ljva~jvi Rb¨ kn‡i †÷wWqvg _v‡K, _v‡K bvbv ai‡bi µxov msMVb, K¬ve Ges †ajvayjv I kixi PP©vi bvbv DcKiY I cwi‡ek| wkÿvi Rb¨ kn‡i Av‡Q DbœZ gv‡bi wkÿv cÖwZôvb, wPwKrmvi Rb¨ Av‡Q AvaywbK nvmcvZvj I wK¬wbK| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, kn‡ii gvbyl¸‡jv LyeB e¨¯Í| Gi cwi‡ek †Kvjvnjgq| kn‡ii DbœwZi mv‡_ hvwš¿K mf¨Zvi weKvk N‡U Ges RxebhvÎvi gvbI e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K| G‡Ki `yt†L Ac‡ii mnvbyf~wZi cÖKvk GLv‡b LyeB Kg| cÖk:œ b`xi m‡½ G‡`‡ki gvby‡li Mfxi wgZvwj- G K_vwUi A_© Kx? DËi: b`x-gvZ…K †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki i‡q‡Q `ywbqv‡Rvov L¨vwZ| kix‡ii wkiv-Dcwkivi g‡Zv G‡`‡ki ey‡Ki Ici w`‡q cÖevwnZ n‡”Q ARmª b`x| Dw³wUi we‡kølY: b`xi mv‡_ G‡`‡ki gvby‡li Mfxi eÜzZ,¡ fve I GKvZ¥Zvi K_v G ev‡K¨ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| b`-b`xi cwj Øviv MwVZ G cÖvPxb Rbc‡`i mvnmx gvby‡li Kv‡Q cÙv, †gNbv, hgybv, eªþcyÎ GK GKwU wcÖq bvg| GQvov wZ¯Ív, Ki‡Zvqv, BQvgwZ, gnvb›`v, a‡jk¦ix, Kb©dzjx BZ¨vw` wgwó bv‡gi AviI KZ bv b`x| b`x¸‡jvi Zx‡i Zx‡i Zviv Ni euv‡a| †bŠKv †evSvB cY¨ wb‡q Zviv Qy‡U P‡j GK¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨¯’v‡b| †bŠKvq cvj Zz‡j w`‡q g‡bi my‡L Mvb a‡i| K…wlKv‡R e¨envi K‡i b`b`xi cvwb| gvZ…‡øn w`‡q b`x †hgb jvjb K‡i G‡`‡ki gvbyl‡K †Zgwb R¡‡j DV‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i mvnm I msMÖv‡g| ZvB‡Zv b`xi mv‡_ Zv‡`i GB A‡”Q`¨ eÜb, G Mfxi wgZvwj| Dcmsnvi: b`x-gvZ…K evsjv‡`‡k me©¯Í‡ii RbM‡Yi Rxe‡b b`x cÖZ¨ÿ wKsev c‡ivÿfv‡e wekvj Ae`vb ivL‡Q| A_©‰bwZK †hvMv‡hv‡M wKsev mvs¯‹…wZK me †ÿ‡ÎB b`xi Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©| b`x wb‡q iwPZ n‡”Q mvwnZ¨, KweZv I Mvb| b`x wew”Qbœ Rbc`‡K GK e„‡Ë Ave× K‡i‡Q| ZvB b`xi m‡½ Avgv‡`i Rxe‡bi m¤úK© AZ¨šÍ Mfxi| cÖk:œ Avgv‡`i gv‡Q-fv‡Z evOvwj ejv nq †Kb? DËi: b`x-gvZ…K evsjv‡`k myRjv, mydjv I km¨ k¨vgjv| G‡`‡k i‡q‡Q b`-b`x, Lvj-wej, nvIoevIo, †Wvev-bvjv I cyKzi| Gme Rjvk‡q cvIqv hvq cÖPzi gvQ| GLv‡b b`xi euv‡K euv‡K †R‡j‡`i MÖvg| †bŠKv Avi Rvj wb‡q Zviv mvivw`b gvQ a‡i †eovq| cÙv, †gNbvq aiv c‡o Suv‡K Suv‡K iƒcvwj Bwjk| mvM‡i cvIqv hvq iƒcPuv`v, †Kvivj, jvÿv, jBU¨v, Pzwi I dvBm¨v gvQ| b`x Avi Lvj-we‡j cvIqv hvq iæB, KvZjv, g„‡Mj, †fUwK, fvOb, wPZj, †evqvj, †kvj, ˆK, gv¸i, wks, cve`v, cuywUmn I AviI bvbv Rv‡Zi gvQ| Gme gvQ Avgv‡`i wcÖq Lvevi| gv‡Qi GB cÖvPzh© I mnRjf¨Zvi Rb¨ Avgiv gvQ‡K Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡Z cvwi| Avgv‡`i cÖwZw`bKvi Lvev‡i †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv ai‡bi gvQ _v‡K|

c„ôv-2

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Dcmsnvi: AvengvbKvj a‡i gvQ Ges fvZ evOvwji Lv`¨| Ab¨ †h‡Kv‡bv LveviB Avgiv LvB bv †Kb, gvQ-fvZ bv n‡j Z…wß †g‡U bv| evOvwji nvRvi ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_ gvQ Avi fvZ †hb euvav| ZvB‡Zv Avgv‡`i‡K ejv nq Ògv‡Q, fv‡Z evOvwjÓ| cÖk:œ KLb bevbœ Drm‡e mevB †g‡Z I‡V? G‡`‡ki K‡qK cÖKvi av‡bi bvg wjL| DËi: evsjv‡`k K…wl cÖavb †`k| avb G‡`‡ki cÖavb K…wlRvZ dmj| bevbœ Drme: bevbœ Drme G‡`‡ki GKwU HwZn¨evnx mvgvwRK Drme| evsjv‡`‡k KvwZ©K I AMÖnvqY GB `yÕgvm wb‡q †ngšÍKvj| G mgq avb cv‡K| †mvbvwj av‡bi wgwó M‡Ü Pviw`K Av‡gvw`Z nq| mevi N‡i N‡i bZzb Pv‡ji wcVv LvIqvi ayg c‡o| G mgq bevbœ Drm‡e †g‡Z I‡V MÖv‡gi mevB| MÖv‡gi N‡i N‡i Avb‡›`i †XD Rv‡M| iv‡Zi †ejv MÖv‡g MÖv‡g e‡m Mv‡bi Avmi| K‡qK cÖKvi av‡bi bvg: G †`‡ki De©i gvwU‡Z bvbv ai‡bi avb d‡j| G‡`i bvg ïb‡ZI †ek fv‡jv jv‡M| †hgb- AÄbj²x, AvKvkgwY, cÿxivR, Kvkdzj, euvkdzj, evmgwZ, wewbœ, k•ÿgyLx, gvwbK‡kvfv, KvjwRiv, ev`kv‡fvM, KvUvwi‡fvM, evjvg, weiæB cÖf„wZ|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

meyR gv‡Vi eyK wP‡i Kx e‡m †M‡Q?  KivZ/ mvMi/ b`x DËi: b`x

(L)

MÖv‡gi evwoNi Kx w`‡q ˆZix?  BU w`‡q/ cv_i w`‡q/ euvk w`‡q DËi: euvk w`‡q

(M)

cvU‡K Kx ejv nq?  †mvbvjx Avuk/ iƒcvjx Avuk/ †Mvjvcx Avuk DËi: †mvbvjx Avuk

(N)

evsjv‡`‡ki †g‡qiv Aemi mg‡q Kx K‡i?  Mí K‡i/ SMov K‡i/ †kŠwLb wRwbm evbvq DËi: †kŠwLb wRwbm evbvq

(O)

KLb bevbœ Drme nq?  MÖx‡®§/ el©vq/ †ng‡šÍ DËi: †ng‡šÍ

c„ôv-3

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Avlvp iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKy‡ii Rb¥ 1861 wLªóv‡ãi 7B †g, 1268 evsjv m‡bi 25†k ˆekvL| KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi weL¨vZ VvKyi cwiev‡i wZwb Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| 1913 wLªóv‡ã Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g‡a¨ mvwn‡Z¨ wZwbB cÖg †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi cvb| wZwb wkï‡`i Rb¨I A‡bK wj‡L‡Qb| ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvwU Zuvi ÔÿwYKvÕ Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ, ÔwPÎvÕ, ÔKíbvÕ, ÔMxZvÄwjÕ iex›`ªbv‡_i weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš|’ Ôi³KiexÕ, ÔWvKNiÕ Zuvi weL¨vZ bvUK| ÔwkïÕ I Ôwkï †fvjvbv_Õ †QvU‡`i Rb¨ †jLv Zuvi KweZvi eB| iex›`ªbv_ 1941 wLªóv‡ãi 7B AvM÷, 1348 evsjv m‡bi 22†k kªveY g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib| bxj beN‡b Avlvp MM‡Y wZj VuvB Avi bvwn‡i I‡Mv AvR †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i| ev`‡ji aviv S‡i SiSi, AvD‡ki †LZ R‡j fifi, Kvwj-gvLv †g‡N Icv‡i Avuavi Nwb‡q‡Q †`L& Pvwn †i| I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i \ IB Wv‡K †kv‡bv †aby NbNb, aejx‡i Av‡bv †Mvnv‡j| GLwb Avuavi n‡e †ejvUzKz †cvnv‡j|

 KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB Avlvp fiv el©vi gvm| G mgq AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †X‡K hvq| mviv w`b Aweivg e„wó S‡i| av‡bi †LZ R‡j f‡i I‡V| c_ NvU c−vweZ nq AwekªvšÍ e„wó‡Z| Pvi w`‡K AÜKvi Nwb‡q Av‡m| G mgq evB‡i hvIqvi Dcvq _v‡K bv| K…lK mܨvi Av‡MB Zvi MvfxwU‡K Lyu‡R Av‡b, hviv evB‡i †M‡Q Zviv wd‡i Gj wK bv †LuvR Lei †bq| KviY, mܨvi Av‡MB b`x cvivcv‡ii †Lqv eÜ n‡q hv‡e| Kwe G mg‡q, GB wPicwiwPZ Nb‡Nvi el©vq mKj‡K evB‡i bv †h‡Z Aby‡iva Ki‡Qb|

 kãv_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi beN‡b

⎯ bZzb †g‡N| (Nb k‡ãi A_© Ô†gNÕ|) ⎯ Avlv‡pi beN‡b AvKvk †Q‡q Av‡Q|

MM‡b

⎯ AvKv‡k| ⎯ cƒe© MM‡b mƒh© D‡V‡Q|

wZj VuvB

⎯ wZj cwigvY RvqMv A_©vr GZUzKz duvKv RvqMv| ⎯ Rbmfvq GZ †jvK n‡q‡Q †hb wZj avi‡Yi VuvB †bB| c„ôv-4

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

ev`‡ji aviv ⎯ e„wói aviv| ⎯ mKvj †_‡K ev`‡ji aviv Si‡Q| †aby

⎯ ev”Pvmn Mvfx|⎯mܨv nj, GLbI †Mvnv‡j †aby †d‡i wb|

aejx

⎯ mv`v Mvfx| ⎯ Avgv‡`i †cvlv MvfxwUi bvg aejx|

†Mvnv‡j

⎯ Miyi N‡i, †Mvqv‡j| ⎯ †Mvnv‡j Miy Av‡Q|

†cvnv‡j

⎯ †kl n‡j| ⎯ ivZ †cvnv‡j cvwL Wv‡K|

†Lvqv‡j

⎯ KvwU‡q w`‡j, †kl Ki‡j|⎯ Ae‡njv K‡iB mgqUv †Lvqv‡j|

†Lqv

⎯ †bŠKv w`‡q b`x cvivcvi| ⎯ cÖej e„wó‡Z †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡q †M‡Q|

†e‡M

⎯ MwZ‡Z, avivq| ⎯ cÖej †e‡M So ïiy nj|

 k‡ãi we‡kl e¨envi †R‡b wbB SiSi

⎯ Aweij avivq| Avlv‡pi e„wó SiSi Si‡Q|

fifi

⎯ cÖvq cwicƒY©| b`xbvjv cvwb‡Z fifi n‡q Av‡Q|

`i`i

⎯ cÖej †e‡M| cÖPÐ Mi‡g kixi †_‡K `i`i K‡i Nvg Si‡Q|

QjQj ⎯ Rjfiv| wkïwU QjQj †Pv‡L ZvwK‡q Av‡Q| Ic‡ii SiSi, fifi, `i`i, QjQj k㸇jvi g‡a¨ GK ai‡bi aŸwbi SsKvi †`Lv hvq| G ai‡bi kã‡K evsjv e¨vKi‡Y aŸb¨vÍK kã ejv nq| G iKg AviI A‡bK kã i‡q‡Q| †hgb- kbkb, ebeb, SbSb, LbLb, KoKo, gogo BZ¨vw`|

 KweZvq e¨eüZ k㸇jv †R‡b wbB wb‡Pi k㸇jv KweZvq wgj ivLvi Rb¨ e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| †hgbbvwn †i

⎯ †bB|

Pvwn †i

⎯ †P‡q|

AvwR †i

⎯ AvR‡K|

evwR †i

⎯ †e‡R|

 Avlvp KweZvi g~jfve Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, Avlvp KweZvq Kxfv‡e MÖvgevsjvi el©vi iƒc aiv w`‡q‡Q- Av‡jvPbv Ki| DËi: ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvwU Kwe¸iæ iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii (1861-1941) ÔÿwYKvÕ Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| el©vKv‡j MÖvgevsjvi wPišÍb iƒc G KweZvi DcRxe¨ welq| Avlvp gv‡m mvivw`b S‡i Aweivg e„wói aviv | AvKvk †Q‡q hvq Kv‡jv †g‡N| Pvicvk AÜKvi n‡q Av‡m| avb‡ÿZ cvwb‡Z Wy‡e hvq, c_NvU cøvweZ nq AwekªvšÍ e„wó‡Z| Pvicvk AÜKvi n‡q Av‡m| KvwjgvLv †g‡Ni iƒc †`‡L g‡b nq, †ejv †hb †kl n‡Z Pj‡Q| G mgq N‡ii evB‡i †ei n‡j wec‡`i Avk¼v _v‡K| K…lK mܨvi Av‡MB c„ôv-5

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Zvi MvwfwU‡K Luy‡R Av‡b, hviv evB‡i †M‡Q Zviv wd‡i Gj wK bv †LuvR Lei †bq| KviY mܨvi Av‡MB wec‡`i Avk¼v †_‡K b`x‡Z †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡q hv‡e| Kwe ZvB wPi cwiwPZ el©vq mKj‡K N‡ii evB‡i †ei n‡Z wb‡la K‡i‡Qb|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ Avlvp gv‡m AvKvk †Kgb †`Lv hvq? DËi: wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941) Zuvi Avlvp KweZvq el©vKv‡ji wPišÍb wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Nb el©vq MÖvg evsjvi wPi‡Pbv iƒc G KweZvi cÖavb DcRxe¨| Avlvp I kªveY- GB `yB gvm el©vKvj| Gi g‡a¨ Avlvp †Nvi el©‡Yi Kvj| G mgq AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †Q‡q hvq, Pvicv‡k AÜKvi Nwb‡q Av‡m| Avlvp gv‡m AvKv‡k wZj cwigvY duvKv RvqMv _v‡K bv| Pviw`‡K ˆeix cÖK…wZ weivR K‡i| Kvwj gvLv †g‡Ni iƒc †`‡L g‡b nq, †ejv `ªæZ †kl n‡q hvq| Nb †g‡N AvZw¼Z Mvwf †Mvqv‡j †divi Rb¨ Nb Nb WvK‡Z _v‡K| mewgwj‡q Avlvp gv‡m AvKv‡k †hb k¼vi _g_‡g fve weivR K‡i| cÖk:œ AvD‡ki †ÿZ Kxfv‡e R‡j f‡i hvq? DËi: wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvq Avlvp gv‡m MÖvgevsjvi wPišÍb iƒ‡ci K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Av‡jvP¨ cÖkœwU‡Z Avlvp gv‡m AvDk †ÿ‡Zi Ae¯’v Rvb‡Z PvIqv n‡q‡Q| Avlvp fiv el©vi gvm| Gmgq cÖK…wZ GK wfbœ iƒc aviY K‡i| AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †Q‡q hvq| †mLv‡b wZj cwigvY duvKv RvqMv _v‡K bv| mvivw`b Awekªvg e„wó‡Z c_-NvU †ÿZ R‡j f‡i hvq| Aweivg e„wói cvwb‡Z AvD‡ki †ÿZ R‡j f‡i hvq| cÖk:œ K…lK Kx Rb¨ GZ DwØMœ? A_ev, ivLvj evj‡Ki Rb¨ GZ wPšÍv †Kb? DËi: ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvi ga¨ w`‡q Kwe¸iæ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi el©vKv‡ji MÖvg evsjvi e„wóSiv wPi‡Pbv Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb| Avlvp gv‡mi fiv ev`j K…lK‡K DwØMœ ev wPwšÍZ K‡i| Avlvp gv‡m MÖvgvÂj el©vi cvwb‡Z Wy‡e hvq| G mgq AvKv‡k Kv‡jv †g‡N Pviw`‡K ˆeix cÖK…wZ weivR e‡i| Nb †g‡N AvZw¼Z Mvwf¸‡jv †Mvqv‡j †divi Rb¨ WvK‡Z _v‡K| wPwšÍZ K…lKiv ZvB mܨvi Av‡MB MvwfwU‡K Luy‡R G‡b †Mvqv‡j iv‡L| mܨvi Av‡MB b`x‡Z †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡e| Avi †ejvUzKz †cvnv‡j Avuavi bvg‡e| ZvB gv‡V hviv †M‡Q Z_v ivLvj evj‡Kiv wd‡i Gj wK bv G wPšÍvq K…lK DwØMœ|

c„ôv-6

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

gvbyl I cï mK‡jB el©vi mgq wbivcËv †Luv‡R| ZvB ivLvj I cï Df‡qi Rb¨B K…l‡Ki mgvb D‡ØM| MÖv‡gi gvbweK cÖxwZ gayi m¤úK© G KweZvi ga¨ w`‡q D‡V G‡m‡Q| AvšÍwiK I mnvbyf~wZkxjZv †hb el©viB Ab¨iƒc| cÖk:œ †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ nIqvi KviY Kx? DËi: wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zuvi ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvq el©vKv‡ji MÖvgevsjvi wPÎ dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| el©vKv‡j MÖvgv‡ji GKgvÎ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g †Lqv cviv cvi eÜ n‡q hvq| Avlvp gv‡mi AwekªvšÍ el©‡Y c_NvU-cÖvšÍi cøvweZ nq| AvKv‡k Kv‡jv †g‡Ni Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Avuavi Nwb‡q Av‡m| b`xi `yK~‡j cÖej †e‡M †XD AvQ‡o co‡Z _v‡K| †bŠKv Wywei m¤¢vebv †_‡K mܨvi Av‡MB †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡q hvq| cÖej e„wói cvwbi d‡j b`xi †Rvqvi Avi Kv‡jv †g‡Ni Kvi‡Y Avlvp gv‡m mܨvi Av‡MB †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡q hvq|

 m¤¢ve¨ e¨vL¨v Abykxjb: e¨vL¨v-K: Òev`‡ji aviv S‡i SiSi, AvD‡ki †ÿZ R‡j fifiÓ| Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi-Gi †jLv ÔAvlvpÕ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Av‡jvP¨ DׄwZ Øviv Kwe el©vKv‡j AvDk av‡bi †ÿZ Kxfv‡e cvwb‡Z f‡i hvq †m eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| we‡kølY: Avlvp fiv el©v gvm| Gmgq Kv‡jv †g‡N AvKvk †Q‡q hvq| mvivw`b Aweivg e„wó S‡i| Kvbvq-Kvbvq Pvwiw`K cvwb‡Z f‡i hvq| Pviw`‡K Nwb‡q Av‡m AÜKvi| KvwjgvLv †gN w`‡q AvKvk XvKv _v‡K| ev`‡ji AwekªvšÍ aviv SiSi K‡i mvivw`b S‡i c‡o| d‡j AvD‡ki †LZ cvwb‡Z c~Y© n‡q I‡V| gšÍe¨: el©vKv‡j AvKvk Ry‡o Kv‡jv †gN e„wó n‡q S‡i c‡o c„w_exi gvwU‡Z| ZvB AvDk av‡bi †LZI cvwb‡Z f‡i I‡V| e¨vL¨v-L:

ÒKvwjgvLv †g‡N Icv‡i Avuavi Nwbqv‡Q †`L Pvwn‡i| I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i|Ó DËi: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi-Gi ÔAvlvpÕ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz Øviv Kwe Avlvp gv‡mi Nb el©‡Y evB‡ii AvenvIqv wec¾bK g‡b K‡i mevB‡K evB‡i bv hvIqvi Aby‡iva Rvwb‡q‡Qb|

c„ôv-7

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

we‡kølY: el©vKv‡j mvivw`b Aweivg e„wói aviv S‡i| AvKvk †Q‡q hvq Kvj †g‡N| Pvicvk AÜKvi n‡q Av‡m| Kvwj-gvLv †g‡Ni G iƒc †`‡L g‡b nq, b`xi Icv‡i AÜKvi Nwb‡q Avm‡Q| g‡b nq, †ejv †hb †kl n‡Z P‡j‡Q| Ggb mgq N‡ii evB‡i †ei n‡j wec‡`i Avk¼v Lye †ewk _v‡K| Kwei ZvB AvR Aby‡iva †hb †KD N‡ii evwn‡i bv hvq| gšÍe¨: el©vKv‡j AvKv‡k †f‡m †eovq Kv‡jv †g‡Ni †fjv| KvwjgvLv G †gN fxZ K‡i mKj‡K| Kv‡jv †g‡N †Q‡q hvIqv Auvav‡i †KD N‡ii evB‡i †eiæ‡Z Pvq bv|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) Avlvp KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb?  KvRx bRiæj/ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi/ we`¨vmvMi DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (L)

Avlvp gv‡m AvKvk †Kgb _v‡K?  Kv‡jv †g‡N XvKv/ mv`v †g‡N XvKv/ †iŠ‡`ªv¾j DËi: Kv‡jv †g‡N XvKv

(M)

Kwe Kx Aby‡iva K‡i‡Qb?  e„wó‡Z wfR‡Z/ b`x‡Z †Mvmj Ki‡Z/ el©vq evB‡i bv †h‡Z DËi: el©vq evB‡i bv †h‡Z

(N)

K…lK mܨvi Av‡M Kx Luy‡R Av‡b?  Mvfx/ QvMj/ Mvav DËi: Mvfx

(O)

aejx gv‡b Kx?  ab-m¤ú`/ e„wó/ mv`v Mvfx DËi: mv`v Mvfx

c„ôv-8

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

`yLy Avi myLy cybwj©Lb: W. gvneyeyj nK (1948- )

 Ô`yLy Avi myLyÕ M‡íi g~jfve: †jv‡Ki gy‡L gy‡L iwPZ I cÖPwjZ †h Kvwnbx Zv‡K †jvKKvwnbx e‡j| Ô`yLy Avi myLyÕ MíwU W. gvneyeyj nK (1948-) KZ…©K GKwU cybwj©wLZ †jvKKvwnbx| GwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK Mí| †jvfx gvby‡li KiæY cwiYwZ Ges mr gvby‡li ïf cwiYwZ m¤ú‡K© aviYv †c‡Z MíwUi ¸iæZ¡ A‡bK| `yLy Avi myLy Pvwli `yB †g‡q| `yLy kvšÍ I j²x| Aciw`‡K myLy Ajm Avi e` †gRvwR| `yLy PiKvq my‡Zv †K‡U msmvi Pvjvq| GKw`b evZvm `yLyi me Zz‡jv Dwo‡q wb‡j †m evZv‡mi wcQz wcQz QzU‡Z _v‡K| cw_g‡a¨ MvB Miæ, Kjv MvQ †Nvovi DcKvi K‡i †m Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q †cuŠQvq| eywoi K_vg‡Zv cyKz‡i `yevi Wye w`‡q †m iƒcmx n‡q I‡V Avi A‡bK †mvbv, wn‡i, gy³v wb‡q evwo wd‡i Av‡m| evwo wd‡i †m myLyi Kv‡Q me Ly‡j e‡jø myLyI nvwRi nq Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q| wKš‘ †jvfx myLy eywoi K_v Agvb¨ K‡i cyKz‡i wZbwU Wye †`q| d‡j Zvi kixi KzrwmZ Avi †eXc n‡q hvq| †jvf K‡i KLbI fv‡jv wKQz cvIqv hvq bv| Av‡jvP¨ MíwUi ga¨ w`‡q †mD welqwU D‡V G‡m‡Q| mvgwMÖK MíwU‡K we‡ePbv Ki‡j Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi, gvbyl‡K Zvi K‡g©i dj †fvM Ki‡Z n‡e Ges AwZwi³ †jvf Ki‡j Zv Aek¨B ÿwZi KviY n‡e|

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi wkwL e`‡gRvwR

⎯ A‡íB †gRvR Lvivc K‡I Ggb| ⎯ Ii eo PvPv eÇ e`‡gRvwR †jvK|

PiKv

⎯ my‡Zv KvUvi Rb¨ Kv‡Vi ˆZwi †`wk hšÎ| ⎯ Avgvi `vw` PiKvq my‡Zv KvU‡Z cv‡ib|

mvd

⎯ cwi®‹vi| ⎯ †jvKUv mKvj †_‡K ¯‹zj Ni mvd Ki‡Q|

jvMvg

⎯ †Nvovi ivk ev ejMv| ⎯ †NvomIqvi jvMvg †Q‡o w`‡ZB †Nvov Qz‡U Pjj|

wRb‡cvk

⎯ †Nvovi wc‡Vi Pvgovi Avmb| ⎯ †Nvovi wc‡V wRb‡cvkUv k³ K‡I euvav nj|

†ebviwm

⎯ evivbmx‡Z ˆZwi Kvco (AZ¨šZ `vwg kvwo)| ⎯ eicÿ K‡b‡K †ebvik kvwo w`‡q‡Q|

K…ZÁZv

⎯ DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi Kiv| ⎯ Zuv‡K mvnvh¨ Kivi Rb¨ wZwb mevB‡K K…ZÁZv Rvbv‡jb|

cuvRv

⎯ †MvQv| ⎯ `vw` my‡Zv KvUvi Rb¨ GK cuvRv Zz‡jv wb‡q e‡m‡Qb|

mwnm

⎯ †Nvov †`Lfvj Kivi †jvK| ⎯ †jvKUv mwn‡mi PvKwi wb‡q‡Q|

wZwiwÿ

⎯ iMPUv, A‡íB †i‡M IVv| ⎯ wZwiwÿ †gRv‡Ri †jvK e‡j eo mv‡ne‡K mevB Gwo‡q P‡jb|

†eXc

⎯ †eLvàv, †egvbvb, wekªx| ⎯ †m gvby‡li GKUv †eXc Qwe Gu‡K‡Q| c„ôv-9

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi evK¨vsk I evK¨¸‡jv wkwL bvMvj cvIqv ⎯ Kv‡Q †cuvQv‡bv, ai‡Z cviv| ⎯ wcQz wcQz †`Š‡oI cywjk †PviUvi bvMvj †cj bv| Rvc‡U aiv

⎯ nvZ I eyK w`‡q Rwo‡q aiv| ⎯ fq †c‡q wkï gv‡K Rvc‡U aij|

nuvd †Q‡o euvPv ⎯ Sv‡gjv †_‡K †invB cvIqv ⎯ †jvKUv we`vq nIqvq Avwg nuvd †Q‡o †eu‡QwQ| Abybq Kiv

⎯ wgbwZ Kiv| ⎯ wfwLwi `y‡Uv cqmvi Rb¨ evievi Abybq Ki‡Z jvMj|

†K‡U emv

⎯ Mv‡q †euav| ⎯ bZzb Ry‡Zv †Q‡jUvi cv‡q †K‡U e‡m‡Q|

M`M` nIqv ⎯ Avb‡›`i Av‡e‡M Awff~Z nIqv| ⎯ DcKvi †c‡q †jvKUv M`M` n‡q ab¨ev` Rvbvj| D‡cv‡m giv ⎯ Abvnv‡i _vKv| ⎯ `ywf©‡ÿI mgq Mwie †jv‡Kiv D‡cv‡m gviv hvq| Awb¨ awb¨ Kiv ⎯ cÖksmv Kiv| ⎯ Avwg cixÿvq cÖg nIqvq mevB Avgv‡K awb¨ awb¨ Kij| gRv †`Lv‡bv ⎯ Rã Kiv| ⎯ Zzwg Avgv‡K †g‡iQ, Lvjv‡K e‡j gRv †`Lve|

 Aek¨B g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e:    

`yLy c‡ivcKvix, myLy bq| `yLy cwikªgx I kvšÍ, myLy Ajm Avi e`‡gRvwR| `yLy gvwR©Z AvPi‡Yi AwaKvix, myLy bq| `yLy wb‡j©vfx, Aciw`‡K myLy †jvfx Avi wnsmy‡U|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ Pvlxi Kq †g‡q? Zv‡`i Kvi Kx bvg Ges †Kgb ¯^fve? DËi: Pvlxi wQj `yB †g‡q| Pvlxi eo †g‡qi bvg `yLy, Avi †QvU †g‡qi myLy| `yLy kvšÍ Avi Kv‡R cUz| myLy e`‡gRvwR I Avj‡m| `yLy mij †g‡q wKš‘ myLy †`gvwM| myLy AwZ †jvfx; wKš‘ `yLyi †Kv‡bv †jvf wQj bv| `yLy A‡b¨i `yt†L mnvbyf~wZkxj; wKš‘ myLyi ¯^fve wQj m¤ú~Y© wecixZ| cÖk:œ Zz‡jvi wcQy wcQy QyU‡Z QyU‡Z Kvi mv‡_ cÖ_g `yLyi †`Lv nj Ges Kx NUj? DËi: PiKvq my‡Zv KvUvi mgq nVvr †Rvi evZvm Zz‡jv Dwo‡q wb‡j `yLy Kuv`‡Z _v‡K| evZvm Zv‡K A‡bK Zz‡jv †`qvi K_v e‡j| evZv‡mi K_vgZ `yLy Zvi wcQy wcQy QyUj| c‡_ †h‡Z †h‡Z Zvi mv‡_ cÖ_‡g GK MvB‡qi †`Lv nq| MvB `yLy‡K Zvi †Mvqvj mvd K‡i †`qvi wgbwZ Rvbvq| `yLy Kz‡qv †_‡K cvwb G‡b SuvUv w`‡q ay‡q MvB‡qi †Mvqvj ZKZ‡K K‡i mvd K‡i w`j| `yLyi e¨env‡i MvB Lywk nj| cÖk:œ KjvMv‡Qi m‡½ `yLyi †`Lv nIqvi ci Kx NUj? DËi: `yLy GKw`b D‡Vv‡b e‡m PiKvq my‡Zv KvUwQj| Ggb mgq nVvr †Rvi evZvm G‡m Zvi Zz‡jv Dwo‡q wb‡q †Mj| †m Zz‡jvi Rb¨ evZv‡mi wcQy wcQy QyUwQj wKš‘ Zz‡jvi bvMvj †cj bv| ZvB g‡bi c„ôv-10

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

`yt†L c‡_ e‡m Kuv`‡Z jvMj| ZLb evZvm wdmwdwm‡q Zvi Kv‡b Kv‡b ejj, †Ku‡`v bv| Avgvi m‡½ Pj| hZ PvI ZZ Zz‡jv †`e| `yLy Zz‡jv cvIqvi Avkvq evZv‡mi wcQy wcQy Pj‡Z ïiæ Kij, c‡_ †h‡Z †h‡Z cÖ_‡g Zvi mv‡_ GK MvB‡qi †`Lv nj| Avevi c_ Pj‡Z Pj‡Z wØZxqevi Zvi mv‡_ GK KjvMv‡Qi †`Lv nj| KjvMvQ `yLy‡K †W‡K e‡j, A‡bK AvMvQv Avi jZvcvZv Avgv‡K Rvc‡U a‡i‡Q| Avwg G¸‡jvi Rb¨ Kuy‡Rv n‡q hvw”Q| G¸‡jv Qvwo‡q w`‡q hv| `yLy wQj A‡b¨i `yt‡L mnvbyf~wZkxj| ZvB †m KjvMv‡Qi jZvcvZv Avi AvMvQv mwi‡q w`j| d‡j KjvMvQ nuvd †Q‡o euvPj| cÖk:œ †divi c‡_ `yLy Kvi Kvi KvQ †_‡K Kx Kx Dcnvi †c‡qwQj? DËi: Pvlxi †g‡q `yLy wQj †ek fv‡jv g‡bi †g‡q| Puv‡`i gv eywoi cÖvmv‡` hvIqvi c‡_ †m MvB, KjvMvQ I †Nvovi Amyweav `~i Kij| ZvivI `yLyi DcKv‡ii K_v g‡b †i‡LwQj| Puv‡`i gv eywoi KvQ †_‡K cyi¯‹vi †c‡q `yLy eywo‡K K…ZÁZv I mvjvg Rvwb‡q evwoi w`‡K wdi‡Z ïiæ Kij| †divi c‡_ G‡K G‡K †Nvov, KjvMvQ I MvB‡qi m‡½ `yLyi Avevi †`Lv nj| †Nvov Zv‡K GKwU cÿxiv‡Ri Qvbv Dcnvi w`j| KjvMvQ w`j †mvbvi eiY GKQov Kjv I †mB m‡½ GK Nov †gvni| MvB w`j Kwcjv MvB‡qi eKbv, hvi euv‡U `ya ï‡Kvq bv| cÖk:œ wKQyÿY my‡Zv KvUvi ci myLy Kx †f‡e my‡Zv KvUv eÜ K‡i w`j? DËi: `yLyi gy‡L mewKQy ï‡b myLyI Puv‡`i gv eywoi KvQ †_‡K Mqbv cvIqvi †jv‡f PiKvq my‡Zv KvU‡Z e‡m †Mj| Avi evZvm G‡m Zz‡jv Dwo‡q †bqvi A‡cÿv Ki‡Z jvMj| wKQyÿY †m my‡Zv KvUj wKš‘ †Rviv‡jv evZvm eBj bv| myLy wQj Avj‡m I e`‡gRvwR| ZvB hLb †Rvi evZvm eB‡Z ïiæ Ki‡e ZLb my‡Zv KvUv eÜ K‡i w`j|

 cÖm½ D‡jøL K‡i e¨vL¨v Ki: e¨vL¨v (K): †hb c~wY©gvi Puv` Zvi me †R¨vrmœv Ii Mv‡q †X‡j w`‡q‡Q| Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz W. gvneyeyj nK KZ©„K cybwj©wLZ †jvKKvwnbx Ô`yLy I myLyÕ bvgK Mí †_‡K msKwjZ| cÖm½: Puv‡`i gv eywoi †mŠ›`h© eY©bv cÖm‡½ Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU Kiv n‡q‡Q| we‡kølY: `yLy GKw`b D‡Vv‡b e‡m PiKvq my‡Zv KvUwQj| nVvr †Rvi evZvm Zvi me Zz‡jv Dwo‡q wb‡q hvq| Gici Pvwli †g‡q `yLy evZv‡mi wcQz †bq| evZv‡mi wcQz QzU‡Z QzU‡Z †m GK cÖvmv‡`i Kv‡Q †cuŠQvq| cÖvmv‡`i `iRv Lyj‡j †m †`L‡Z cvq, Puv‡`i gv eywo N‡ii wfZ‡i PiKv KvU‡Q| Puv‡`i gvi iƒc-†mŠ›`h© †`‡L `yLyi g‡b nq, †hb c~wY©gvi Puv` Zvi me †R¨vmœv Ii Mv‡q †X‡j w`‡q‡Q| gšÍe¨: iƒcK_vi PwiÎ Puv‡`i gv eywo| Puv‡`i g‡a¨ emevm Kivi R‡b¨ Zvi †Pnviv fxlY Sjg‡j Avi D¾¡j| c„ôv-11

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

e¨vL¨v (L): †h kvw¯Í †c‡j, †m †Zv wb‡Ri †`v‡lB †c‡j Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz W. gvneyeyj nK KZ©„K cybwj©wLZ †jvKKvwnbx Ô`yLy I myLyÕ bvgK Mí †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: AwZwi³ †jvf I wnsmv †h gvby‡li Rxe‡b AkvwšÍ I wec‡`i KviY nq, Puv‡`i gv eywoi GB Dw³wUi ga¨ w`‡q Zv D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡Q myLyi Rxe‡b| we‡kølY: kvšÍ I cwikªgx `yLy Puv‡`i gv eywoi K_v g‡Zv cyKz‡i Wye w`‡q Mqbv Avi Sjg‡j iƒc wb‡q evwo wdij| myLy GK_v Rvbvi ci †mI Qz‡U hvq eywoi Kv‡Q| Puv‡`i gv eywo Zv‡K `yLyi g‡ZvB `yevi Wye w`‡Z e‡j Ges wZb evi Wye w`‡Z eviY K‡i| cÖ_g Wy‡e †m my›`ix n‡q I‡V; Avi wØZxq Wy‡e cvq †mvbv, nx‡i Avi gy³vi Mqbv| Gi ci myLy Av‡iv cvevi Avkvq cyKz‡i Z…Zxq Wye †`q| ZLb myLyi kixi †eXc Avi ÿZgq n‡q hvq| Gi ci †m Awf‡hvM wb‡q Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q †M‡j ZLb eywo e¨v‡L¨q Dw³wUi K_v e‡j| gšÍe¨: AwZwi³ †jvf I wnsmv gvby‡li Rb¨ KLbB †mŠfvM¨gq nq bv| mshgx I wb‡j©vf gvbyl me©`v cyi¯‹…Z nq- hv Av‡jvP¨ e¨vL¨vi ga¨ w`‡q D™¢vwmZ|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) `yLy I myLy †K wQj?  GK Pvlxi †g‡q/ GK e¨emvqxi †g‡q/ Rwg`v‡ii †g‡q DËi: GK Pvlxi †g‡q (L)

W. gvneyeyj nK KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib?  1948 mv‡j/ 1858 mv‡j/ 1938 mv‡j DËi: 1948 mv‡j

(M)

myLy †Kgb wQj?  Kv‡R cUz/ kvšÍ/ e`‡gRvwR DËi: e`‡gRvwR

(N)

eywo KqwU Wye w`‡Z e‡jwQj?  GKwU/ `yBwU/ wZbwU DËi:

(O)

KjvMvQ `yLy‡K Kx w`j?  GK Qov †mvbvi Kjv/ cvKv Kjv/ GK Qov iƒcvi Kjv DËi: GK Qov †mvbvi Kjv

c„ôv-12

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

msKí KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg (1899-1976)

 KweZvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB Amxg wek¦‡K Rvbvi GK A`g¨ †KŠZ~nj gvby‡li| wK‡kv‡iiI ZvB| †m Rvb‡Z Pvq we‡k¦i mKj wKQz‡K, Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z Pvq Amxg AvKv‡ki mKj ARvbv inm¨‡K| †m eyS‡Z Pvq †Kb gvbym QzU‡Q Amx‡g, AZ‡j, AšÍix‡ÿ; exi †Kb Rxeb‡K Abvqv‡m wecboe K‡i, †Kb eiY K‡i g„Zz¨‡K| †m Rvb‡Z Pvq Wyeywi †Kb Wye‡Q, `ytmvnmx †Kb Do‡Q| ZvB wK‡kvi g‡b g‡b `„p cÖwZÁv K‡i- †m e× N‡i e‡m _vK‡e bv| c„w_exUv‡K †mI Ny‡i Ny‡i †`L‡eB|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB msKí

⎯ Zxeª B”Qv, cÖwZÁv| ⎯ fv‡jv KvR Kivi Rb¨ msKí _vKv `iKvi|

⎯ eÜ| ⎯ e× N‡i Av‡jv evZvm XyK‡Z cv‡i bv|

hyMvšZi

⎯ GK hy‡Mi ci Av‡iK hyM, Ab¨ hyM, (†`wk MYbv g‡Z 12 eQ‡i GK hyM nq)| ⎯ KZ hyM hyMvšÍi cvi n‡q Avgiv eZ©gvb mg‡q G‡mwQ|

†`kvšZi

⎯ GK †`k †_‡K Avi GK †`k| Ab¨‡`k| ⎯ eo n‡j Avwg †`k- †`kvšÍ‡i Ny‡i †eove|

wK‡mi †bkvq ⎯ Kx D‡Ï‡k¨, Kx AvKl©‡Y| wK‡mi †bkvq Zzwg Ggb Qz‡UvQzwU KiQ? eiY

⎯ †Kv‡bv wKQz mv`‡i MÖnY| ⎯ cqjv ˆekv‡L Avgiv bZzb eQi‡K eiY K‡i wbB|

giY-hšÎYv ⎯ g„Zz¨i g‡Zv KwVb hš¿Yv ⎯ hviv mvnmx Zviv giYhšÎYv‡K fq cvq bv| Wyeywi

⎯ hviv Mfxi cvwb‡Z Wye w`‡q †Kv‡bv wRwbm D×vi K‡i Av‡b| ⎯ †gNbv b`xi Mfxi Zj‡`k †_‡K Wyeywiiv wbgw¾Z jÂwU D×vi K‡i‡Q|

`ytmvnmx

⎯ AZ¨waK mvnmx| ⎯ `ytmvnmx gyw³‡hv×viv †`k ¯^vaxb K‡i‡Qb|

¯^Mc © v‡b

⎯ AvKv‡ki w`‡K| ⎯ ¯^Mc © v‡b ZvwK‡q Ajmfv‡e e‡m _vK‡j Rxe‡b Kv‡iv DboewZ nq bv|

P›`ª‡jv‡K

⎯ Puv‡`i †`‡k| ⎯ gvbyl GLb P›`ª‡jvK Qvwo‡q g½j MÖ‡nI hvÎv Ki‡Q|

AwPbcyi

⎯ A‡Pbv RvqMv| ⎯ GK wQj AwPbcy‡ii ivRKb¨v|

†d‡o

⎯ wP‡i, `y duvK K‡i| ⎯KvVy‡i Kzovj w`‡q KvVUv †d‡o wbj|

c„ôv-13

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wµqvi Kvj m¤c‡K© †R‡b wbB †h mg‡q wµqv ev KvRwU m¤cboe nq Zv‡K wµqvi Kvj e‡j| †hgb : AZxZ Kvj, eZ©gvb Kvj, fwel¨r Kvj| fwel¨r KvjevPK K‡qKwU wµqvc‡`I m‡½ cwiwPZ nB : _vKe, †`Le, ïbe, Lve, †eove, Nyie, coe, †Lje, Pje, Poe, bvge, aie, nvme|

 k㸇jvi evbvb wjwL e×, hyMvšÍi, eiY, giY, hš¿Yv, wmÜz, †mu‡P, wek¦RMr, ¯^M,© Bw½Z|

 ÔmsKíÕ KweZvi g~jfve Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, Kwei msKí¸‡jv e¨vL¨v Ki| DËi: ÔmsKíÕ GKwU AvZ¥cÖwZÁv I wK‡kv‡ii †KŠZ~nj m¤úwK©Z KweZv| Amxg wek¦‡K Rvbvi Rb¨ gvby‡li A`g¨ †KŠZ~nj GB KweZvi ga¨ w`‡q D‡V G‡m‡Q| Kwe Z_v wK‡kv‡ii †ÿ‡ÎI ZvB| †m Rvb‡Z Pvq, we‡k¦i mKj wKQz‡K Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z Pvq Amxg AvKv‡ki mKj ARvbv inm¨‡K| Kwe eyS‡Z Pvb gvbyl †Kb QzU‡Q Amx‡g, AZ‡j, AšÍix‡ÿ; exi †Kb Rxeb‡K Abvqv‡m wecbœ K‡i, †Kb g„Zz¨‡K eiY K‡i| †m Rvb‡Z Pvq, Wyewi †Kb Wye‡Q Avi `ytmvnmx †Kb gnvKvk cv‡b QzU‡Q| ZvB KweZv g‡b g‡b `„p cÖwZÁ K‡i‡Qb- †m e× N‡i _vK‡e bv| c„w_exUv‡K †m Ny‡i †`L‡e| Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg (1899-1976) we‡`ªvnx Kwe| wZwb ex‡ii g‡Zv Rxeb‡K Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z Pvb| mnRvZ cÖe„wË ekZtB wZwb mKj euvav‡K Zz”Q Ki‡Z Pvb| me ARvbv‡K Rvbvi Rb¨B wZwb MÖn, MÖnvšÍi I wek¦RMr†K Ny‡i †`L‡Z Pvb- hv‡Z mg¯Í Ávb Zvi nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq _v‡K hv msKí KweZvi g~j welq|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ Kwe e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv †Kb? DËi: msKí KweZvq we‡`ªvnx Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg wK‡kvi g‡bi Amxg wek¦‡K Rvbvi A`g¨ †KŠZ~nj cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| mvivwe‡k¦i ARvbv inm¨‡K nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq fi‡Z Pvb| Avi ZvB wZwb e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv| Kwe e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv, wZwb †MvUv wek¦Uv‡K †`L‡Z Pvb| Kwe †`L‡Z Pvb, gvbyl †Kb hyMvšÍ‡ii N~wY©cv‡K †`k †nZ †`kvšÍ‡i QzU‡Q, exi †Kb g„Zz¨‡K eiY Ki‡Q-GKBfv‡e Wyeywi R‡ji Zj‡`k n‡Z gy³v msMÖn K‡i| Kwe Av‡iv Rvb‡Z Pvb, `ytmvnmx †Kb AvKvk cv‡b QzU‡Q| Kwe Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z Pvb, RM‡Zi ARvbv inm¨‡K| Avi ZvB wZwb e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv| c„ôv-14

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcy‡i Kviv †h‡Z Pvq? A_ev, Kwe †Kb P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPb cy‡i †h‡Z Pvb? DËi: ÔmsKíÕ KweZvq Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg GKRb wK‡kv‡ii cÖwZÁvi ga¨ w`‡q RMZ‡K Rvbevi AvMÖn cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| Kwe AvKvk †cwi‡q RMZ‡K †`L‡Z Pvb Z_v P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcyi m¤ú‡K© Kwei Rvbvi AvMÖn| weÁv‡bB GB hy‡M gvbyl c„w_ex‡K AwZµg K‡i AvKv‡ki mKj ARvbv inm¨‡K †f` Ki‡Z e¨¯Í| b‡fvhvb wKsev nvDB P‡o c„w_exi `ytmvnmx gvbyl †h‡Z Pvq P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcy‡i| Puv` wKsev gnvKv‡ki ARvbv inm¨ †f` Kivi Rb¨ gvby‡li AvMÖn Amxg| bZzb wKQz‡K Rvbvi Avkvq mvnmxiv P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcy‡i †h‡Z Pvq| KweI GKRb wK‡kv‡ii cÖwZÁvi ga¨ w`‡q †mB wRwbmB e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| cÖk:œ Kwe cvZvj †d‡o bvg‡Z Pvb †Kb? DËi: Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg RM‡Zi me ARvbv inm¨‡K Rvb‡Z Pvb| ÔmsKíÕ KweZvq Kwe †hgb AvKvk m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z Pvb †Zgwb cvZvj †d‡oI bvg‡Z Pvb| ÔmsKíÕ- KweZvq Kwe Amxg wek¦‡K Rvbevi A`g¨ †KŠZ~nj cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| wZwb we‡k¦i mewKQz m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z Pvb| cvZvj cyixi ARvbv Kvwnbx‡K Rvbvi Rb¨ Kwe cvZvj †d‡o bvg‡Z Pvb †hb AvKv‡ki g‡Zv cvZv‡jI †Kv‡bv wKQzB Zvi ARvbv bv _v‡K|

 D‡jøL‡hvM¨ e¨vL¨v (m¤¢ve¨ Abykxjb): e¨vL¨v-1: ÒwK‡mi †bkvq †Kgb K‡i gi‡Q †h exi jv‡L jv‡L wK‡mi Avkvq Ki‡Q Zviv eiY giY hš¿Yv‡KÓ DËi: Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz we‡`ªvnx Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg (1899-1976) KZ…©K iwPZ ÔmsKíÕ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: bZzb wKQz‡K Rvbvi AvMÖn †_‡K Z_v wek¦RM‡Zi ARvbv inm¨‡K Rvbvi Rb¨ †Kb jv‡Lv jv‡Lv exi giY-hš¿Yv‡K eiY Ki‡Q Kwe Zv D`NvUb Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| we‡kølY: KweZvi wK‡kvi Z_v Kwei cÖ_g msKí n‡”Q, wZwb Avi N‡i ew›` n‡q _vK‡Z Pvb bv| wZwb wek¦RMr†K Ny‡i †`L‡Z Pvb; Rvb‡Z Pvb, c„w_exi mKj ARvbv‡K| Kwe Rvb‡Z Pvb, †Kgb K‡i gvbyl cvZv‡j hv‡”Q Avevi AvKv‡k Do‡Q| we‡k¦i ARvbv inm¨‡K D`&NvUb Ki‡Z wM‡q jv‡Lv jv‡Lv exi c„ôv-15

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

giY hš¿Yv‡K eiY Ki‡Q| GB gnvb AvZ¥Z¨v‡Mi KviY AbymÜvb Kivi Rb¨ Kwe wek¦RMZ‡K bZzbfv‡e Dcjwä Ki‡Z Pvb| gšÍe¨: c„w_ex‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m hviv Rxeb‡K DrmM© K‡ib Zuviv exi| †h †eva †_‡K Zviv Rxeb‡K Zz”Q K‡i Kwe †mB †ev‡ai AZj‡K ¯úk© Ki‡Z Pvb| e¨vL¨v-2: Òwek¦RMZ †`Le Avwg Avcb nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq cy‡i|Ó DËi: Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz we‡`ªvnx Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg (1899-1976) KZ…©K iwPZ ÔmsKíÕ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Kwe GLv‡b wek¦RM‡Zi inm¨ D‡b¥vPb Kivi Rb¨ †h AvKv•ÿv e¨³ K‡i‡Qb †mB m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q| we‡kølY: Kwe wek¦RM‡Zi mKj inm¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z Pvb| wZwb Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z Pvb, mKj ARvbv inm¨| ZvB wZwb Avi e× N‡i Pzc K‡i e‡m _vK‡Z Pvb bv| wZwb GB wek¦RMZ‡K Ny‡i Ny‡i †`L‡Z Pvb| Kwe Rvb‡Z Pvb, gvbyl †Kb QzU‡Q Amx‡g, AZ‡j| g„Zz¨fq‡K Zz”Q K‡i exi †Kb giY hš¿Yv‡K eiY Ki‡Q Kwe Zv Rvb‡Z Pvb| Kwe Rvb‡Z Pvb, `ytmvnmx †Kb AvKv‡k Do‡Q Avi Wyewi †Kb R‡j Wye‡Q| RM‡Zi mKj ARvbv inm¨‡K D‡b¥vPb Kivi ga¨ w`‡q wek¦RMZ‡K nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq cyi‡Z Pvb| gšÍe¨: †Kv‡bv wRwbm‡K Rvb‡Z n‡j Zv wb‡Ri Avq‡Ë G‡b Rvb‡Z n‡e| Avi Kwe †mB KvRwUB Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

msKí KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb?  iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi/ KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg/ Rmxg D`&`xb DËi: KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg

(L)

KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg KZ mv‡j Rb¥ MÖnY K‡ib?  1899 mv‡ji 24 †g/ 1799 mv‡ji 24 †g/ 1889 mv‡ji 24 †g DËi: 1899 mv‡ji 24 †g

(M)

wK‡kv‡ii g‡b Kx cÖwZÁv?  RMrUv‡K †`Lvi/ hy× Kivi/ gvbyl nevi DËi: RMrUv‡K †`Lvi

(N)

†K ¯^Mc © v‡b D‡o Pj‡Q?  wK‡kvi/ `ytmvnmx/ cÖRvcwZ DËi: `ytmvnmx

(O)

Kwe Kxfv‡e bvg‡eb?  cvZvj †d‡o/ AvKvk †d‡o/ evZvm Kuvwc‡q DËi: cvZvj †d‡o c„ôv-16

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

we`vq nR  k㸇jvi A_© wkwL I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi fvlY

⎯ e³…Zv, K_b| - gnvbex (m) mvnvwe‡`i D‡Ï‡k fvlY w`‡jb|

ev›`v

⎯ †Mvjvg, `vm| - Avgiv Avjøvni ev›`v|

µxZ`vm ⎯ †Kbv `vm, PvKi| - Av‡M Avie‡`‡k µxZ`vm cÖ_v cÖPwjZ wQj| Avwgi

⎯ m¤£všÍ abx gymjgvb, gymjgvb kvm‡Ki Dcvwa|- nvi~b-Aiiwk` evM`v‡`i Avwgi wQ‡jb|

Gev`Z

⎯ Avivabv, Dcvmbv|-gymjgvb ag©vej¤^xiv GK Avj−vni Gev`Z K‡i|

 †R‡b wbB ivmyj

⎯ Avmgvwb wKZvecÖvß bex| nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) me©‡kl ivmyj wQ‡jb|

Kvevkwid ⎯ †mŠw` Avi‡ei g°v kn‡i Aew¯’Z Avjøvni cweÎ Ni| Avw_©Kfv‡e m”Qj gymjgv‡biv cweÎ nR cvjb Ki‡Z †mLv‡b hvb| nR cvj‡bi mgq Gi Pvi w`‡K Nyi‡Z nq| wnRwi

⎯ 622 wLªóv‡ã nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) Avjøvni Av‡`‡k g°v †Q‡o gw`bvq P‡j hvb| G‡K ejv nq wnRiZ| wZwb †h w`b g°v †Q‡o hvb, †mw`b †_‡K Aviwe mvj MYbv Kiv nq| Aviwe mvj‡K ÔwnRwiÕ ejv nq|

whjK`

⎯ Aviwe eQ‡ii GKwU gv‡mi bvg|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ we`vq nR Kx? DËi: `kg wnRwi‡Z nhiZ (m) Rxe‡bi †kl nR K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j Zv‡K we`vq nR e‡j| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) AšÍ‡i Kvevi Mfxi Avnevb Abyfe Ki‡jb| wZwb w¯’i Ki‡jb mvnvwe‡`i m‡½ wb‡q nR cvjb Ki‡eb| †mevi cÖvq `yÕjÿ gvbyl g°vq nR cvjb Ki‡Z Av‡mb| gnvbex (m) Gi Rxe‡b GwUB wQj †kl nR| Avi ZvB GB nRB we`vq nR bv‡g cwiwPZ|

c„ôv-17

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ wnRwi †Kvb gv‡m we`vq nR AbywôZ nq? DËi: `kg wnRwi‡Z we`vq nR AbywôZ nq| gnvbex (m) Gi Kv‡Q mg‡eZ n‡q‡Qb nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl| Zuv‡`i B”Qv gnvbex (m) Gi mv‡_ nR cvjb Ki‡eb| whjK` gv‡mi †klw`‡K gnvbex (m) Gi mv‡_ Zuviv g°vi c‡_ hvÎv Ki‡jb| huviv Zuv‡K KLbI †`‡Lbwb, ZvivI GKevi GB gnvgvbe‡K †`Lvi Rb¨ Kvev kix‡d G‡jb| cÖk:œ AvivdvZ gq`v‡b gnvbex (m) Gi g‡bi Ae¯’v †Kgb n‡qwQj? DËi: `kg wnRwi‡Z †h nR AbywôZ nq Zv‡K we`vq nR e‡j| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) AšÍ‡i Kvevi Mfxi Avnevb Abyfe Ki‡jb| wZwb w¯’i Ki‡jb mvnvwe‡`i m‡½ wb‡q nR cvjb Ki‡eb| G msev` Pviw`‡K `ªæZ Qwo‡q coj| whjK` gvm| bexRx (m)- Gi Kv‡Q mg‡eZ n‡q‡Qb nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl| Zuv‡`i B”Qv bexRx (m) Gi m‡½ nR cvjb Ki‡eb| whjK` gv‡mi †klw`‡K gnvbex (m) Gi mv‡_ Zuviv g°vi c‡_ hvÎv Ki‡jb| Avie †`‡ki bvbv ¯’vb †_‡K †mevi cÖvq `yÕjÿ gvbyl nR cvjb Ki‡Z Av‡mb| Avivdv‡Zi gq`v‡b GZ wecyj msL¨K gvbyl †`‡L gnvbex (m) Gi gb Avb‡›` f‡i †Mj| GZ gvbyl! Giv mevB Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡i‡Qb? Rvev‡j ivngvZ bvgK cvnv‡o `uvwo‡q wZwb mg‡eZ gvbyl‡`i D‡Ï‡k¨ fvlY w`‡jb| AvivdvZ gq`v‡b bexRx (m) Gi GwU †kl fvlY Ges gnvbex (m) Gi Rxe‡b GwUB wQj †kl nR| Avi ZvB G n‡Ri fvlY we`vq n‡Ri fvlY bv‡g L¨vZ| gvbeRvwZ wPiw`b Zuvi GB fvlY Mfxi kª×vq ¯§iY Ki‡Q| cÖk:œ we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y gnvbex (m) µxZ`vm m¤ú‡K© Kx e‡jwQ‡jb? DËi: gnvbex (m) Gi Avivdv‡Zi gq`v‡b †`qv we`vq n‡Ri fvlY gymjgvb‡`i gyw³i mb` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| G fvl‡Yi cÖ‡Z¨KwU evYxB wQj ¸iæZ¡c~Y,© hv gymjgvb RvwZ Z_v Bmjvg ag©vej¤^x‡`i Rb¨ cv‡_q ¯^iƒc| gnvbex (m) mgMÖ gvbeRvwZi Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨B G fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb| Zuvi G fvlY Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q wPiw`bB ¯§iYxq| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y cÖ_‡gB Avjøvni cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zvici mg‡eZ gvby‡li w`‡K ZvwK‡q Ab¨vb¨ K_vi mv‡_ µxZ`vm m¤ú‡K© ej‡jb, Ò†Zvgv‡`i µxZ`vm µxZ`vmxivI Avjøvni ev›`v| Zv‡`i cÖwZ wbôzi e¨envi K‡iv bv| †Zvgiv wb‡Riv hv Lv‡e, Zv‡`iI ZvB †L‡Z w`‡e, wb‡Riv †h Kvco ci‡e Zv‡`iI ZvB ci‡Z w`‡e| †Kv‡bv µxZ`vm hw` wb‡Ri †hvM¨Zvq Avwgi nb, Z‡e Zuv‡K †g‡b Pj‡e| ZLb esk gh©v`vi K_v ej‡e bv|Ó

c„ôv-18

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ ag© m¤ú‡K© nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Kx e‡j‡Qb? DËi: gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Gi Avivdv‡Zi gq`v‡b †`qv we`vq n‡Ri fvlY gymjgvb‡`i gyw³i mb` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| G fvl‡Yi cÖ‡Z¨KwU evYxB wQj ¸iæZ¡c~Y,© hv gymjgvb RvwZ Z_v Bmjvg ag©vej¤^x‡`i Rb¨ cv‡_q ¯^iƒc| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) mgMÖ gvbeRvwZi Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ G fvlY w`‡q‡Qb| Zuvi GB fvlY Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q wPiw`bB ¯§iYxq| gnvbex (m) we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y cÖ_‡gB Avjøvni cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zvici mg‡eZ gvbyl‡`i w`‡K ZvwK‡q Ab¨vb¨ K_vi mv‡_ ag© m¤ú‡K© ej‡jb, Òag© wb‡q evovevwo Ki‡e bv| wb‡Ri ag© cvjb Ki‡e| hviv Ab¨ ag© cvjb K‡i Zv‡`i Ici †Zvgvi ag© Pvwc‡q †`qvi †Póv K‡iv bv|Ó cÖk:œ we`vq n‡R gnvbex (m) bvix-cyiæl m¤ú‡K© Kx e‡j‡Qb? DËi: gnvbex (m) Gi we`vq n‡Ri fvlY gymjgvb‡`i gyw³i mb` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| G fvl‡Yi cÖ‡Z¨KwU evYxB wQj ¸iæZ¡c~Y,© hv gymjgvb RvwZ Z_v Bmjvg ag©vej¤^x‡`i Rb¨ cv‡_q ¯^iƒc| wZwb Zuvi GB fvl‡Y bvix-cyiæ‡li Ae¯’vb I AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© gvbeZvag©x e³e¨ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| GKgvÎ BmjvgB cÖ_g bvix‡K we‡kl gh©v`v w`‡q‡Q| ZvB gnvbex (m) bvix-cyiæl m¤ú‡K© we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y e‡j‡Qb, Òbvixi Dci cyiæ‡li †hgb AwaKvi i‡q‡Q, †Zgwb cyiæ‡li Dci bvixiI †miƒc AwaKvi i‡q‡Q|Ó wZwb Zuvi G e³‡e¨i gva¨‡g mgv‡R bvix‡`i AwaKvi I Ae¯’vb m¤ú‡K© myôz aviYv †`b Ges mgv‡R bvixi gh©v`v cÖwZôv K‡ib| wewfbœ nvw`‡mi gva¨‡g wZwb bvix cyiæ‡li AwaKvi I Ae¯’vb m¤ú‡K© mg¨K aviYv cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| gnvbex (m) Gi G e³e¨ ZrKvjxb mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Rb¨ wQj hy‡Mvc‡hvMx Ges eZ©gvb mgv‡Ri Rb¨ `„óvšÍ¯^iƒc w`K-wb‡`©kbv| gnvbex (m) mgvR †_‡K †f`v‡f` `~i Ki‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| Avi ZvB we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y wZwb bvixi AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© ¯úó e¨vL¨vq bvixi gh©v`v mgybœZ K‡i‡Qb| cÖk:œ gnvbex (m) †Kvb PviwU K_v we‡klfv‡e g‡b ivL‡Z e‡j‡Qb? DËi: gnvbex (m) Gi we`vq n‡Ri fvlY gymjgvb‡`i gyw³i mb` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| G fvl‡Yi cÖ‡Z¨KwU evYxB wQj ¸iæZ¡c~Y,© hv gymjgvb RvwZ Z_v Bmjvg ag©vej¤^x‡`i Rb¨ cv‡_q ¯^iƒc| Zuvi GB fvlY Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q wPiw`bB ¯§iYxq| wZwb mgMÖ gvbe RvwZi Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨B G fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb| G fvl‡Y gnvbex (m) Gi KÉwbtm„Z cÖwZwU evYxB gvbeRvwZi Rb¨ AbyKiYxq| HwZnvwmK G fvl‡Y gnvbex (m) mgMÖ gvbeRvwZ‡K wbæwjwLZ PviwU K_v we‡klfv‡e g‡b ivL‡Z e‡j‡Qb| G¸‡jv nj: 1| Avjøvn Qvov Ab¨ Kv‡iv Gev`vZ K‡iv bv| 2| Ab¨vqfv‡e gvbyl‡K nZ¨v K‡iv bv| 3| c‡ii m¤ú` AvZ¥mvr K‡iv bv| 4| KviI Ici AZ¨vPvi K‡iv bv| c„ôv-19

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †Kvb `yBwU wRwbm †i‡L †M‡Qb? DËi: gnvbex (m) Gi we`vq n‡Ri fvlY gymjgvb‡`i gyw³i mb` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| G fvl‡Yi cÖ‡Z¨KwU evYxB wQj ¸iæZ¡c~Y,© hv gymjgvb Z_v Bmjvg ag©vej¤^x‡`i Rb¨ wPiw`bB ¯§iYxq| G fvl‡Y Zuvi KÉwbtm„Z cÖwZwU evYxB wQj gvbeRvwZi Rb¨ AbyKiYxq| wZwb mgMÖ gvbeRvwZi Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ G fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb| HwZnvwmK G fvl‡Y gnvbex (m) cÖ_‡gB Avjøvni cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zvici Ab¨vb¨ K_vi mv‡_ ej‡jb, ÒAvwg †Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q `ywU wRwbm †i‡L hvw”Q: 1| Avjøvni evYx A_©vr Avj KziAvb 2| Avjøvni †cÖwiZ cyiæl ivm~‡ji Rxeb Av`k© A_©vr Avj nvw`m|Ó GB `ywU wRwbmB nhiZ gynv¤§` (m) Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †i‡L hvb| Avj KziAvb I Avj nvw`m mgMÖ gvbeRvwZi Rxe‡bi weavb¯^iƒc|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) we`vq nR AbywôZ nq?  Aóg wnRwi/ beg wnRwi/ `kg wnRwi DËi: `kg wnRwi (L)

we`vq nR cvjb K‡ib?  cÖvq GK jÿ gvbyl/ `yÕjÿ gvbyl/ wZbjÿ gvbyl DËi: cÖvq GK jÿ gvbyl

(M)

imyj e‡jb, me gymjgvb G‡K A‡b¨i  wcZv/ cyÎ/ fvB DËi: fvB

(N)

ag© wb‡q Ki‡ebv  evovevwo/ gvivgvwi/ SMov welv` DËi: evovevwo

(O)

ivm~j (mt) Gi we`vq n‡Ri †kl K_v?  Avevi Avwme wd‡i/ ¸W evB/ we`vq DËi: we`vq

c„ôv-20

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

k‡Li g„rwkí kwdDj Avjg

 †jLK cwiwPwZ kwdDj Avjg 1943 wLªóv‡ã K·evRvi †Rjvi PKwiqv _vbvi nvievs MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb wkÿvµg we‡klÁ, M‡elK I cÖvewÜK wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| wZwb RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †ev‡W©i cÖv_wgK I gva¨wgK ¯Z‡ii evsjv cvV¨cy¯Z‡Ki Ab¨Zg †jLK I m¤úv`K| evsjv GKv‡Wgxmn wewfboe cÖKvkbv ms¯’v †_‡K Zuvi eB cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| Zuvi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ MÖš’ : Ôfvlv, evbvb, wkÿvÕ, Ômvwn‡Z¨i Kv‡jvËxY© KzkxjeÕ, ÔcÖm½ mvwnZ¨, KwZcq we‡ePbvÕ BZ¨vw`|

 iPbvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb wkíKjvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq gvwUi wk‡í| GUv G †`‡ki wbR¯^ wkí| ˆekvLx †gjvq I bvbv cve©‡Y †hme †gjv e‡m, †mme †gjvq wewµ nq gvwUi ˆZwi bvbviKg cyZyj, bKkv Kiv nuvwo, gvwUi dj, ˆZRmcÎ| MÖv‡gi Kz‡gviiv wbcyYfv‡e Gme ˆZwi K‡i| cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K G †`‡k g„rwk‡íi PP©v n‡”Q| gqbvgwZi kvjeb wenvi, e¸ovi gnv¯’vbMo, ev‡Minv‡Ui lvUM¤^yR gmwR‡` †`Lv hvq †cvovgvwUi djK ev †Uiv‡KvUvi wb`k©b| ZvB gvwUi wkí Avgv‡`i HwZn¨ I M‡e©i welq|

 kãv_©¸‡jv †R‡b wbB kL

⎯ g‡bi B”Qv, iywP|

†Ucv cyZyj

⎯ Kz‡gviiv big Gu‡Uj gvwUi PvK nv‡Z wb‡q wU‡c wU‡c bvbv ai‡bi I bvbv AvKv‡ii cyZyj ˆZwi K‡i| wU‡c wU‡c ˆZwi Kiv nq e‡j Gme cyZy‡ji bvg †Ucv cyZyj| Z‡e Gme gvwUi cyZy‡ji nvZ-cv ev †Rvov¸‡jv GKUy wf‡R wf‡R gvwU w`‡q hZoe K‡i jvMv‡Z nq|

bKkv

⎯ †iLv w`‡q AvuKv Qwe| k‡Li nuvwo, †Ucv cyZyj ev cïcvwLi Mv‡q MÖv‡gi Ky‡gvi wkíxiv bvbv i‡Oi Qwe Avu‡K| G Qwe¸‡jvB nj bKkv|

kvjeb wenvi

⎯ Kywgjøvi gqbvgwZ‡Z gvwU Lyu‡o Avwe®‹…Z n‡q‡Q cÖvPxb †eŠ× mf¨Zvi wb`k©b| Aóv`k kZ‡Ki GB cyivKxwZ© evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi cwiPvqK| kvjeb wenv‡i cvIqv †M‡Q bvbv ai‡bi †cvovgvwUi djK|

†Uiv‡KvUv

⎯ GwU j¨vwUb kã| Ô†UivÕ A_© gvwU Avi Ô†KvUvÕ A_© †cvov‡bv| †cvovgvwUi ˆZwi gvby‡li e¨env‡ii me iK‡gi wRwbm †Uiv‡KvUv wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ|

KvšZwRi gw›`i ⎯ 1752 wLªóv‡ã gnvivRv igvbv_ ivq w`bvRcy‡i KvšÍwRi gw›`i wbg©vY K‡ib| G gw›`‡ii Mv‡q ¯’vwcZ Ac~e© my›`i †Uiv‡KvUv evsjvi gvwUi wk‡íi cÖvPxb wb`k©b| c„ôv-21

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cvnvocyi

⎯ ivRkvnx †Rjvi cvnvocy‡i Avwe®‹…Z n‡q‡Q cÖvPxb †eŠ× mf¨Zvi wb`k©b †mvgcyi wenvi| GB †mvgcyi wenv‡ii Avkcv‡ki eo †eŠ× gw›`‡i cvIqv †M‡Q A‡bK my›`i †Uiv‡KvUv| G¸‡jv Aóg kZ‡Ki A_©vr AvR †_‡K cÖvq evik eQi Av‡Mi ˆZwi|

gnv¯’vbMo

⎯ e¸ov kni †_‡K 12 wK‡jvwgUvi Dˇi Ki‡Zvqv b`xi Zx‡i Aew¯’Z gnv¯’vbMo| hxï wLª‡ói R‡b¥i c~‡e© Z…Zxq †_‡K c‡bi k kZ‡K evsjvi G cÖvPxb bMi M‡o I‡V| gnv¯’vbM‡o cvIqv †M‡Q A‡bK †cvovgvwUi djK, cvÎ, AjsKvi I g~wZ©|

 Aek¨B g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e: • Avgv‡`i †`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb wkí n‡”Q gvwUi wkí| • †cvovgvwUi djK Øviv †Uiv‡KvUv ˆZwi nq| • kL K‡i cQ‡›`i wRwbm †h my›`i nuvwo‡Z ivLv nq Zv‡K e‡j k‡Li nuvwo| • cvnvocyi, gnv¯’vbMo, kvjeb wenvi, †eŠ× gV¸‡jv‡Z †cvov gvwUi djK cvIqv †M‡Q|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ gvwUi wkí ej‡Z Kx eyS? A_ev, evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb wkíKg© †KvbwU? DËi: kwdDj Avjg Zuvi Ôk‡Li g„rwkíÕ iPbvwU‡Z evOvwj RvwZi HwZn¨ I M‡e©i GKwU cÖvPxb wkíKg© Z_v gvwUi wkíKg© m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| gvwUi wkí Avgv‡`i cÖvPxb HwZn¨| gvwUi ˆZwi wkíKg©‡K Avgiv gvwUi wkí ev g„rwkí e‡j _vwK| gvwUB GB wk‡íi cÖavb DcKiY| Gi Rb¨ `iKvi cwi®‹vi Gu‡Uj gvwU| evsjvi A‡bK cyi‡bv wk‡íi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ nj gvwUi wkí| Kz‡gv‡iiv Zv‡`i KvwiMwi Ávb w`‡q A‡bK hZœ I cwikªg K‡i gvwUi wkí ˆZwi K‡i _v‡Kb| gvwUi wkíKg©‡K cywo‡q ˆZwi Kiv n‡Zv †cvov gvwUi djK ev †Uiv‡KvUv| cvnvocyi, kvjeb wenvi I cyivZb †eŠ× gV ¸‡jv‡Z †cvovgvwUi GB wkíK‡g©i wb`k©b cvIqv †M‡Q| GQvov cÖvPxb A‡bK ˆZRmcÎ ˆZwi‡Z gvwUi e¨envi †`Lv wMqv‡Q| gvwU w`‡q ˆZwi wkíKg© †hgb cÖvPxb †Zgwbfv‡e Zv evOvwj HwZ‡n¨i aviK I evnK| cÖk:œ ˆekvLx †gjvq Kx Kx cvIqv hvq? DËi: ˆekvLx †gjv evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU cÖvPxb HwZn¨| kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôk‡Li g„rwkíÕ iPbvwU‡Z ˆekvLx †gjvq cvIqv hvq Ggb †mŠwLb wRwb‡mi eY©bv i‡q‡Q| ˆekvLx †gjv evOvwj HwZ‡n¨i aviK| RvwZ-ag© wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡jB GB †gjvq Avb›` Drme K‡i _v‡K| G †gjvq bvbv ai‡bi wRwbmcÎ cvIqv hvq| GLv‡b euv‡ki ˆZwi wRwb‡mi g‡a¨ cvIqv hvq Kz‡jv, c„ôv-22

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Wvjv, Szwo, Pvjyb, LjB Ges Av‡iv A‡bK wKQz| gvwUi ˆZwi wRwbmc‡Îi gv‡S Av‡Q k‡Li nuvwo, Kjm, miv, evmb-‡Kvmb. gUKv, Rvjv, bvbv ai‡bi †Ljbv cyZzj, wc‡V ˆZwii QuvP BZ¨vw`| cÖk:œ g„rwk‡íi cÖavb Dcv`vb Kx? DËi: gvwUi ˆZwi wkíKg©‡K g„rwkí ejv nq| kwdDj Avj‡gi Ôk‡Li g„rwkíÕ iPbvwU‡Z evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb GB wkíKg© ˆZwii cÖavb Dcv`vb m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q| g„rwk‡íi cÖavb Dcv`vb n‡jv gvwU| gvwU w`‡q wewfbœ wRwbm ˆZwi Kivi ci Kzgviiv iO-Zzwji ¯ú‡k© G‡K my›`i K‡i †Zv‡jb| me ai‡bi gvwU w`‡q G wkí nq bv| Gi Rb¨ `iKvi cwi®‹vi Gu‡Uj gvwU| G gvwU †ek AvVv‡jv| ZvB gvwUi wk‡í G gvwU‡K B”Qv g‡Zv AvKvi †`qv hvq| cÖk:œ K‡qKwU gvwUi wkí ev g„rwk‡íi bvg wjL| DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb wkí n‡jv g„rwkí| kwdDj Avj‡gi Ôk‡Li g„rwkíÕ wbe‡Ü Gme wk‡íi eY©bv †`qv n‡q‡Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡k wewfbœ ai‡bi gvwUi wkí i‡q‡Q| Kz‡gviiv Zv‡`i Kg©‰bc‡Y¨ Gme gvwUi wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i| gvwUi ˆZwi GiKg K‡qKwU wk‡íi g‡a¨ Av‡Q gvwUi Kjm, nuvwo, miv, evmb-‡Kvmb, wc‡V ˆZwii QuvP, bvbv ai‡bi †Ljbv I cyZzj| GQvovI gvwUi djK cywo‡q ˆZwi Kiv nq †cvov gvwUi djK| gvwUi GB wkíKg©¸‡jv cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡KB Avgv‡`i †MŠi‡ei welq| cÖk:œ †Uiv‡KvUv Kx? Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, †cvovgvwUi djK m¤ú‡K© wjL| DËi: g„rwk‡íi cÖvPxb wb`k©‡bi GKwU n‡jv †Uiv‡KvUv ev †cvovgvwUi djK| k‡Li g„rwkí iPbvwU‡Z †Uiv‡KvUv wk‡íi cwiPq †`qv n‡q‡Q| bKkv Kiv gvwUi djK cywo‡q †h wkíKg© ˆZwi Kiv nq Zv‡K †cvovgvwUi djK ev †Uiv‡KvUv e‡j| †Uiv‡KvUv GKwU j¨vwUb kã| ey¨rcwËMZ A‡_© †cvovgvwUi ˆZwi gvby‡li e¨env‡ii meiK‡gi wRwbm †Uiv‡KvUv wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| kvjeb wenvi, gnv¯’vbMo, cvnvocyi †eŠ× gV cÖf„wZ ¯’v‡b †Uiv‡KvUvi KvR i‡q‡Q|

 we‡klfv‡e ¯§iY ivL‡e:  k‡Li nuvwo: wewfbœ ai‡bi bKkv AvuKv gvwUi nuvwo| kL K‡i cQ‡›`i wRwbm G my›`i nuvwo‡Z ivLv nq, ZvB Gi bvg k‡Li nuvwo| gvwUi ˆZwi nvwo‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi iO jvwM‡q k‡Li nuvwo ˆZwi Kiv nq|  †UcvcyZzj: †UcvcyZzj g„rwk‡íi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| Kz‡gv‡iiv big Gu‡Uj gvwUi PvK nv‡Z wb‡q wU‡c wU‡c bvbv AvKv‡ii, bvbv ai‡bi cyZzj ˆZwi K‡i _v‡K| gvwU wU‡c-wU‡c Gme cyZzj ˆZwi Kiv nq e‡j G¸‡jvi bvg †UcvcyZzj| c„ôv-23

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

K_vq Av‡Q gvgvi evwo  k‡Li nuvwo/ i‡mi nuvwo/ fvjevmvi nuvwo DËi: i‡mi nuvwo

(L)

kvjeb wenvi Aew¯’Z  gqbvgwZ/ KzqvKvUv/ K·evRvi DËi: gqbvgwZ

(M)

†Uiv‡KvUv A_©  †cvov‡bv gvwU/ Gu‡Uj gvwU/ †e‡j gvwU DËi: †cvov‡bv gvwU

(N)

ivRkvnx †Rjvq Aew¯’Z  kvjeb weRvi/ cvnvocyi/ kvjeb wenvi DËi: cvnvocyi

(O)

cvnvocy‡i wb`k©b i‡q‡Q  cÖvPxb wn›`y mf¨Zvi/ †eŠ× mf¨Zvi/ wgkixq mf¨Zvi DËi: cÖvPxb †eŠ× mf¨Zvi

c„ôv-24

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†K? Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß (1812-1859)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß 1812 wLªóv‡ã cwðge‡½i wkqvjWv½v KuvPovcvovq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb cÖPyi e¨½we`ƒªc I nvwmi KweZv iPbv K‡i‡Qb| Ômsev` cÖfvKiÕ cwÎKvi m¤úv`K wn‡m‡e wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| wZwb RxweZ _vK‡Z Zuvi Kve¨MÖ‡š’i g‡a¨ ÔcÖ‡eva cÖfvKiÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| Ab¨vb¨ Kve¨MÖš’ Zuvi g„Zy¨i ci cÖKvwkZ nq| 1859 wLªóv‡ã wZwb g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB G KweZvq c„w_ex‡Z †K avwg©K, †K myLx, †K weÁ, †K axi, †K mvay, †K Ávbx ev g~L© GB wRÁvmvi GKwU ¯có aviYv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| †m-B cÖK…Z avwg©K †h me©Rx‡e `qv K‡i, fv‡jvev‡m| †m-B cÖK…Z myLx, hvi †Kv‡bv †ivM †bB; †m-B cÖK…Z weÁ hvi fv‡jv g›` †eva Av‡Q| wZwbB cÖK…Z axi whwb wec‡` wePwjZ nb bv| wZwbB cÖK…Z Ávbx e¨w³ whwb c‡ii Kvi‡Y ¯^v_© ewj †`b; Avi †m e¨w³B mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© Ávbx hvi fv‡jv g›` †evSvi ÿgZv Av‡Q| A_P †m-B g~L© hvi wb‡Ri fv‡jv g›` †eva _v‡K bv, wb‡Ri ÿwZ wb‡RB K‡i|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB avwg©K

⎯ whwb wbR ag©xq Av‡`k wb‡`©k †g‡b P‡jb| ⎯ fvlvwe` W.gyn¤§` knx`yj−vn avwg©K wQ‡jb|

me©Rx‡e ⎯ me iKg Rx‡ei cÖwZ| ⎯ me©Rx‡e `qv Kiv gvby‡li KZ©e¨| mZZ

⎯ me mgq| ⎯ mZZ fv‡jv KvR Kie, Kv‡iv g‡b `ytL †`e bv|

Av‡ivMx ⎯ bx‡ivM| ⎯ Zvi AUzU ¯^v¯’¨ †`L‡jB †evSv hvq †m Av‡ivMx| weÁ

⎯ hvi we‡kl Ávb Av‡Q| ⎯ weÁ †jv‡Ki KvQ †_‡K civgk© †bIqv fv‡jv|

wnZvwnZ ⎯ Kj¨vY I AKj¨vY| wnZ k‡ãi A_© Kj¨vY| AwnZ A_© AKj¨vY| ⎯ wnZvwnZ we‡ePbv K‡i KvR Kiv fv‡jv| g~L©

⎯ wbZvšÍ †evKv, hvi †eva kw³ †bB| ⎯ K_vq Av‡Q g~L© eÜyi †P‡q Ávbx kÎy fv‡jv|

†eva

⎯ eySevi ÿgZv| ⎯ wbR †eva I we‡ePbv w`‡q Avgv‡`i KvR Ki‡Z n‡e|

mvay

⎯ mr, avwg©K| ⎯ †jvKwU †hgb mvay, †Zgwb wbinsKvi| ⎯ mvay e¨w³‡K mevB kª×v K‡i|

c„ôv-25

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 k‡ãi we‡kl e¨envi jÿ Kwi Kv‡i - Kv‡K Zv‡i - Zv‡K hv‡i - hv‡K

welqe¯‘: Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß iwPZ Ô‡K?Õ bvgK KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| GB KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li bvbv gvbexq ¸‡Yi ¯^iƒc Zz‡j a‡i Avgv‡`i mwVK c‡_ Pjvi Drmvn I †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Qb| whwb wbR ag©xq Av‡`k- wb‡la †g‡b P‡jb Zuv‡K avwg©K e‡j| G c„w_ex‡Z cÖK…Z avwg©K †jv‡Ki eoB Afve| wZwbB cÖK…Z avwg©K whwb mªóvi m„ó mKj Rx‡ei cÖwZ `qv †`Lvb A_©vr gvqv-ggZv †`Lvb| Rxe nZ¨v †_‡K weiZ _v‡Kb| ¯^v¯’¨B mKj my‡Li g~j| ZvB Kwe †mB †jvK‡KB cÖK…Z myLx e‡j‡Qb hvi kix‡i †Kvb †ivM †bB| KviY Av‡ivMx ev †ivMgy³ e¨w³B Rxe‡bi mKj Avb›` Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z cv‡ib| fvjg›` Dcjwä Kivi Ávb hv‡`i gv‡S Av‡Q ZvivB weÁRb A_©vr G mgvR msmv‡i †KvbUv fv‡jv, †KvbUv b¨vq, †KvbUv Ab¨vq- Gme †evSvi Ávb hv‡`i i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i‡KB Avgiv weÁRb wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi| †h e¨w³ wec‡`-Avc‡` wePwjZ bv n‡q axiw¯’i †_‡K wec` †gvKv‡ejv Ki‡Z cv‡ib wZwbB cÖK…Z exi| hv‡`i wnZvwnZ †ev‡ai Afve i‡q‡Q, wb‡Ri ÿwZ wb‡RB K‡i ZvivB g~L|© c‡ii Kj¨v‡Y Rxeb DrmM©Kvix e¨w³B mvay wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| whwb c‡ii Kj¨v‡Y ¯^v_© Z¨vM K‡ib Ges wbR fv‡jvg›` Dcjwä Kivi Ávb i‡q‡Q Zv‡K Avgiv Ávbx e¨w³ e‡j AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ cÖK…Z avwg©K e¨w³i †Kvb ¸Y _vKv DwPZ? DËi: Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß iwPZ Ô‡K?Õ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| G KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li bvbv gvbexq ¸‡Yi ¯^iƒc Zz‡j a‡i Avgv‡`i mwVK c‡_ Pjvi Drmvn I †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Qb| gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| m„wói †miv Rxe gvbyl‡K m„wóKZ©v wKQy bv wKQy Ávb w`‡q‡Qb| m„wói †miv Rxe gvby‡li gv‡S whwb wbR Av‡`k-wb‡la †g‡b P‡jb Zuv‡K avwg©K ejv nq| ˆewPΨgq G c„w_ex‡Z avwg©K †jv‡Ki Afve †bB mZ¨; wKš‘ cÖK…Z avwg©K †jv‡Ki msL¨v LyeB bMY¨| wZwbB cÖK…Z avwg©K whwb mªóvi m„ó mKj Rx‡ei cÖwZ `qv †`Lvb| Rxe nZ¨v †_‡K weiZ _v‡Kb| wZwb wewfbœ mr ¸Yvewji AwaKvix| mevB Zv‡K †kªô‡Z¡i gyKzU civq| e¯‘Z cÖK…Z avwg©K e¨w³i ¸‡Yi †Kv‡bv AšÍ _v‡K bv| Zv‡`i ¸YvewjB Zv‡`i‡K mevi wbKU gnvb K‡i| Zviv Zv‡`i mnbkxj I mshgx Pwi‡Îi Rb¨B c„w_ex‡Z AgiZ¡ jvf K‡ib| c„ôv-26

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ cÖK…Z myLx gvbyl †K? DËi:Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß iwPZ Ô‡K?Õ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| GB KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li bvbv gvbexq ¸‡Yi ¯^iƒc Zz‡j a‡i Avgv‡`i mwVKc‡_ Pjvi Drmvn I †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Qb| cÖev` Av‡Q Ô¯^v¯’¨B mKj my‡Li g~j|Õ †h e¨w³i †Kv‡bv AmyL-wemyL †bB A_©vr my-¯^v‡¯’¨i AwaKvix Zv‡KB Avgiv Av‡ivMx ej‡Z cvwi| ZvB Kwe ¯^v¯’¨evb I Av‡ivMx †jvK‡KB cÖK…Z myLx wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| KviY, my¯’ kixi my&¯’ gb-gvbwmKZvi cwiPvqK| GKRb bx‡ivM e¨w³B eyS‡Z cv‡i myL Kx? †m Rxe‡bi mKj Avb›`B Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨w`‡K hvi kixi me©`vB Amy¯’ _v‡K, †Kvjvnj gyLi G c„w_exi mKj Avb›`B Zvi Kv‡Q wZ³ I we¯^v` jv‡M| Zvi Rxeb †_‡K nvwmAvb›` wPi we`vq †bq| d‡j myL bvgK †mvbvi nwi‡Yi †`Lv Zvi fv‡M¨ †Rv‡U bv| e¯‘Z, my¯’ †`‡n my›`i g‡bi evm| Avi ZvB‡Zv Av‡ivMx e¨w³B cÖK…Z myLx gvbyl| cÖk:œ wnZvwnZ †eva Av‡Q Ggb e¨w³ †K? DËi: Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß iwPZ Ô‡K?Õ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| GB KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li bvbv gvbexq ¸‡Yi ¯^iƒc Zz‡j a‡i Avgv‡`i mwVK c‡_ Pjvi Drmvn I †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Qb| fv‡jvg›` Dcjwä Kivi Ávb hv‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡Q ZvivB wnZvwnZ Ávbm¤úbœ e¨w³ A_©vr weÁRb| mgvR msmv‡i †KvbUv fv‡jv, †KvbUv g›`, †KvbUv b¨vq, †KvbUv Ab¨vq- Gme †eva hv‡`i †fZ‡i Av‡Q Zv‡`i‡KB weÁRb ejv n‡q _v‡K| fv‡jv-g‡›`i cv_©K¨ wbiƒcYB weÁR‡bi cÖavb KvR| mgv‡Ri Ab¨vq I Am½wZ cwinvi K‡i b¨vq I m‡Z¨i c‡_ Pj‡Z Zviv wewfbœ w`K-wb‡`©kbv w`‡q _v‡Kb| e¯‘Z Zviv me©`vB mZ¨ Ges my›`‡ii cyRvix| cÖk:œ Ávbx e¨w³ †K? DËi: Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß iwPZ Ô†K?Õ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| GB KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li bvbv gvbexq ¸‡Yi ¯^iƒc Zz‡j a‡i Avgv‡`i mwVK c‡_ Pjvi Drmvn I †cÖiYv w`‡q‡Qb| gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| m„wói †miv Rxe cÖ‡Z¨KwU gvbyl‡K m„wóKZ©v wKQy bv wKQy Ávb w`‡q‡Qb| Ávb AR©b mnR KvR bq| Rxe‡bi `yM©g c‡_ wePiY K‡i Ávb AR©b Ki‡Z nq| whwb wek¦RM‡Zi Ges Rxe‡bi ARvbv‡K †ewk Rv‡bb Zv‡K mvaviY `„wó‡Z Ávbx ejv nq; A_©vr Áv‡bi fvÛv‡i cwic~Y© e¨w³‡K Ávbx ejv nq| wKš‘ Kwei `„wó‡Z A_©vr cÖK…Zc‡ÿ wZwbB cÖK…Z Ávbx e¨w³ hvi wbR m¤^‡Ü fvj-g›` Ávb i‡q‡Q, †h wb‡Ri mgv‡jvPbv Ki‡Z Rv‡b; A_©vr wbR †evam¤úbœ e¨w³‡KB Avgiv Ávbx e‡j AwfwnZ Ki‡Z cvwi| Ávbx e¨w³ me©`v AvZ¥m‡PZb| wZwb wb‡Ri b¨vq-Ab¨vq, †`vl-ÎæwU wb‡RB g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| e¯‘Z, wb‡Ri fv‡jv-g›`, fyj-ÎæwU ms‡kvab Kiv Ávbx e¨w³i c‡ÿ m¤¢e| wbR †eva kw³ bv _vK‡j †m Ávbx n‡Z cv‡i bv| c„ôv-27

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 m¤¢ve¨ e¨vL¨v Abykxjb: e¨vL¨v (K): ej †`wL G RM‡Z avwg©K †K nq, me©Rx‡e `qv hvi avwg©K †m nq| DËi: Drm: Av‡jvP¨ cOw³wU Kwe Ck¦i P›`ª ¸‡ßi (1812-1859) Ô‡K?Õ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| GwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| cÖm&½: Av‡jvP¨ cOw³wU‡Z Kwe cÖK…Z avwg©‡Ki ˆewkó¨ m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| we‡kølY: mKj Rx‡ei cÖwZ hvi `qv Av‡Q Kwei g‡Z, cÖK…Z avwg©K n‡jb †mRb| GB RM‡Zi m„wóKZ©v GKRbB| Zvi m„wó‡K fv‡jvevmv cÖ‡Z¨K gvby‡liB KZ©e¨| Rx‡e `qv Kiv n‡jB Ck¦‡ii †mev Kiv nq| Avi mKj Rxe‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m Avcb K‡i †bevi ga¨ w`‡qB RM‡Zi Kj¨vY| ZvB Kwe cÖK…Z avwg©K Zv‡KB e‡j‡Qb mKj Rx‡ei cÖwZ hvi `qv I fv‡jvevmv mgvb| gšÍe¨: avwg©K e¨w³ GB RM‡Zi Rb¨ Kj¨vYKi| ZvB mKj Rxe‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m I ggZv Øviv Avcb Kivi ga¨ w`‡q cÖK…Z avwg©K nIqv DwPZ| e¨vL¨v (L): Òej †`wL G RM‡Z g~L© ewj Kv‡i, wbR Kvh© bó K‡i, g~L© ewj Zv‡i|Ó DËi: Drm: Av‡jvP¨ cOw³wU Kwe Ck¦i P›`ª ¸‡ßi (1812-1859) Ô†K?Õ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| GB bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZvwUi Øviv Kwe gvbyl‡K wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb nevi civgk© w`‡q‡Qb| cÖm½: cÖK…Z A‡_©B Kwe gvbyl‡K wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb nevi civgk© GB cOw³i Øviv w`‡q‡Qb| we‡kølY: weÁ gvbyl gvÎB wb‡Ri cÖwZ hZœkxj I AvZ¥m‡PZb| Avi gvbyl hLb wb‡Ri fv‡jv-g›`‡K wVK g‡Zv Abyaveb Ki‡Z wk‡L ZLb Zvi c‡ÿ mwVK KvRwU Kiv mn‡R n‡q hvq| Aci w`‡K g~L© e¨w³ AvZ¥m‡PZb bq| †m wb‡Ri Rb¨ mwVK KvRwU mn‡R wba©viY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j A‡bK fyj wm×všÍ‡K MÖnY K‡i| Avi ZvB ejv hvq, g~L© e¨w³ KLbB AvZ¥m‡PZb bq †mRb¨ †m wb‡Ri Kvh© wb‡RB bó K‡i| gšÍe¨: AvZ¥m‡PZb e¨w³ KLbB wb‡Ri Rb¨ ÿwZKi ev fyj wKQz‡K MÖnY K‡i bv| Aciw`‡K g~L© e¨w³ gvÎB wb‡Ri fv‡jv-g›` wePv‡i mÿg bq| ZvB Zvi wb‡Ri ÿwZ wb‡Ri ØvivB nq|

c„ôv-28

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) ag©xq Av‡`k wb‡`©k †g‡b P‡jb  avwg©K/ Aavwg©K/ eKavwg©K DËi: avwg©K (L)

weÁ ewj  wnZvwnZ †eva Av‡Q hvi/ wnZvwnZ †eva †bB hvi/ cwÐZ DËi: wnZvwnZ †eva Av‡Q hvi

(M)

wbR Kvh© bó Kwi‡j ejv nq  Ávbx/ g~L©/ K~cgÐyK DËi: g~L©

(N)

c‡ii †h fvj K‡i  Ávbx ewj Zv‡i/ mvay ewj Zv‡i/ g~L© ewj Zv‡i DËi: mvay ewj Zv‡i

c„ôv-29

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

ˆ`Z¨ I †R‡j  †R‡b wbB Kí Kvwnbx ÔAvwjd jvqjvÕ ev Avie¨ iRbx Aviexq Mí n‡jI Avm‡j Kvwnbx¸‡jvi Rb¥ cÖvPxb wgk‡i| 1001 wU KvwnbxwfwËK Avie¨iRbxi Mí¸‡jv †jv‡Ki gy‡L gy‡L wdi‡Z wdi‡Z AwaKvskB msM„nxZ n‡q‡Q evM`v‡`i Lwjdv nviæb Ai ikx‡`i Avg‡j (764-809 wLª.) Ges dv‡Zgxq (968-1171 wLª.) I gvgjyK (1250-1382 wLª.) ivRes‡ki mg‡q| Avm‡j †gŠwLK †jvKK_v¸‡jv GK nv‡Z, GK mg‡q, Ggb wK GK †`‡ki †jLv nq wb| cÖg wjwLZ iƒcI †c‡q‡Q cÖvPxb cviwmK fvlvq nvRvi Avdmvbv ev nvRvi Mí bv‡g| †gvNj Avg‡j G Kvwnbx¸‡jv ga¨cÖvP¨ †_‡K G †`‡k G‡m‡Q| Mí¸‡jv GLb wek¦ mvwnZ¨ RM‡Zi m¤c`|

 wb‡Pi k¦`¸‡jvi A_© †R‡b wbB, evK¨ wjwL †R‡j

⎯ grm¨ wkKvix| ⎯ †R‡jiv gvQ †e‡P msmvi Pvjvq|

Kvq‡K¬‡k ⎯ kvixwiK cwikªg K‡i| ⎯ kªwgKiv Kvq‡K¬‡k Rxebhvcb K‡i| ¸Rivb

⎯ AwZevwnZ Kiv, hvcb| ⎯ †m Lye Kv‡ó w`b ¸Rivb K‡i|

gwR©

⎯ B”Qv, m¤§wZ| ⎯ gwR© n‡j GLb Zzwg Mvb MvB‡Z cvi|

Rvjv

⎯ weivU gvwUi cvÎ we‡kl| ⎯ Rvjvi g‡a¨ w`Z¨wU ew›` wQj|

Abvnvi

⎯ Dcevm, bv †L‡q _vKv| ⎯ Mwie †jvKwU †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv w`b Abvnv‡i KvUvq|

†Mv¯ZvwK ⎯ Aciva, Awbqg| ⎯ wkÿK ej‡jb, ÔZzwg †Mv¯ZvwK K‡iQ, gvd PvIÕ| bwme

⎯ fvM¨, A`„ó| ⎯ Avgvi bwme fv‡jv|

e`bwme ⎯ g›` fvM¨| ⎯ e`bwme †Q‡jwUi cixÿvi Av‡Mi iv‡Z R¡i nj| †k¦Z

⎯ mv`v, aej| ⎯ ZvRgnj †k¦Z cv_i Øviv wbwg©Z|

Av¯’v

⎯ fimv, wek¦vm| ⎯ iwn‡gi Ici mK‡ji Av¯’v Av‡Q|

ReŸi

⎯ welg, `viæY| ⎯ †Zvgv‡K GKwU ReŸi Lei †`e|

†eCgvb

⎯ AK…ZÁ, wek¦vmNvZK| ⎯ mevB †eCgvb‡K N„Yv K‡i|

cÖwZÁv

⎯ kc_, A½xKvi| ⎯ mevi DcKvi Kie ⎯ G Avgvi cÖwZÁv|

†gvni

⎯ ¯^Y©gy`ªv, GLv‡b wmj ev bv‡gi Qvc| ⎯ cixÿvi DËicθ‡jv †gvni K‡i `vI|

c„ôv-30

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi D”PviY I evbvb †R‡b wbB Kvq‡K¬‡k, KmiZ, e¨_©, welYoe, `xN©k¦vm, weùvwiZ, KzÐwj, fqsKi, Av¯’v, AvZ¼, we‡`ªvnx, wek¦¯Z|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ †R‡ji msmvi Kxfv‡e PjZ? DËi: KvwnbxwfwËK Avie¨ iRbxi M‡íi GKwU Ab¨Zg Mí n‡jv Ô‰`Z¨ I †R‡jÕ Mí| GB M‡íi ga¨ w`‡q Avgiv GKRb AK…ZÁ ˆ`Z¨ I Dcw¯’Z eyw×m¤úbœ †R‡ji cwiPq cvB| M‡íi †R‡j gvQ a‡i msmvi PvjvZ| †m cÖwZw`b b`x‡Z cuvP evi K‡i Rvj †djZ| G‡Z †h gvQ †cZ Zv †e‡PB msmv‡ii LiP PvjvZ| AwZ K‡ó †m Zvi w`b hvcb Ki‡Zv| cÖk:œ Rvjv †`‡L Kx fvej? DËi: Ôˆ`Z¨ I †R‡jÕ M‡íi †R‡j b`x‡Z Pvievi Rvj †d‡jI †Kvb gvQ cvq bv| ZLb †m cÂgevi b`x‡Z Rvj †dj‡j GKwU Rvjv D‡V Av‡m| Zvgvi Rvjvi gyLwU XvKbv w`‡q AvUKv‡bv wQj Ges †mLv‡b `vD` cyÎ my‡jgv‡bi bvg †jLv wQj| ev`kvnx Rvjv †`‡L †R‡j fvej, †mLv‡b A‡bK gwYiZœ jywK‡q Av‡Q| abiZœ cvevi Avkvq †R‡ji gb Avb‡›` f‡i DV‡jv| cÖk:œ Rvjv †_‡K Kx †ei n‡q Avmj? DËi: Rvjv †_‡K ˆ`Z¨ †ei n‡q G‡mwQj| ˆ`Z¨wU wQj weivU Ges fqsKi| cÖk:œ ˆ`Z¨wU †`L‡Z †Kgb wQj? DËi: Ôˆ`Z¨ I †R‡jÕ MíwU Avwjd jvqjv ev Avie¨ iRbxi Mí †_‡K msKwjZ| †gvNj Avg‡j GB †gŠwLK †jvKKvwnbx¸‡jv ga¨cÖvP¨ †_‡K GB †`‡k G‡m‡Q| †R‡j gyL AvUKv‡bv Rvjvi gyL Lyj‡j ivwk ivwk †auvqvi KzÐwj cvwK‡q †ei n‡q Av‡m GK ˆ`Z¨| ˆ`‡Z¨i gv_vUv wQj wekvj Szwoi gZ| †mLv‡b GKMvwQ PzjI wQj bv| Av¸‡bi †Mvjvi g‡Zv fqsKi wQj Zvi †PvL Avi †k¦Z cv_‡ii UzK‡ivi g‡Zv emv‡bv `uvZ| ˆ`Z¨wU wQj ev`kvn my‡jgv‡bi †Mvjvg| cÖk:œ ev`kvn †Kb ˆ`Z¨‡K ew›` K‡iwQ‡jb? DËi: Ô‰`Z¨ I †R‡jÕ M‡íi ˆ`Z¨ mK-ni-Aj R¡xb ev`kvn my‡jgv‡bi †Mvjvg wQj| ÿgZvi `‡¤¢ †m `ywbqvi KvD‡K c‡ivqv Ki‡Zv bv| GKw`b †m ev`kvn my‡jgv‡bi ûKzg cvj‡b A¯^xKvi Ki‡j, ev`kvn Zv‡K Rvjvi †fZ‡i ew›` K‡i| ˆ`Z¨wU cÖvq AvVvik eQi Rvjvi †fZi ew›` wQj| c„ôv-31

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ ˆ`Z¨ †Kb †R‡j‡K gvi‡Z †P‡qwQj? DËi: ev`kvn my‡jgv‡bi ûKzg cvj‡b A¯^xKvi K‡i mK-ni-Aj R¡xb bvgK ˆ`Z¨wU cÖvq AvVvik eQi Rvjvi g‡a¨ ew›` wQj| wKš‘ ew›``kvi cÖ_g mvZkZ eQ‡ii g‡a¨ †m cY K‡iwQj, gyw³`vZv‡K Dcnvi w`‡e| wKš‘ †m gy³ nqwb| ZLb iv‡M-`yt‡L-Acgv‡b †m cY K‡i gyw³`vZv‡K †m KZj Ki‡e| GB AK…ZÁ ˆ`Z¨wU cY Kivi nvRvi eQi ci †R‡j Øviv gy&³ n‡j, †m †R‡j‡K nZ¨v Ki‡Z Pvq| †Kbbv cY Abymv‡i †R‡jB Zvi gyw³`vZv wQj| cÖk:œ †R‡j †Kgb K‡i ˆ`‡Z¨i nvZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K iÿv Kij? DËi: Avie¨ iRbxi Aej¤^‡b iwPZ KíKvwnbx Ô‰`Z¨ I †R‡jÕ M‡íi †R‡j Dcw¯’Z eyw×i Øviv wb‡R‡K ˆ`‡Z¨i nvZ †_‡K gy³ K‡i| M‡íi ˆ`Z¨ hLb †R‡j‡K gvi‡Z PvBj ZLb †R‡j Qjbvi Avkªq K‡i ˆ`Z¨‡K cybivq Rvjvi †fZ‡i cÖ‡ek Kivj Ges Rvjvi gyL cybivq eÜ K‡i cybivq †mUv‡K b`x‡Z †d‡j w`j| Gfv‡eB †R‡j fqsKi ˆ`‡Z¨i nvZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K iÿv Kij|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) Gev‡i †Zv‡i iÿv K‡i †K e‡jwQ‡jb  †R‡j/ Kzgvi/ Kvgvi DËi: †R‡j (L) †Lv`vB Kiv cv‡Î †jLwQj hvi bvg  `vD‡`i cyÎ my‡jgvb/ BqvKz‡ei cyÎ BDmyd/ Beªvwn‡gi cyÎ BmgvBj DËi: `vD‡`i cyÎ my‡jgvb (M) my‡jgvb †e‡n‡¯Í P‡j †M‡jb  AvVvik eQi Av‡M/ GMvik eQi Av‡M/ †Zik eQi Av‡M DËi: AvVvik eQi Av‡M

c„ôv-32

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Kzg‡ov I cvwLi K_v  k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB wbR©b

⎯ Rbk b¨, wbwiwewj| ⎯ wbR©b b`xi Zx‡i ivLvj Mvb MvB‡Q|

`ykgb

⎯ kÎy| ⎯ †cvKv dm‡ji kÎy|

civM

⎯ dz‡ji †iYy| ⎯ gy‡L dz‡ji civM †g‡L jZvi †`vjbvq `yje|

 K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB †iv` D‡V‡Q †Zv, GLb Avgvi hvIqvi cvjv

⎯ †iv` DV‡j wkwki ïwK‡q hvq| †m Rb¨ wkwki G K_v ej‡Q|

Zywg Avgv‡`i DcKvix eÜy

⎯ A‡bK †cvKv-gvKo Mv‡Qi ÿwZ K‡i| †`v‡qj cvwL †mme †L‡q †d‡j| ZvB, Kzg‡ov †`v‡qj‡K DcKvix eÜy ej‡Q|

cvZvi g‡a¨ Avgvi ivboevevboev n‡PQ

⎯ Mv‡Q †iv` c‡o, †kKo gvwU †_‡K im msMÖn K‡i| GB †iv` I im †_‡K cvZv Mv‡Qi Rb¨ Lvevi ˆZwi K‡i| GRb¨B Kzg‡ov e‡j‡Q cvZvq Zvi ivboevevboev n‡”Q|

dyj †_‡K dy‡j civM hvq

⎯ cÖ‡Z¨K dy‡j civM _v‡K| GK dyj †_‡K Av‡iK dz‡j civM †M‡j Z‡eB dj nq| evZvm, †gŠgvwQ, †fvgiv I cvwL dyj †_‡K dy‡j civM wb‡q hvq|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ †`v‡qj cvwL Kzg‡ovi Kx DcKvi K‡i? DËi: f~wgKv: †`v‡qj Avgv‡`i RvZxq cvwL| ÔKzg‡ov I cvwLi K_vÕ bvwUKvq †`v‡qj PwiÎwU AZ¨šÍ Zvrch©c~Y|© Kzg‡ov Avi †`v‡q‡ji g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Mfxi eÜzZ|¡ D³ bvwUKvq Kzg‡ov I †`v‡qj G‡K Ac‡ii DcKvix eÜz| †`v‡qj cvwL Kzg‡ovi †h DcKvi K‡i: †cvKv-gvKo Mv‡Qi kÎæ| Giv Mv‡Qi dzj †L‡q bó K‡i †d‡j| ZvB dzj †_‡K d‡ji D™¢e NU‡Z cv‡i bv| †`v‡qj cvwL Gme ÿwZKi †cvKv †L‡q †d‡j| G‡Z Kzg‡ovi dzj iÿv cvq| d‡j †m dzj †_‡K Kzg‡ov dj eo nq| Kzg‡ov KwP Ae¯’vqI †mme †cvKvgvK‡oi Avµg‡Yi m¤§yLxb nq, †`v‡qj cvwL †mme †cvKvgvKo †L‡q Kzg‡ovi eo n‡Z mnvqZv c„ôv-33

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

K‡i| ZvQvov †`v‡qj cvwLi mywgó MvbI Kzg‡ov‡K Avb›` `vb K‡i| †`v‡qj cvwL Gfv‡e Kzg‡ovi DcKvi K‡i| Dcmsnvi: cÖK…wZ‡Z me RxeRš‘B DcKvix| AvcvZ `„wó‡Z †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv cÖvYx AwbóKi ev ÿwZKi n‡jI wewfbœfv‡e Giv cÖK…wZ-RMr‡K euvwP‡q †i‡L‡Q| cÖk:œ gvby‡li weiæ‡× †`v‡qj cvwL Kx Kx Awf‡hvM K‡i‡Q? DËi: f~wgKv: Avgv‡`i †`‡k wewPÎ is-†ei‡Oi cvwL Av‡Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ †`v‡qj cvwL Ab¨Zg| †`v‡qj cvwL Avgv‡`i wewfbœfv‡e DcKvi K‡i _v‡K| gvbyl A‡bK mgq cÖK…wZi Ici wbR¯^ cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i cÖK…wZi ÿwZmvab K‡i| gvby‡li G ÿwZmvab †`‡L †`v‡qj cvwL A‡bK Kó cvq Ges gvby‡li weiæ‡× Zvi g‡b Awf‡hvM I‡V| gvby‡li weiæ‡× †`v‡qj cvwLi Awf‡hvM: gvby‡li weiæ‡× †`v‡q‡ji A‡bK Awf‡hvM| G¸‡jv n‡jve‡bi MvQcvjv †K‡U mvd Ki‡Q gvbyl| cvwL I RxeRš‘‡`iI gvbyl Avnvh© wn‡m‡e †L‡q †dj‡Q| cïcvwL a‡i a‡i Zviv LuvPvq Ave× K‡i| GQvov gvbyl gvbyl‡K gvivi Rb¨ bvbv iKg A¯¿ evbv‡”Q, †evgv gvi‡Q| Dcmsnvi: cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvKvix cï-cvwLi cÖwZ gvby‡li wb`©q, wbôzi AvPiY gvby‡li gvbeZv‡KB jw¾Z, N„wYZ K‡i| cÖk:œ UzbUzwb Kzg‡ov‡K Kx Lei w`j? DËi: f~wgKv: UzbUzwb Avgv‡`i GKwU AwZ cwiwPZ cvwL| G cvwL AvKv‡i A‡bK †QvU Ges Lye PÂj| UzbUzwb cvwL I Kzg‡ovi g‡a¨ wQj GKUv mym¤úK©| UzbUzwb cvwL wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ ai‡bi Lei Kzg‡ov‡K †kvbvZ| UzbUzwb cvwL Zvi wbR KZ©‡e¨ LyeB m‡PZb| UzbUzwb Kzg‡ov‡K †h me Lei w`j Zvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡QMvQcvjv KvUvi Lei: UzbUzwb Kzg‡ov‡K Lei w`j †h, e‡bi wfZi †K †hb Pvl Kivi Rb¨ MvQcvjv †K‡U Rwg ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| Wvjcvjvq Av¸b aiv‡bvi Lei: Zviv †mB Wvjcvjv †cvov‡bvi Rb¨ Av¸b w`‡q‡Q| cvwL‡`i Qy‡UvQywUi Lei: wU‡q, wd‡O, `uvoKvK, evbi, fvjyK- mevB wg‡j Qy‡UvQywU †PuPv‡gwP K‡i eb †Zvjcvo K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| Av¸b Qwo‡q covi Lei: Wvjcvjvi Av¸b Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| GLb ˆekvL gvm, cvZv, Wvjcvjv me ïwK‡q †M‡Q| †Kv_v †_‡K nvIqv G‡m Ry‡U‡Q| `vD `vD K‡i R¡j‡Q mewKQy| gvby‡li Av¸b †bfv‡bvi Lei: †PuPv‡gwP‡Z gvbyl Qy‡U G‡m‡Q| Av¸b †bfv‡”Q| †Uvbv †`v‡q‡ji †mev Ki‡Q| Dcmsnvi: e‡bi wfZi AcÖZ¨vwkZ KvÐ msNU‡bi Lei Kzg‡ov‡K Rvwb‡q UzbUzwb wb‡Ri KZ©e¨civqYZviB cÖgvY †i‡L‡Q| UzbUzwbi g‡Zv Avgv‡`i mK‡jiI KZ©e¨civqY nIqv DwPZ| c„ôv-34

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ e‡b Av¸b †j‡M Kx ÿwZ n‡jv? Av¸b †bfv‡Z Kviv Qy‡U Gj? DËi: f~wgKv: Av¸b AZ¨šÍ cÖ‡qvRbxq Dcv`vb| GUv Qvov GKw`bI P‡j bv| Av¸b †hgb Avgv‡`i Lye DcKvix †Zgwb †Kv_vI Av¸b †j‡M †M‡j Zv Avgv‡`i weivU ÿwZ mvab K‡i| e‡b Av¸b †j‡M †h ÿwZ n‡jv: e‡b Av¸b †j‡M †h ÿwZ n‡jv Zvi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡”Q- (1) e‡b Av¸b †j‡M A‡bK cïcvwL cy‡o g‡i‡Q; (2) A‡bK MvQcvjv cy‡o aŸsm n‡q †M‡Q; (3) †`v‡q‡ji Mv‡q Av¸‡bi AvuP †j‡M‡Q| Av¸b †bfv‡Z hviv Qy‡U Gj: hw`I gvbyl e‡b Av¸b jvwM‡q‡Q wKš‘ Avevi Av¸b †bfv‡Z gvbylB Qy‡U G‡m‡Q| Dcmsnvi: gvbyl GKw`‡K †hgb ebR½j DRvo K‡i, Avevi Ab¨w`‡K MvQcvjv jvwM‡q bZzb bZzb ebI m„wó K‡i| cÖk:œ ÔKzg‡ov I cvwLi K_vÕ †_‡K Avgiv hv wk‡LwQ Zv cuvPwU ev‡K¨ wjwL| DËi: 1| †`v‡qj cvwL †ÿ‡Zi ÿwZKi †cvKv-gvKo †L‡q dm‡ji DcKvi K‡i| 2| e„wó Avmvi c~e© ch©šÍ A_©vr kxZKv‡j cÖwZiv‡Z wkwki MvQcvjv, jZvcvZv I Nv‡mi Mv ay‡q †`q| 3| m~‡h©i Av‡jvi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Kzg‡ov MvQ wb‡Ri cvZvi mvnv‡h¨ Lv`¨ ˆZwi K‡i| 4| evZvm, †`v‡qj, †gŠgvwQ, †fvgiv cÖf„wZ dzj n‡Z dj, dj n‡Z exR Ges exR n‡Z Pviv MvQ Rb¥v‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| 5| gvbyl MvQcvjv I Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYx m~‡h©i Zvc †_‡K kw³ †c‡q †eu‡P _v‡K| gvbyl MvQcvjv †K‡U ebR½j DRvo K‡i, Avevi gvbylB PvivMvQ †ivcY K‡i bZzb eb m„wó K‡i|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) gvbyl †evgv gvi‡Q  gvbyl gvivi Rb¨/ cï cvwL gvivi Rb¨/ wkKvi Kivi Rb¨ DËi: gvbyl gvivi Rb¨ (L) hvi Rb¨ dzj †_‡K dz‡j civM nq  Av‡jv/ evZvm/ cvwb DËi: evZvm (M) dzoyr K‡i D‡o †Mj  UzbUzwb/ †gŠgvwQ/ †`v‡qj DËi: †`v‡qj (N) Kzg‡ov DcKvix eÜz e‡j‡Q  †`v‡qj‡K/ gqbv‡K/ gvwjK‡K DËi: †`v‡qj‡K (O) †h DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi K‡i Zv‡K ejv nq  DËi: K…ZÁ

K…ZÁ/ K…ZNœ/ evPvj

c„ôv-35

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Zzjbv †kL dRjj Kixg (1882-1936)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ †kL dRjj Kixg 1882 mv‡j iscyi †Rjvi KvwKbv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| mij mvwnZ¨¸Ym¤úboe M`¨, bxwZ I Dc‡`kg jK KweZv I gymwjg gnxqmx bvix‡`i Rxebx iPbv K‡i wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| Zuvi iwPZ wkï‡Zvl Mí Ô†mvbvi evwZÕ I Ônviyb-Ai-ikx‡`i MíÕ D‡jøL‡hvM¨| ÔivRwl© GeivwngÕ, Ôwewe Lvw`RvÕ, Ôwewe iwngvÕ, Ôc_ I cv‡_qÕ Zvui weL¨vZ MÖš|’ 1936 wLªóv‡ã wZwb g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB Ávbxi `„wó‡Z c„w_ex‡ZB mZ¨, cvccyY¨, Cl©v, cÖK…Z abevb †K BZ¨vw`i D`vniY Qwo‡q Av‡Q| GKUy Mfxi `„wó w`‡q Zyjbv Ki‡jB Zv Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi| Ávbx e¨w³i `„wó‡Z mZ¨ n‡”Q wngvj‡qi †P‡q DuPy Ges A‡bK eo I gnr| †Zgwb c„w_ex‡Z me‡P‡q fvix n‡”Q wblúvc‡K †`vlv‡ivc Kiv, Avi Av¸‡bi DËv‡ci †P‡qI fqven n‡”Q wnsmv I Cl©v| Avi me‡P‡q VvÐv n‡”Q cÖxwZnxb ü`q| Ávbxi `„wó‡Z mvM‡ii †P‡qI m¤ú`kvjx n‡”Q Afve‡evanxb Zyó e¨w³i ü`q|

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB †µvk

⎯ `yB gvB‡ji wKQy †ewk| ⎯ kni †_‡K Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi evwo †h‡Z `yB †µvk c_ nuvU‡Z nq|

A‡š^l‡Y

⎯ †Luv‡R, AbymÜv‡b|⎯wkKvix evN wkKv‡ii A‡š^l‡Y e‡b Ny‡i †eovq|

cÖexY

⎯ cÖvPxb, weÁ, wePÿY| ⎯ cÖexY †jvK‡K m¤§vb Ki‡Z nq|

gnvRb

⎯ cÖL¨vZ e¨w³, avwg©K e¨w³, gnr †h Rb| (ÔgnvR‡bÕ ej‡Z G KweZvq gnr e¨w³‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q)| ⎯ gnvRb e¨w³ mK‡ji kª×vi cvÎ|

ïavj

⎯ wR‡Ám Kij| ⎯ (ÔïavjÕ kãwU mvaviYZ KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)|

wblúvc

⎯ cvck b¨| ⎯ wkïiv dy‡ji gZ wblúvc|

†`vlv‡ivc

⎯ †`vl †`Iqv| ⎯ bv †R‡b KvD‡K †`vlv‡ivc Ki‡Z †bB|

RM`xk

⎯ Ck¦i| ⎯ RM`xk Avgv‡`i‡K b¨v‡qi c‡_ Pvjbv K‡ib|

Abj

⎯ Av¸b| ⎯ wnsmy‡U †jvK me©`v wnsmvi Ab‡j R¡‡jcy‡o g‡i|

Cl©v

⎯ cikªxKvZiZv, c‡ii myL †`‡L KvZiZv| ⎯ Cl©v Kiv fv‡jv bq|

ewýZvc

⎯ Av¸‡bi DËvc| ⎯ ivRvi †µv‡ai ewýZvc †_‡K cÖRvi iÿv cvIqv mnR bq| c„ôv-36

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cywQj

⎯ wR‡Ám Kij, Rvb‡Z PvBj| ⎯ (ÔcyQÕ kãwU Avm‡j evsjv bq, wnw›` kã| cyQ& + Bj = ÔcywQjÕ KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)|

¯^Rb-wegyL

⎯ AvZ¥x‡qi cÖwZ fv‡jvevmvnxb| ⎯ Zvi g‡Zv ¯^Rb-wegyL †jvK Avi †`wLwb|

Zzó

⎯ Z…ß, Avbw›`Z, Lywk| ⎯ †ewk †jvf bv K‡i A‡í Zyó nIqv fv‡jv|

Mixqvb

⎯ gh©v`vc~Y,© †MŠiem¤cboe| ⎯ †mB e¨w³ Mixqvb, †h `wi`ª‡K mvnvh¨ K‡i|

 K_v¸‡jv †R‡b wbB m‡Z¨i †P‡q DuPz bvwn wKQy Avi

⎯ mZ¨ KLbI Pvcv _v‡K bv, mZ¨‡K nvRvi †Póv‡ZI †X‡K ivLv hvq bv| mZ¨ wbR ¸‡YB cÖKvwkZ n‡q c‡o| †mRb¨ †h e¨w³ mZ¨wbô wZwb KvD‡K fq cvb bv| ZvB ejv nq m‡Z¨i cZvKv me mgq DboeZ, mZ¨ KviI Kv‡Q gv_v bZ K‡i bv|

wblúvc R‡b †`vlv‡ivc Kiv wg‡Q ⎯ wblúvc gvbyl‡K †`vl †`Iqv DwPZ bq| Zuviv mgvR I †`‡ki †MŠie| †mB †h ü`q RM`xk-†cÖg-f³

⎯ me©kw³gvb Ck¦‡ii cÖwZ AbyMZ I f³ e¨w³ KLbI Ab¨vq KvR K‡ib bv| Ab¨vq I Am‡Z¨i weiy‡× Zuvi ü`q cv_‡ii †P‡qI KwVb|

Cl©vi Kv‡Q ewýZvcI Qvi

⎯ Cl©vi hš¿Yv Av¸‡b cy‡o hvIqvi †P‡qI KóKi| KviY Cl©vwš^Z e¨w³ g‡b KLbI kvwšÍ-myL cvq bv| A‡b¨i my‡L †m Kó cvq|

¯^Rb-wegyL ü`q †h wVK ZvB

⎯ †h gvbyl Zvi wb‡Ri AvZ¥xq-¯^R‡bi cÖwZ wegyL Zvi †P‡q nZfvMv Avi †KD n‡Z cv‡i bv| †m KviI fv‡jvevmv cvq bv| Avi fv‡jvevmvnxb gvby‡li ü`q ei‡di †P‡qI VvÐv|

Zyó ü`q ZviI †P‡q Mixqvb

⎯ nvwm gy‡L Avi mšÍó ü`‡q †h gvbyl mK‡ji m‡½ †gjv‡gkv K‡i †m mK‡ji wcÖq nq| mevB Zv‡K kª×v K‡i I fv‡jvev‡m| G Rb¨ †mB gvbyl‡K mvM‡ii †P‡qI †ewk abevb ejv n‡q‡Q, KviY mK‡ji fv‡jvevmvB Zvi m¤ú`|

 welqe¯‘: Kwe †kL dRjj Kixg iwPZ ÒZzjbvÓ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Ávb wccvmy GK evjK eû c_ AwZµg K‡i GK wePÿY cwÛ‡Zi mvÿvr †cj| †KŠZ~njx evjK wKQy cÖkœ Ki‡j Ávbx †jvKwU bxwZ ev‡K¨i Av‡jv‡K Rxe‡bi Mfxi Zvrc‡h© Zvi DËi †`b| evj‡Ki cÖ‡kœi Dˇi Ávbx e‡jb, m‡Z¨i D”PZv AvKv‡ki †P‡qI †ewk| KviY mZ¨ KLbI Kv‡iv Kv‡Q gv_v bZ K‡i bv| m‡Z¨i GB Abp Ae¯’v‡bi Rb¨B G‡K AvKv‡ki †P‡qI DuPz ejv n‡q‡Q| wb®úvc e¨w³‡K †`vlv‡ivc Kivi cvc c„w_exi IR‡bi †P‡qI fvwi| KviY evwn¨K `„wó‡Z g‡b nq c„w_ex †h‡nZz c„ôv-37

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

AvKv‡i eo ZvB Gi IRb me©vwaK| wKš‘ Ávbxi `„wó‡Z c„w_exi †P‡q fvwi GKRb wb®úvc e¨w³‡K †`vlv‡ivc Kiv| m„wóKZ©vi †cÖ‡g wbgMœ e¨w³i ü`q Ab¨v‡qi weiæ‡× cv_‡ii †P‡qI KwVb| Cl©vwš^Z e¨w³i wnsmvi DËvc Av¸‡bi †P‡qI fqven| KviY Cl©v gvby‡li me myL kvwšÍ‡K cywo‡q QvB K‡i †`q| ¯^RbwegyL ü`q ei‡di †P‡qI kxZj| GLv‡b kxZj ej‡Z gvqv-ggZvnxb wbôzi ü`q‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| mvaviY `„wó‡Z mvM‡ii wecyj Hk¦‡h©i fvÐvi ejv hvq| wKš‘ Ávbxi `„wó‡Z mvM‡ii †P‡qI m¤ú`kvjx n‡”Q Afve‡evanxb Zzó ü`q| e¯‘Z, Ávbxi `„wó‡Z GB c„w_ex‡ZB mZ¨, cvcc~Y¨, Cl©v, cÖK…Z abevb BZ¨vw`i D`vniY Qwo‡q Av‡Q| GKUz Mfxi `„wó‡Z jÿ¨ Ki‡jB Avgiv Zv eyS‡Z cvwi|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ AvKv‡ki †P‡q D”PZv Kvi †ewk? DËi: Kwe dRjj Kixg iwPZ ÔZzjbvÕ kxl©K KweZvwU GKwU bxwZK_v, Av`k© w`Kwb‡`©kbv I wkÿvg~jK KweZv| gvby‡li Rxe‡b GB bxwZ K_v¸‡jvi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| bxj AvKvk w`MšÍ we¯Z…Z Amxg, AbšÍ my`~‡i we¯Z…Z Ges AvKvk Avgv‡`i mK‡ji aiv‡Quvqvi evB‡i| cÖL¨vZ Kwe †kl dRjj Kixg Zvi Zzjbv KweZvq Ab¨ wKQy‡K AvKv‡ki †P‡qI †ewk DuPz wn‡m‡e D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| mvaviY `„wó‡Z AvKv‡ki †P‡q DuPz Avi wKQy †bB| wKš‘ Ávbxi `„wó‡Z AvKv‡ki †P‡qI D”PZv †ewk m‡Z¨i| mZ¨ wPi A¤øvb, wPi fv¯^i| mZ¨ KLbI Pvcv _v‡K bv| mZ¨ wbR ¸‡YB cÖKvwkZ n‡q c‡o| †m Rb¨ †h e¨w³ mZ¨wbô wZwb KvD‡K fq cvb bv| ZvB ejv nq, m‡Z¨i wki me mgq DbœZ, mZ¨ KviI Kv‡Q gv_v bZ K‡i bv| m‡Z¨i Rq Aek¨¤¢vex| myZivs GKgvÎ mZ¨B AvKv‡ki †P‡q A_©vr mevi †P‡q DuPz| cÖk:œ c„w_exi †P‡q IR‡b fvix Kx? DËi: Kwe †kL dRjj Kixg iwPZ ÔZzjbvÕ bvgK KweZvwU GKwU bxwZK_v, Av`k© w`Kwb‡`©kbv I wkÿvg~jK KweZv| G KweZvq Kwe wewfbœ `„wó‡KvY n‡Z gvby‡li Ag~j¨ Pwi‡Îi we‡kølY K‡i‡Qb| cv_i GKwU Lye k³ c`v_©| wKš‘ Ávbxi `„wó‡Z cv_‡ii †P‡qI k³ wRwbm nj Ck¦‡i AbyMZ e¨w³i ü`q| me©kw³gvb Ck¦‡ii cÖwZ AbyMZ I f³ KL‡bv Ab¨vq KvR K‡ib bv| Ab¨vq, AmZ¨, †jvf Gm‡ei weiæ‡× Zvi ü`q cv_‡ii †P‡qI KwVb| cÖk:œ Av¸‡bi †P‡q Kvi DËvc †ewk? DËi: Kwe †kL dRjj Kixg iwPZ ÔZzjbvÕ KweZvwU GKwU bxwZK_v, Av`k© w`Kwb‡`©kbv I wkÿvg~jK KweZv| GB KweZvq Kwe gvby‡li wnsmv Z_v Cl©vi Lvivc w`K¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb|

c„ôv-38

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Av¸b me wKQyB R¡vwj‡q cywo‡q f¯§ K‡i †`q| `ywbqvi me e¯‘ Zvi Kv‡Q wbZšÍB Amnvq| Av¸‡bi DËvc GZB Zxeª †h, Gi av‡i Kv‡Q †KD wfo‡Z cv‡i bv| Kwe gvby‡li g‡b g‡b weivRgvb Cl©v‡K Av¸‡bi DËv‡ci †P‡qI †ewk e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| Cl©vi hš¿Yv Av¸‡b cy‡o hvIqvi †P‡q KóKi KviY Cl©vwš^Z e¨w³ g‡b KL‡bv myL-kvwšÍ cvq bv| A‡b¨i my‡L †h Kó cvq wKsev wnsmvq †h R¡‡j cy‡o g‡i †m mgv‡Ri mevi Øviv waK…Z nq| Cl©vB Zvi AkvwšÍi KviY| ZvB gvbe g‡bi Cl©vB Av¸‡bi †P‡q †ewk DËß| Kwei G Dcgv h_v_©B| cÖk:œ ei‡di †P‡q kxZj wK wKQy Av‡Q? †mwU Kx? DËi: eid fxlY VvÐv| mvaviYfv‡e g‡b nq ei‡di †P‡q VvÐv †Kvb wKQy †bB wKš‘ †kL dRjj Kixg Zuvi ÔZzjbvÕ KweZvq e‡j‡Qb AvZ¥xq ¯^R‡bi cÖwZ wegyL ü`q ei‡di †P‡qI VvÐv| AvZ¥xq ¯^R‡biv Avgv‡`i wcÖqRb| Zv‡`i m‡½ my›`i m¤úK© GKwU my¯’ mgvR MV‡b mnvqK| ZvB wZwb mevB‡K e‡jb, Zvi AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb‡`i mv‡_ ¯^vfvweK AvPiY Ki‡eb, KLbI KvD‡K Kó †`‡eb bv|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

mZ¨ n‡”Q wngvj‡qi †P‡q DuPz Kvi `„wó‡Z  mr e¨w³i/ Ávbx e¨w³i/ Amr e¨w³i DËi: Ávbx e¨w³i

(L)

c„w_ex‡Z me‡P‡q fvix n‡”Q  †`vlv‡ivc Kiv DËi: wb®úvc‡K †`vlv‡ivc Kiv

(M)

cÖxwZnxb ü`q  me‡P‡q VvÛv/ me‡P‡q Mig/ me‡P‡q Av‡jvwKZ DËi: me‡P‡q VvÛv

(N)

cv_‡ii †P‡q k³ †h ü`q  RM`xk †cÖgf³/ `ywbqvi f³/ cwZf³ DËi: RM`xk †cÖg f³

(O)

c_ I cv‡_q MÖ‡š’i iPwqZv  †kL dRjj Kwig/ Avj gvngy`/ Rmxg DÏxb DËi: †kL dRjj Kwig

mZ¨‡K wg_¨v ejv/ fvj‡K g›` ejv/ wb®úvc‡K

c„ôv-39

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv  ÔAvgiv Zuv‡`i fzje bvÕ †jLvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i Pig gƒj¨ w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| cÖvq b gv‡mi gyw³hy‡× cÖvY`vb K‡i‡Qb G †`‡ki ARmª gvbyl| Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡Qb K…lKkªwgK-QvÎ-wkÿK-cywjk-†mbvevwnbxi m`m¨mn bvbv †ckvi gvbyl| cÖvY w`‡q‡Qb A‡bK miKvwi - †emiKvwi PvKwiRxex| 25‡k gvP© gvS iv‡Z b„ksmfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q G †`‡ki eyw×Rxex‡`i, wbixn gvbyl‡`i| gyw³hy‡×i †kl ch©v‡q 14B wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ cwiKwíZfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q †`‡ki L¨vZbvgv e‡iY¨ e¨w³‡`i| cvwK¯Í`vwb †mbviv G †`‡ki gyw³hy×we‡ivax †`vmi ivRvKvi, Avje`i I Avj-kvgm& evwnbxi mn‡hvwMZvq GB wbg©g nZ¨vKvÐ Pvwj‡q‡Q| A‡bK g~j¨evb cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q, A‡b‡Ki Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡q Avgiv wcÖq ¯^vaxbZv AR©b K‡iwQ| huv‡`i gnvb Z¨vM I cÖvY`vb Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi mv‡_ wg‡k Av‡Q, Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv|

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi wkwL e‡iY¨

⎯ kª×vi m‡½ eiY Kivi †hvM¨, gvb¨| ⎯ A‡bK e‡iY¨ wkÿK ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ cÖvY`vb K‡i‡Qb|

wbwe©Pvi

⎯ †Kv‡bv iKg evQ-wePvi Qvov| ⎯ 25†k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx XvKvq wbwe©Pvi nZ¨v Pvwj‡q‡Q|

VvÐv gv_vq

⎯ ax‡i my‡¯’, gv_v VvÐv †i‡L| ⎯ cvwK¯Ívwb †mbviv VvÐv gv_vq G †`‡ki mvaviY I wbixn gvbyl‡K nZ¨v K‡i‡Q|

cwiKwíZfv‡e ⎯ cwiKíbv K‡i, Av‡M †_‡K wVKVvK K‡i| ⎯ cvwK¯Zvwb †mbviv cwiKwíZfv‡e eyw×Rxex‡`i nZ¨v K‡i‡Q| †gavex

⎯ †gavm¤úboe, eyw×gvb, axgvb|⎯Z…lv LyeB †gavex †g‡q|

bxj bKkv

⎯ Nievwo wbg©v‡Yi Av‡M evwoi cwiKíbv †h bxj KvM‡R AvuKv nq Zv‡K Ôbxj bKkvÕ ev Blue Print e‡j| kvwãK A‡_©i evB‡iI Gi GKwU wfboe A_© Av‡Q| lohš¿g~jK †Kv‡bv nxb KvR Kivi c~e© cwiKíbv‡K bxj bKkv ejv nq| ⎯ cvwK¯Zvwb †mbviv G †`‡ki eyw×Rxex‡`i nZ¨v Kivi Rb¨ GKwU bxj bKkv ˆZwi K‡iwQj|

†KvYVvmv

⎯ GK RvqMvq Ave× n‡q _vKv, Amyweavq cov| ⎯ m`v mZ¨ K_v ejvq myifx Avcv‡K wb›`y‡Kiv †KvYVvmv K‡i †i‡L‡Qb|

c„ôv-40

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ civRq mywbwðZ †R‡b cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx Kx lohš¿ K‡iwQj? DËi: cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbxi mv‡_ hy‡× G‡`‡ki eû gvbyl knx` nq| wKš‘ i‡Y f½ †`q bv| eis Zv‡`i D‡ëv gvi †`q exi gyw³‡hv×viv| †`L‡Z †`L‡Z hy‡×i cÖvq bq gvm †K‡U hvq| †k‡li w`‡K gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvM †`q fviZxq †mbvevwnbx| cvwK¯Ívwb ˆmb¨iv wecv‡K c‡o hvq, n‡q c‡o †KvYVvmv| Zviv eyS‡Z cv‡i Zv‡`i civRq mywbwðZ Ges Lye wkMwMi G civRq NU‡e| ZvB Zviv evsjv‡`‡ki Ac~iYxq ÿwZ Kivi Rb¨ G‡`‡ki wewkó I cÖwZfvevb gvbyl‡K 1971 mv‡ji 10 †_‡K 14 wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ †Mvc‡b nZ¨vi lohš¿ K‡i| cÖk:œ cvwK¯Ívb MYcwil‡` †K KLb evsjvfvlv‡K ivóª fvlv Kivi `vwe Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb? DËi: cvwK¯Ívwb kvmK †Mvôx D`©y‡K G‡`‡ki ivóª fvlv Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj| wKš‘ G‡`‡ki gvbyl Zv †g‡b †bqwb| Zviv Gi cÖwZev` K‡iwQj| ax‡i›`ªbv_ `Ë wQ‡jb GKRb cÖL¨vZ ivRbxwZwe` I AvBbRxex| 1948 mv‡j cvwK¯Ívb MYcwil‡`i m`m¨ ax‡i›`ªbv_ `ËB cÖ_g evsjv fvlv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe Rvbvb| 1971 mv‡j 85 eQi eqmx e„× ax‡i›`ªbv_ `ˇKI Zuvi Kzwgjøvi evwo †_‡K a‡i wb‡q wbg©gfv‡e nZ¨v K‡i cvwK¯Ívwb ee©i †mbvevwnbxiv| cÖk:œ `k©‡bi Aa¨vcK †Mvwe›` P›`ª †`e †Kgb gvbyl wQ‡jb? DËi: XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi `k©‡bi hk¯^x wkÿK wQ‡jb Aa¨vcK †Mvwe›` P›`ª †`e| wZwb wQ‡jb AvZ¥m‡PZb| wZwb Lye mvaviY Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Zb| wbinsKvi, mnR, mij GB Ávbx gvbylwUi gy‡L nvwm †hb memgq †j‡MB _vKZ| Zuvi mijZv I wbinsKvi Zv‡K gnvb K‡i‡Q| wZwb wQ‡jb mevi kª×vi cvÎ| ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× wZwbI †invB †c‡jb bv| GK SuvK ey‡j‡U Zuvi kixi SuvSiv n‡q †Mj| wZwb knx` n‡jb| ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× Zvi G AvZ¥`vb Avgiv †Kv‡bvw`b fyje bv| cÖk:œ Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwi MvbwU‡Z †K myiv‡ivc K‡i‡Qb? DËi: Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwi GKwU weL¨vZ †kvK msMxZ| Avgv‡`i †`‡k cÖwZeQi GKz‡k †deªæqvwi‡Z MvbwU MvIqv nq| AvjZvd gvngy` wQ‡jb weL¨vZ msMxZÁ myiKvi| wZwbB Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvwi MvbwU‡Z myi w`‡q Agi n‡q‡Qb| cÖk:œ cvwK¯Ívwb ˆmb¨iv KLb †KvYVvmv n‡q coj? DËi: cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbxi mv‡_ hy‡× G‡`‡ki eû gvbyl knx` nq| wKš‘ i‡Y f½ †`q bv| Zv‡`i D‡ëv gvi †`q exi gyw³‡hv×viv| †`L‡Z †`L‡Z hy‡×i cÖvq bq gvm †K‡U hvq| †k‡li w`‡K gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvM †`q fviZxq †mbvevwnbx| Gmgq cvwK¯Ívwb ˆmb¨iv wecv‡K c‡o hvq| Zviv †KvYVvmv n‡q c‡o| c„ôv-41

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †Kvb mvsevw`K-mvwnwZ¨K msev` Awd‡m AwMœ`» n‡q gviv hvb? DËi: cÖvewÜK kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔAvgiv Zv‡`i fyje bvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü evsjv‡`‡ki wbixn gvby‡li Dci cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbxi ee©i AZ¨vPv‡ii wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx I Zv‡`i †`vmiiv Rvb‡Zv mvsevw`Kiv Zv‡`i Rb¨ wec¾bK| ZvB Zviv K‡qKwU msev`cÎ Awd‡m Av¸b awi‡q †`q| cÖwZfvevb mvwnwZ¨K I mvsevw`K knx` mv‡ei †m iv‡Z Nywg‡qwQ‡jb ˆ`wbK msev` Kvh©vj‡q| Av¸‡bi †jwjnvb wkLvq iv‡Z †mLv‡bB `» n‡q gviv hvb wZwb| cÖk:œ wZbRb knx` mvsevw`‡Ki bvg Kx Kx? DËi: cÖvewÜK kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÒAvgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bvÓ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü evsjv‡`‡ki wbixn gvby‡li Dci cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbxi ee©i AZ¨vPv‡ii wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cvwK¯Ívwb †mbviv Rvb‡Zv mvsevw`KivI Zv‡`i Rb¨ wec¾bK| ZvB Zviv mvsevw`K‡`i nZ¨v Kivi Rb¨ wbg©g PµvšÍ K‡i| Zviv cwiKíbv Abyhvqx G‡`‡ki cÖ_g mvwii mvsevw`K‡`i nZ¨v K‡i| G‡`i g‡a¨ wZbRb n‡jb- wmivRDÏxb †nv‡mb, wbRvg DÏxb Avng` I Av. b. g. †Mvjvg †gv¯Ídv| cÖk:œ gybxi †PŠayix †Kb weL¨vZ wQ‡jb? DËi: gybxi †PŠayix wQ‡jb G‡`‡ki GKRb weL¨vZ bvU¨Kvi| wZwb gyw³hy‡×i Dci †ek K‡qKwU bvUK wj‡L‡Qb| cvkvcvwk wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb wkÿK| wZwb Rxe‡bi A‡bKUv mgq evsjvi Aa¨vcK wn‡m‡e KvwU‡q †`b| Zvi †gav I gbbkxjZv Ges hy‡Mvc‡hvMx †jLv Zv‡K weL¨vZ K‡i| Zuvi weL¨vZ bvUK¸‡jvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q ÔKeiÕ, Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb GKRb AmvaviY e¨w³ wQ‡jb| cÖk:œ knx` eyw×Rxex ej‡Z Avgiv Kv‡`i eywS? DËi: knx` eyw×Rxexiv G‡`‡ki e‡iY¨ e¨w³| hviv Ávb, we‡eK-eyw×i w`K w`‡q †`‡ki m‡e©v”P Avm‡b AwawôZ ZvivB eyw×Rxex wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ| eyw×RxexivB †`k I RvwZ‡K Dbœq‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q wb‡q hvq| Zuviv Zuv‡`i †gav w`‡q †`k I RvwZi bvbviKg DbœwZ mvab K‡ib| mvwnwZ¨K, mvsevw`K, wkÿK, wPwKrmKMY G‡`‡ki cÖ_g mvwii eyw×Rxex| 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× †hme eyw×Rxex knx` n‡q‡Qb Zuv‡`i‡KB Avgiv knx` eyw×Rxex wn‡m‡e eywS| cÖk:œ †Kvb w`b †Kb Avgiv Ôknx` eyw×RxexÕ w`em cvjb Kwi? DËi: cvwK¯Ívb †mbvevwnbx G‡`‡ki Ac~iYxq ÿwZ Kivi Rb¨ ivRvKvi, Avje`i, Avjkvgm&mn G‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv we‡ivax wKQy gvby‡li mnvqZvq G‡`‡ki eyw×Rxex‡`i nZ¨v Kivi c_ †e‡Q †bq| Zviv bxj bKkv Abyhvqx 1971 mv‡ji 10 †_‡K 14B wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ XvKvi evwo evwo †_‡K Zz‡j wb‡q ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v K‡i †`‡ki wewkó I cÖwZfvevb gvbyl‡`i‡K| Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ wQ‡jb mvsevw`K wmivRDÏxb †nv‡mb, wbRvgDÏxb Avng` I Av. b. g. †Mvjvg †gv¯Ídv| L¨vZbvgv wPwKrmK dR‡j iveŸx, Ave`yj c„ôv-42

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Avjxg †PŠayix I †gvnv¤§` †gvZ©Rv Ges mycwiwPZ mvwnwZ¨K-mvsevw`K knx`yjøvn Kvqmvi| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †ek KÕRb bvgKiv wkÿK‡K Zviv a‡i wb‡q hvq| Gu‡`i g‡a¨ wQ‡jb BwZnv‡mi Aa¨vcK m‡šÍvlP›`ª fÆvPvh©, Aveyj Lv‡qi I wMqvmDwÏb Avng`, Bs‡iwRi Aa¨vcK ivkx`yj nvmvb I †R¨vwZg©q ¸n VvKyiZv, evsjvi Aa¨vcK gybxi †PŠayix, Aa¨vcK Av‡bvqvi cvkv I Aa¨vcK †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix| Guiv †KD Avi wd‡i Av‡mwb| Ggwb †h AviI KZ Rb‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡qwQj, Zvi BqËv †bB| †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ci Gu‡`i KviI ÿZweÿZ jvk cvIqv wM‡qwQj gxicyi ea¨f~wg‡Z, KviI jvk cvIqv hvqwb| ZvB Zv‡`i ¯§i‡Y cÖwZ eQi 14B wW‡m¤^i Avgiv knx` eyw×Rxex w`em wn‡m‡e cvjb Kwi| Giv cÖ‡Z¨‡K wQ‡jb †`‡ki gy³eyw× I wPšÍvi †ÿ‡Î wewkó e¨w³Z¡| cÖk:œ ÔAvgiv Zv‡`i fyje bvÕ- Kv‡`i fyje bv, †Kb fyje bv? DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i‡K Pig g~j¨ w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| cÖvq bq gv‡mi gyw³hy‡× cÖvY `vb K‡i‡Qb G‡`‡ki ARmª gvbyl Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡Qb K…lK, kªwgK, QvÎ, cywjk. †mbvevwnbxi m`m¨mn bvbv †ckvi gvbyl| cÖvY w`‡q‡Qb A‡bK miKvwi-‡emiKvwi PvKwiRxex| 26 †k gvP© gvS iv‡Z b„ksmfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q G‡`‡ki eyw×Rxex, wbixn gvbyl‡`i| gyw³hy‡×i ‡kl ch©v‡q 14B wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ cwiKwíZfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q G‡`‡ki L¨vZbvgv e‡iY¨ e¨w³‡`i| cvwK¯Ívwb †mbviv G‡`‡ki gyw³hy× we‡ivax †`vmi ivRvKvi, Avje`i, Avj kvgm& evwnbxi mn‡hvwMZvq G wbg©g nZ¨vKvÐ NwU‡q‡Q| A‡bK g~j¨evb cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q Avgiv ¯^vaxbZv AR©b K‡iwQ| Zv‡`i gnvb Z¨vM I cÖvY`vb Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

Avgiv fyjebv  eyw×Rxwe‡`i/ †bZv‡`i/ wkíx‡`i DËi: eyw×Rxwe‡`i

(L)

Avgiv ¯^vaxbZv †c‡qwQ KZ cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q?  DËi: 30 jÿ

(M)

cvwK¯Ívwb †mbviv XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q nvgjv Pvjvq  25 gvP© ga¨ iv‡Z/ 25 gvP© †fvi iv‡Z/ 25 gvP© mܨv iv‡Z DËi: 25 gvP© ga¨ iv‡Z

(N)

cÖ_‡g evsjvfvlv‡K ivóª fvlvi `vwe K‡ib?  W. gy. kwn`yjøvn/ ax‡i›`ªbv_ `Ë/ †k‡i evsjv DËi: ax‡i›`ªbv_ `Ë

30 jÿ/ 20 jÿ/ 3 jÿ

(O) Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ iv½v‡bv 21 †deªæqvwi MvbwUi myiKvi  AvjZvd gvngy`/ gybxi †PŠayix/ †Mvwe›` nvj`vi DËi: AvjZvd gvngy` c„ôv-43

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj  k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I e¨envi wkwL cÖwZ‡iva

⎯ evav †`Iqv| ⎯ kÎyi AvµgY cÖwZ‡iva Kiv ˆmwb‡Ki KZ©e¨|

wbivcËv

⎯ wec`nxb ev wbivc` Ae¯’v| ⎯ Avgiv mevB Rxe‡bi wbivcËv PvB|

cøvUyb

⎯ †mbv`‡ji Dc-wefvM| ⎯ †mbv AwabvqK hyׇÿ‡Î AviI K‡qK cøvUzb ˆmb¨ cvVv‡jb|

KgvÛvi

⎯ AwabvqK| whwb †mbv‡`i Av‡`k wb‡`©k †`b| ⎯ KgvÛv‡ii Av‡`‡k ˆmb¨iv mvg‡b GwM‡q †Mj|

AvZ¥ cÖZ¨qx ⎯ wb‡Ri Ici Av¯’v Av‡Q Ggb| ⎯ G Kv‡R wZwb h‡_ó AvZ¥cÖZ¨qx| cwiLv

⎯ kÎyi AvµgY †iva Kivi Rb¨ ˆZix MZ©| ⎯ ˆmb¨iv cwiLvi g‡a¨ †_‡K ¸wj Pvjv‡”Q|

nvwej`vi

⎯ wmcvB‡`i m`©vi| ⎯ nvwej`v‡ii †bZ…‡Z¡ wmcvBiv RvqMvUv cvnviv w`‡”Q|

¯^w¯Í

⎯ D‡ØMgy³ Ae¯’v| ⎯ wec` †K‡U hvIqvq mevB ¯^w¯Íi wbtk¦vm †djj|

wbwe©‡Noe

⎯ wbivc‡`, evavnxbfv‡e| hvÎxiv wbwe©‡Noe b`x cvi nj|

AvKw¯§KZv ⎯ nVvr N‡U hvIqvi Ae¯’v| ⎯ kÎyi Avµg‡Yi AvKw¯§KZvq ˆmb¨iv w`‡knviv n‡q coj| nZwenŸj

⎯ nZeyw× ev w`‡knviv Ae¯’v| ⎯ nVvr Av¸b jvMvq ew¯Íi †jv‡Kiv nZwenŸj n‡q coj|

AeavwiZ

⎯ wbwðZ, Aek¨B n‡e Ggb| ⎯ g„Zy¨ AeavwiZ †R‡bI gyw³‡mbviv kÎyi weiy‡× jovB K‡i‡Q|

bvRyK

⎯ f½yi, RwUj| ⎯ cwiw¯’wZ µ‡gB bvRyK n‡q DVj|

bvivR

⎯ ivwR bv Ggb, Am¤§Z| ⎯ mn‡hv×v‡K GKv †d‡j gyw³‡hv×viv wcQy nV‡Z bvivR|

†Zv‡o

⎯ †mªv‡Zi †e‡M| ⎯ ¸wji †Zv‡o kÎyiv Avi GwM‡q Avm‡Z cviwQj bv|

 Av‡iv †R‡b wbB exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj - GKvˇii gyw³hy‡×i exi ˆmwbK| Zuvi Rb¥ 1947 mv‡ji 16B wW‡m¤^i †fvjv †Rjvi †`ŠjZLvb _vbvi nvwRcyi MÖv‡g| 20 eQi eq‡m wZwb cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx‡Z †hvM †`b| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy‡×i mg‡q †hme evsjv‡`‡ki ˆmwbK we‡`ªvn K‡i gyw³hy‡× †hvM †`b, wZwb Zuv‡`i Ab¨Zg|

 Dchy³ kã †e‡Q wb‡q evK¨¸‡jv m¤ú~Y© Kwi K. ˆmb¨‡`i

⎯ Avm‡j `y‡f©`¨ `yM|©

L. wKQyUv

⎯ wbtk¦vm coj `iyBb wbivcËv NuvwU‡Z| c„ôv-44

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

M. mviv mKvj ⎯ KvUj| N. wKšÍ

⎯ nU‡Z n‡jI wKQyUv mgq `iKvi|

O. Zvi ¸wji

⎯ Zviv Avi mvg‡b G¸‡Z cvi‡Q bv|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ cvwK¯Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi weiæ‡× Kviv †Kv_vq cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zz‡jwQj? DËi : evsjv‡`k AvR GKwU ¯^vaxb †`k| G‡`kwU GKKv‡j cvwK¯Ív‡bi Ask _vKvq cvwK¯Ívwb kvm‡Kiv G‡`‡ki gvbyl‡K bvbvfv‡e †kvlY KiZ| †kvlY I wbh©vZ‡b evOvwjiv AwZô n‡q I‡V| cvwK¯Ívwb‡`i GB AZ¨vPvi I wbh©vZ‡bi weiæ‡× evOvwjiv msMÖvg M‡o †Zv‡j| 1971 mv‡ji 26 gvP© iv‡Z cvwK¯Ívwb ˆmb¨iv G‡`‡ki NygšÍ gvby‡li Ici Suvwc‡q c‡o| 1971 mv‡j Avgv‡`i gyw³hy× nq| hy‡× A‡bK gvbyl knx` nb| 1971 mv‡ji GwcÖj gv‡m cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbx GwM‡q AvmwQj eªvþYevwoqvi w`‡K| Zv‡`i weiæ‡× cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zz‡jwQj gyw³evwnbx| eªvþYevwoqv‡K wN‡i M‡o †Zvjv n‡qwQj wZbwU cÖwZiÿv NvwU- AvïM‡Ä, DRvbx¯^‡i Avi GÛvimb Lv‡ji cv‡o| cÖk:œ eªvþYevwoqv‡K wN‡i †Kv_vq cÖwZ‡iva M‡o †Zvjv nq? DËi: K I L GKB cÖk:œ wbivcËv Am¤ú~Y© wQj †Kvb w`‡K? †mRb¨ Kx Kiv n‡qwQj? DËi: cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Òexi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv KvgvjÓ cÖe‡Ü †jLK gyw³‡hv×viv †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wQ‡jb Zv eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| 16 GwcÖj 1971 mv‡j, cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbx gyw³evwnbxi cÖwZ‡iva Muywo‡q eªvþYevwoqv `L‡ji Rb¨ GwM‡q AvmwQj| AvµgY cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ eªvþYevwoqv‡K wN‡i M‡o †Zvjv n‡qwQj wZbwU cÖwZiÿv NuvwUAvïM‡Ä, DRvbx¯^‡i Avi GÛvimb Lv‡ji cv‡o| wKš‘ ZLbI `wÿY w`‡Ki wbivcËv evwK| KgvÛv‡ii wb‡`©‡k gyw³evwnbxi GKUv cøvUzb Ae¯’vb wbj `wÿ‡Y- M½vmvM‡ii Dˇi `iæBb MÖv‡g| H cøvUy‡b gvÎ `k gyw³‡mbv Avi Zvi AwabvqK n‡”Qb wmcvnx †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj| cÖk:œ `iæBb MÖvg †Kv_vq? †mLv‡b Kviv Ae¯’vb wb‡qwQj? DËi: M I N Gi f~wgKv I gv‡Si Ask GKB| wKš‘ ZLbI `wÿY w`‡Ki wbivcËv evwK| `wÿ‡Y wQj M½vmvMi| Zvi Dˇi `iæBb MÖvg Aew¯’Z| †mLv‡b GK cøvUzb gyw³‡mbv Ae¯’vb wbj| Avi Zv‡`i AwabvqK n‡”Qb wmcvnx †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj| c„ôv-45

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj Kx wek¦vm Ki‡Zb? DËi: †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g AskMÖnYKvix exi mšÍvb‡`i GKRb| ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× exiZ¡c~Y© K…wZ‡Z¡i Rb¨ wZwi exi‡kªô Dcvwa jvf K‡ib| exi‡kªô †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj wQ‡jb PweŸk eQ‡ii cÖvYešÍ hyeK| cÖPÐ AvZ¥cÖZ¨qx| Zuvi mvnm, eyw× I Kg©ZrciZvq mevB gy»| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj wek¦vm Ki‡Zb, ˆmb¨‡`i g‡bvejB Avm‡j `y‡f©`¨ `yM|© Avi Zv‡`i mvnm †hb `y‡M©i †`qvj| cÖk:œ 16B GwcÖj, 1971 †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q Kx Lei cvwV‡qwQ‡jb? DËi: (O+P) n‡e| Zvi c‡ii Ask: ZvB wZwb gvÎ `kRb gyw³‡mbv wb‡q `iæBb MÖv‡g cÖwZiÿv NuvwU AvMjvevi mvnm Ki‡jb| 16 GwcÖj, 1971| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj Lei †c‡jb cvwK¯Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx Kzwgjøv AvLvDov †ijjvBb a‡i GwM‡q Avm‡Q| Zv‡`i jÿ¨ wQj gyw³evwnbxi cÖwZ‡iva Muywo‡q w`‡q eªvþYevwoqv `Lj Kiv| gvÎ `kRb ˆmb¨ wb‡q kw³kvjx cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbx‡K †gvKv‡ejv Kiv ev¯Í‡e Am¤¢e| ZvB wZwb KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q Lei cvVv‡jb AviI gyw³‡mbv cvVv‡Z| cÖk:œ `iæBb wbivcËv NuvwU‡Z ¯^w¯Íi wbk¦vm eBj †Kb? DËi: W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Òexi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv KvgvjÓ cÖe‡Ü `iæBb MÖv‡g gyw³‡mbviv †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wQ‡jb Zv eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| 17 GwcÖj, 1971 mvj| †fvi‡ejv cvwK¯Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx `iæBb MÖv‡g gyw³‡mbv‡`i Ici †Mvjvel©Y ïiæ Kij| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj eyS‡Z cvi‡jb, GZ Kg kw³ wb‡q I‡`i †gvKv‡ejv Kiv hv‡e bv| ZvB wZwb AveviI KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q msev` cvVv‡jb Riæwi †mbv mnvqZvi Rb¨, wKš‘ evowZ †mbv †Zv `~‡ii K_v, `y-wZbw`b a‡i Zv‡`i wbqwgZ Lvevi mieivn eÜ| wPšÍvq Aw¯’i n‡q DV‡jb †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj| mK‡j wg‡j Ae¯’vb wb‡jb cwiLvi g‡a¨| `ycy‡ii w`‡K nvwej`vi gywbi Avng‡`i †bZ…‡Z¡ GK cøvUzb gyw³‡mbv `iæBb MÖv‡g G‡m †cuŠQj| †mB m‡½ LveviI Gj| Gw`‡K cvwK¯Ívwb wkwei †_‡K †Mvjvel©YI eÜ nj| ZvB `iæBb wbivcËv NuvwU‡Z ¯^w¯Íi wbk¦vm eBj| cÖk:œ gyw³‡mbviv †Kb nZwenŸj n‡q co‡jb? Zv‡`i mvg‡b †Kvb `yBwU c_ †Lvjv wQj? DËi: W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Òexi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv KvgvjÓ cÖe‡Ü `iæBb MÖv‡g gyw³‡mbviv †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wQ‡jb Zv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| 18 GwcÖj, 1971| mKvj †ejv| mviv AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †X‡K †Mj| CkvY †KvY †_‡K Avm‡Z jvMj e„wó‡fRv kxZj evZvm| gyw³‡mbviv fve‡jb, e„wó G‡j `ykgb‡`i nvgjv †_‡K wKQyUv †invB wgj‡e| mviv mKvj wbwe©‡Nœ KvUj| cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbxi NuvwU †_‡K †Kv‡bviKg †Mvjvel©Y nj bv| †Kej I‡`i GKUv †nwjKÞvi D‡o †Mj cwð‡g- DRvbx¯^i cy‡ji w`‡K| †ejv GMviUv| ïiæ nj cÖPÐ e„wó| Avi †mB m‡½ ïiæ nj kÎæi †Mvjvel©Y| GwM‡q Avm‡Z _vKj cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbx| Zviv Ae¯’vb wbj †gvMiv evRv‡i I M½vmvM‡i| †ejv eviUvq AvµgY AviI cÖej n‡q DVj| c„ôv-46

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

nVvr GKUv ¸wj G‡m weaj gyw³evwnbxi †gwkbMvb-g¨v‡bi ey‡K| m‡½ m‡½ eÜ n‡q †Mj †gwkbMvb| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj cv‡kB wQ‡jb| wZwb gyn~Z© †`wi bv K‡i Pvjv‡Z jvM‡jb ¸wj| gyw³‡mbviv kÎæi Avµg‡Yi AvKw¯§K `ªæZZv I ZxeªZvq nZwenej n‡q co‡jb| cvwK¯Ívwb nvbv`v‡iiv msL¨vq wQj A‡bK| m‡½ fvwi A¯¿k¯¿| Zviv `wÿY, cwðg I DËi w`K †_‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Q `iæB‡bi w`‡K| gyw³‡hv×viv msL¨vq Kg| Zv‡`i A¯¿k¯¿ †Zgb †bB| G Ae¯’vq Zv‡`i mvg‡b †KejgvÎ `yBwU c_ †Lvjv- nq mvgbv mvgwb hy× K‡i g„Zz¨eiY Kiv, bv nq c~e© w`K w`‡q wcQy n‡U wbivc` Ae¯’v‡b P‡j hvIqv| cÖk:œ Aewkó mn‡hv×v‡`i Rxeb iÿvi Rb¨ †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj Kx wm×všÍ wb‡jb? DËi: Aewkó mn‡hv×v‡`i Rxeb iÿvi Rb¨ †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj wm×všÍ wb‡jb, wZwb GKvB kÎæ †VKv‡eb| GKvB ¸wj Pvw©j‡q hv‡eb| gyw³‡mbv‡`i †hgb K‡iB †nvK euvPv‡Z n‡e| wZwb mn‡hv×v‡`i `ªæZ wcQy nUvi wb‡`©k w`‡jb| Zviv †gv¯Ídv‡K GKv †d‡j †h‡Z bvivR| wKš‘ †gv¯Ídv Zuvi wm×v‡šÍ AUj| wZwb ej‡jb, Avcbv‡`i Awej‡¤^ wcQy nU‡ZB n‡e| Zv bv n‡j `ykgbiv mevB‡K †kl K‡i w`‡e| wZwb Avevi Av‡`k w`‡jb mgq bó Ki‡eb bv| mevB `ªæZ m‡i hvb| Ae‡k‡l †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj‡K †i‡L mn‡hv×viv mevB Lye mveav‡b wcQy nU‡Z eva¨ n‡jb| cÖk:œ exi gyw³‡hv×v †gv¯Ídv Kvgv‡ji Kei †Kv_vq? evsjv‡`k miKvi †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj‡K Kx Dcvax‡Z f~wlZ K‡i‡Q? DËi: cwiLvq `uvwo‡q AbeiZ ¸wj Pvwj‡q hv‡”Qb †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj| nVvr GKUv †Mvjv G‡m coj cwiLvi g‡a¨| kÎæi †Mvjvi AvNv‡Z Zuvi kixi SuvSiv n‡q †Mj| wZwb kvnv`vZ eiY ei‡jb| wKš‘ wb‡Ri AvZ¥`v‡bi wewbg‡q iÿv †cj mv_x gyw³‡mbv‡`i gnvg~j¨evb Rxeb| `iæB‡bi gvwU‡Z mgvwnZ n‡q Av‡Q exi gyw³‡mbv †gv¯Ídv Kvgv‡ji ÿZweÿZ †`n| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj GKRb KvjRqx gvbe mšÍvb wQ‡jb| wZwb †`kgvZvi gyw³i Rb¨ †h mvnm I exiZ¡ cÖ`k©b K‡iwQ‡jb Zv mwZ¨B AZzjbxq| evsjv‡`k miKvi Zuv‡K exi‡kªô Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡i‡Q| Zvi Abgbxq `„pZv I AvZ¥`vb G‡`kevmx †Kv‡bv w`b fyj‡e bv| wZwb Avgv‡`i Me©, wZwb Avgv‡`i †MŠie|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) 1971 mv‡ji GwcÖ‡j knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgv‡ji eqm  22 eQi/ 23 eQi/ 24 eQi DËi: 24 eQi (L) knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib  eªvþYevwoqv/ Puv`cyi/ †fvjv †Rjvq DËi: †fvjv †Rjvq (M) AvZ¥ cÖZ¨qx ej‡Z wK eySvq?  wb‡Ri Dci Av¯’v Av‡Q Ggb/ Av¯’vnxb/ kw³kvjx DËi: wb‡Ri Av¯’v Av‡Q Ggb (N) weRq w`em  16 wW‡m¤^i/ 14 wW‡m¤^i/ 26 gvP© DËi: 16 wW‡m¤^i c„ôv-47

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

GZ nvwm †Kv_vq †c‡j  Kwe cwiwPwZ Kwe RmxgDÏxb 1903 wLªóv‡ãi 30†k A‡±vei dwi`cyi †Rjvi Zv¤^yjLvbv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| MÖvg evOjvi cÖK…wZ I mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb wb‡q wZwb KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvq cj−xRxeb †ewk D‡V G‡m‡Q e‡j Zuv‡K ejv nq Ôcj−xKweÕ| Z‡e wZwb A‡bK my›`i M`¨I iPbv K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi †jLv ågY Kvwnbx I AvZ¥Rxebx AZ¨šZ my›`i| wZwb †QvU‡`i Rb¨ A‡bK my›`i †jLv wj‡L‡Qb| Zvi weL¨vZ KweZv ÔKeiÕ Ges weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’ ÔbKkx Kuv_vi gvVÕ I Ô†mvRb evw`qvi NvUÕ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi †jLv ÔWvwjg KzgviÕ, ÔnvmyÕ I ÔGK cqmvi euvwkÕ| wZwb 1976 mv‡ji 14B gvP© XvKvq g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB †QvÆ wkïi Av`y‡i gyL, Zvi Ava Ava fvlv mevi wcÖq| †QvÆ wkïi K_v, Zvi Abvwej Aweij k㸔Q †hb b`xi KjKj k‡ãi g‡Zv| wkïi LjLj nvwm‡K Kwe e‡j‡Qb LjLjvwb| wkïi iwOb †VuvU †hb mv`v Kjwg dz‡ji g‡ZvB my›`i| wkïi nuvUv PjvI fvwi my›`i, †hb Mv‡Qi cvZvq †`vjv jvMvi g‡Zv| Avm‡j †QvÆ wkïi me wKQzB my›`i| wkï mevi Av`‡ii|

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB LjLjvwb

⎯ LjLj kã| wkïi K_v‡K Kwe e‡j‡Qb LjLjvwb|

MvO

⎯ †QvÆ b`x|

UzBUzevwb

⎯ UBUz¤^yi, Kvbvq Kvbvq fiv|

Svgyi Szgyi

⎯ b~cy‡ii kã|

†RvQbv wdwbK

⎯ wdbwK w`‡q Puv‡`i †RvQbv Qov‡bvi †mŠ›`h©|

DoDovwb

⎯ DWyDWy g‡bi fve|

Qovi Movi MoMovwb ⎯ my›`i Qovi myi I Q‡›`i Mwo‡q hvIqvi kã|

 Wvb w`K †_‡K kã G‡b Lvwj N‡i emvB (K) GZ K_vi ⎯ KjKjvwb (L) Mv‡Oi ⎯ ¸j¸jvwb (M) cv‡Ui e‡bi ⎯ MoMovwb (N) Qovi Movi ⎯ LjLjvwb (O) Kjwg dz‡ji ⎯ `yj`yjvwb

c„ôv-48

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

(P) †Kvb †m jZvi ⎯ eDUzevwb (Q) Av`‡i ⎯ dzjQovwb (R) †RvQbv ⎯ wdwbK (S) iwOb ⎯ †Vuv‡U

 mwVK DËiwU wkwL: (K) Kwe wkïi nvwm‡K e‡j‡Qb  UzBUzevwb/ LjLjvwb/ DoDovwb DËi: LjLjvwb (L)

cjøx Kwe ejv nq  RmxgD`&`xb‡K/ Avj gvngy`‡K/ kvgQyi ivngvb‡K DËi: RmxgD`&`xb‡K

(M)

Kei KweZvwUi †jLK  iwdK Avmv`/ KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg/ Rmxg D`&`xb DËi: Rmxg D`&`xb

c„ôv-49

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Mv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi Djøvm gbmyi gymv

 †jLK cwiwPwZ gbmyi gymv XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi AvaywbK fvlv Bbw÷wUD‡Ui evsjv wefv‡Mi Aa¨vcK| wZwb fvlv wkÿK, fvlv weÁvbx, M‡elK, evsjv GKv‡Wgxi cÖv³b gnvcwiPvjK, cÖvewÜK, mgv‡jvPK I AwfavbKvi| wZwb wkï GKv‡Wgx cÖKvwkZ Ôwkï wek¦‡KvlÕ-Gi Ab¨Zg m¤cv`K| wZwb wkï‡`i Rb¨ Rxebx, Mí I Qov wj‡L‡Qb|

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB mvabv

⎯ K‡Vvi I AvšZwiK cÖ‡Póv, Zcm¨v| ⎯ weÁvbx‡`i mvabvi d‡j gvby‡li Rvbvi mxgv †e‡o‡Q|

evKwkí

⎯ K_v ejvi †KŠkj, D”PviY †mŠKh©| KweZv Ave„wË GK HwZn¨evnx evKwkí|

AwfwnZ

⎯ bvgvw¼Z, D³, Kw_Z| - MÖvg evsjvi AwaKvsk Mvb †jvKmsMxZ bv‡g AwfwnZ|

DÏxcbv

⎯ Drmvn, AvMÖn| ⎯ Kv‡R mvdj¨ jv‡fi Rb¨ DÏxcbv cÖ‡qvRb|

kªgRxex

⎯ kªwgK, Kg©Rxex| ⎯ kªgRxex gvbyl †`‡ki cÖK…Z m¤c`|

kªgmsMxZ

⎯ cwikªg Kivi mg‡q m„ó Mvb| ⎯ Qv` †cUvi Mvb GK ai‡bi kªgmsMxZ|

we‡bv`b

⎯ Av‡gv`, Avb›``vqK| ⎯ cwikª‡gi m‡½ we‡bv`‡bi e¨e¯’v ivLv `iKvi|

cÖwZdjb

⎯ cÖwZwe¤^b, QvqvcvZ| ⎯ gvby‡li myL-`yt‡Li cÖwZdjb N‡U msMx‡Z|

cvi`k©x

⎯ `ÿ, AwfÁ, mg_©| ⎯ wZwb D”Pv½ msMx‡Z cvi`k©x|

†iIqvR

⎯ Af¨vm, Abykxjb| ⎯ fv‡jv wkíxiv wbqwgZ †iIqvR K‡ib|

¸iæ

⎯ I¯Zv`, wkÿK| ⎯ ¸iæi wb‡`©k Aek¨B gvb‡Z n‡e|

wkl¨Z¡

⎯ QvÎZ¡, ¸iæi Abymvix| ⎯ cwÐZ iwek¼i AvjvDwÏb Luvi wkl¨Z¡ MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb|

gš¿gy»

⎯ gšÎ ïwb‡q gy» Kiv| ⎯ Zvb‡m‡bi msMxZ mgªvU AvKei gšÎgy× n‡q ïb‡Zb|

†jvKmsMxZ ⎯ MÖv‡gi mvaviY gvby‡li Mvb| ⎯ evsjv‡`i †jvKmsMxZ AZ¨šZ RbwcÖq| ¯^Ztù~Z©

⎯ mnR I ¯^vfvweKfv‡e cÖKvwkZ| ⎯ ¯^Ztù~Z© Mvb gb‡K bvov †`q|

Awfe¨w³

⎯ cÖKvk| ⎯ bv‡Pi fw½‡Z fv‡ei Awfe¨w³ N‡U|

c„ôv-50

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖ‡kœi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ evKwkí ej‡Z Kx eyS? DËi : Avgiv Mvb Kwi, MxZ MvB Avi m½xZ mvabv Kwi| GB mvabv evKwk‡íi A½| gvbyl K_v e‡j, evK¨ ˆZwi K‡i Avi aŸwb D”PviY K‡i| G¸‡jv evKwkí bv‡g cwiwPZ| †h my›`i K‡i K_v e‡j Zv‡K ejv nq PviæevK| mevB Zvi cÖksmv K‡i| ïay K_v ejv bq, †h my›`ifv‡e Mvb Ki‡Z cv‡i mevB Zv‡K fv‡jvev‡m| KviY fv‡jv Mvb ïb‡Z mevB cQ›` K‡i| cÖk:œ kªgm½xZ Kx? D`vniY `vI| DËi: gbmyi gymv iwPZ ÒMv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi DjøvmÓ bvgK cÖe‡Ü G‡`‡ki m½xZ HwZ‡n¨i K_v my›`ifv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| m½x‡Z mg„× G‡`‡ki cÖwZwU †ÿ‡Î i‡q‡Q Mvb Avi Mx‡Zi ¯úk©| eûKvj a‡i eû cÖKvi Mvb G‡`‡ki gvby‡li cÖvY `Lj K‡i Av‡Q| ZvB GB †`k Mv‡bi †`k| cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡K gvbyl fve cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ Mvb K‡i G‡m‡Q| Kv‡R DÏxcbv m„wói Rb¨ kªgRxex gvby‡liv mg¯^‡i Mvb K‡i _v‡K| G¸‡jv‡K ejv nq kªgm½xZ| kªgRxex gvbyl Qv` †cUvq Avi kªg jvNe Kivi Rb¨ mg¯^‡i Qv` †cUv‡bvi Mvb Mvq| avb KvUvi mgq, dmj †Zvjvi mgq K…lK Mvb K‡i| Gfv‡e kª‡gi mv‡_ we‡bv`b‡K hy³ K‡i| ZLb kªg n‡q I‡V Avb›``vqK| cÖk:œ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wZbRb weL¨vZ m½xZ wkíxi bvg ewj I wjwL| DËi: cÖvewÜK gbmyi gymv iwPZ ÒMv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi DjøvmÓ bvgK cÖe‡Ü G‡`‡ki m½xZ HwZ‡n¨i K_v my›`ifv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| m½xZ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AnsKvi| G‡`‡ki cÖwZwU †ÿ‡Î i‡q‡Q m½x‡Zi ¯úk©| Mv‡bi gva¨‡g G‡`‡ki gvbyl cÖv‡Yi Djøvm cÖKvk K‡i| wPiKvj GB Dcgnv‡`‡ki weL¨vZ msMxZ mva‡Kiv c„w_exi gvbyl‡K gš¿gy» K‡i G‡m‡Qb| †mRb¨ Zuviv mviv c„w_ex‡Z cÖkswmZ n‡q‡Qb| Zviv wPiKvj msMxZ mvabv K‡i‡Qb| GRb¨ Zv‡`i ejv nq msMxZ mvaK| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wZbRb msMxZ mvaK ev wkíxi bvg wb‡P †`qv nj: 1| AveŸvm DÏxb 2| Avãyj Avjxg 3| I¯Ív` AvjvDwÏb Luv cÖk:œ msMx‡Zi †ÿÎ KqwU I Kx Kx? DËi: cÖvewÜK gbmyi gymv iwPZ ÒMv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi DjøvmÓ bvgK cÖe‡Ü G‡`‡ki msMxZ HwZ‡n¨i K_v my›`ifv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| msMx‡Zi `ywU †ÿÎ i‡q‡Q| h_v: KÉmsMxZ I hš¿msMxZ| mPivPi KÉmsMx‡Zi cwic~iK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq hš¿msMxZ| Z‡e ïay KÉmsMxZ †hgb m¤¢e, †Zgwb ïay hš¿msMxZI m¤¢e| c„ôv-51

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ KÉmsMx‡Zi mn‡hvMx ev`¨hš¿¸‡jvi bvg Kx? DËi: cÖvewÜK gbmyi gymv iwPZ ÒMv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi DjøvmÓ bvgK cÖe‡Ü evsjv‡`‡ki msMxZ HwZ‡n¨i K_v my›`ifv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| Avgiv Mvb Kwi, MxZ MvB Avi msMxZ mvabv Kwi| cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvbyl fve cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ Mvb K‡i Avm‡Q| msMx‡Zi `ywU †ÿÎ i‡q‡Q| h_v: KÉmsMxZ I hš¿msMxZ| mPivPi KÉmsMx‡Zi cwic~iK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq hš¿msMxZ| Z‡e ïay KÉmsMxZ †hgb m¤¢e, †Zgwb ïay hš¿msMxZI m¤¢e| KÉmsMx‡Zi mn‡hvMx ev`¨hš¿¸‡jv n‡jv: euvwk, †Xvj, Zejv, KiZvj, †Lvj, LÄwb, nvi‡gvwbqvg, gv`j, GKZviv, †`vZviv, †mZvi, m‡iv` BZ¨vw`| huviv Gme ev`¨hš¿ e¨envi K‡ib Zuv‡`iI wfbœ wfbœ bvg i‡q‡Q| †hgb: euvwk evRvb whwb, wZwb eskxev`K; †Xvj evRvb whwb, wZwb Xywj, Zejv evRvb whwb, wZwb ZejwP|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K) †h my›`i K_v e‡j Zv‡K ejv nq  PviæevK/ mye³v/ ¯úófvlx DËi: PviæevK (L) kªgRxwe gvby‡li Mvb‡K ejv nq  MYmsMxZ/ RvZxq msMxZ/ kªg msMxZ DËi: kªg msMxZ (M) msMx‡Zi †ÿÎ i‡q‡Q  DËi: `ywU

`ywU/ wZbwU/ PviwU

(N) MÖv‡gi mvaviY gvby‡li Mvb  fvwUqvjx/ cjøxMxwZ/ †jvKmsMxZ DËi: †jvK msMxZ

c„ôv-52

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Avðh© cv_‡ii K_v W. gvneyeyj nK

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB nvwZqvi

⎯ nv‡Z enb Kiv hvq Ggb A¯Îk¯Î| ⎯ Avw`g gvbyl cv_‡ii nvwZqvi w`‡q cï ea KiZ|

Adzivb

⎯ dz‡ivq bv Ggb| ⎯ †jLvcovq Zvi Adzivb AvMÖn †`‡L mevB Lywk|

iZoecv_i ⎯ gwYgy³vRvZxq cv_i| ⎯ bvbviKg iZoecv_i msMÖn KviI KviI kL| ciL

⎯ hvPvB I cixÿv, †`vl¸Y wePvi| ⎯ Rûwiiv ciL K‡i iZoecv_‡ii g~j¨ wba©viY K‡ib|

M‡elYv

⎯ †Kv‡bv wel‡h e¨vcK I Mfxi AbymÜvb| ⎯ weÁv‡bi A‡bK Avwe®‹v‡ii g~‡j i‡q‡Q wbišZi M‡elYv|

 AviI †R‡b wbB AvwK©wgw`m ⎯ cÖvPxb wMÖ‡mi †miv MwYZwe`, c`v_©weÁvbx I hš¿cÖ‡KŠkjx| Rb¥ AvbygvwbK wLóc~e© 287 A‡ã, g„Zz¨ wLªóc~e© 213 A‡ã| K¤cvm ⎯ K¤cvm (Compass) Bs‡iwR kã| GwU w`K wbY©‡qi hš¿| G h‡š¿ myPv‡jv kjvi Ici miæ Pz¤^KcvZ emv‡bv _v‡K| Pz¤^K cv‡Zi cÖvšZ `ywU me mgq DËi-`wÿY w`K wb‡`©k K‡i| K¤úvm A‡bK ai‡bi n‡q _v‡K| Rvnv‡Ri bvwe‡Kiv e¨envi K‡ib †bŠ-K¤cvm| ˆegvwb‡Kiv e¨envi K‡ib RvB‡iv K¤cvm| Avi ˆ`bw›` Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq c‡KU K¤cvm|

 Aek¨B g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e: • Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g¨vM‡bwkqvq Pz¤^K cv_‡ii mÜvb cvIqv wM‡qwQj| • Pz¤^‡Ki `ywU †giæ| GKwU n‡jv DËi †giæ Ab¨wU n‡jv `wÿY †giæ| SzjšÍ Ae¯’vq Pz¤^K DËi-`wÿY w`K gyL K‡i Ae¯’vb K‡i| • Pz¤^‡Ki mg‡giæ ci¯úi‡K weKl©Y K‡i Avi wecixZ †giæ ci¯úi‡K AvKl©Y K‡i| • AvaywbK w`M`k©b hš¿ ev K¤úv‡m ˆe`y¨wZK Pz¤^Kxq KvUv e¨eüZ nq|

c„ôv-53

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖkœ : gvbyl Kxfv‡e bvbv iKg iZœ cv_i Avwe®‹vi K‡i? DËi: W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ ÔAvðh© cv_‡ii K_vÕ iPbvwU‡Z g~j¨evb iZœcv_i Avwe®‹v‡ii K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| Avw`gKv‡ji gvby‡liv ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡Ri cÖ‡qvR‡b wewfbœ ai‡bi nvwZqvi e¨envi KiZ| Gi g‡a¨ cv_‡ii wQj †ewk| ZvB cv_‡ii ¸Yv¸Y cixÿv Kivi Rb¨ gvby‡li wQj AdzišÍ AvMÖn| Gfv‡e cv_‡ii ¸Yv¸Y cixÿv Kivi ga¨ w`‡q gvbyl GK mgq bvbv iKg iZœ cv_i Avwe®‹vi K‡i| gvby‡li mxgvnxb AvMÖn †_‡KB Avwe®„‹Z nq bvbv ai‡bi iZœ cv_i| cÖk:œ †Kvb RvqMvq Kxfv‡e gvbyl Avðh© cv_‡ii mÜvb cvq? A_ev, Kxfv‡e Pz¤^K cv_i Avwe®K…Z nq? cv_iwUi Kx ¸Y wQj? DËi: W. gvneyeyj KZ…©K iwPZ ÔAvðh© cv_‡ii K_vÕ iPbvwU‡Z g~j¨evb Pz¤^K cv_i Avwe®‹v‡ii K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †KŠZ~njx gvbyl Zvi ˆ`bw›`b cÖ‡qvR‡bi ZvwM‡` Avwe®‹vi K‡i bvbv ai‡bie iZœcv_i| G mgq cÖ‡qvRb †_‡KB Pz¤^K cv_i Avwe®K…Z nq| Avw`g Kvj †_‡KB ˆ`bw›`b cÖ‡qvR‡b bvbv ai‡bi cv_‡ii nvwZqvi e¨eüZ n‡Zv| Gfv‡eB gvbyl A‡bK Kvj Av‡M Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g¨vM‡bwkqv bvgK GKwU RvqMvq GK A™¢yZ cv_‡ii mÜvb cvq| GwUB wQj Pz¤^K cv_i| †jvnvi UzKiv‡K AvKl©Y Kivi GK A™¢yZ ¸Y wQj GB Pz¤^K cv_‡ii| cÖk-œ Pz¤^K cv_‡ii bvg g¨vM‡bUvBU ivLv n‡q‡Q †Kb? A_ev, g¨vM‡bU ev Pz¤^K K_vwU †Kvb kã †_‡K G‡m‡Q? DËi: W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ ÔAvðh© cv_‡ii K_vÕ iPbvq Pz¤^K ev g¨vM‡bU Avwe®‹v‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ g¨vM‡bUvBU kãwUi cÖPjb BwZnvm ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| A‡bKKvj Av‡M Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g¨vM‡bwkqv bvgK A‡j gvbyl GK A™¢yZ cv_‡ii mÜvb cvq| †jvnvi UzKiv‡K AvKl©Y Kivi PgrKvi ÿgZv wQj GB cv_iwUi| g¨vM‡bwkqv bvgK RvqMvq GB cv_i cvIqv wM‡qwQj e‡j RvqMvi bvg Abymv‡i Pz¤^K cv_‡ii bvg ivLv nq g¨vM‡bUvBU| cÖk-œ SzjšÍ Ae¯’vq Pz¤^K cv_‡ii †Kvb we¯§qKi ¸Y gvby‡li bR‡i c‡o? A_ev, Pz¤^K cv_i w`‡q Kxfv‡e w`K wbY©q Kiv hvq? A_ev, Pz¤^K cv_‡ii †Kvb ¸Y‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q w`K wbY©q Kiv nq? DËi: Pz¤^K cv_i Avwe®‹v‡ii ci †_‡KB †KŠZ~njx gvbyl G‡K wb‡q M‡elYv ïiæ K‡i| d‡j Gi Avðh© me ¸Yv¸Y gvby‡li †Pv‡L c‡o| SzjšÍ Ae¯’vq Pz¤^K cv_i me©`v DËi-`wÿYgyLx n‡q Ae¯’vb K‡i| Pz¤^‡Ki GB we‡kl ¸Y‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q weÁvbx AvwK©wgw`m w`M`k©b hš¿ ev K¤úvm Avwe®‹vi c„ôv-54

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

K‡ib| †Kbbv DËi w`‡K gyL K‡i `uvov‡j mn‡RB Wvb nv‡Zi w`K c~e© Avi evg nv‡Zi w`‡K cwðg e‡j wP‡b †bqv hvq| Avi Gfv‡eB Pz¤^‡Ki ¸Y‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q w`K wbY©q Kiv hvq| AvaywbK K¤úv‡m w`K wbY©‡qi Rb¨ ˆe`y¨wZK KuvUv e¨eüZ nq|

 cÖm½ D‡jøL K‡i e¨vL¨v: ÒGB cv_‡ii i‡q‡Q †jvnvi UzK‡iv‡K †U‡b aivi PgrKvi ÿgZvÓ Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ ÔAvðh© cv_‡ii K_vÕ cÖeÜ †_‡K M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Pz¤^K Øviv †jvnv‡K AvKl©Y Kivi Avðh© ¸‡Yi K_v GLv‡b ejv n‡q‡Q| we‡kølY: ˆ`bw›`b cÖ‡qvR‡bi ZvwM‡` cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K gvbyl bvbv ai‡bi Kv‡R cv_‡ii nvwZqvi e¨envi KiZ| ZvB cv_‡ii bvbv ¸Yv¸Y cixÿvq wQj gvby‡li Acwimxg AvMÖn| Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g¨vM‡bwkqv bvgK A‡j gvbyl GK A™¢yZ cv_‡ii mÜvb jvf K‡i| hv cieZ©x mg‡q Pz¤^K ev g¨vM‡bUvBU bv‡g cwiwPZ| GB Avðh© cv_‡ii i‡q‡Q †jvnvi UzK‡iv‡K AvKl©Y Kivi we‡kl ÿgZv| gšÍe¨: Pz¤^‡Ki i‡q‡Q †jvnv‡K AvKl©Y Kivi we‡kl ÿgZv hv Av‡jvP¨ e¨vL¨vi g~j welq|

 mwVK DËi wkwL: (K)

g¨vM‡bwkqv Aew¯’Z  Gwkqvq/ Av‡gwiKvq/ BD‡ivc DËi: Gwkqvq

(L)

weÁvbx AvwK©wgw`m Avwe®‹vi K‡ib  K¤úvm/ ˆe`y¨wZK evj¦/ Aw·‡Rb DËi: K¤úvm

(M)

ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq  c‡KU K¤úvm/ RvB‡iv K¤úvm/ †bŠ K¤úvm DËi: c‡KU K¤úvm

c„ôv-55

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

wkÿv¸iæi gh©v`v KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR (1909-1983)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR 1909 mv‡ji 15B Rvbyqvwi cwðge‡½i gywk©`vev` †Rjvi Zvwjecyi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨ Abvm© I wewU cvk K‡ib| wZwb PvKwi Rxe‡bi cÖ‡g wQ‡jb mve B݇c±i, c‡i wewfboe ¯‹z‡j cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| wZwb bxwZK_v I Kvwnbxg~jK wkï‡Zvl KweZvi Rb¨ L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| 1983 mv‡ji 3iv Rvbyqvwi wZwb g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB Ges e¨envi wkwL Kzgvi

⎯ ivRvi †Q‡j (ivRKzgvi)| ⎯ Av‡Mi w`‡b nvwZ- †Nvov P‡o Kzgvi wkKv‡i †h‡Zb|

kvnRv`v ⎯ ev`kvi cyÎ| ⎯ ev`kvn kvnRv`v‡K mywkÿv w`‡q‡Qb| evwi

⎯ cvwb| ⎯ kªve‡Yi evwiavivq gvV-NvU f‡i †M‡Q|

PiY

⎯ cv| ⎯ wcZvi Pi‡Y nvZ †i‡L cyÎ †`vqv PvBj|

cyjwKZ

⎯ Avbw›`Z| ⎯ C‡`i w`b wkïiv Lye cyjwKZ nq|

ü‡`

⎯ ü`‡q, g‡b| (kãwU KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)

bqb

⎯ †PvL| ⎯ GKUz Av`i †c‡q `ty Lx †Q‡jwUi bqb AkæmÖ Rj n‡q DVj|

fvj

⎯ Kcvj, A`„ó, fvM¨| ⎯ gv wkïwUi fv‡j Pzgy Gu‡K w`‡jb|

¯ca©v

⎯ `c©, evo| ⎯ Zvi ¯ca©v †`‡L Avwg AevK n‡qwQ|

wki

⎯ gv_v| ⎯ Ab¨v‡qi Kv‡Q KLbI wki bZ Kie bv|

AbM©j

⎯ GKUvbv, Aweivg| ⎯ †QvÆ †g‡q wgwb Zvi evevi m‡½ AbM©j K_v e‡j P‡j‡Q|

kvnvbkvn ⎯ ev`kvn, ivRvwaivR| ⎯ kvnvbkvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb GKRb gnrcÖvY kvmK| †Kjøv

⎯ `yM|© ⎯ wZZzgx‡ii euv‡ki †Kjøv BwZnv‡m weL¨vZ|

†mŠRb¨

⎯ f`ªZv, wkóvPvi| ⎯ Zuvi †mŠRb¨ Avgv‡`i gy» K‡i‡Q|

cÖÿvjb

⎯ †avIqv, cvwb w`‡q cwi®‹vi Kiv| ⎯ wZwb nvZ-cv cÖÿvjb K‡i N‡i XyK‡jb|

¯§wi

⎯ g‡b Kwi, ¯§iY Kwi| (kãwU ïay KweZvq e¨eüZ nq|

Kzwb©k

⎯ gv_v bZ K‡i Awfev`b Kiv| ⎯ DwRi ev`kvn‡K Kzwb©k Ki‡jb|

kv¯Î

⎯ Abykvmb, ag©MÖš|’ ⎯ kv‡¯Îi cÖwZ m¤§vb Rvbv‡bv DwPZ|

c„ôv-56

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ wkÿv¸iæi gh©v`v KweZvi mvigg© wjL| DËi: A‡bK A‡bK eQi Av‡M w`jøxi GK AwacwZ ev`kvn AvjgMxi Zvui cy·K DbœZ wkÿv I Av`eÑKvq`v †kLv‡bvi Rb¨ GKRb wkÿK‡K wb‡qvM †`b| GK`v cÖfv‡Z wZwb †`L‡jb, Zvui cyÎ cvwbi cvÎ nv‡Z wb‡q cvwb Xvj‡Q Zvi wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q| Avi wkÿK ïay wb‡Ri nvZ w`‡q cv‡qi ayjv cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| Avi kvnRv`v Zuvi w`‡K cyjwKZ ü`‡q Lywk g‡bvfve wb‡q ZvwK‡q Av‡Q| wkÿK ev`kvn‡K †`L‡Z †c‡jb| fve‡jb, AvR Zvui Avi wb¯Ívi †bB| mewKQyB eywS AvR‡K Zvui hv‡e| wZwb cÖ_‡g ev`kvni †Q‡j‡K w`‡q cv‡q cvwb Xvwj‡q‡Qb e‡j g‡b Ki‡jb, Zvui Pig Aciva n‡q‡Q| GiKg Aciva †KD KL‡bv K‡i‡Q? fve‡Z fve‡Z Zvui Kcv‡j fvuR †`Lv w`j| wKš‘ nVvr Kx †f‡e ej‡jb, Avwg fq Kwi bv| †M‡j hv‡e Avgvi cÖvY| wkÿK Avwg †Zv mevi †kªô| w`jøxi AwacwZ †Zv Kx n‡q‡Q? Avgvi g‡b ej Av‡Q| ev`kvn wR‡Ám Ki‡j kv‡¯¿i K_v AbM©j ïwb‡q †`e| cÖv‡Yi †P‡qI †h m¤§vb eo ZvB wZwb ev`kvn‡K eySv‡eb e‡j w¯’i Ki‡jb| Gi ciw`b ev`kvni `~Z Zv‡K †W‡K wb‡q †M‡jb ev`kvn&i Lvm Kvgiv‡Z| ev`kvn wkÿK‡K ej‡jb, Avgvi †Q‡j Avcbvi Kv‡Q wK †mŠRb¨ wKQy wk‡L‡Q? wk‡L‡Q ïay †eqv`we Avi ¸iæR‡bi Ae‡njv| †mw`b mKv‡j Avwg hv †`Ljvg Zv‡ZB LyeB Kó †cjvg| †Kb †m wb‡Ri nvZ w`‡q Avcbvi cv ayB‡q w`j bv? ev`kvni e¨env‡i wkÿK Awff~Z n‡q ej‡jb, AvR †_‡K Avcwb mwZ¨B wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v Av‡iv evwo‡q w`‡jb| Avi Avcwb †h mwZ¨B gnvb I D`vi Zv cÖgvY Ki‡jb| cÖk:œ ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii cy·K †K cov‡Zb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU GKwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR Zuvi KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnvZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| ev`kvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb w`jøxi †gvNj mgªvU| †m mg‡q wkÿv cÖwZôv‡bi †Zgb †Kv‡bv cÖPjb wQj bv| ZvQvov wkÿv`xÿv ïaygvÎ ivRcwievi I AwfRvZ †kªYxi g‡a¨B mxgve× wQj| iv‡R¨i bvgKiv wkÿv¸iæivB Zv‡`i mšÍvb‡`i wkÿv w`‡Zb| Av‡jvP¨ KweZvq DwjøwLZ ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii cyÎ †Zgwbfv‡eB w`jøxi GK †gŠjexi ZË¡veav‡b cov‡kvbv KiZ| cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †gŠjex Zv‡K Av`e Kvq`v I wkóvPviI wkÿv w`‡q _vK‡Zb| cÖk:œ GKw`b mKv‡j wZwb Kx †`L‡Z †c‡jb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU GKwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR Zuvi KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-57

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

ev`kvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb w`jøxi †gvNj mgªvU| Zvi cyÎ w`jøxi GK †gŠjexi ZË¡veav‡b cov‡kvbv KiZ| cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †gŠjex Zv‡K Av`e Kvq`v I wkóvPviI wkÿv w`‡q _vK‡Zb| GKw`b mKv‡j ev`kvn †`L‡jb Zvi cyÎ Avbw›`Z g‡b GKwU cvÎ n‡Z wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q ïay cvwb †X‡j w`‡”Q Avi wkÿK wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi gqjv ay‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| G NUbv †`‡L ev`kvn wew¯§Z Ges gg©vnZ n‡jb| †Kbbv wZwb fve‡jb, Zvi cyÎ †hb †Kv‡bv iKg Av`e Kvq`vB ‡k‡Lwb| Zvi wkÿv cwic~Y© I h_v_© n‡”Q bv| ZvB DwØMœ n‡q wZwb wkÿK‡K Zvui `iev‡i †W‡K cvVv‡jb| cÖk:œ ev`kvn‡K †`‡L wkÿK cÖ_‡g Kx fve‡jb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU GKwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR Zvui KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnvZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| ev`kvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb w`jøxi †gvNj mgªvU| Zvi cyÎ w`jøxi GK †gŠjexi ZË¡veav‡b cov‡kvbv KiZ| cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †gŠjex Zv‡K Av`e-Kvq`v I wkóvPviI wkÿv w`‡q _vK‡Zb| GKw`b mKv‡j ev`kvn †`L‡jb Zvi cyÎ Avbw›`Z g‡b GKwU cvÎ n‡Z wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q ïay cvwb †X‡j w`‡”Q Avi wkÿK wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi gqjv ay‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| G NUbv †`‡L ev`kvn wew¯§Z Ges gg©vnZ n‡jb| †Kbbv wZwb fve‡jb, Zvi cyÎ †hb †Kv‡bv iKg Av`e Kvq`vB †k‡Lwb| Zvi wkÿv cwic~Y© I h_v_© n‡”Qbv| ZvB DwØMœ n‡q wZwb wkÿK‡K Zuvi `iev‡i †W‡K cvVv‡jb| ev`kvn‡K †`‡L wkÿK fve‡jb, wZwb ev`kvni cy·K w`‡q cv‡q cvwb Xvwj‡q‡Qb G `„k¨ ev`kvn †`‡L‡Qb| Avi ZvB ev`kvn ivMvwš^Z n‡q Zuv‡K †W‡K cvwV‡q‡Qb| wZwb AviI fve‡jb, ev`kvn nq‡Zv Zv‡K Zvi Aciv‡ai kvw¯Í †`‡eb| cÖk:œ ÔcÖv‡Yi †P‡qI gvb eoÕÑ wkÿK G K_v ej‡jb †Kb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i ‡bIqvR Zvui KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnvZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| †gvNj mgªvU AvjgMx‡ii cy·K w`jøxi GKRb †gŠjex cov‡Zb| GKw`b mKvj †ejvq †`L‡jb kvnRv`v GKwU cvÎ nv‡Z wb‡q Avbw›`Z g‡b Zvi wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q cvwb Xvj‡Q, Avi wkÿK wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi ayjv mvd Ki‡Qb| wkÿK ev`kvn‡K †`L‡jb| wZwb fve‡jb, kvnRv`v‡K w`‡q cvwb Xvwj‡q wZwb eo Aciva Ki‡Qb| G ai‡bi Aciva †KD †Kv‡bv Kv‡j K‡iwb Ges G Aciva ÿgvi A‡hvM¨| Zvi Aciv‡ai Rb¨ wbðqB ev`kvn Zvu‡K KwVb kvw¯Í w`‡eb| fve‡Z fve‡Z Zvui Kcv‡j wPšÍvi †iLv †`Lv w`j| nVvr wkÿ‡Ki g‡b mvnm mÂvi n‡jv| g‡b g‡b ej‡jb, wZwb wkÿK , mevi †kªô| wZwb KvD‡K fq K‡ib bv| ev`kvn AvjgMxi w`jøxi AwacwZ n‡jI wZwb GKRb wkÿ‡Ki Kv‡Q AwZ bMY¨| ev`kvn Zv‡K wKQy wRÁvmv Ki‡j wZwb Zuv‡K kv‡¯¿i K_v ïbv‡eb| G‡Z Zuvi cÖvY †M‡jI wZwb fq Ki‡eb bv|

c„ôv-58

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ ev`kvn AvjgMxi wkÿK‡K cÖ_‡g Kx ej‡jb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU GKwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR Zuvi KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnvZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| ev`kvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb w`jøxi †gvNj mgªvU| Zvi cyÎ w`jøxi GK †gŠjexi ZË¡eav‡b cov‡kvbv KiZ| cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †gŠjex Zv‡K Av`e-Kvq`v I wkóvPviI wkÿv w`‡q _vK‡Zb| GKw`b mKv‡j ev`kvn †`L‡jb, Zvui cyÎ Avb›` g‡b GKwU cvÎ n‡Z wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q ïay cvwb †X‡j w`‡”Q Avi wkÿK wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi gqjv ay‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| G NUbv †`‡L ev`kvn wew¯§Z Ges gg©vnZ n‡jb| †Kbbv wZwb fve‡jb, Zvi cyÎ †hb †Kv‡bv iKg Av`e-Kvq`vB †k‡Lwb| Zvi wkÿv cwic~Y© I h_v_© n‡”Q bv| ZvB DwØMœ n‡q wZwb wkÿK‡K Zuvi `iev‡i †W‡K cvVv‡jb| wZwb wkÿK‡K cÖ_‡gB ejj †h, Zuvi cy‡Îi wkÿv m¤ú~Y© I h_v_© n‡”Q e‡j wZwb g‡b Ki‡Qb bv| wkÿ‡Ki KvQ †_‡K †m †Kv‡bv cÖKvi Av`e Kvq`v †k‡Lwb| kvnRv`v ïay wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q cvwb †X‡j w`‡q‡Q wKšÍy wbR nv‡Z Zvi cv cwi®‹vi K‡i †`qwb| G‡Z †evSv hvq, ¸iæRb‡`i cÖwZ Ae‡njv Avi †eqv`wei wkÿvB †m MÖnY K‡i‡Q| ev`kvni G‡nb gšÍ‡e¨i ga¨ w`‡q wkÿ‡Ki cÖwZ Zvi AK…wÎg kª×v cÖ`k©‡bi cvkvcvwk ü`‡qi gnvbyfeZvI cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| cÖk:œ wkÿK Kx e‡j ev`kvni mybvg Ki‡jb? DËi: Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvwU GKwU wkÿvg~jK KweZv| Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR Zuvi KweZvwU‡Z ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii f~wgKvi gva¨‡g mgv‡R wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v I gvnvZ¥¨ cÖwZôv K‡i‡Qb| ev`kvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb w`jøxi †gvNj mgªvU| Zvi cyÎ w`jøxi GK †gŠjexi ZË¡veav‡b cov‡kvbv KiZ| cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †gŠjex Zv‡K Av`e-Kvq`v I wkóvPviI wkÿv w`‡q _vK‡Zb| GKw`b mKv‡j ev`kvn †`L‡jb Zvui cyÎ Avb›` g‡b GKwU cvÎ n‡Z wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q ïay cvwb †X‡j w`‡”Q Avi wkÿK wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi gqjv ay‡q cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| G NUbv †`‡L ev`kvn wew¯§Z Ges gg©vnZ n‡jb| wZwb wkÿK‡K Zvi `iev‡i †W‡K cvVv‡jb| wkÿK †f‡ewQ‡jb, wZwb kvnRv`v‡K w`‡q cvwb Xvwj‡q g¯Í eo Aciva K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi Aciva ÿgvi A‡hvM¨| Zuvi Aciv‡ai Rb¨ ev`kvn wbðqB Zv‡K KwVb kvw¯Í w`‡eb| wKšÍy ev¯Í‡e wkÿK †`L‡jb wfbœiƒc| kvnRv`v ïay wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q cvwb †X‡jwQj: wKšÍy wbR nv‡Z wkÿ‡Ki cv cwi®‹vi K‡iwb| GRb¨ ev`kvn g‡b `ytL †c‡q‡Qb Ges wkÿK‡K †W‡K Qv·K Dchy³ wkÿv bv †`Iqvi Rb¨ ˆKwdqZ PvB‡jb| ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii gnvbyfeZv †`‡L wkÿK Awff~Z n‡jb Ges gv_v bZ K‡i ev`kvn‡K Awfev`b Ki‡jb| wZwb ej‡jb, ev`kvn AvjgMxi wkÿK‡K c„w_exi m‡e©v”P Avm‡b ¯’vb w`‡q‡Qb| wZwb mwZ¨B GKRb gnvb I D`vi ev`kvn|

c„ôv-59

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 m¤¢ve¨ e¨vL¨v: AvR n‡Z wPiDbœZ nj wkÿv¸iæi wki mwZ¨ Zzwg gnvb D`vi ev`kvn AvjgMxi| Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKy Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR iwPZ Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZv †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: wkÿK‡K gh©v`v w`‡q ev`kvn AvjgMxi †h gnvb D`viZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb GLv‡b †m cÖm‡½ ejv n‡q‡Q| we‡kølY: ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii cy·K cov‡Zb w`jøxi GK †gŠjex mv‡ne| GKw`b ev`kvn AvjgMxi †`L‡Z cvb kvnRv`v wkÿ‡Ki cv‡q cvwb Xvj‡Q Avi wkÿK wb‡R nv‡Z cv‡qi ayjv cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| kvnRv`v wbR nv‡Z Zuvi wkÿ‡Ki cv‡qi ayjv mvd K‡i bv †`Iqvq ev`kvn gg©vnZ I ÿzä n‡jb| ev`kvn AvjgMxi Zv‡K †W‡K wR‡Ám K‡ib, Avgvi cyÎ wK Avcbvi Kv‡Q ¸iæR‡bi Ae‡njv Qvov †Kv‡bv †mŠRb¨ wk‡Lwb? †m w`b mKv‡j Avwg †`Ljvg, kvnRv`v Avcbvi cv‡q ïay cvwb Xvj‡Q Avi Avcwb wbR nv‡Z cv‡qi ay‡jv cwi®‹vi Ki‡Qb| †Kb †m wbR nv‡Z Avcbvi PiY cwi®‹vi K‡i w`j bv? GwU †f‡e Avwg g‡b fxlY Kó cvB| wkÿK ev`kvni G D`viZv †`‡L e‡j I‡Vb, ev`kvn! mwZ¨B Zzwg gnvb D`vi, AvR n‡Z Zzwg wkÿv¸iæi wki wPi DbœZ Ki‡j| GLv‡b ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii D`viZvi ga¨ w`‡q wkÿ‡Ki gh©v`v mycÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q| gšÍe¨: wkÿK memgqB kª×vi cvÎ| ev`kvn AvjgMxi wkÿK‡K kª×v Rvbv‡Z Kzɇeva bv K‡i D`vi, gnvb wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Qb|

c„ôv-60

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Rjcwi I KvVy‡ii Mí Ckc

 †jLK cwiwPwZ AvR †_‡K `yB nvRvi `yB kZ eQi c~‡e© MíKvi Ckc wMÖm †`‡k R‡b¥wQ‡jb| wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb mvgvb¨ µxZ`vm| ZLbKvi w`‡b †ivg I wMÖ‡m µxZ`vm cÖv cÖPwjZ wQj| wZwb Kx wQ‡jb, Zvi †P‡q eo K_v wZwb †h mvwnZ¨ iPbv K‡i †M‡Qb Zv wPimy›`i I wPi¯’vqx| Zvi fve †hgb Mfxi, fvlv †Zgwb mnR I mij| Zuvi cÖ‡Z¨KwU M‡íi g‡a¨ wKQy bv wKQy gƒj¨evb Dc‡`k Av‡Q| Zuvi bxwZgƒjK Mí¸‡jv wek¦mvwn‡Z¨i Agƒj¨ m¤ú`|

 Aek¨B g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e: → GwU GKwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK Mí| → M‡íi KvVy‡i wQj Mwie wKš‘ mr| → mZZvi cyi¯‹vi cvIqv hvq Ges †jvf gvbyl‡K cZ‡bi w`‡K wb‡q hvq| → †jvfx gvbyl‡K mK‡jB AcQ›` K‡i ZvB Avgv‡`i mZZvi PP©v Kiv DwPZ|

 †R‡b wbB mZZvi gƒj¨ AZyjbxq| mr gvbyl‡K mevB fv‡jvev‡m| mZZvi cyi¯‹vi cvIqv hvq| †jvf gvbyl‡K cZ‡bi w`‡K wb‡q hvq| †jvfx gvbyl‡K †KD cQ›` K‡i bv| K_vq e‡j - †jv‡f cvc, cv‡c g„Zy¨|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB KvVywiqv ⎯ KyVvi w`‡q MvQ ev KvV KvUv hvi †ckv| ⎯ KvVywiqv e‡b KvV KvU‡Z †Mj| Kzovj

⎯ KyVvi, KvV KvUvi Am¿| ⎯ Kzovj w`‡q KvV KvUv nq|

Rjcix ⎯ cvwb‡Z emevmKvix cvLvhy³ KvíwbK my›`ix bvix| ⎯ Rjcix mZ¨ev`x KvVywiqv‡K cyi¯‹vi w`j| mvb‡›` ⎯ cig Avb‡›`, Avb‡›`i mv‡_| ⎯ dyUej †Lj‡Z Avwg mvb‡›` ivwR njvg| msMwZ ⎯ ms¯’vb, Dcvq | ⎯ KyVvi †Kbvi msMwZ Zvi wQj bv|

c„ôv-61

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ

KvVywiqv †ivR Kx KiZ? A_ev KvVywiqvi w`b Kxfv‡e PjZ?

DËi: Ckc iwPZ Rjcwi I KvVy‡ii MíwU bxwZ wkÿvg~jK Mí| MíwU‡Z D‡jøwLZ KvVywiqv wQj Mwie wKš‘ mr| †m †ivR e‡b KvV KvU‡Z †hZ| ˆ`wbK KvV wewµ K‡i †m hv †ivRMvi KiZ ZvB w`‡q mrfv‡e †Kv‡bv iK‡g Zvi w`b P‡j †hZ| cÖk:œ KvVywiqv †Kb Kuv`‡Z jvMj? DËi: Ck‡ci ÔRjcwi I KvVy‡ii MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z GKRb mnR-mij KvVywiqvi GKgvÎ KzovjwU b`x‡Z c‡o hvevi Kvwnwb ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Mwie KvVywiqv e‡bi av‡i KvV KvU‡Z †M‡j Zvi KzovjwU GKw`b cvwb‡Z c‡o hvq| M‡í ewY©Z b`xwU wQj Li‡mªvZv Ges †mLv‡b wQj Kzwg‡ii fq| A_P Mwie KvVy‡ii wQj KzovjwU RxweKvi GKgvÎ Aej¤^b| bZzb Av‡iKwU Kzovj †Kbvi mvg_¨© Zvi wQj bv| ZvB KzovjwU nviv‡bvi ci †m Mv‡Qi †Mvovq e‡m Kuv`‡Z jvMj| cÖk:œ Rjcwi KvVywiqv‡K Kx ejj? DËi: Mwie KvVywiqv GKw`b e‡bi KvV KvU‡Z †M‡j Zvi KzovjwU Li‡mªvZv b`x‡Z nvwi‡q hvq| Kzovj nviv‡bvi †kv‡K KvVywiqv Mv‡Qi †Mvovq e‡m Kvu`‡Z _v‡K| wKQzÿY ci b`x †_‡K GK Rjcwi D‡V G‡m KvVywiqvi Kv‡Q Kvbœvi KviY wRÁvmv K‡i| KvVywiqv Zv‡K Kzovj nviv‡bvi NUbvwU ej‡j Rjcwi Zv‡K mvšÍ¡bv w`‡q e‡j, Ô †Zvgvi Kzovj G‡b w`w”Q, Zzwg †Ku‡`v bvÕ| cÖk:œ KvVywiqvi mZZv †`‡L Rjcwi Kx Kij? A_ev Kxfv‡e KvVywiqvi Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b n‡jv? DËi: Ck‡ci †jLv ÔRjcwi I KvVy‡ii MíÕ bxwZwkÿvg~jK iPbv| iPbvwU‡Z GK Mwie KvVywiqvi mZZvi K_v ewY©Z n‡q‡Q Ges mZZv Kxfv‡e m”Qj nIqvi †cQ‡b f~wgKv iv‡L Zv Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| GKw`b KvV KvU‡Z wM‡q Mwie KvVy‡ii Kzovj Li‡mªvZv b`x‡Z c‡o hvq| Av‡qi GKgvÎ Aej¤^b‡K nvwi‡q Mwie KvVy‡i Mv‡Qi †Mvovq e‡m Kuv`‡Z _v‡K| †mB mgq b`x †_‡K GK Rjcwi D‡V G‡m KvVy‡i‡K KzovjwU †`evi Avk¦vm †`q| †m G‡K G‡K †mvbvi, iæcvi I †jvnvi Kzovj †`wL‡q KvVy‡ii mZZvi cixÿv †bq| KvVy‡i mZZvi mv‡_ †jvnvi KvVyiwU evQvB Ki‡j Rjcwi Lywk n‡q Zv‡K †mvbvi I iƒcvi KvowU Dcnvi †`q| Gici KvVy‡i Kzovj `ywU evRv‡i wewµ K‡i AwR©Z UvKv Øviv wb‡Ri Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b K‡i| c„ôv-62

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †jvfx KvVywiqv †Kb nvq nvq Ki‡Z jvMj? DËi: Ckc iwPZ ÔRjcwi I KvVy‡ii MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z †jvfx KvVywiqv Zvi †jv‡fi cwiYwZ †`‡L nvq nvq Ki‡Z jvMj| mr KvVywiqvi gy‡L Rjcwii K_v ï‡b †jvfx KvVywiqvi †jvf R‡b¥| †mI GKw`b mr KvVy‡ii AbyKi‡Y b`x‡Z B‡”Q K‡i Kzovj †d‡j w`‡q e‡m e‡m Kuv`‡Z _v‡K| Gici Rjcwi Zvi Kvbœvi KviY ï‡b Zv mgvavb Kivi Avk¦vm †`q| Z‡e Rjcwi Zvi mZZv cixÿv Kivi mgq †mvbvi Kzovj †`Lv‡j †jv‡f Zvi †PvL `y‡Uv PKPK K‡i I‡V Ges KzovjwU wb‡Ri e‡j `vwe K‡i| ZLb Rjcwi Zv‡K Kzovj bv w`‡q R‡j Wye †`q Ges Avi I‡V bv| ZLb †jvfx KvVywiqv †mvbvi iƒcvi Kzov‡ji mv‡_ mv‡_ wb‡Ri KzovjwU nvwi‡q nvq nvq Ki‡Z jvMj| cÖk:œ MíwU c‡o Avgiv Kx wkLjvg? DËi: GwU GKwU bxwZwkÿvg~jK Mí| ÔRjcwi I KvVy‡ii MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z †`Lv hvq mZ¨ev`x I mr KvVy‡i Rjcwii KvQ †_‡K cyi¯‹…Z nq I wb‡Ri fv‡M¨i cwieZ©b NUvq| Aciw`‡K wg_¨vev`x †jvfx KvVy‡i wb‡Ri GKgvÎ KzovjwUI nvivq| Kv‡RB MíwU c‡o Avgiv wkLjvg †jvfx gvbyl KLbI wb‡Ri DbœwZ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Aciw`‡K mZ¨ev`x cyi®‹…Z I m¤§vwbZ nq|

c„ôv-63

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Pvlx ivwRqv LvZyb †PŠayivYx (1907-1934)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ ivwRqv LvZyb †PŠayivYx 1907 wLªóv‡ã Rb¥ MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb wb‡Ri †Póvq evwo‡Z †jLvcov †k‡Lb| evwoi Avcb cwi‡e‡k wZwb mvwnZ¨ PP©v K‡ib| Zuvi cÖKvwkZ MÖš’ Ôc‡_i KvwnbxÕ| wZwb 1934 wLªóv‡ã g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB evsjv‡`k K…wlcÖavb †`k| G †`‡ki gvby‡li Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`b K…lKiv| Zuviv w`bivZ kªg w`‡q, Soe„wó-†iv` D‡cÿv K‡i dmj djvb| Zuv‡`i G KvR KwVb mvabvi KvR| Kwe ZvB Zuv‡`i eo mvaK e‡j‡Qb, gvwUi †Q‡j e‡j‡Qb|

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi mvaK

⎯ mvabv K‡ib whwb; †Kv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ wmw×i Rb¨ whwb GKvšÍfv‡e †Póv K‡ib| ⎯ jvjb kvn wQ‡jb GKRb eo mvaK|

gyw³Kvgx ⎯ gyw³ KvgbvKvix; ÎvYKvix| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ A‡bK gyw³Kvgx gvbyl cÖvY w`‡q‡Qb| Ro

⎯ GKÎ| ⎯ mfv Kivi Rb¨ Zviv mevB GK RvqMvq Ro n‡q‡Q|

†jk

⎯ AwZ mvgvb¨ cwigvY; KYv; we›`y| ⎯ wb‡Ri KvR wb‡R Ki‡Z †jkgvÎ j¾v †Kv‡iv bv|

eªZ

⎯ Zcm¨v, mvabv| ⎯ QvÎQvÎx‡`i cÖavb eªZ nj covïbv|

wnZ

⎯ DcKvi| ⎯ †k‡i evsjv G †`‡ki K…lK‡`i A‡bK wnZmvab K‡i‡Qb|

`v‡n

⎯ Zv‡c| ⎯ ˆekv‡Li †iŠ`ª`v‡n gvV †d‡U †PŠ-wPi|

Zby

⎯ †`n| ⎯ †jvKwU †`L‡Z ÿz`ªZby, wKš‘ `viyY mvnmx|

bwg

⎯ bg¯‹vi Kwi; m¤§vb RvbvB (mvaviYZ KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)| †`‡ki Rb¨ AKvZ‡i hviv cÖvY K‡i‡Q `vb, Avgiv Zv‡`i bwg|

 k㸇jvi evbvb wjwL `axwP, Aboe, †jk, Zby, †iŠ`ª`v‡n, bwg, P‚Y|©

c„ôv-64

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi kãwUi e¨vL¨v †R‡b wbB `axwP ⎯ cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi GKRb Fwl| wZwb Amyi‡`i aŸsm Kivi Rb¨ †`eZv‡`i Kv‡Q wb‡Ri kix‡ii nvo `vb K‡iwQ‡jb|

 Pvlx KweZvi g~jfve: ÔPvlxÕ KweZvwU ivwRqv LvZzb †PŠayivYx (1907-1934) KZ…©K iwPZ| GB KweZvi ga¨ w`‡q Kwe evsjvi K…lK‡`i cÖksmv K‡i‡Qb| evsjv‡`k K…wlcÖavb †`k| G †`‡ki gvby‡li Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q K…l‡Kiv| Zuviv w`bivZ kªg w`‡q, So-e„wó-†iv` D‡cÿv K‡i dmj djvb| Ac‡ii g½‡ji Rb¨ Zv‡`i GB KvR KwVb mvabvi| †Kbbv wb‡Ri nvofv½v kª‡gi dmj Av`‡Z Zviv AKvZ‡i wewj‡q w`‡”Q| gvwUi GB mšÍvb‡`i Kwe ZvB eo mvaK e‡j‡Qb|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ Kwe Pvlx‡K eo ÔmvaKÕ Ges †`‡ki ÔAvkvÕ e‡j‡Qb †Kb? DËi: Pvlx KweZvq Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb Pvlx‡K eo mvaK Ges †`‡ki Avkv wn‡m‡e D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| Pvlx nvo fv½v cwikªg K‡i dmj Drcv`b K‡ib Ac‡ii Rb¨| Zvi me‡P‡q eo mvabv n‡jv dmj Drcv`b Kiv| ZvB GB KvR KwVb mvabvi| †iv`-e„wó-So gv_vq wb‡q †m dmj djvq| ZvB Kwe Pvlx‡K eo mvaK e‡j‡Qb| Zv‡`i Drcbœ Kiv dmj †L‡q †`‡ki gvbyl †eu‡P _v‡K| ZvB Kwe Zv‡`i †`‡ki Avkv wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| cÖk:œ `axwP †K? DËi: †cŠivwYK Kvwnbx Abymv‡i `axwP GKRb Fwl| Amyi‡`i aŸsm Kivi Rb¨ wZwb †`eZv‡`i Kv‡Q wb‡Ri kix‡ii nvo `vb K‡iwQ‡jb| Pvlx KweZv‡Z Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb iƒcKZvi Avov‡j gvwUi mšÍvb Pvlx‡`i `axwPi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| evsjvi Pvlxiv †iv`-e„wó-So D‡cÿv K‡i nvofvOv cwikª‡gi ga¨ w`‡q gvby‡li Rb¨ dmj Drcv`b K‡i AKvZ‡i wewj‡q †`b| cÖk:œ gvwUi †Q‡j †K? Zv‡K †`‡L mevi AnsKvi P~Y© nIqv DwPZ †Kb? DËi: Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb ÔPvlxÕ KweZvq Pvlx‡`i gvwUi mšÍvb e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| gvwUi m‡½ Pvlx‡`i AvwZ¥K m¤úK©| †iv`-Rj-So D‡cÿv K‡i KwVb mvabvi ga¨ w`‡q Zviv dmj djvq| wb‡Ri my‡Li K_v bv †f‡e `axwPi g‡ZvB †m Ac‡ii Kj¨vY mva‡bi †Póvq †m e¨¯Í| Zviv c‡ivcKvix| A_P Zv‡`i gv‡S †Kv‡bv AnsKvi †bB| Pvlx‡K †`‡L ZvB mevi AnsKvi P~Y© nIqv DwPZ| Kwei fvlvq; Ò Avgvi †`‡k gvwUi †Q‡j, bwg evisevi †Zvgvq †`‡L P~Y© †nvK mevi AnsKvi|Ó c„ôv-65

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ Pvlx‡`i KvQ †_‡K Avgv‡`i Kx wkÿv MÖnY Kiv DwPZ? DËi: Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb †PŠayivYx iwPZ ÔPvlxÕ KweZvwU‡Z Pvlx GKRb gyw³Kvgx gnvmvaK| Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡K Avgv‡`i A‡bK wKQz †kLvi Av‡Q| Pvlx mK‡ji Abœ †RvMvo Kivi Rb¨ nvofv½v cwikªg K‡i A_P Zvi †Kv‡bv Me© †bB| wb‡Ri myL wemR©b Ki‡jI Pvlxi †Kv‡bv Awf‡hvM †bB| AZ¨šÍ mvaviY Rxebhvcb Kiv GB gvbyl¸‡jv cwikªgx, c‡ivcKvix, wbinsKvix Ges gyw³Kvgx| `axwPi †P‡q Zv‡`i AvZ¥Z¨vM Av‡iv gnvb| Avgv‡`iI ZvB Pvlx‡`i GB gnvb w`K¸‡jv †_‡K eo gvbyl nevi wkÿv †bqv DwPZ| cÖk:œ Pvwl KweZvi g~jK_v w`‡q 5wU evK¨ wjL| DËi: 1. Pvlxiv Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †kªô mvaK| 2. †iv‡` cy‡o e„wó‡Z wf‡R Pvlxiv mevi Rb¨ Ab¨ †RvMvq| 3. wbt¯^v_© c‡ivcKvixB Pvlx‡`i gnvb eªZ| 4. Pvlxiv wbin¼vix| 5. Pvlxiv †`k I RvwZi cig kª×vi cvÎ|

 m¤¢ve¨ e¨vL¨v Abykxjb: e¨vL¨v (K): Ò`axwP wK Zvnvi †P‡q mvaK wQj eo? cyb¨ AZ n‡e bvK me Kwi‡jI Ro|Ó Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb †PŠayivbx iwPZ ÔPvlxÕ KweZv †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Kwe GLv‡b iƒcKZvi ga¨ w`‡q Pvlx‡K `axwPi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| we‡kølY: †cŠivwYK Kvwnbx Abymv‡i `axwP GKRb Fwl| Amyi e‡ai Rb¨ wZwb †`eZv‡`i wb‡Ri †`‡ni nvo `vb K‡i‡Qb| †Zgwb Avgv‡`i †`‡ki K…l‡Kiv nvofv½v cwikª‡gi ga¨ w`‡q Ac‡ii Rb¨ Lv`¨ km¨ ev dmj Drcbœ K‡i| cikªgx I wbinsKvix GB gvbyl¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ mvaviY Rxeb hvcb K‡i| ZvB Zv‡`i GB AvZ¥Z¨vM `axwPi †P‡qI gnvb| gšÍe¨: Pvlxiv wb‡Ri Rxe‡bi kªg w`‡q A‡b¨i gy‡L Abœ Zz‡j †`b| ZvB Pvlx `axwPi †P‡q gnvb I c~b¨evb|

c„ôv-66

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

e¨vL¨v (L): Avgvi †`‡ki gvwUi †Q‡j, bwg evisevi †Zvgvq †`‡L P~Y© nDK mevi AnsKvi| Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz Kwe ivwRqv LvZzb †PŠayivYx iwPZ Pvlx KweZv †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: Pvlxi wbinsKvix mËv †`‡L Kwe mevB‡K wb‡R‡`i AnsKvi P~Y© Kivi K_v e‡j‡Qb| we‡kølY: Pvlxiv wbinsKvix I c‡ivcKvixi cÖZxK| Zviv w`b ivZ kªg w`‡q So, e„wó, †iv` D‡cÿv K‡i dmj djvq| A_P Zviv AnsKvix nq bv, wb‡Ri myL wemR©b w`‡q Ab¨‡K myLx K‡i| ZvB Zviv gvwUi gvbyl| Zv‡`i kª×v Kiv DwPZ Avi wbinsKvix GB mËv‡K Ae‡jvKb K‡i wb‡Ri mg¯Í AnsKvi‡K P~Y© Kiv DwPZ| gšÍe¨: Kwe GLv‡b Kvgbv K‡i‡QbÑ Pvlxi GB gnvb mvabv Avgv‡`i cÖwZwU AnsKvix gvbyl‡K †hb wbinsKvix nIqvi Aby‡cÖiYv †hvMvq |

c„ôv-67

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

knx` wZZzgxi kwdDj Avjg

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi †Rw`

⎯ GKMyu‡q, †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z †h bv‡Qvoev›`v|⎯†Q‡jwU Lye †Rw`|

civaxb

⎯ c‡ii Aaxb, ¯^vaxb bq|⎯Avgiv GLb Avi civaxb bB, ¯^vaxb RvwZ|

`vc‡U

⎯ cÖej cÖZv‡ci m‡½| ⎯ †gvnv‡gWvb †¯cvwU©s K¬ve G evi Lye `vc‡Ui mv‡_ †L‡j‡Q|

gyw³

⎯ ¯^vaxbZv| ⎯ LuvPvi cvwL Pvq gyw³i ¯^v`|

wcÖqcvÎ

⎯ †¯œ‡ni AwaKvix| ⎯ †kªYxwkÿ‡Ki wcÖqcvÎ n‡Z n‡j fv‡jvfv‡e †jLvcov Ki‡Z nq|

WbKzw¯Í

⎯ eyK Wb w`‡q kixiPP©v Avi kvixwiK kw³i cixÿv|⎯wZZygxi ˆkk‡eB WbKyw¯Z‡Z cvi`k©x n‡q I‡Vb|

AwmPvjbv ⎯ Z‡jvqvi wb‡q hy× Kivi we`¨v|⎯mKj ˆmwbKB AwmPvjbvq wm×| mvov w`j

⎯ m¤§wZ w`j| ⎯ mr Kv‡R WvK w`‡j mevB mvov †`q|

`y‡f©`¨

⎯ hv K‡ó †f` Kiv hvq| ⎯ wP‡bi cÖvPxi `y‡f©`¨|

`yM©

⎯ cÖvPxi ev †`Iqvj †Niv †mbvwbevm| ⎯ hy‡×i mgq `y‡M©i evB‡iI cvnviv †`Iqv nq|

evu‡ki †Kjøv ⎯ evuk w`‡q ˆZwi †Kj−v ev `yM|© ⎯ BwZnv‡m wZZygx‡ii euv‡ki †Kjøvi Kvwnbx †jLv Av‡Q| kv‡q¯Ív

⎯ kvw¯Í, Rã| ⎯ Aeva¨ †jvKUv‡K kv‡q¯Ív Kiv `iKvi|

AwgZ †ZR ⎯ Amxg mvnm Avi A`g¨ kw³|⎯gyw³‡hv×viv AwgZ †Z‡R hy× K‡iwQj| gyw³Kvgx

⎯ ¯^vaxbZvKvgx| ⎯ gyw³Kvgx gvby‡li Rq mywbwðZ|

mk¯Î

⎯ A¯¿mn| ⎯ mk¯¿ hy‡× gyw³‡mbviv Rqx nq|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ ÔwZZzgxiÕ bvgwU †Kgb K‡i nj? Zuvi cÖK…Z bvg Kx? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ kxl©K iPbvwU‡Z evsjvi msMÖvgx e¨w³Z¡ wZZzgx‡ii Rxebx Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| PweŸk ciMbv †Rjvi Pvu`cyi MÖv‡g GK gymwjg cwiev‡i ˆmq` es‡k wZZzgx‡ii Rb¥| wkïKv‡j wZZzgxi GKevi KwVb †iv‡M AvµvšÍ nq| †ivM mviv‡bvi Rb¨ Zv‡K †`Iqv nq fxlY †Z‡Zv GKwU Ilya| evwoi †jv‡Kiv fv‡e G‡Zv †Z‡Zv Ilya †QvU GB wkï †Zv `~‡ii K_v, ey‡ovivI gy‡L wb‡e bv| A_P mevB‡K AevK K‡i w`‡q `k ev‡iv w`b GB †Z‡Zv IlaB wbwe©‡Nœ †L‡q †h‡Z _v‡K †m, †hb †Z‡Zv †L‡Z Zvi c„ôv-68

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

KZ Avb›`! GB Rb¨ Ii WvK bvg ivLv nq †Z‡Zv| †Z‡Zv †_‡K wZZz| Avi mv‡_ gxi jvwM‡q †m nq wZZzgxi| Zvi cÖK…Z bvg- ˆmq` gxi wbmvi Avjx| wZZzgxi GKRb msMÖvgx exi| wZwb Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× evsjvi cÖ_g knx`| cÖk:œ wZZzgx‡ii hLb Rb¥, ZLb G‡`k Kv‡`i Aaxb wQj? DËi: wZZzgx‡ii Rb¥ †_‡K g„Zz¨ ch©šÍ N‡U hvIqv wewfbœ Kvwnbx wjwce× Kiv n‡q‡Q kwdDj Avj‡gi Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ iPbvwU‡Z| 1782 mv‡j cwðg e‡½i PweŸk ciMbv †Rjvi GK eywbqvw` gymwjg cwiev‡i wZZzgx‡i Rb¥| Zvui R‡b¥i mgq evsjv‡`k mn cy‡iv fviZel© wQj civaxb| ZLb wQj Bs‡iR ivRZ¡| Bs‡iR‡`i Aax‡b wQj †m mg‡qi fviZe‡l©i kvmb ÿgZv| cÖk:œ wZZzgxi †QvU‡ejvq WbKzw¯Í Avi e¨vqvg wk‡LwQ‡jb †Kb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ kxl©K iPbvq wZZzgx‡ii ˆkk‡e, ˆK‡kvimn msMÖvgx Rxeb‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| †mKv‡j MÖv‡g MÖv‡g WbKzw¯Í Avi kixi PP©vi e¨vqvg n‡Zv| †kLv‡bv n‡Zv gywóhy×, jvwV‡Ljv, Zxi †Quvov Avi Awm Pvjbv| Gme †kLv‡bvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj Bs‡iR‡`i Zvov‡bvi Rb¨ Mv‡q ej ˆZwi Kiv| ˆkk‡e wZZzgxi Bs‡iR‡`i AZ¨vPvi †`‡L G†`‡ki gvby‡li gyw³i K_v fve‡Zb| wZZzgxi Kzw¯ÍwMi I cvn‡jvqvb wn‡m‡e bvg Ki‡jb WbKzw¯Í wk‡L| wZwb jvwV‡Ljv, Zxi‡Quvov I AwmPvjbvI wk‡LwQ‡jb Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× iæ‡L `vuov‡bvi Rb¨| WbKzw¯Í Avi e¨vqvg †kLvi g‡a¨ w`‡qB Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× wZZzgx‡ii msMÖv‡gi m~Pbv nq| cÖk:œ G‡`k‡K Bs‡iR‡`i nvZ †_‡K gy³ Kivi wPšÍv †Kb Zvi g‡b Gj? DËi: wZZzgxi Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi BwZnv‡m GK msMÖvgx †PZbvi bvg| knx` wZZzgxi iPbvwU‡Z Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× evOvjx exi wZZzgx‡ii hy‡×i weeiY cvIqv hvq| †Q‡j‡ejvq wZZzgxi GKevi Zvi I¯Ív‡`i m‡½ wenvi md‡i †ewi‡qwQ‡jb| GB mdiB Zvu‡K G‡`k‡K Bs‡iR‡`i nvZ †_‡K gy³ Ki‡Z DØy× K‡iwQj| †`k‡K gy³ Kivi wPšÍv wZZzgx‡ii g‡b Avmvi KviY: I¯Ív‡`i m‡½ wenv‡i wM‡q wZwb wbR †Pv‡L Bs‡iR‡`i AZ¨vPv‡i AwZô G†`‡ki gvby‡li `yive¯’v †`‡Lb| d‡j Zvui g‡b †`k‡K Bs‡iRgy³ Kivi wPšÍv †R‡M I‡V| G†`‡ki gvby‡li `ywe©ln Rxeb wZZzgxi‡K Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× msMÖvgx K‡i †Zv‡j| cÖk:œ wn›`y gymjgvb mevB‡K wZwb Kx e‡j GKZve× Ki‡Z PvB‡jb? DËi: kwdDj Avj‡gi Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ iPbvq wZZzgx‡ii msMÖvgx Rxeb‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| wn›`y gymjgvb mevB‡K GKwÎZ K‡i Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× †mv”Pvi nIqvB wQj Zuvi jÿ¨| c„ôv-69

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

mevB‡K hv e‡j GKZve× Ki‡Z PvB‡jb: †QvU‡ejv †_‡KB Bs‡iR‡`i †kvlY wZZzgxi‡K fxlY iKg wPwšÍZ K‡i Zzj‡Zv| wZwb axi ¯^fv‡ei n‡jI Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× wQ‡jb †mv”Pvi| I¯Ív‡`i mv‡_ wenvi md‡i wM‡q wZwb Bs‡iR‡`i AZ¨vPvi KvQ †_‡K cÖZ¨ÿ K‡ib| d‡j †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kivi wPšÍv Zvi g‡b †R‡M I‡V| wn›`-y gymjgvb‡`i HK¨ M‡o †Zv‡jb wZwb| gymjgvb‡`i wZwb mwZ¨Kvi gymjgvb n‡Z Avnevb Rvbvb| Avi wn›`y‡`i AZ¨vPvix Rwg`vi‡`i weiæ‡× iæ‡L `uvov‡Z e‡jb| wZZzgxi wn›`y-gymjgvb mevB‡K GKZve× K‡i msMÖv‡g Svuwc‡q covi Avnevb Rvbvb| cÖk:œ Bs‡iR‡`i cvkvcvwk Kviv G†`‡ki gvby‡li Ici AZ¨vPvi Pvjv‡Zv? DËi: wZZzgxi wQ‡jb Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× ¯^vaxbZvi hy‡× evsjvi cÖ_g knx`| Zvui msMÖvggq Rxeb‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q kwdDj Avjg, iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ bvgK Rxebxg~jK iPbvq| wZZzgx‡ii mgqKv‡j G‡`k Bs‡iR kvm‡bi Aaxb wQj| Bs‡iR-†kvl‡Yi cvkvcvwk G†`‡ki Rwg`viivI mvaviY gvby‡li Dci wbg©gfv‡e AZ¨vPvi PvjvZ| wZZzgx‡ii Av`k© wQj Rwg`vi I Bs‡iR‡`i kvmb †_‡K G†`‡ki gvbyl‡K iÿv Kiv| cÖk:œ wZZzgxi Kvi wkl¨ n‡jb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ cÖeÜwU msMÖvgx exi wZZzgx‡ii Rxebv‡jL¨| wZZzgxi Bs‡iR kvmb †_‡K evsjv‡K evuPv‡bvi Rb¨ weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi †bZv nhiZ kvn ˆmq` Avng` †eijfxi wkl¨Z¡I MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb | 1822 mv‡j g°vq nR cvjb Ki‡Z wM‡q wZZzgxi cwiwPZ nb weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi Ab¨Zg cy‡ivav e¨w³Z¡¨ ˆmq` Avng` †eijfxi m‡½ wZwb wQ‡jb ag©cÖvY, msMÖvgx cyiæl wZZzgxi Zvi wkl¨ nb| cÖk:œ bvwi‡Kj evwoqv †Kv_vq? GLv‡b wZZzgxi Kx ˆZwi Ki‡jb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ knx` wZZzgxi cÖeÜwU exi wZZzgx‡ii msMÖvggq Rxe‡bi cÖwZ”Qwe| bvwi‡Kjevwoqv Zvi msMÖvgx Rxe‡bi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Aa¨vq| Rwg`v‡ii Kv‡Q AZ¨vPvwiZ n‡q wZZzgxi wbR MÖvg †Q‡o P‡j Av‡mb bvwi‡Kjevwoqvq| bvwi‡Kj evwoqv evivmv‡Z Aew¯’Z| evivmv‡Zi nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl‡K mv‡_ wb‡q GLv‡b wZwb ˆZwi K‡ib `y‡f©`¨ GK evu‡ki `yM|© hv bvwi‡Kjevwoqvq evu‡ki †Kjøv bv‡g cwiwPZ| evu‡ki †Kjøv Bs‡iR we‡ivax ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i GK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask| cÖk:œ KZ wLªóv‡ã wZZzgx‡ii Kv‡Q Bs‡iR kw³ civwRZ nq? DËi: wZZzgx‡ii Kv‡Q Bs‡iR kw³ civwRZ nq 1830 mv‡j| c„ôv-70

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ KLb †Kvb Bs‡iR †mbvcwZi †bZ…‡Z¡ wZZzgx‡ii weiæ‡× hy× cwiPvwjZ nq? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z n‡q‡Q exi wZZzgx‡ii msMÖvggq Rxe‡bi K_v| hvi †bZ…‡Z¡ wZZzgx‡ii weiæ‡× hy× cwiPvwjZ nq bvwi‡Kjevwoqvq evu‡ki †Kjøv †_‡K Pvi-cuvP nvRvi ˆmb¨ wb‡q wZZzgxi Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× mk¯¿ hy‡×i cÖ¯ÍywZ †bq| G Lei Bs‡iR kvmK‡`i Kv‡b †cŠQv‡j Zviv 1830 mv‡j g¨vwR‡÷ªU Av‡jKRvÛv‡ii †bZ…‡Z¡ wZZzgx‡ii weiæ‡× hy× †NvlYv K‡i| Av‡jKRvÛvi‡K civwRZ K‡i wZZzgxi Zuvi msMÖvg‡K Av‡iv kw³kvjx K‡i †Zv‡jb| cÖk:œ wZZzgxi Kxfv‡e knx` n‡jb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ cÖeÜwU‡Z exi wZZzgx‡ii Rb¥ †_‡K g„Zy¨ ch©šÍ wewfbœ msMÖvggq NUbv wjwce× n‡q‡Q| Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× ¯^vaxbZvi hy‡× exi wZZzgxiB n‡jb evsjvi cÖ_g knx`| wZZzgxi †h fv‡e knx` n‡jb: †QvU‡ejv †_‡KB Bs‡iR‡`i †kvlY wZZzgxi‡K fxlYfv‡e Av‡jvwoZ KiZ| ZLb †_‡KB Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× iæ‡L `uvov‡bvi R‡b¨ WbKzw¯Í Avi †hvM e¨vqv‡gi mvabv Ki‡Zb wZwb| bvwi‡Kj evwoqvi evu‡ki †Kjøv ¯’vc‡bi ci 1830 mv‡j Av‡jKRvÛvi‡K civ¯Í K‡i A‡bK bxjKzwV `Lj K‡i †bb wZwb| wKšÍy wZZzgx‡ii ˆmb¨iv mycÖwkwÿZ bv nIqvi d‡j 1831 mv‡ji 19 b‡f¤^i jW© DBwjqvg †ew›U‡¼i cvVv‡bv nvRvi nvRvi cÖwkwÿZ ˆm‡b¨i Kv‡Q civwRZ nb wZZzgxi| G hy‡× Bs‡iR‡`i †mbvcwZ wQ‡jb K‡Y©j ÷zqvW© Avi Kvgvb, †Mvjv eviæ` e›`yK Qvov gvÎ Pvi-cvuP nvRvi ¯^vaxbZvwcÖq ˆmwbK wQj wZZzgx‡ii `‡j| cÖPÛ¨ hy‡× wKQyÿ‡bi g‡a¨B Bs‡iR ˆmb¨‡`i †Mvjvi AvNv‡Z QviLvi n‡q hvq bvwi‡Kjevwoqvi euv‡ki †Kjøv| knx` nb exi wZZzgxi| knx` nb nvRviI gyw³Kvgx msMÖvgx ˆmwbK| wZZzgxi Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i exi bvqK| AvRI wZwb Agi n‡q Av‡Qb G†`‡ki gvby‡li g‡b| cÖk:œ civaxb fviZe‡l© Bs‡iR we‡ivax ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× cÖ_g knx` †K? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ cÖe‡Ü wZZzgx‡ii msMÖvgx gvbwmKZv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| civaxb fviZe‡l© Bs‡iR we‡ivax ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i cª_g knx` msMÖvgx exi wZZzgxi| hvi cy‡iv bvg ˆmq` gxi wbmvi Avjx| wZZzgxi ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ knx` nb Zvui g„Zz¨ ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi GK D¾¡j `„óvšÍ| cÖk:œ knx` wZZzgxi †Kb Agi n‡q Av‡Qb? DËi: Bs‡iR we‡ivax ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i msMÖvgx bvqK wZZzgx‡ii exiZ¡Mv_v wb‡q iwPZ n‡q‡Q kwdDj Avj‡gi Ôknx` wZZzgxiÕ cÖeÜwU| wZZzgxi Zuvi exi‡Z¡i R‡b¨ G†`‡ki gvby‡li g‡b Agi n‡q Av‡Qb| ‡QvU‡ejv ‡_‡KB Bs‡iR‡`i †kvlY wZZzgxi‡K fxlYfv‡e Av‡jvwoZ KiZ| Zvi wZwb bvwi‡Kj evwoqvi euv‡ki `yM© †_‡K cÖ_g Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× hy× †Nvlbv K‡ib| wKšÍy gvÎ Pvi-cvuP nvRvi ¯^vaxbvZv wcÖq ˆmwbK wb‡q nvRvi nvRvi cÖwkwÿZ Bs‡iR †mbvi weiæ‡× †kl ch©šÍ `uvov‡Z cv‡ibwb Zviv| Kvgvb, †Mvjv eviæ`, Avi e›`y‡Ki gy‡L AvZœmgc©b Ki‡Z nq Zv‡`i| knx` nb wZZzgxi| A‡bK gyw³Kvgx exi ˆmwbK‡`i Bs‡iRiv ew›` K‡i| Gfv‡e †kl nq hy×| wKšÍy AvR †_‡K †cŠ‡b `yÕk eQi Av‡M †h gvbylwU civaxb fviZ e‡l©i ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy× K‡iwQ‡jb Bs‡iR‡`i weiæ‡× †mB wZZzgxi AvRI Agi n‡q Av‡Qb G†`‡ki gvby‡li g‡b| wZZzgxi ¯^vaxbZv wcÖq GK exi †hv×v| Zuvi exiZ¡B Zvu‡K Agi K‡i †i‡L‡Q nvRviI gvby‡li Kv‡Q| c„ôv-71

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj W. gvneyeyj nK

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB ms‡KZ

⎯ Bw½Z, Bkviv| ⎯ iv¯Zvq meyR ms‡KZ-evwZ R¡‡j DVj|

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⎯ †Pv‡L †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq Ggb| ⎯ `„wóMÖvn¨ bq Ggb wRwbmI gvbyl h‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ †`L‡Z cv‡i|

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†iIqvR

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Z_¨

⎯ ÁvZ nIqvi g‡Zv mwVK welq| ⎯ msev`c‡Îi gva¨‡g Avgiv A‡bK Z_¨ Rvb‡Z cvwi|

DcvË

⎯ M‡elYv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨| ⎯ wZwb M‡elYvi Rb¨ DcvË msMÖn K‡i‡Qb|

AvniY

⎯ msMÖn Kiv| ⎯ Ávb Avni‡Yi Rb¨ eBcÎ cov Avek¨K|

 we‡`wk fvlv †_‡K AvMZ wKQz kã †R‡b wbB †Uwj‡dvb

⎯ `~ivjvcwb| ⎯ eogvgv MZKvj Avgv‡K ivRkvnx †_‡K †Uwj‡dvb K‡iwQ‡jb|

†UwjMÖvd

⎯ Zv‡ii gva¨‡g Lei cvVvevi e¨e¯’v| ⎯ †UwjMÖvd Avwe®‹vi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î GKUv D‡j−L‡hvM¨ NUbv|

†UwjMÖvg

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†idvwi

⎯ whwb †Ljv cwiPvjbv K‡ib| ⎯ †idvwi GKRb †L‡jvqvo‡K njy` KvW© †`wL‡q mZK© K‡i w`‡jb|

ûB‡mj

⎯ euvwki ms‡KZ| ⎯ ûB‡mj evwR‡q †Uªb Qz‡U P‡j‡Q|

Av¤cvqvi

⎯ wµ‡KU, †Uwbm †Ljvi wePviK| ⎯ †Ljvq Av¤cvqv‡ii wm×všZB P~ovšZ|

e¨vUmg¨vb ⎯ e¨vUavix| ⎯ e¨vUmg¨vb my‡hvM ey‡S Q°v nuvKv‡jb| UvIqvi

⎯ M¤^yR| A‡bK `~i †_‡K wMR©vi UvIqviUv †`Lv hv‡”Q|

B-†gBj

⎯ B‡jKUªwbK †gBj, Kw¤cDUv‡ii gva¨‡g †`‡k-we‡`‡k evZ©v, wPwVcÎ, Qwe, Z_¨ BZ¨vw` Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v| ⎯ Avwg fvBqvi mv‡_ B-†gB‡j †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi|

d¨v·

⎯ ˆe`y¨wZK h‡š¿i gva¨‡g `~i `~iv‡šZ wPwVc‡Îi Abywjwc cvVv‡bvi Dcvq| ⎯ Avgv‡`i cvov‡ZB GKUv d¨v‡·i †`vKvb Av‡Q|

†KvW

⎯ ms‡KZ e¨e¯’v| ⎯ †UwjMÖvd h‡š¿ †Kv‡bv evZ©v‡K †Kv‡W iƒcvšZi K‡i cvVv‡bv nq| c„ôv-72

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†mjyjvi

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†gvevBj

⎯ me©Î enb‡hvM¨ †dvb| ⎯ †`‡k GLb †gvevBj †dv‡bi e¨envi †e‡o‡Q|

†iwWI

⎯ †eZvi| ⎯ Avwg mgq †c‡jB †iwWIi Abyôvb ïwb|

†iWµm

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IqvwK UwK ⎯ †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi enb‡hvM¨ hš¿|⎯ cywjk IqvwK UwKi gva¨‡g Acivaxi MwZwewa `ªæZ Rvb‡Z cv‡i| †Uwjwfkb

⎯ `~i`k©b| kã †kvbv hvq I Qwe †`Lv hvq Ggb hš¿| ⎯mܨvi c‡i Avgvi †Uwjwfkb †`Lv eviY|

B›Uvi‡bU

⎯ Kw¤cDUvi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v, (internet)| Kw¤úDUv‡ii B›Uvi‡b‡U ms‡hvM K‡i †`kwe‡`‡k †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq|

Kw¤úDUvi ⎯ MYbv, gy`Yª , evZ©v †cÖiY BZ¨vw` hveZxq Kv‡Ri Dc‡hvMx B‡jKUªwbK hš¿| ⎯ AvRKvj A‡b‡K †jLvcovq Kw¤cDUvi e¨envi K‡i|

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 mswÿß cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL: cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Kx †evSvq? DËi: †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi Dcvq mg~n‡K †evSvq| cÖk:œ Avgiv †Kvb †Kvb Dcv‡q G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK? DËi: Avgiv e‡j, wj‡L ev ms‡KZ e¨envi K‡i G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK| cÖk:œ hviv `~‡i _v‡Kb Kxfv‡e Avgiv Zvu‡`i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi? DËi: hviv `~‡i _v‡Kb, Zv‡`i m‡½ Avgiv †Uwj‡dvb, †UwjMÖvd, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi| c„ôv-73

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl Kxfv‡e †hvMv‡hvM KiZ? DËi: †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl nvZ †b‡o, wPrKvi K‡i, †Xvj evwR‡q, Av¸b ev †auvqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| cÖk:œ †mKv‡j †Xv‡ji gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e msev` cÖPvi Kiv nZ? DËi: †mKv‡j msev` Rvbv‡bvi Rb¨ †Xvj e¨eüZ nZ| Avwd«Kvi DcRvwZiv Kv‡Vi †Xvj wcwU‡q `~i`~ivšÍ‡i msev` ms‡KZ cvVvZ| fviZe‡l©i ivRviv †Xvj knir K‡i iv‡R¨ Av‡`k, wb‡`©k Rvwi Ki‡Zb| cÖk:œ e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g wK? DËi: e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g n‡jv wPwV †jLv| cÖk:œ †mj †dv‡bi myweav Kx? DËi: †mj †dv‡bi myweav A‡bK| †mj †dvb †_‡K mgq I ZvwiL Rvbv hvq| Gi gva¨‡g gyn~‡Z©B †QvU LvU evZ©v cvVv‡bv hvq| GB †dv‡b †h‡Kv‡bv Qwe Zz‡j Zv aviY Kiv hvq, †K †K †dvb Kij Zv‡`i Z_¨ Ges †dvb b¤^iI G‡Z msiÿY K‡i ivLv hvq| GQvov Gi c`©vq wecixZ cÖv‡šÍi MÖvn‡Ki QweI †`Lv hvq| cÖk:œ †eZvi ej‡Z Kx †evSvq? DËi: mvaviYZ †eZvi ej‡Z Avgiv †Kej Abyôvb ‡kvbvi hš¿‡K eywS| †eZvi ej‡Z Avm‡j †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM †evSvq| cÖk:œ IqvwKUwKi KvR Kx? DËi: IqvwKUwK n‡”Q †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g Z_¨ Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi enb‡hvM¨ hš¿| cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ †mbvevwnbx, cywjk, †iWµm, AwMœwbe©vcK evwnbx, moK, †ij I †bŠ wegvb †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ ms¯’vi Kv‡R AvRKvj †eZvi †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh©| GKv‡R nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq †h †hvMv‡hvM hš¿wU _v‡K, Zv‡K ejv nq ÒIqvwKUwKÓ| IqvwKUwKi KvR n‡jv ZvrÿwYK †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Kiv| cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcv‡qi ïiæ KLb †_‡K? DËi: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcv‡qi ïiæ n‡q‡Q †iwWI ev †eZvi D™¢ve‡bi ci †_‡K| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †eZv‡ii f~wgKv e¨vcK| GLb †h AvaywbK †gvevBj †dvb i‡q‡Q ZvI GK ai‡bi †eZvihš¿| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Avi GKwU AvaywbK gva¨g n‡”Q †Uwjwfkb| c„ôv-74

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ I‡qeÑGi cy‡iv bvg Kx? DËi: †hvMv‡hvM †ÿ‡Î me©‡kl ms‡hvRb n‡”Q B›Uvi‡bU| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GLb mviv we‡k¦ Ávb m¤ú‡`i wecyj Z_¨ msiÿY Kiv n‡”Q| G‡K ms‡ÿ‡c ejv nq I‡qe| I‡qe Gi cy‡iv bvg n‡”Q Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe A_©vr wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hvM Zi½| I‡qe Gi ÁvbfvÐvi †_‡K †h †Kv‡bv wel‡q B‡”Qg‡Zv Z_¨ AvniY Kiv hvq|

 eY©bvg~jK cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL: cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î gy`Yª hš¿ I QvcvLvbvi f~wgKv Kx? DËi: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AMÖMwZi †ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv n‡”Q gy`ªbhš¿ Avwe®‹vi I QvcvLvbv cÖwZôv| QvcvLvbv †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq Afvebxq cwieZ©b NwU‡q‡Q| eB I cÎ cwÎKv cÖKv‡ki gva¨‡g nvRvi nvRvi †jv‡Ki m‡½ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi iv¯Ív Ly‡j hvq| eB I cÎ cwÎKv GKw`‡K gvby‡li Ávb‡K msiÿY Kivi my‡hvM G‡b †`q, Ab¨w`‡K GK Kvj †_‡K Ab¨ Kv‡j Ávb we¯Ívi KivI m¤¢e n‡q I‡V| cieZx©‡Z eB‡qi m¤¢vi wb‡q M‡o I‡V A‡bK cvVvMvi| cvVvMvi¸‡jv Ávb mvabvq wecyj Ae`vb iv‡L| Gfv‡eB cÖKvwkZ cy¯Í‡Ki gva¨‡g iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, wjI Zj¯Íq, †kKmwcq‡ii g‡Zv gnr †jLK‡`i †jLvi m‡½ Avgv‡`i cwiPq N‡U‡Q| AZGe DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv n‡Z ¯úó cÖZxqgvb nq †h, †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î gy`Yª hš¿ I QvcvLvbvi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| cÖk:œ †Uwj‡dvb Avwe¯®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î Kx ai‡bi DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q? DËi: †Uwj‡dvb Avwe¯‹vi ‡hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq GK ˆecøweK cwieZ©b NwU‡q‡Q| †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq AvRKvj GZ DbœwZ n‡q‡Q †h c„w_exi GKcÖvšÍ †_‡K Ab¨cÖv‡šÍ †h †KD †h‡Kv‡bv mgq K_v ej‡Z cv‡i| †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹vi I Zvi AMÖMwZi d‡jB GUv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| GK mgq Zv‡ii gva¨‡g †Uwj‡dv‡bi K_v mvwaZ nZ| †Uwj‡dvb e¨e¯’vq †eZvi I †mjyjvi cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kivq †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î AKíbxq DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| GQvov eZ©gv‡b bvbv ai‡bi DbœZ cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g K_v ejvmn wjwLZ evZ©vI cvVv‡bv m¤¢e n‡”Q| cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î B›Uvi‡b‡Ui f~wgKv Kx? DËi: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î me©‡kl ms‡hvRb n‡”Q B›Uvi‡bU| GwU wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GK wekvj †bUIqvK© e¨e¯’v| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g mviv we‡k¦i Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³‡Z GK Af~Zc~e© DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î mgq Avi `~iZ¡ GLb †Kv‡bv evavB bq| we‡k¦i †KvwU †KvwU Kw¤úDUvi B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GKwU Ab¨wUi mv‡_ hy³| Gi gva¨‡g Avgiv GK Kw¤úDUvi †_‡K Ab¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvwi| GQvov †h‡Kv‡bv Z_¨, DcvË, evZ©v, Qwe BZ¨vw`I Gi gva¨‡g Av`vb cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cvwi| Ggb wK ci¯ú‡ii †PnvivI †`L‡Z cvB| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GLb mviv we‡k¦i Ávb m¤ú‡`i wecyj Z_¨ msiÿY Kiv n‡”Q| G‡K ms‡ÿ‡c ejv nq I‡qe| cy‡iv bvg Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe ev W.W.W| GB Ávb fvÐvi †_‡K †h‡Kv‡bv wel‡q B‡”Q g‡Zv Z_¨ AvniY Kiv hvq| AZGe DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvq cÖZxqgvb nq †h, eZ©gvb we‡k¦ B›Uvi‡b‡Ui f~wgKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y|© B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g mviv wek¦ GLb gvby‡li nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq P‡j G‡m‡Q| c„ôv-75

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Kx †evSvq? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nKÑGi Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖeÜwU‡Z wewfbœ mg‡qi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© wek` Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ej‡Z G‡K Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me¸‡jv Dcvq‡KB †evSvq| Avgiv e‡j, wj‡L ev ms‡KZ e¨envi K‡i A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK| †hgbÑ GKUv N‡i Av¸b †j‡M‡Q| Zv †`‡L GKRb mvnv‡h¨i Rb¨ wPrKvi K‡i DVjÑ ÔAv¸b, Av¸bÕ| Ab¨iv ZvovZvwo †m w`‡K Qy‡U †Mj| GB †h ÔAv¸bÕ K_vUv w`‡q A‡b¨i `„wó AvKl©Y Kiv njÑ G‡K Avgiv ewj †hvMv‡hvM| cÖk:œ Avgiv †Kvb †Kvb Dcv‡q G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK? DËi: gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw`g Kvj †_‡K| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK Zvi Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hvM iÿvi wewea Dcvq m¤ú‡K© mg¨K Ávb w`‡q‡Qb| †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me¸‡jv Dcvq‡KB †evSvq| gvbyl wewfbœ Dcv‡q G‡K A‡b¨i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avgiv e‡j, wj‡L ev ms‡KZ e¨envi K‡i A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK| `„wóMÖvn¨ `~i‡Z¡ Avgiv K_vi mvnv‡h¨ †hvMv‡hvM Kwi| hviv A‡bK `~‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡`i m‡½ Avgiv †Uwj‡dvb, †UwjMÖvd, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK| G¸‡jv QvovI †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AviI wKQy gva¨g i‡q‡Q| †hgbÑ †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, Kw¤úDUvi, †U‡j·, d¨v· cÖf„wZ| cÖk:œ huviv `~‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡`i m‡½ Kxfv‡e Avgiv †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi? DËi: gvbe mf¨Zvi AMÖMwZi d‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi h‡_ó cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| GKKv‡j `~‡ii gvby‡li mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv `yiƒn e¨vcvi wQj| wKšÍy eZ©gv‡b hviv `~‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv ‡Kvb KwVb e¨vcvi bq| weÁv‡bi AMÖMwZi d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi bZzb bZzb wRwbmcÎ Avwe®‹„Z n‡q‡Q| GLb `~‡ii gvby‡li mv‡_ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi A‡bK Dcvq Av‡Q| Avgiv wPwV Av`vb-cÖ`vb K‡i †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi| †UwjMÖvd, †UwjMÖv‡gi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi| †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, †Uwj‡dvb, BчgBj, d¨v·, †gvevBj †dvb cÖf„wZi gva¨‡g hviv `~‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi| cÖk:œ †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl Kxfv‡e †hvMv‡hvM KiZ? DËi: mg‡qi mv‡_ mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM c×wZiI cwieZ©b n‡q‡Q| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü wewfbœ mg‡qi †hvMv‡hvM c×wZi K_v PgrKvifv‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡K| fvlv Avwe®‹vi gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î cÖ_g ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl nvZ †b‡o, wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj evwR‡q, AvMyb ev †avuqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| cÖk:œ †mKv‡j †Xv‡ji gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e msev` cÖPvi Kiv nZ? DËi: gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw`gKvj †_‡K| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU Avw` gva¨g nj †Xv‡ji gva¨‡g msev` cÖPvi Kiv| en~gyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †Xv‡ji gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e msev` cÖPvi Kiv nZ Zvi PgrKvi eY©bv w`‡q‡Qb| c„ôv-76

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl nvZ bvwo‡q, wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj evwR‡q, Av¸b ev †auvqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| †mKv‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Ab¨Zg gva¨g wQj †Xvj| Avwd«Kvi DcRvwZiv Kv‡Vi †Xvj wcwU‡q `~iÑ`~ivšÍ‡i msev` ms‡KZ cvVvZ| fviZe‡l©i ivRviv †Xvj knir K‡i iv‡R¨ Av‡`k, wb‡`©k Rvwi Ki‡Zb| cÖk:œ e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g Kx? DËi: mg‡qi mv‡_ mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM c×wZiI cwieZ©b n‡q‡Q| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü wewfbœ mg‡qi †hvMv‡hvM c×wZi K_v PgrKvifv‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| †hvMv‡hvM Qvov mf¨Zv APj| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi A‡bK gva¨g i‡q‡Q| G gva¨g¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wPwV Ab¨Zg| e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g nj wPwV| wPwV WvK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z| cÖvPxb wMÖm I †iv‡g ivRKv‡h© evnK gvidZ WvK wewji †iIqvR wQj| fviZe‡l© myjZvwb Avg‡j WvK e¨e¯’vi K_v Rvbv hvq| weªwUk Avg‡j Zv DbœZ nq| cÖk:œ †mj‡dv‡bi myweav Kx? DËi: †mj‡dvb AvaywbK cÖhyw³i Ab¨Zg Avwe®‹vi| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj cÖe‡Ü †gvevBj †dvb ev †mj‡dv‡bi myweav m¤ú‡K© PgrKvi eY©bv w`‡q‡Qb| †mj‡dvb gvbyl‡K w`‡q‡Q A‡bK myweav| G †dv‡b †Uwj‡dv‡bi g‡Zv Zv‡ii ms‡hv‡Mi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| d‡j Gi gva¨‡g gvbyl c_ Pj‡Z Pj‡Z K_v ej‡Z cvi‡Q| GB †dv‡bi i‡q‡Q A‡bK myweav| GwU mgq I ZvwiL Rvbv‡Z cv‡i| Gi gva¨‡g gyn~‡Z©B c„w_exi †h †Kv‡bv cÖv‡šÍ g¨v‡mR ev evZ©v cvVv‡bv m¤¢e nq| Gi c`©vq wecixZ cÖv‡šÍi MÖvn‡Ki Qwe †f‡m I‡V| GQvovI GB †dv‡bi gva¨‡g Qwe Zz‡j Zv aviY Kiv hvq| GgbwK †K †K †dvb Kij Zv‡`i Z_¨ Ges Zv‡`i †dvb b¤^i G‡Z msiÿY K‡i ivLv hvq| Gi mvnv‡h¨ †MgI †Ljv hvq| †mj‡dv‡bi mvnv‡h¨ Pjgvb †Kv‡bv †Ljvi LeiI ‡kvbv hvq| cÖk:œ †eZvi ej‡Z Kx †evSvq? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Ab¨Zg gva¨g †eZvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| ‡eZvi A_© Zvi wenxb| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq ïiæ n‡q‡Q †iwWI ev †eZvi D™¢ve‡bi d‡j| Avgiv †eZvi ej‡Z †Kej Abyôvb †kvbvi hš¿‡K eywS| wKšÍy †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †eZv‡ii f~wgKv e¨vcK| †eZvi ej‡Z Avm‡j †evSvq †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM| †hgbÑAvaywbK †gvevBj †dvbI GK ai‡bi †eZvi hš¿| cÖk:œ IqvwKUwKi KvR Kx? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi GKwU eûj e¨eüZ hš¿ IqvwKUwK m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| IqvwKUwK GK ai‡bi †eZvi hš¿| Riæwi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi R‡b¨ †mbvevwnbx, cywjk,†iWµm, AwMœ wbe©vcK evwnbx, moK, †ij, †bŠ I wegvb †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ ms¯’vi e¨w³‡`i †hvMv‡hv‡Mi R‡b¨ IqvwKUwK e¨eüZ nq| c„ôv-77

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcv‡qi ïiæ KLb †_‡K? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj cÖe‡Ü cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K AvaywbKKvj ch©šÍ mgqKvj †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ Dcvq m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| ‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq ïiæ n‡q‡Q †iwWI ev †eZvi D™¢ve‡bi ci †_‡K| Avgiv †eZvi ej‡Z †Kej Abyôvb †kvbvi hš¿‡K eywS| wKšÍy †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †eZv‡ii f~wgKv e¨vcK| †eZvi ej‡Z Avm‡j †evSvq †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM| cÖk:œ I‡qe Gi cy‡iv bvg Kx? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î me©‡kl ms‡hvRb I‡qe m¤ú‡K© PgrKvi Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| B›Uvi‡bU n‡”Q wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GK wekvj †bUIqvK©| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GLb mviv we‡k¦i Ávb m¤ú‡`i †h wecyj Z_¨ msiÿY Kiv n‡”Q G‡K ms‡ÿ‡c ejv nq I‡qe| I‡qe Gi cy‡iv bvg: Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe | GB ÁvbfvÐvi †_‡K †h‡Kv‡bv wel‡q B‡”Q g‡Zv Z_¨ AvniY Kiv hvq| cªk:œ ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e †hvMv‡hvM K‡i D`vniYmn wjwL| DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü gvbyl ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡gI †h G‡K Ac‡ii m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡i †m m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| gvbyl wb‡Ri g‡bi fve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z Pvq| Ab¨‡K †Kvb wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me Dcvq‡KB †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| ms‡KZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Ab¨Zg cÖavb gva¨g| gvbyl ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K| †hgb: mo‡K jvjevwZ †`‡L PvjK Mvwo _vwg‡q †`q| Avevi †idvwi ûB‡mj w`‡ZB dzUej †Ljv ïiæ n‡q hvq| Av¤úvqvi Av½yj Zzj‡ZB e¨vUmg¨vb gvV †Q‡o hvq| G meB nj ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM| cÖk:œ `„wóMÖvn¨ `~i‡Z¡ Avw`g gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcvq Kx wQj? DËi: eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü Avw`g gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcvq m¤ú‡K© PgrKvifv‡e Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| gvbyl K_v e‡j, BkvivÑBw½‡Zi gva¨‡g, ms‡K‡Zi mvnv‡h¨, wPwVcÎ wj‡L, †Uwj‡dv‡bi mvnv‡h¨ G‡K A‡b¨i Kv‡Q wb‡Ri g‡bi fve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me Dcvq‡KB †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡KB| `„wóMÖvn¨ `~i‡Z¡ Avw`g gvby‡liv Av¸‡bi ms‡K‡Zi mvnv‡h¨ †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| DuPz Mv‡Qi WMvq D‡V gkvj †b‡o wKsev Av¸‡b Zxi Qyu‡o Avw`g gvbyl wkKvix‡`i wd‡i Avmvi ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv ms‡KZ w`Z| cÖk;œ KZ eQi Av‡M †Kvb ivRv `~i-`~iv‡šÍi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ bZzb Dcvq †ei K‡ib? DcvqwU Kx? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü nvRvi nvRvi eQi Av‡Mi †hvMv‡hvM c×wZi K_v PgrKvifv‡e eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| gvbyl wb‡Ri g‡bi fve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z Pvq| Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me Dcvq‡K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw` Kvj †_‡K| fvlv Avwe®‹vi gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î cÖ_g ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii c~‡e© gvbyl nvZ †b‡o, wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj c„ôv-78

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

wcwU‡q Av¸b ev †auvqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| AvR †_‡K cÖvq AvovB nvRvi eQi Av‡M cvi‡m¨i mgªvU mvBivm Zuvi iv‡R¨ `~iÑ`~iv‡šÍi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ GK bZzb Dcvq †ei K‡ib| wZwb Zvui iv‡R¨ wKQyUv `~‡i `~‡i A‡bK UvIqvi ewm‡qwQ‡jb| †m¸‡jv‡Z hviv cÖnix _vKZ, Zviv wPrKvi K‡i GK UvIqvi †_‡K Ab¨ UvIqv‡i msev` cvVvZ| Gfv‡e wZwb `~i `~iv‡šÍ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi e¨e¯’v K‡ib| cÖk:œ we`y¨r Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq Kx ai‡bi cvjve`j N‡U? DËi: Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq we`y¨r Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †h Avg~j cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡q‡Q Zv PgrKvifv‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡K| fvlv Avwe®‹vi gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î cÖ_g ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii c‡i gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v AviI DbœZ nq| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv n‡”Q gy`Yª hš¿ Avwe®‹vi I QvcvLvbv cÖwZôv| we`y¨‡Zi Avwe®‹vi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq wecyj cvjve`j NUvq| we`y¨r‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q c„w_exi GKcÖvšÍ †_‡K Ab¨ cÖv‡šÍ cÖwZwbqZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q wek¦e¨vcx †Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v| †Uwj‡dv‡b K_v ejv, KvD‡K B-†gBj cvVv‡bv, d¨v· †gwk‡b evZ©v cvVv‡bvÑg~û‡Z©i g‡a¨ G ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM m¤¢e n‡”Q we`y¨r kw³‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi d‡j| Gfv‡e we`y¨r kw³‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq w`‡b w`‡b Afvebxq cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡”Q| cÖk:œ †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î Kx ai‡bi DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q? DËi: †Uwj‡dvb AvaywbK cÖhyw³i GK Abe`¨ Avwe®‹vi| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †Uwj‡dvb Avwe¯‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †h DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q Zv PgrKvifv‡e ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| gvbyl bvbvfv‡e wb‡Ri g‡bvfve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z Pvq| Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me Dcvq‡KB †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †Uwj‡dvb AvaywbK †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹vi I Zvi AMÖMwZi d‡j c„w_exi GKcÖvšÍ †_‡K Ab¨ cÖv‡šÍ †h †Kv‡bv mgq †h †KD K_v ej‡Z cv‡i| GK mgq Zv‡ii gva¨‡g †Uwj‡dv‡bi K_v evwnZ n‡Zv| †eZvi I ‡mjyjvi cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kivq G †ÿ‡Î AKíbxq DbœxZ n‡q‡Q| GLb c_ Pj‡Z Pj‡ZI gvbyl †mj‡dvb I †gvevBj †dv‡b K_v ej‡Z cvi‡Q| G †dv‡bi i‡q‡Q AviI A‡bK myweav| G‡Z mgq I ZvwiL Rvbv hvq| Gi gva¨‡g gyn~‡Z© †QvULvU evZ©v cvVv‡bv hvq| Gi c`©vq wecixZ cÖv‡šÍi MÖvn‡Ki Qwe †f‡m I‡V| G †dv‡b †h †Kv‡bv Qwe Zz‡j aviY Kiv hvq| GgbwK †K †K †dvb Kij Zv‡`i Z_¨ Ges †dvb b¤^i G‡Z msiÿY Kiv hvq| ZvB ejv hvq, †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹vi I Zvi AMÖMwZi d‡jB †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î Af~Zc~e© DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î B›Uvi‡b‡Ui f~wgKv Kx? DËi: gvbyl bvbvfv‡e wb‡Ri g‡bvfve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z Pvq| Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me Dcvq‡KB †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| wewkó †jLK W. gvneyeyj nK Zuvi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Avw`g I AvaywbK evn‡bi GK Z_¨ wbf©i wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-79

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖvPxbKv‡j gvbyl nvZ †b‡o, wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj evwR‡q, Av¸b ev †avuqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| Gici †jLv Avwe®‹vi, gy`Yª hš¿ Avwe®‹vi, †UwjMÖvd, †dvb, d¨v·, BчgBj, †mj‡dvb BZ¨vw` Avwe®‹v‡ii gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î e¨vcK DbœwZ mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| Z‡e AvaywbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î me©‡kl Ges me‡P‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ms‡hvRb nj B›Uvi‡bU| GUv wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GK wekvj †bUIqvK©| we‡k¦i †KvwU †KvwU Kw¤úDUvi Gi m‡½ hy³| Gi gva¨‡g Avgiv GK Kw¤úDUvi †_‡K Ab¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvwi| cvwi †h †Kv‡bv Z_¨, DcvË, evZ©v, Qwe BZ¨vw` Av`vb-cÖ`vb Ki‡Z, GgbwK ci¯ú‡ii †PnvivI †`L‡Z| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GLb mviv we‡k¦i Ávb m¤ú‡`i wecyj Z_¨ msiÿY Kiv n‡”Q| G‡K ms‡ÿ‡c e‡j I‡qe| cy‡iv bvg: Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe| e¯ÍyZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î mgq Avi `~iZ¡ GLb †Kv‡bv evavB bq| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ GLb Avgiv gyn~‡Z© N‡i e‡m mviv we‡k¦i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cviwQ| cÖk:œ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq¸‡jv Kx Kx? DËi: †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi AvRKvj GZ DbœwZ n‡q‡Q †h,c„w_exi GKcÖvšÍ †_‡K Ab¨cÖvšÍ †h †KD †h †Kv‡bv mgq K_v ej‡Z cv‡i| wewkó cÖvewÜK W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ô†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvjÕ cÖe‡Ü †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© PgrKvi Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K gvbyl bvbv Dcv‡q ci¯ú‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i Avm‡Q| fvlv Avwe®‹vi gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î cÖ_g ¸iæZ¡c~Y© NUbv| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl nvZ †b‡o, wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj evwR‡q, Av¸b ev †auvqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii ci gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v AviI DbœZ nq| Gici AvaywbK cÖhyw³ weÁv‡bi be be Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v AviI DbœZ nq †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq¸‡jv n‡”QÑ †Uwj‡dvb, d¨v·, BчgBj, †iwWI, †gvevBj †dvb ev †mj‡dvb, †Uwjwfkb, †UwjMÖvg, IqvwKUwK , B›Uvi‡bU BZ¨vw`|

c„ôv-80

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

gnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`b gbmyi gymv

 k‡ãi A_© I cÖ‡qvM †R‡b wbB iwk¥ ⎯ wKiY| ⎯ Rvbvjv w`‡q N‡ii †fZ‡i m~‡h©i iwk¥ c‡o‡Q| cÖZoeZvwË¡K ⎯ cÖvPxbKv‡ji e¯‘mvgMÖx A_©vr gy`ªv, wjwc, fMoeve‡kl BZ¨vw`| gnv¯’v‡b A‡bK cÖZoeZvwË¡K wb`k©b cvIqv †M‡Q| ZË¡veavqK

⎯ †`Lv‡kvbv K‡ib whwb| ⎯ Rv`yN‡ii ZË¡veavqK GKRb Ávbx e¨w³|

D‡b¥vPb

⎯ †Lvjv, Db¥y³ Kiv| ⎯ cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi inm¨ D‡b¥vP‡bi Rb¨ AviI Lbb cÖ‡qvRb|

¯’vcZ¨

⎯ `vjvb †KvVv, ¯’vcbv| ⎯ ¯’vcZ¨ whwb wbg©vY K‡ib Zuv‡K ejv nq ¯’cwZ|

†mvcvb

⎯ avc| ⎯ †mvcvb †e‡q †e‡q cyKz‡i bvg‡Z nq|

ØviiÿK

⎯ `v‡ivqvb, cÖnix| ⎯ `y‡M©i `iRvq ØviiÿK Av‡Q|

cÖvPxi

⎯ †`Iqvj| ⎯ gnv¯’vbM‡oi Pvicv‡k cÖvPxi wQj|

aŸsmve‡kl

⎯ aŸsm nIqvi ciI hv Aewkó _v‡K| ⎯ gnv¯’vbM‡o cÖvPxb ivRavwbi aŸsmve‡kl cvIqv †M‡Q|

A¯ZvPj

⎯ cwðg w`MšZ, m~h© Wy‡e hvIqvi w`K| ⎯ m~h© GLb A¯ZvP‡j|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ gnv¯’vbMo e¸ov kni †_‡K KZ `~‡i? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| evsjvi cÖvPxb cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b¸‡jvi g‡a¨ me‡P‡q cÖvPxb mf¨Zv n‡jv gnv¯’vbMo| GwU e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi Aew¯’Z| cÖk:œ gnv¯’vbMo Rv`yN‡ii cv‡k Kx Av‡Q? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi gnv¯’vbMo Aew¯’Z| GwU evsjvi me‡P‡q cÖvPxb cÖZœZvwË¡K mf¨Zv| gnv¯’vbM‡o Av‡Q cÖZœZvwË¡K Rv`yNi| GB Rv`yN‡ii cv‡kB i‡q‡Q †Mvwe›`wfUv| GLv‡b Av‡Q GKwU AwZw_kvjv| ‡mB AwZw_kvjvq Avnvi I wekªv‡gi e¨e¯’v Av‡Q| wUjvi g‡Zv DuPz †Mvwe›`wfUvi gvwUi wUwe Lbb K‡i D‡b¥vPb Kiv n‡q‡Q cÖvPxb hy‡Mi ¯’vcZ¨| wXwei wb‡P Av‡Q Ki‡Zvqv b`xi ÿxYaviv| c„ôv-81

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ cÖvPxb evsjvi Ab¨Zg cÖvPxb bM‡ii bvg Kx? DËi: evsjvmvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi evsjvi me‡P‡q cÖvPxb cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo Aew¯’Z| mg¯Í GjvKvwU myiwÿZ †`qvj w`‡q †Niv| GLv‡b i‡q‡Q evsjv†`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb bMi| ‡mB bM‡ii bvg n‡jv ÔcyÛªea©bÕ| cÖk:œ cyЪea©b‡K Avi Kx ejv nq? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zvui Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi evsjvi me‡P‡q cÖvPxb cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo Aew¯’Z| mg¯Í GjvKvwU myiwÿZ †`qvj w`‡q †Niv| GLv‡b i‡q‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb bMi| †mB cÖvPxb bM‡ii bvg ÔcyЪea©bÕ| cyЪea©bÕ †K ÔcyЪbMiÕ I ejv nq| cÖk:œ cÖvPxb bMix‡Z Kx Kx wQj? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡` AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi evsjvi me‡P‡q cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo Aew¯’Z| mg¯Í GjvKvwU myiwÿZ †`qvj w`‡q †Niv| GLv‡b i‡q‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb bMi| †mB cÖvPxb bM‡ii bvg ÔcyЪea©bÕ| ÔcyЪea©b'†K cyЪbMiÕI ejv nq| GLv‡b GKw`b ivRv wQj, ivbx wQj, ivRKb¨v wQj, wQj gš¿x, cvÎwgÎ, AgvZ¨, †mbvevwnbx, cÖnix, ØviiÿK| nvwZkv‡j nvwZ wQj, †Nvovkv‡j wQj †Nvov| Ki‡Zvqv Nv‡U †bŠKv wfoZ, †`k-we†`‡ki ewY‡Kiv e¨emv Ki‡Z AvmZ, Zx_©hvÎxiv AvmZ| AvmZ ch©UKiv| GKK_vq Rb‡Kvjvn‡j gyLwiZ wQj GB bMi| cÖk:œ Rjvavi `y‡Uvi bvg Kx? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zvui Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo Aew¯’Z| gnv¯’vbM‡o i‡q‡Q cÖvPxb evsjvi Ab¨Zg cÖvPxb bMi cyЪea©b| cyЪea©b‡K cyЪbMiI ejv nq| cyЪbM‡i `y‡Uv Rjavivi Aw¯ÍZ¡ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| GKwUi bvg RxqZKzÛ ev Rxeb K~c, AciwUi bvg gvbKwji KzÐ| †jvKkÖæwZ n‡”Q wRqZ Kz‡Ûi cvwb †L‡j g„Z e¨vw³ cÖvY wd‡i cvq| gvbKwji KzÐ m¤^‡Ü ejv nq Ñ Gi bvg n‡q‡Q ˆRbag© cÖPviK †Mvkvjv gvbKwji bvg Abymv‡i| c„ôv-82

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ cv_iwUi IRb KZ? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| gnv¯’vbM‡oi `y‡M©i †fZ‡i `y‡Uv gw›`‡ii aŸsmve‡kl Av‡Q| GKwUi bvg ˆeivMxi wfUv Ges AciwUi bvg †Lv`vi cv_i wfUv| †Lv`vi cv_i wfUvq i‡q‡Q weivU GK cv_i| GB cv_wUi IRb cÖvq mv‡o wZb Ub| weivU cv_iwU _vKvi Kvi‡Y GB ¯’vbwUi bvg n‡q‡Q †Lv`vi cv_i wfUv| cÖk:œ †K †K gnv¯’vbM‡oi w`‡K mK‡ji `„wó AvKl©Y K‡ib? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zuvi Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| gnv¯’vbMo Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q BwZnv‡mi ¯^Yc © yix| Gi av‡c av‡c Avgv‡`i cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi wb`k©b Pvcv c‡o wQj| eyKvbb n¨vwgëb Avi Av‡jKRvÛvi K¨vwbsnvg G m¤^‡Ü mK‡ji `„wó AvKl©Y K‡ib| cÖk:œ aŸsmve‡kl †_‡K Kx Kx wb`k©b cvIqv †M‡Q? DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zvui Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©‡bi w`K †_‡K cyÛªea©b n‡”Q me‡P‡q cÖvPxb mf¨Zv| G mf¨Zv eûw`b a‡i gvwUi wb‡P Pvcv c‡o wQj| cÖZœZvwË¡Kiv gvwUi wbP †_‡K G mf¨Zv Lyu‡R †ei K‡i| gnv¯’vbM‡oi G mf¨Zvi aŸsmve‡klI gvwU Ly‡o D×vi Kiv nq| GB aŸsmve‡k‡l `y‡Uv wfUvi mÜvb cvIqv †M‡Q| GKwUi bvg ˆeivMxi wfUv, AciwUi bvg †Lv`vi cv_i wfUv| GQvov GLv‡b RxqZKzÛ I gvbKwji KzÛ bvgK `ywU Rjavivi Aw¯ÍZ¡ Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq| GLv‡b ˆRba‡g©i wKQy wb`k©b, †eŠ× a‡g©i wb`k©b, wn›`y a‡g©i wb`k©b Avi Bmjvwg mf¨Zvi wb`k©b cvIqv ‡M‡Q| GQvovI GLv‡b cvIqv †M‡Q, wkjvwjwc, fMœ ˆRbgywZ©, ey×gywZ©, AjsK…Z BU, avZzi ˆZwi GKwU Pµ ev m~h,© GKUv luvo, GKUv evN, GKUv †Nvov, GKUv wmsn Ges AviI A‡bK wKQy cvIqv ‡M‡Q| Gme wb`k©b my›`ifv‡e mvRv‡bv Av‡Q Rv`yN‡i| cÖk:œ Mí †jL‡Ki m‡½ †h `y Rb m½x wQj Zv‡`i bvg Kx Kx? DËi: evsjvmvwn‡Z¨ eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix †jLK gbmyi gymv Zvui Ôgnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`bÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Avgv‡`i AZxZ HwZ‡n¨i †MŠiegq wb`k©b gnv¯’vbMo m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| gnv¯’vbM‡o åg‡Y wM‡q †jLK wewPÎ AwfÁZv jvf K‡ib| †jLK hLb gnv¯’v‡b wM‡q †cŠQv‡jb, ZLb m~h© gv_vi Ici| m~‡h©i iwk¥ Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q we¯ÍxY© cÖvšÍ‡i Av‡jvwKZ iƒ‡ci g‡a¨ w`‡q cÖvPxb KxwZ© †hb RxešÍ n‡q D‡V‡Q| ZLb Mí †jL‡Ki m‡½ wQ‡jb cÖZœZ‡Ë¡i QvÎx AÄbv I BwZnv‡mi QvÎ Avwei|

c„ôv-83

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB Li‡mªvZv b`x ⎯ †h b`xi †mªvZ Zxeª‡e‡M cÖevwnZ nq| g„Z b`x

⎯ †h b`xi cÖevn w¯ wgZ n‡q wM‡q‡Q|

Rb‡Kvjvnj

⎯ †jvKR‡bi AvIqvR I K_vevZ©v|

weivbf‚wg

⎯ Rbgvbek b¨ gvV ev ¯’vb|

†jvKkªywZ ⎯ GKRb †jv‡Ki KvQ †_‡K ï‡b Ab¨ †jvK Zv cybive„wË K‡i| cybive„Ë nIqvi d‡j †jvK ci¤civq hv gvbyl Rvb‡Z cv‡i Zv‡K e‡j †jvKkªywZ| †jvKkªZy mZ¨ n‡ZI cv‡i, bvI n‡Z cv‡i|

c„ôv-84

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cvwL e‡›` Avjx wgqv (1906-1979)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ e‡›` Avjx wgqv 1906 wLªóv‡ã cvebv †Rjvi ivavbMi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wkï mvwnwZ¨K wn‡m‡e wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| wPÎwkíx wn‡m‡eI Zuvi cwiwPwZ wQj| Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’ ÔgqbvgZxi PiÕ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi †jLv eB Ô†gNKygvixÕ, ÔKuyPeiY Kb¨vÕ, Ôwkqvj cwЇZi cvVkvjvÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb 1979 mv‡j ivRkvnx‡Z g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB cvwL Pvq Iovi Avb›`| Zv‡K hZ h‡ZoeB ivLv †nvK, hZB †cvl gvbv‡bv †nvK, G‡Z Zvi gb cvIqv hvq bv| †LvKv cvwLwU G‡bwQj A‡bK `~i †_‡K Kó K‡i, hZoe K‡i jvjb cvjbI K‡iwQj| wKš‘ †hB GKw`b LuvPvi gyL †Lvjv †cj, cvwLwU P‡j †Mj| †m Avi wd‡i Gj bv| KviY, mKj cÖvYxi g‡Zv cvwLI Pvq gyw³i ¯^v`| cvwL Pvq ¯^vaxbZv|

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB AvjMv

⎯ †Lvjv|

bxj bf A½‡b ⎯ bxj AvKv‡k| †nv_v

⎯ †mLv‡b, ILv‡b| mvaviYZ G ai‡bi kã KweZvq e¨eüZ nq|

AkªymRj

⎯ †Pv‡Li R‡j †fRv|

cvivevi

⎯ mgy`|ª

†mvnvM

⎯ Av`i hZoe|

cÖvPxi

⎯ †`Iqvj|

bqb

⎯ †PvL|

†kv‡K

⎯ `yt‡L, †e`bvq|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi wecixZ kã †R‡b wbB Abv`i ⎯ Av`i `~i ⎯ Kv‡Q ¯^vaxb ⎯ civaxb c„ôv-85

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

gy³ ⎯ e× †kvK ⎯ Avb›` AvKvk ⎯ cvZvj

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ †LvKv cvwLwU †Kv_v †_‡K G‡bwQj? DËi: Kwe e‡›` Avjx wgqv Zuvi ÔcvwLÕ KweZvq GKwU M‡íi gva¨‡g cvwLi gyw³wcÖqZvi K_v eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| ‡LvKv GK mgq `~i‡`k †_‡K GKwU cvwL G‡bwQj | Zv‡K A‡bK h‡Zœ jv&jb cvjbI K‡iwQj| GZ hZœ, GZ fv‡jvevmvi c‡iI LvuPvi `iRv †Lvjv †c‡q GKw`b cvwLwU D‡o P‡j hvq| †LvKvi kZ fv‡jvevmvI cvwLwU‡K †cvl gvb‡Z cv‡iwb| cvwLwU gyw³i Avb‡›` LvuPv †_‡K P‡j hvq| cÖk:œ cvwLwU D‡o †Mj Kxfv‡e? DËi: cvwL Pvq ¯^vaxbZv| Pvq †Lvjv AvKv‡k Wvbv †g‡j Do‡Z| cvwLi †Pv‡L _v‡K e‡bi ¯^c|œ kZ Av`i-†mvnv‡MI Zv‡K †cvl gvbv‡bv hvq bv| ‡LvKv A‡bK `~i‡`k †_‡K Kv‡jv-†ikwg cvj‡Ki GKwU cvwL G‡bwQj| A‡bK †mvnv‡M †m cvwLwU Avcb K‡i wb‡qwQj| wKšÍy GZ fv‡jvevmv Avi †Kvgj †mvnv‡MI cvwLwU ek gv‡bwb| Zvi K‡É evi evi †e‡R DVZ bxj AvKv‡ki Mvb| ‡LvKv cvwLi KiæY myi‡K gayi Mvb g‡b K‡i‡Q Ges †f‡e‡Q cvwLwU †cvl †g‡b‡Q| eb fy‡j cvL †LvKvi mv‡_B _vK‡e| ZvB †m Av`i K‡i LuvPvi `yqvi Ly‡j w`j| wKšÍy †LvKvi me fvebvB wg‡Q| LvPvi `yqvi †Lvjv †c‡q cvwL Wvbv †gjvi D`vi AvKv‡k| gyw³i ¯^v` Mv‡q †g‡L P‡j †Mj `~i †`‡k| cÖk:œ cvwLwU wK †cvl †g‡bwQj, †Kb gv‡bwb? DËi: e‡bi cvwL gy³ _vK‡Z fv‡jvev‡m| A‡bK Av`i †mvnvMI Zv‡K †cvl gvb‡Z cv‡i bv| Kwe e‡›` Avjx wgqv Zvui cvwL KweZvq cvwLi wPiPwiZ ˆewkó¨‡K KweZvi gva¨‡g cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| ‡LvKv eû `~i‡`k †_‡K GKwU cvwL G‡bwQj| A‡bK fvjevmv,A‡bK †mvnv‡M cvwLwU †K †m LuvPvq jvjb-cvjb KiZ| fveZ cvwL eywS Zvi †cvl †g‡b‡Q| wKšÍy LvuPvi `iRv †Lvjv †c‡q cvwLwU GKw`b D‡o P‡j hvq `~i AvKv‡k | ZLb fyj fv‡O †LvKvi| †m eyS‡Z cv‡i GZ fv‡jvevmv‡ZI †m cvwLwU‡K †cvl gvb‡Z cv‡iwb| Kv‡iv gb‡K KL‡bv ek gvbv‡bv hvq bv| †LvKvi †cvlv cvwLwUi g‡b wQj me©`vB e‡bi ¯^c,œ `~i AvKv‡ki AvnŸvb| cvwLwU‡K †LvKv ZvB †cvl gvb‡Z cv‡iwb| cvwLi Rb¨ wbivc` ¯’vb `~i AvK‡ki A½b, gy³ ebvbx| †mLv‡bB cvwL Lyu‡R ¯^vaxbZvi ¯^v`| c„ôv-86

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ cvwLi g‡bi g‡a¨ me mgq Kx †R‡M _vKZ? DËi: cvwL gv‡bB ¯^vaxbZvi cÖZxK| cvwL `ywU Wvbv i‡q‡Q D‡o †eov‡bvi R‡b¨, LuvPvq e›`x n‡q _vKvi R‡b¨ bq wKšÍy Kwe e‡›` Avjx wgqv iwPZ cwL KweZvq †LvKv cvwL‡K †cvl gvbv‡bvi Rb¨ LuvPvq e›`x K‡i iv‡L| d‡j me mgq cvwLi g‡bi g‡a¨ weivR KiZ welv`| ‡LvKv `~i †`k †_‡K A‡bK fv‡jv‡e‡m cvwLwU‡K G‡bwQj †cvl gvbv‡bvi R‡b¨| A‡bK Av`‡i h‡Zœ f‡i ivLZ cvwLwU‡K| wKšÍy cvwLi gb me mgq c‡o _vKZ `~i AvKv‡k gy³ ebvbx‡Z| Zvi †Pv‡L fvmZ e‡bi ¯^c|œ LuvPvi cÖvPx‡i cvLv Svc‡U c_ LyR‡Z †m| K‡É Zvi ÿ‡Y ÿ‡Y evRZ bxj AvKv‡ki Mvb Zvi Kvbœv myi n‡q †ei n‡Zv KÉ w`‡q Kwei fvlvqÑ Ò`ywU †PvL Zvi e‡bi ¯^cb-Rv‡M `~i cvivevi|Ó cvwLi g‡b me mgq †R‡M DVZ gy³ AvKvk meyR eb Avi `~i cvivevi| cvwL‡K A‡bK fv‡jvevmv, A‡bK †mvnv‡MI LuvPvq f‡i ivLv hvq bv| cvwLiv me mgq AvKv‡k D‡o †eov‡ZB Avb›` cvq|

c„ôv-87

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

gvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjv W. gvneyeyj nK

 k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB Awbevh©

⎯ wbeviY ev Gov‡bv hvq bv Ggb| ⎯ †jvKUv Awbevh© g„Zz¨i nvZ †_‡K wd‡i G‡m‡Q|

cwi‡kvab ⎯ we‡klfv‡e ïw×KiY| ⎯ XvKvq cvwb cwi‡kvab cÖKí nv‡Z †bIqv n‡q‡Q| Zš‘

⎯ myZv| ⎯ GK mgq †ikwg Zš‘i Kvco †ek RbwcÖq wQj|

cøvBDW

⎯ ci‡Z ci‡Z ˆZix K…wÎg Z³v| ⎯ AvRKvj Kv‡Vi e`‡j cøvBDWI e¨eüZ n‡”Q|

†flR

⎯ Ily‡ai ¸Ym¤cboe MvQcvjv| ⎯ G e‡b bvbv iKg †flR Dw™¢` i‡q‡Q|

AwK©W

⎯ ciMvQv, GK RvZxq dzj| ⎯ kvgxgv‡`i evMv‡b A‡bK ai‡bi AwK©‡Wi MvQ Av‡Q|

wbmM©

⎯ cÖK…wZ| ⎯ wbm‡M©i †kvfv mevB‡K Avb›` †`q|

Aw¯ZZ¡

⎯ _vKvi Ae¯’v, we`¨gvbZv| ⎯ cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi d‡j gvby‡li Aw¯ZZ¡ ûgwKi m¤§yLxb|

fvimvg¨ ⎯ fv‡ii mgZv| ⎯ cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ iÿv Kiv Avgv‡`i mevi `vwqZ¡| DRvo

⎯ wbt‡kl| ⎯ gvby‡li euvPvi cÖ‡qvR‡b wbwe©Pv‡i eb DRvo Kiv Pj‡e bv|

ebvqb

⎯ eb m„wói D‡`¨vM| ⎯ ebvqb Kg©m~wP cwi‡ek iÿvq BwZevPK dj †`‡e|

†køvMvb

⎯ wgwQ‡j D”PvwiZ `vwe `vIqv| ⎯ we‡k¦i †`‡k †`‡k GLb cwi‡ek iÿvi †køvMvb D‡V‡Q|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j Avgv‡`i Kx Ae¯’v nZ? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| evZv‡m k¦vm wb‡Z bv cvi‡j Avgv‡`i g„Zz¨ Awbevh©| evZvm †_‡K Aw·‡Rb wb‡q Avgiv welv³ M¨vm evZv‡m Qvwo| Ab¨w`‡K MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kve©b WvBA·vBW MÖnY K‡i I evZv‡m Aw·‡Rb Qv‡o| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j GK mgq evZv‡mi Aw·‡Rb G‡Kev‡i †kl n‡q †hZ| Avi Avgiv g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j coZvg| ‡gvUK_v c„w_ex‡Z gvby‡li Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ MvQcvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwinvh©| ZvB AwaK cwigv‡Y MvQ jvMv‡bv Avgv‡`i GKvšÍ KZ©e¨| cÖk:œ MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Kx Kx ai‡bi Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv †h Aw·‡Rb Z¨vM K‡i Zv MÖnY K‡iB Avgiv †eu‡P _vwK| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| GB cig DcKvix eÜz Avgv‡`i bvbv ai‡bi Lv‡`¨i c„ôv-88

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†hvMvb †`q| Gme Lv‡`¨i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q bvbv iKg, kvK-mewR, Lv`¨km¨, wPwb,ev`vg I †Zj| Gme Lv`¨ Avgv‡`i kixi MV‡b, †ivM cÖwZ‡iva Ges kw³ †hvMv‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| cÖk:œ ev`vg RvZxq Lv`¨ †Kvb¸‡jv? DËi: MvQcvjv gvby‡li cig eÜz| c„w_ex‡Z Rx‡ei Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ MvQcvjvi Ae`vb Acwinvh©| GB cig DcKvix eÜz Avgv‡`i bvbv ai‡bi Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q| Gme Lv‡`¨i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q bvbv iKg dj, kvKmewR, Lv`¨km¨, wPwb, ev`vg I †Zj| ev`vg RvZxq Lv`¨ n‡”Q-wPbvev`vg , KvRyev`vg, AvL‡ivU, †c¯Ív BZ¨vw`| cÖk:œ wPwb ev kK©iv RvZxq Lv`¨ †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv MvQ †_‡K cvIqv hvq? DËi: MvQcvjv gvby‡li cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ, e¯¿ I evm¯’v‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i †hme Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q Zv‡`i g‡a¨ bvbv iKg dj, kvKmewR, Lv`¨km¨, wPwb, ev`vg I †Zj D‡jøL‡hvM¨| Avgiv wPwb ev kK©iv RvZxq Lv`¨ AvL, †LRyi, Zvj BZ¨vw` MvQ †_‡K †c‡q _vwK| cÖk:œ †Kvb †Kvb Dw™¢‡`i exR ev gÛ †_‡K Avgiv †Zj cvB? DËi: c„w_ex‡Z Rx‡ei Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ MvQcvjvi f~wgKv Acwinvh©| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ, e¯¿ I evm¯’v‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i †hme Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q Zv‡`i g‡a¨ bvbv iKg dj, kvKmewR, Lv`¨km¨, wPwb, ev`vg I †Zj D‡jøL‡hvM¨| Avgiv mwilv, bvi‡Kj, wZj, ev`vg, m~h©gyLx, mqvweb, RjcvB BZ¨vw` Dw™¢‡`i exR ev gÐ †_‡K †Zj cvB| cÖk:œ Dw™¢` †_‡K Avgiv Kx Kx gkjv cvB? DËi: MvQcvjv gvby‡li cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ, e¯¿, evm¯’v‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i| A‡bK Dw™¢` †_‡K Avgiv bvbv iKg gkjv cvB| †hgb- gwiP, KvjwRiv, †cuqvR, imyb, Av`v, njy`, a‡b, †ZRcvZv, GjvP, `viæwPwb, †MvjgwiP BZ¨vw`| cÖk:œ gvbyl Qvov Avi Kviv MvQcvjvi Ici wbf©ikxj? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| gvby‡li †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ k¦vmKvh© Ges Lv`¨MÖnY Acwinvh©| gvbyl QvovI Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYxi †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ k¦vmKvh© Acwinvh©| c„w_exi mKj cÖvwYK~j k¦vmKv‡h©i mgq Aw·‡Rb MÖnY K‡i| Avi GB Aw·‡Rb MvQcvjv †_‡K Av‡m| cÖvYxi RxebaviY I cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ iÿvi †ÿ‡Î MvQcvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Ab¯^xKvh©| ZvB gvbyl Qvov Miy-QvMj, nuvm-gyiwMmn mKj cÖvYx †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ MvQcvjvi Ici wbf©ikxj|

c„ôv-89

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ AvmevecÎ ˆZwi‡Z mvaviYZ Kx Kx e„‡ÿi KvV e¨eüZ nq? DËi: MvQcvjv Avg‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| †mB Avw`gKvj †_‡K Nievwo ˆZwii Kv‡R gvbyl MvQcvjv e¨envi K‡i Avm‡Q| N‡i LyuwU, ‡eov, Pvj ˆZwi‡Z GK mgq Dw™¢‡`i e¨envi Acwinvh© wQj| R¡vjwb †Zj, M¨vm I we`y¨r Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M KvV, Wvjcvjv I jZvcvZvB wQj gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxq R¡vjvwb| KvV Avg‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq ebR m¤ú`| †Pqvi, †Uwej, Avjgvwi †_‡K ïiæ K‡i w`qvkjvB‡qi KvwV ch©šÍ eû ai‡bi wRwbm ˆZwi‡Z KvV Avgv‡`i Kv‡R jv‡M| we‡kl K‡i AvmevecÎmn bvbv iKg Kv‡Vi Kv‡R †gnMwb, †m¸b, kvj, MR©b BZ¨vw` e„‡ÿi KvV e¨eüZ nq| cÖk:œ Zzjv I cvU †Kvb ai‡bi MvQ? DËi: MvQ Avgv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq ebR m¤ú`| †Pqvi, †Uwej, Avjgvwi †_‡K ïiæ K‡i w`qvkjvB‡qi KvwV ch©šÍ eû ai‡bi wRwbm ˆZwi‡Z KvV Avgv‡`i Kv‡R jv‡M| we‡kl K‡i AvmevecÎmn bvbv iKg Kv‡Vi Kv‡R †gnMwb, †m¸b, kvj, MR©b BZ¨vw` e„‡ÿi KvV e¨eüZ nq| GQvov c„w_ex‡Z AviI bvbv iKg DcKvix MvQ i‡q‡Q| Zzjv I cvU eûj cwiwPZ ZšÍy Drcv`bKvix MvQ| cÖk:œ K‡qKwU †flR Dw™¢‡`i bvg ewj? DËi: MvQcvjv gvby‡li cig DcKvix eÜz| c„w_ex‡Z Rx‡ei Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ Mv‡Qi f~wgKv Acwinvh©| wKQy MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv Abœ I e¯¿ cvB| wKQy e„ÿ †_‡K Avgiv AvmevecÎ cvB, wKQy MvQ Avevi cwi‡e‡ki †mŠ›`h© e„w× K‡i| Avevi wKQy MvQcvjv Av‡Q †h¸‡jv‡K Avgiv †flR Dw™¢` ewj| †m¸‡jvi jZv-cvZv, Qvj wKsev †kKo Ilya ˆZwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq| †hgb: wm‡¼vbv Mvn g¨v‡jwiqvi Ilya KzBbvBb ˆZwi‡Z Kv‡R jv‡M| GQvov Kvj‡gN, bqbZviv, AvmvgjZv †k¦ZP›`b BZ¨vw` †flR ¸Ym¤úbœ Dw™¢`| cÖk:œ KyBbvBb ˆZwi nq †Kvb MvQ †_‡K? DËi: MvQcvjv gvby‡li cig DcKvix eÜz| c„w_ex‡Z Rx‡ei Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ MvQ f~wgKv Acwinvh©| wKQy MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv Abœ I e¯¿ cvB| wKQy e„ÿ †_‡K Avgiv AvmevecÎ cvB, wKQy MvQ Avevi cwi‡e‡ki †mŠ›`h© e„w× K‡i| Avevi wKQy MvQcvjv Av‡Q †h¸‡jv‡K Avgiv †flR Dw™¢` ewj| †m¸‡jvi jZv-cvZv, Qvj wKsev †kKo Ilya ˆZwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq| †hgb: wm‡¼vbv MvQ g¨v‡jwiqvi Ilya KzBbvBb ˆZwi‡Z Kv‡R jv‡M| cÖk:œ P›`b e„ÿ Kx Rb¨ weL¨vZ? DËi: e„ÿ Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| e„ÿ Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wKQy MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ e‡¯¿i ms¯’vb K‡i, wKQy MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv AvmevecÎ cvB, wKQy MvQcvjv Ilya ‰Zwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv MvQ Avevi A½ †mŠ›`h¨© I †mŠi‡fi Rb¨ weL¨vZ †hgb-P›`b| c„ôv-90

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ AvR‡Ki w`‡b cwi‡ek iÿvi †¯øvMvb Kx? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| MvQcvjv †_‡K wbM©Z Aw·‡Rb MÖnY K‡i cÖvwYK~j †eu‡P Av‡Q| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j GK mgq evZv‡mi Aw·‡Rb G‡Kev‡i †kl n‡q †hZ| Avi Avgiv g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j coZvg| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ, e¯¿ I evm¯’v‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i| wKQy MvQcvjv Ilya ˆZwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv MvQ Avevi cwi‡e‡ki †kvfv ea©b K‡i| †Kej cwi‡e‡ki †mŠ›`h© bq, gvby‡li Aw¯ÍZ¡ iÿvi AbyK‚j cwi‡ek ˆZwi‡ZI Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| MvQcvjv GKw`‡K wbm‡M©i †kvfv e„w× K‡i, Ab¨w`‡K cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvqI AmvaviY f~wgKv cvjb K‡i | e„ÿ I ebf~wg evqygÛj‡K weï× I kxZj ivL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| Gi d‡j f~wg‡Z cvwbi cwigvb ev‡o, Pvlvev`I fv‡jv dmj nq| ZvQvov MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j cwi‡ek n‡q DVZ Dò| c„w_ex n‡q DVZ giæf~wg| gvby‡li Aw¯ÍZ¡ nZ wecbœ| ZvB B‡”Q g‡Zv MvQKvUv I eb DRvi Kiv wVK bq| Zvn‡j Zv n‡e Avgv‡`i Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ ûgwK| G Rb¨B MvQ jvMv‡bvi D‡`¨vM †bIqv n‡”Q| ebvqb Kg©m~wP ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡”Q| Avgv‡`i cwi‡ek iÿvi Rb¨ MvQcvjvi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB ZvB AvR †¯øvMvb D‡V‡Q, MvQ jvMvb, cwi‡ek evuPvb| AZGe Avgiv MvQ jvMve Ges cwi‡ek iÿvq mnvqZv Kie|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi ms‡ÿ‡c DËi wkwL : cÖk:œ gvbyl I MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kx MÖnY K‡i Avi Kx Z¨vM K‡i? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| evZv‡m k¦vm wb‡Z bv cvi‡j Avgv‡`i g„Z¨y Awbevh©| evZvm †_‡K Avgiv Aw·‡Rb MÖnY Kwi| Avi wbtk¦v‡mi m‡½ Avgiv Kve©bWvB A·vBW bvgK welv³ M¨vm evZv‡m Qvwo| Ab¨w`‡K MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kve©b WvBA·vBW MÖnY K‡i I evZv‡m Aw·‡Rb Qv‡o| MvQcvjv _vKvi Kvi‡YB evZv‡m Aw·‡Rb I Kve©b WvBA·vBW M¨v‡mi fvimvg¨ iÿv nq| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j GK mgq evZv‡mi Aw·‡Rb †kl n‡q †hZ| Avi Avgiv g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j coZvg| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, c„w_ex‡Z Rx‡ei Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Rb¨ MvQcvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwinvh©| ZvB my¯,’ my›`i c„w_ex Movi j‡ÿ¨ Avgv‡`i AwaK MvQcvjv jvMv‡Z n‡e| cÖk:œ MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv Kx Kx dj cvB? kixi iÿvq G¸‡jv Avgv‡`i Kxfv‡e mnvqZv K‡i? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb|

c„ôv-91

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Abœ, e¯¿, evm¯’v‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i| MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv bvbv iKg dj cvB| †hgbAvg, Rvg, KvuVvj, Kjv, †cqviv, wjPz, AvZv, eiB, Kvgiæj, †cu‡c, m‡d`v, Av‡cj, bvkcvwZ, Avbvim, Avgov BZ¨vw`| Avw`g gvbyl hLb ivbœvevbœv RvbZ bv,ZLb djg~j †L‡qB RxebaviY KiZ| GLb Avgiv Ab¨vb¨ Lvevi †L‡jI dj †_‡K cÖPzi wfUvwgb I LwbR Dcv`vb cvB| kixi MV‡b Ges †ivMevjvB †_‡K kixi iÿvq G¸‡jv Avgv‡`i mnvqZv K‡i| djgyj Avgv‡`i ÿzav wbevi‡Yi cvkvcvwk kix‡ii cywó Dcv`vb †hvMvq| MvQcvjv dj `vb K‡i Avgv‡`i †`n iÿvq AMÖYx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| cÖk:œ †Kvb †Kvb Lv`¨km¨ Avgv‡`i kix‡i kw³i cÖavb Drm? †m¸‡jv Avgiv Kx Kx Lvevi wn‡m‡e LvB? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvui Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i bvbv iKg Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb`vi| MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv bvbv iKg dj, kvKmewR, wPwb, ev`vg I †Zj †c‡q _vwK| KvR Kivi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i kw³ cÖ‡qvRb| kw³ Qvov KvR Kiv Am¤¢e| KvR Kivi mgq †`‡ni kw³ ÿq nq| †`‡ni ÿqc~i‡Yi Rb¨ Pvj, Wvj, Mg, he BZ¨vw` Lv`¨km¨ †c‡q _vwK| Gme Lv`¨km¨ Avgv‡`i kix‡i kw³i cÖavb Drm| GBme Lv`¨km¨ Avgiv fvZ, iæwU, QvZz, cvDiæwU, c‡ivUv, wc‡V, cv‡qm BZ¨vw` Lvevi wn‡m‡e LvB| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Lv`¨km¨ Avgv‡`i kw³i cÖavb Drm| G¸‡jv ÿzav wbevi‡Yi cvkvcvwk kw³ Drcv`b K‡i Avgv‡`i †`n‡K Kg©ÿg K‡i †Zv‡j| cÖk:œ Nievwo ‰Zwi‡Z MvQcvjv Kxfv‡e Kv‡R jv‡M? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zv gvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjv bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| gvby‡li Rxe‡b MvQcvjvi e¨envi e¨vcK| MvQcvjv †hgb Lv`¨ mieivn K‡i Avgv‡`i evuP‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i, †Zgwb Avgv‡`i Rxebhvcb cÖYvwji Dbœq‡bI we‡kl f~wgKv ivL‡Q| †mB Avw`gKvj †_‡K gvbyl Nievwo ˆZwii Kv‡R MvQcvjv e¨envi K‡i Avm‡Q| N‡ii LyuwU, †eov, Pvj BZ¨vw` ˆZwi‡Z MvQcvjv Kv‡R jv‡M| eZ©gvb hy‡MI Nievwo ˆZwi‡Z MvQcvjvi weKí †bB| Nievwo mvRv‡Z bvbviKg Avmevc‡Îi cÖ‡qvRb nq| Gme Kv‡RI MvQcvjvi e¨envi e¨vcK| MvQcvjvi mv‡_ gvby‡li Rxeb wbweofv‡e RwoZ| cÖk:œ emZevwoi †kvfv ea©b K‡i Ges D`¨vb iPbvi Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq Ggb wKQy MvQcvjvi bvg wjwL| DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zvi Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-92

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i bvbvfv‡e Kv‡R jv‡M| emšÍ Kvjxb †kvfv ea©b I D`¨vb Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| evwoi AvwObvq ev eviv›`vq bvbviKg iwOb I myMÜx dz‡ji MvQ A_ev cvZvevnvi MvQ emZevwoi †kvfv A‡bKvs‡k evwo‡q †Zv‡j| †Mvjvc, Rev, †ejx, P›`ªgwjøKv, wRwbqv, Mvu`v, †`vcvwU, Kiwe, Pvucv, KvVvwjPvucv, hyuB, iRbxMÜv BZ¨vw` dzj I bvbv iK‡gi AwK©W I cvZvevnvi MvQ evwoi cwi‡ek‡K my›`i I †kvfb K‡i †Zv‡j| D`¨vb iPbvq Gme Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| cÖk:œ cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvq MvQcvjv Kx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i? DËi: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| wewkó mvwnwZ¨K W. gvneyeyj nK Zuvi Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü MvQcvjvi wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡bi w`K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| MvQcvjv ïay cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek‡K my›`i K‡i †Zv‡j bv, gvby‡li Aw¯ÍZ¡ iÿvq AbyK‚j cwi‡ek ‰Zwi‡ZI Mv‡Qi Ryo †bB| MvQcvjv GKw`‡K wbm‡M©i †kvfv e„w× K‡i, Ab¨w`‡K cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvqI AmvaviY f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| e„ÿI ebf~wg evqygÛj‡K weï× I kxZj ivL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| †hLv‡b MvQcvjv I ebf~wg †ewk, †mLv‡b fv‡jv e„wó nq| Gi d‡j f~wg‡Z cvwbi cwigvY ev‡o, Pvlvev` I dmj mnvqZv K‡i| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j cwi‡ek n‡q DVZ wecbœ| ZvB c„w_ex‡K gvby‡li evm‡hvM¨ K‡i ivL‡Z Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvq Mv‡Qi f~wgKvi K_v †f‡e Avgiv †ewk †ewk K‡i MvQ jvMv‡ev | hv cwi‡ek‡K iÿv Ki‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e|

e¨vL¨v : Avgv‡`i cwi‡ek iÿvi Rb¨ MvQcvjvi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| Drm: Av‡jvP¨ AskUzKz W. gvneyeyj nK iwPZ Ôgvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjvÕ bvgK cÖeÜ †_‡K †bqv n‡q‡Q| cÖm½: cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ iÿvq MvQcvjvi f~wgKv cÖm‡½ Dw³wU Kiv n‡q‡Q| we‡kølY: MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b A‡bK DcKvi Av‡m| MvQcvjvi f~wgKv ïay Aw·‡Rb wKsev Lv`¨ mieiv‡n bq, cwi‡ek iÿvqI GwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| gvby‡li Aw¯ÍZ¡ iÿvi AbyK‚j cwi‡ek wbg©v‡Y Mv‡Qi f~wgKv jÿYxq| MvQcvjv ïay wbmM© cÖK…wZi †kvfvB bq| cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ iÿvq I f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| MvQcvjvi cwigvY K‡g ‡M‡j evZv‡m Kve©b WvBA·vB‡Wi cwigvb †e‡o hvq| d‡j evZvm welv³ n‡q I‡V| AwaK MvQcvjv Rwgi De©iZv kw³ evovq Ges f~wg ÿq‡iva K‡i| So-e„wó I eb¨v cÖwZ‡iv‡a MvQcvjv mnvqZv K‡i| MvQcvjvi Afv‡e cwi‡e‡ki DòZv ‡e‡o hvq| d‡j c„w_ex n‡q DV‡Z cv‡i giæf~wg| ZvB cwi‡ek iÿvq MvQcvjvi †Kv‡bv weKí ‡bB| gšÍe¨: my¯’ I my›`i Rxebhvc‡bi R‡b¨ fvimvg¨c~Y© cwi‡e‡ki weKí †bB| Avi fvimvg¨c~Y© cwi‡ek iÿvq AwaK nv‡i MvQcvjv jvMv‡Z n‡e| ZvB Avgv‡`i †¯øvMvb n‡eÑÒMvQ jvMvb , cwi‡ek evuPvbÓ|

c„ôv-93

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†RvbvwKiv Avnmvb nvexe (1917-1985)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ Kwe Avnmvb nvexe 1917 wLªóv‡ã wc‡ivRcyi †Rjvi ksKicvkv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wkï-wK‡kvi‡`i Rb¨ wZwb cÖPzi Qov I KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvi Q›` I kã mn‡RB gb Kv‡o| wZwb wQ‡jb †ckvq mvsevw`K, `xN©w`b bvbv cwÎKvi mvwn‡Z¨i cvZvi m¤úv`‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qb| Ôe„wó c‡o Uvcyi UzcyiÕ I ÔQywUi w`b `ycy‡iÕ Zuvi wkï‡Zvl Kve¨MÖš|’

 KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b †bB †RvbvwK †cvKv AÜKv‡i wgUwgU K‡i| hLb ivZ AÜKvi †b‡g Av‡m ZLb †RvbvwKiv `j †eu‡a †SvcSuv‡o Av‡jv Qovq| GB Av‡jv Qov‡bvi †fZi w`‡qB †RvbvwKiv Avb‡›`i I fv‡jvevmvi †Ljv †L‡j| Ab¨‡K Av‡jv wewj‡q †`Iqvi g‡a¨B †RvbvwKi Avb›`|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB, e¨vL¨v wjwL G‡jv‡g‡jv

⎯ A‡MvQv‡jv, Qwo‡q wQwU‡q _vKv|⎯G‡jv‡g‡jv evZvm eB‡Q|

_B _B

⎯ f‡i IVv| ⎯ eb¨vi d‡j gvV-NvU cvwb‡Z _B _B Ki‡Q|

AevK

⎯ wew¯§Z| ⎯ AevK †Pv‡L †`LQ Kx?

Av‡jvi cvwL

⎯ †h cvwL Av‡jv Qovq, †RvbvwK| ⎯ Av‡jvi cvwL †RvbvwK AÜKv‡i c_ †`Lvq|

 wb‡Pi K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB K.

_B _B _B AÜKv‡i SvD‡qi kvLv †`v‡j †mB AÜKv‡i kb kb kb AvIqvR ïay †Zv‡j| ⎯ SvDe‡bi kvLvq kvLvq iv‡Zi AÜKv‡i Ggb RgvU †eu‡a i‡q‡Q †h wKQyB †`Lv hv‡”Q bv| †Kej SvD‡qi kvLvq kb kb kã †kvbv hv‡”Q|

L.

SvD‡qi kvLvq cvwLi cvLvq nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡j| ⎯ SvDe‡bi kvLvq kvLvq, cvZvi Avov‡j jywK‡q _vKv cvwLi cvLvq †RvbvwKiv G‡m wfo Rgvq Avi Av‡jv Qovq, ZLb g‡b nq †hb nvRvi nvRvi nx‡i-gvwbK R¡j R¡j K‡i R¡j‡Q| c„ôv-94

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

M.

wbR‡K †R¡‡j GB Avgv‡`i fv‡jvevmvi †Ljv| ⎯ †RvbvwKiv Av‡jv e‡q †eovq| iv‡Zi †ejv hLb AÜKvi Pviw`K wN‡i †d‡j, †RvbvwKiv ZLb Suv‡K Suv‡K †ewi‡q Av‡m| Zv‡`i Av‡jvq †Svc-Svo Av‡jvwKZ n‡q I‡V| Gfv‡eB †RvbvwKiv wb‡Ri Av‡jv w`‡q Aci‡K Av‡jvwKZ K‡i| G‡ZB Zv‡`i Avb›`|

 Ô†RvbvwKivÕ KweZvwU‡Z Ô_B _BÕ I Ôkb kbÕ kã  wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ †RvbvwKiv †Kv_vq G‡m wfo Rgvj? DËi; Avnmvb nvex‡ei Ô†RvbvwKivÕ KweZvq AÜKv‡i †RvbvwKiv Av‡jvi †mŠ›`‡h©i Qwe g~Z© n‡q D‡V‡Q| ‡RvbvwKiv iv‡Zi AÜKv‡i eyK wP‡i Av‡jvi eb¨v Qov‡Z Qov‡Z Svu‡K Svu‡K †ei nq| Mfxi AÜKvi Rov‡bv Mv‡Qi Wvj-cvjvq, SvD e‡bi kvLvq kvLvq, cvZvi Avov‡j jywK‡q _vKv cvwLi cvLvq †RvbvwKiv G‡m wfo Rgvq| iv‡Zi AÜKvi we`xY© K‡i cÖK…wZi ey‡K wmœ» †Kvgj Av‡jv Qov‡bvi g‡a¨B †RvbvwKi mv_©KZv| cÖk:œ †RvbvwK‡`i cvLvq †Kgb kã ‡kvbv hvw”Qj? DËi: Ô†RvbvwKivÕ Avnmvb nvex‡ei GKwU †mŠ›`h©g~jK KweZv| wewPÎ Dcgvi cÖ‡qv‡M KweZvwU Aci~c Zvrch©gwÛZ n‡q D‡V‡Q| iv‡Zi †ejv RgvU evuav AÜKv‡i Svu‡K Svu‡K DošÍ †RvbvwK‡`i cvLvq kb kb kã ‡kvbv hvw”Qj| †RvbvwKi cvLvq kb kb kã Zv‡`i ¯^fveMZ ˆewkó¨| Zv‡`i cvLvi aŸwbgq cwi‡ek gyLi n‡q DVwQj| †RvbvwKi GKUvbv wSwjø ie ivwÎi cwi‡ek‡K gvqvgq ¯^cc œ ywi‡Z cwiYZ K‡i| cÖk:œ SvD‡qi kvLvq cvwLi cvLvq nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡jÓ Ñ G nx‡i gvwbK Kviv? DËi: Kwe Avnmvb nvex‡ei Ô‡RvbvwKivÕ KweZvq Ônx‡i gvwbKÕ Øviv Av‡jv weZiYKvix †RvbvwK‡`i †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| RgvU evuav AÜKv‡i AvKvk fiv †RvbvwKiv SjK †`‡L kx‡Zi ivZ cyjwKZ nq| SvD e‡bi kvLvq kvLvq cvZvi Avov‡j jywK‡q _vKv cvwLi cvLvq †RvbvwKiv G‡m hLb wfo Rgvq, iv‡Z Mfxi AÜKv‡i hLb R¡‡j I‡V †RvbvwK‡`i ey‡Ki Av‡jv, ZLb g‡b nq Wv‡j Wv‡j, cvZvq cvZvq, cvwLi cvj‡K Avi c„ôv-95

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

SvD e‡bi kvLvq kvLvq †hb nvRvi nvRvi nx‡i-gvwbK R¡j R¡j Ki‡Q| ZvB †RvbvwK‡`i Ônx‡i-gvwbKÕ ejv n‡q‡Q| nx‡i-gvwbK †_‡K †hgb Av‡jvi `y¨wZ we”QywiZ nq, †Zgwb †RvbvwKi Av‡jvq ivwÎi wbKl Kv‡jv AÜKvi Sjg‡j Av‡jvq D™¢vwmZ n‡q I‡V| cÖk:œ Ò‡Zvgiv wK fvB bxj AvKv‡ki Zviv?Ó Ñ K_vwU †K Kv‡K ej‡Q? †Kb ej‡Q? Avnmvb nvexe iwPZ Ô†RvbvwKivÕ KweZvq †KŠZ~n‡ji cÖKv‡ki m‡½ iv‡Zi †mŠ›`h© wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q| Ò ‡Zvgiv wK fvB bxj AvKv‡ki ZvivÓ? Ñ K_vwU Kwe Avnmvb nvex‡ei Ô‡RvbvwKivÕ KweZvq _g‡K `vuov‡bv kx‡Zi nvIqv †RvbvwKi Suv‡K ej‡Q| RgvU evuav AÜKv‡i †Suvc-Svo, SvD e‡j Suv‡K Suv‡K †RvbvwK AvKvk fiv Zvivi g‡ZvB wgU wgU K‡i R¡j‡Q g‡b nq, †hb bxj AvKv‡ki Zviv SvD e‡bi AÜKv‡i †b‡g G‡m‡Q `‡j `‡j| ZvB Pg‡K DVv evZvm G K_v ejj| †RvbvwKi bxjvf Av‡jv AvKv‡ki DR¡j ZviKvi g‡ZvB †R¨vwZg©q|

c„ôv-96

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

gRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx kwdDj Avjg

 k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB wbh©vwZZ ⎯ AZ¨vPvwiZ| wbcxwoZ ⎯ `wjZ, AZ¨vPvwiZ| gRjyg

⎯ hv‡`i Ici Ryjyg ev AZ¨vPvi Kiv n‡q‡Q, DrcxwoZ|

wel-bRi ⎯ Lvivc †Pv‡L †`Lv| Kviviy×

⎯ †R‡j ew›`|

RxebvPiY ⎯ Rxeb hvc‡bi aib| cÖwZev`x ⎯ whwb Ab¨v‡qi weiy‡× cÖwZev` ev we‡ivwaZv K‡ib| mgv‡ek

⎯ mfv|

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c„ôv-97

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 †R‡b wbB †`keÜy wPËiÄb `vk- weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi GKRb gnvb †bZv| cwðg e‡½i KjKvZvq 1870 mv‡j †`keÜy wPËiÄb `vk Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcwÎK wbevm evsjv‡`‡ki XvKvi weµgcy‡ii †ZwjievM MÖv‡g| wZwb †hgb wQ‡jb weL¨vZ ivRbxwZwe`, †Zgwb wQ‡jb GKRb Kwe I m¤cv`K| G †`‡ki wn›`y-gymjgvb‡`i g‡a¨ HK¨ I m¤cÖxwZ cÖwZôvi Rb¨ mvivRxeb KvR K‡i‡Qb wZwb| wZwb wQ‡jb evsjvi mvaviY gvby‡li AwZ wcÖq †bZv| 1925 mv‡j Zuvi g„Zy¨‡Z iex›`ªbv_ VvKyi I KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg KweZv wj‡L kª×v Rvbvb|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ gRjyg k‡ãi A_© Kx? Kv‡K gRjyg Rb‡bZv ejv nZ? †Kb? DËi: cÖL¨vZ cÖeÜKvi kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK iPbvq gIjvbv fvmvbx †h evsjvi AZ¨vPvwiZ gvby‡li KZ Avcb wQ‡jb Zv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| ÔgRjygÕ kãwUi AvwfavwbK A_© wbh©vwZZ ev DrcxwoZ| hv‡`i Ici Ryjyg ev AZ¨vPvi Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv‡`i gRjyg ejv nq| gIjvbv fvmvbxi mg‡q evsjvi K…lK-gRyi-kªwgKMY Rwg`vi‡`i Øviv AZ¨vPvwiZ nZ e‡j †mme †L‡U LvIqv gvbylB ÔgRjygÕ e‡j we‡ewPZ| Amvgvb¨ Ae`vb I Z¨v‡Mi ¯^xK…wZ¯^i~c gIjvbv fvmvbx‡K gRjyg Rb‡bZv ejv nq| evsjvi Amnvq gvby‡li Kv‡Q gIjvbv fvmvbx GK wcÖq bvg| wPiKvj wbh©vwZZ, wbcxwoZ gvby‡li cv‡k G‡m `vuwo‡q‡Qb wZwb| gRjyg gvby‡li my‡L-`yt†L Kvu‡a Kvua wgwj‡q Zv‡`i K_v e‡j‡Qb| †Rviv‡jv K‡É msMÖvg K‡i‡Qb& ZvB‡Zv G gnvb e¨w³ evsjvi RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q gRjyg Rb‡bZv wn‡m‡e Agi n‡q Av‡Qb| cÖk:œ ÔfvmvbP‡ii gIjvbvÕ bvg †`q Kviv? †Kb? DËi: wewkó cÖvewÜK kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü gIjvbv fvmvbxi Rxe‡bi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ NUbvmn mvgwMÖK wPÎ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| Avmv‡gi ayewo †Rjvi fvmvbP‡ii evOvwj K…lK‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡q K_v ejvq †mLvbKvi K…lKiv gRjyg †bZv‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m ÔfvmvbP‡ii gIjvbvÕ Z_v ÔgIjvbv fvmvbxÕ bv‡g AvL¨vwqZ K‡i| 1924 mv‡j gRjyg †bZv Avmv‡gi ayewo †Rjvi fvmvbP‡i evOvwj K…lK‡`i Ici AZ¨vPv‡ii weiæ‡× GK wekvj cÖwZev`x mgv‡e‡ki Av‡qvRb K‡ib| wZwb K…lK‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi K_v e‡jb| ZvB‡Zv †mLvbKvi mvaviY K…lKiv Zv‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m ÔfvmvbP‡ii gIjvbvÕ bv‡g AvL¨vwqZ K‡i|

c„ôv-98

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ gIjvbv fvmvbx Zuvi Kg©Rxeb ïiæ K‡ib †Kv‡bv †ckvq? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK iPbvwU‡Z gIjvbv fvmvbxi wewPÎ Kg©Rxeb ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| wcZ…gvZ…nxb Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb gv`ªvmvq cov‡kvbv Ki‡jI †mLvb Zvui Kg©Rxeb ïiæ nqwb| wZwb gv`ªvmvi cov †kl K‡i Uv½vB‡ji KvMgvwiqv GK cÖvBgvwi ¯‹z‡j wkÿKZv ïiæ K‡ib| A_©vr wkÿKZvi gZ gnr †ckv w`‡q GB gnvb e¨w³i Kg©Rxeb ïiæ| cÖk:œ wZwb Rwg`vi‡`i wel bR‡i c‡ob †Kb? DËi: wewkó wkÿvwe` kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü gIjvbv fvmvbxi Ici Rwg`vi‡`i AwePv‡ii wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Kg©Rxe‡bi ïiæ‡Z gIjvbv fvmvbx Uv½vB‡ji KvMgvwii cÖvBgvwi ¯‹z‡j wkÿKZv †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ nb| †mLvb wkÿKZvKv‡j wZwb mvaviY gvby‡li Ici Rwg`vi‡`i AZ¨vPvi, wbh©vZb †`L‡Z cvb| bxi‡e mn¨ Ki‡Z bv †c‡i wZwb Gi weiæ‡× cÖwZev` I msMÖvg ïiæ K‡ib| d‡j Rwg`vi‡`i wel bR‡i c‡o hvb wZwb Ges Gici KvMgvwi Qvo‡Z eva¨ nb| cÖk:œ wZwb ZiæY eq‡m Kvi Av`‡k© AbycÖvwYZ nb? DËi: Ziæb eq‡m gIjvbv fvmvbx Ks‡MÖm †bZv †`keÜz wPËiÄb `v‡ki Av`‡k© AbycÖvwYZ nb| †`keÜz wPËiÄb `vk wQ‡jb weL¨vZ ivRbxwZwe`, Kwe I m¤úv`K| wn›`y-gymjgvb‡`i HK¨ I åvZ…Z¡ cÖwZôvi Rb¨ AvRxeb KvR K‡i‡Qb wZwb| Zvui G Amvgvb¨ ¸Yvejxi Kvi‡YB ZLb gIjvbv fvmvbx Zvu‡K Av`k© wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| cÖk:œ wZwb KLb Kv‡`i Rb¨ Avmv‡g Av‡›`vjb kiæ K‡ib? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK iPbvq gnvb †bZvi msMÖvgx Rxe‡bi wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q | Zvi Rxe‡bi eû Av‡›`vj‡bi g‡a¨ Avmv‡gi Av‡›`vjb Ab¨Zg| wbR Rb¥f~wg‡Z AZ¨vPvwiZ Rwg`vi‡`i weiæ‡× K_vejvq 1924 mv‡j †mLvb †_‡K P‡j Avm‡Z eva¨ Kiv nq gIjvbv fvmvbx‡K| wZwb Avmv‡g P‡j Av‡mb| GKB eQi A_©vr 1924 mv‡j Avmv‡gi ayewo †Rjvi fvmvwbP‡i evOvwj K…lK‡`i Ici AZ¨vPv‡ii weiæ‡× wZwb GK wekvj cÖwZev`x mgv‡e‡ki Av‡qvRb K‡ib| Avmv‡gi G Av‡›`vjb wQj mvaviY `wi`ª K…lK‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Av‡›`vjb| g~jZ K…lK‡`i h_vh_ AwaKvi Av`v‡qi j‡ÿ¨B gIjvbv fvmvbx Avmv‡g Av‡›`vjb ïiæ K‡ib|

c„ôv-99

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ 1952 mv‡j wZwb ‡Kb †MÖdZvi nb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ cÖeÜwU gnvb †bZvi Rxeb Mvu_v| GLv‡b eY©bv cvIqv †M‡Q †h, wZwb †`‡ki Rb¨ I mvaviY gvby‡li Rb¨ eûevi KviveiY K‡i‡Qb| msMÖvggq Rxeb gIjvbv fvmvbxi| ZiæY eq‡mB Zvu‡K cÖ_g KvivMv‡i cvVv‡bv nq| GiciI msMÖvg Ae¨nZ _v‡K| 1952 mv‡j ivóªfvlv Av‡›`vjb ïiæ nq; wZwb Zv‡Z mwµqfv‡e Rwo‡q c‡ob| Avi Av‡›`vjb RwoZ _vKvi Kvi‡Y Zuv‡K 1952 mv‡j †MÖdZvi Kiv nq| †`‡ki ¯^v‡_© †h e¨w³ ¯^v‡_©i E‡×© Zv gIjvbv fvmvbxi evi evi KviveiY †_‡KB †evSv hvq| cÖk:œ †Kv_vq, KLb KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb nq? G m‡¤§j‡b Kviv †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb? DËi: cÖL¨vZ wkÿvwe` kwdDj Avjg ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü G gnvb †bZvi Rxebhvcb I msMÖvgmn eû D‡jøL‡hvM¨ NUbv, Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Zb¥‡a¨ KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb GKwU| 1957 mv‡j gIjvbv fvmvbx ÔUv½vB‡ji KvMgvwi‡Z GK wekvj AvšÍRv©vwZK mvs¯‹…wZK m‡¤§jb Avnevb K‡ib| G†`‡ki BwZnv‡m G m‡¤§jb KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb bv‡g weL¨vZ| G m‡¤§j‡b fvmvbx c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi gvby‡li eÂbvi wPÎ Zz‡j a‡ib| G weL¨vZ m‡¤§j‡b †`k we†`‡ki eû L¨vwZgvb mvwnwZ¨K, ms¯‹…wZKgx© I ivR‰bwZK †bZ…e„›` †hvM †`b| gIjvbv fvmvbxi D‡`¨v‡M msNwUZ KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb wQj c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi gvby‡li AwaKvi Av`v‡qi GK D‡jøL‡hvM¨ c`‡ÿc| cÖk:œ gIjvbv fvmvbx KZ mv‡j MYAv‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡jb? DËi: kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü gRjyg †bZvi msMÖvgx Rxeb I Zuvi Øviv cwiPvwjZ wewfbœ Av‡›`vj‡bi wPÎ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| AvRxeb mvaviY AZ¨vPvwiZ gvby‡li Rb¨ KvR K‡i hvIqv GKRb gnvb e¨w³ gIjvbv fvmvbx| wePÿY GB †bZv eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb cvwK¯Ív‡bi cwðg As‡ki kvmKiv ag© I RvZxq msnwZi bv‡g c~e© evsjvi gvbyl‡K †kvlY Ki‡Q| ZvB Zv‡`i mv‡_ GKB iv‡óªi evua‡b Ae¯’vb Kiv m¤¢e bq| G Kvi‡Y 1969 mv‡ji msNwUZ MYAfy¨Ìv‡b wZwb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| †kvlK‡`i ˆelg¨ bxwZ we‡ivax GB gnvb †bZv RbMY‡K mv‡_ wb‡q cvwK¯Ívwb ˆ¯^iPvix miKv‡ii weiæ‡× cÖej MYAv‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡jb| cÖk:œ gIjvbv fvmvbx c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi gvby‡li Rb¨ ¯^vaxb c„_K †`k Kivi K_v KLb Ges †Kb e‡jb? DËi: msMÖvgx Rb‡bZv gIjvbv fvmvbx‡K wb‡q kwdDj Avjg ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvgx` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü evsjv†`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvq Zvi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb ¯úófv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-100

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

1970 mv‡ji b‡f¤^‡i cëb gq`v‡b gnvb †bZv Ave`yj nvgx` Lvb fvmvbx c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi gvby‡li ¯^vaxbZvi cÖwZ RvwZ‡K m‡PZb K‡ib| 1955, 1956 I 1957 mv‡jI wZwb †NvlYv w`‡qwQ‡jb cvwK¯Ívb miKvi c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi RbM‡Yi Ici †h AZ¨vPvi, wbcxob Pvjv‡”Q, †h ˆelg¨bxwZ AbymiY Ki‡Q Zv Pj‡Z _vK‡j c~e© cvwK¯Ívb GKw`b ¯^vaxb †`k n‡q hv‡e| wePÿY I `~i`k©x G †bZv cvwK¯Ívwb †kvlK †Mvôxi lohš¿ eyS‡Z †c‡i c~ec © vwK¯Ív‡bi gvby‡li ¯^vaxb †`k MV‡bi K_v e‡jb| eyw×gvb gRjyg †bZv c~e©cvwK¯Ív‡bi ¯^vaxbZvi m¤¢vebvi K_v †NvlYv w`‡q evOvwj‡`i D¾xweZ K‡iwQ‡jb| cÖk:œ gIjvbv fvmvbx †Kb js gvP© cwiPvjbv K‡ib? DËi: kwdDj Avjg Zuvi ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü Rb`i`x gnvb †bZv gIjvbv fvmvbxi msMÖvgx Rxe‡bi cvkvcvwk e¨w³ I mrKg©kxj Rxeb Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb wbLyuZfv‡e| Evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Ab¨Zg iƒcKvi gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx| wZwb AvRxeb RbM‡Yi ¯^v‡_© wbijmfv‡e KvR K‡i‡Qb Ges wewfbœ RbgyLx Kg©m~wP cvjb K‡i‡Qb| Gi GK D`vniY n‡jv 1976 mv‡ji js gvP© M½v b`xi Ici fviZ KZ©„K dviv°v euva wbg©v‡Yi d‡j evsjv‡`‡k giæKiY cÖwµqv ïiæ nq| Gi cÖwZev‡` gIjvbv fvmvbx 1976 mv‡j 16B †g jÿ jÿ RbZv‡K m‡½ wb‡q XvKv †_‡K ivRkvnx ch©šÍ GK HwZnvwmK js gvP© cwiPvjbv K‡ib| †`‡ki ¯^v‡_© AK¬všÍ cwikªgx gRjyg †bZvi RbgyLx wewfbœ Kg©m~Pxi GKwU n‡jv 1976 mv‡ji jsgvP©| cÖk:œ evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j wZwb †Kv_vq †Kv‡bv c‡` wQ‡jb? evsjv†`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i GKRb Ab¨Zg Aby‡cªiYv `vbKvix gnvb †bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx| gyw³hy‡× Zuvi Abe`¨ Ae`vb ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvgx` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| 1971 mv‡j ee©i cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbx gIjvbv fvmvbxi Uv½vBj Nievwo cywo‡q ‡`q| wZwb gyw³hy‡× Ask †bqvi Rb¨ fvi‡Z P‡j hvb| gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j wZwb cÖevmx evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii Dc‡`óvgÛjxi m`m¨ wQ‡jb| cÖk:œ gIjvbv fvmvbx wkÿv we¯Ív‡ii Rb¨ †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv wkÿv cÖwZôvb M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb? DËi: wkÿvwe` kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ bvgK cÖe‡Ü gIjvbv fvmvbxi wkÿvbyivM ˆewkó¨ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| ‰kk‡e wcZ…-gvZ…nviv nIqvq gIjvbv fvmvbx cÖvwZôvwbK †jLvcov Lye †ewk Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb| wKšÍy G†`‡ki gvby‡li Rb¨ wkÿv, Ávb we¯Ívi I cÖmv‡i wQj Zuvi Amvgvb¨ Ae`vb| wZwb m‡šÍvl Bmjvwg wek¦we`¨vjq, gnxcy‡i nvRx †gvn¤§` gnmxb K‡jR, XvKvq AveyRi wMdvwi K‡jR I Uv½vB‡j gvIjvbv †gvn¤§` Avjx K‡jR Gi g‡Zv L¨vZbvgv wkÿv cÖwZôvb K‡ib| wkÿv‡ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Gme wkÿv cÖwZôvb wkÿvi cÖwZ gIjvbv fvmvbxi AbyivM GiB cwiPvqK| c„ôv-101

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖk:œ Zvui Rxeb †_‡K Avgiv Kx wkÿv cvB? DËi: cÖL¨vZ cÖvewÜK kwdDj Avjg iwPZ ÔgRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbxÕ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü evsjvi gRjyg †bZv gIjvbv fvmvbxi wewPÎ Rxebhvcb Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q hv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q cig wkÿbxq| Av‡›`vjb I ivR‰bwZK w`K w`‡q K‡Vvi †bZv n‡jI e¨vw³ Rxe‡b gIjAbv fvmvbx wQ‡jb GKRb wbinsKvi Av`k©evb gvbyl| Zuvi RxebvPiY wQj AZ¨všÍ mv`vgvUv I mnR mij| wZwb Uv½vB‡ji m‡šÍvl GK mvaviY evwo‡Z evm Ki‡Zb| GZ mvaviYfv‡e Rxebhvcb K‡iI wZwb wQ‡jb cÖK…Z †`k‡cÖwgK| Zvui msMÖvgx Rxeb, cÖMvp †`k‡cÖg Avgv‡`i D×z× K‡i, RbM‡Yi cÖwZ ggZ¡‡eva Avgv‡`i bvov †`q| cÖMwZkxj wPšÍvaviv I Av`k©, cÖwZev`x †PZbvi wkÿv Avgiv AR©b Ki‡Z cvwi G gnvb †bZvi Rxebx †_‡K| gIjvbv fvmvbxi Rxeb †_‡K cvIqv wkÿv‡K Av`k© wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡j Avgiv Zuvi ¯^‡cœi wcÖq evsjv‡`k MV‡b mg_© n‡Z cvie|

c„ôv-102

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

†`‡ki Rb¨ ‰mq` Avjx Avnmvb (1920-2002)

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†mvbvi Qwe

⎯ my›`i Qwe, iƒ‡c fiv|-Avgv‡`i †`kUv‡K g‡b nq †hb GK †mvbvi Qwe|

wj‡L‡Q A‡bK Kwe ⎯ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †mŠ›`h© I m¤c‡`i K_v A‡bK Kwe Zuv‡`i KweZv I Mv‡b Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ⎯ iex›`ªbv_VvKzi, KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg, RmxgD`&`xbmn A‡bK KweB Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Aciƒc †mŠ›`‡h©i K_v wj‡L‡Qb| wPiKvj

⎯ memgq | ⎯ †Zvgvi DcKv‡ii K_v Avwg wPiKvj g‡b ivLe|

cÖZ¨n

⎯ cÖwZw`b| ⎯Avwg cÖZ¨n Lye †fv‡i DwV|

c„ôv-103

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ Kwe AvKv‡ki Zviv‡K nvwm Lywk fiv e‡j‡Qb †Kb? DËi: evsjvfvlv I mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg cÖavb Kwe ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb iwPZ Ô†`‡ki Rb¨Õ KweZvq Kwe G†`‡ki cÖK…wZi †mŠ›`‡h©i GK Aciƒc Qwe A¼b K‡i‡Qb| Aci~c †mŠ›`‡h© fiv Avgv‡`i G‡`k| cÖK…wZi jxjvf~wg Avgv‡`i G‡`k| G†`‡ki AvKv‡k jÿ Zvivi †gjv e‡m| iv‡Zi AvKv‡ki Zvivi w`‡K ZvKv‡j g‡b nq †hb, cÖwZwU Zviv Sjgwj‡q Av‡Q| ZLb AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvKv‡j †`Lv hvq AvKvk †hb Avb‡›` nvm‡Q| G†`‡ki cÖK…wZ‡Z Ggb A‡bK †mŠ›`h© Av‡Q hv mevB‡K gy» K‡i| iv‡Zi AvKv‡ki Zviv †`‡LI Kwe ZvB gy» n‡q‡Qb| cÖk:œ Avgiv †Kv_vq mey‡Ri †XD AvuKv †`wL? DËi: meyR-k¨vgj Avgv‡`i cÖK…wZ| G †`‡ki b`x-mvMi, AvKvk gvwU‡Z Av‡Q †mŠ›`‡h©i †Quvqv| G †`‡ki cÖvK…wZK i~c mevB‡K gy» K‡i| evsjv fvlvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb Kwe ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb iwPZ Ô†`‡ki Rb¨Õ KweZvq G†`‡ki cÖK…wZi †mŠ›`‡h© GK Aci~c Qwe A¼b K‡i‡Qb| G †`‡ki iv‡Z AvK‡k e‡m AmsL¨ Zvivi †gjv| b`x‡Z †XD‡qi †gjv| G†`‡ki †Kv_vI i‡q‡Q cvnvo, †Kv_vI ev gvV fiv †XD †Ljv‡bv meyR dmj| dm‡ji gv‡V mey‡Ri †XD AvuKv †`Lv hvq| evsjv†`‡ki cÖK…wZ meyR k¨vg‡j fiv| we¯Í„Z meyR dm‡ji gvV‡K g‡b nq wbcyY wkíxi AvuKv meyR †XD‡qi Qwe| cÖk:œ Kwe G‡`k‡K †mvbvi Qwe e‡j‡Qb ‡Kb? DËi: myRjv-mydjv-km¨-k¨vgj Avgv‡`i G‡`k| G†`‡ki AvKv‡k-mvM‡i, gv‡V-e‡b Qwo‡q Av‡Q Aci~c mylgv| me wgwj‡q G`‡k c‡U AuvKv GK Qwei gZ| G†`‡ki iv‡Zi AvKv‡k i‡q‡Q ARmª Zviv| AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvKv‡j †`Lv hvq dzUdz‡U Zvivi †gjv| b`x‡Z †`Lv hvq †XD‡qi †Ljv| G †`‡ki †Kv_vI i‡q‡Q cvnvo, †Kv_vI ev gvV fiv †XD †Ljv‡bv meyR dmj| G†`‡ki Mv‡Qi Wv‡j Wv‡j cvwL Mvb K‡i| cÖK…wZi GZ iƒc †`‡L Kwe G‡`k‡K †mvbvi Qwe e‡j‡Qb| evsjvi cÖK…wZi bqbvwfivg `„k¨vewj Avgv‡`i‡K gy» K‡i| ZLb G‡K †mvbvi Qwe e‡jB g‡b nq| cÖk:œ G‡`‡k‡K wb‡q Avgiv Me© Kwi †Kb? DËi: G †`‡ki cªK…wZ Aci~c †mŠ›`‡h©i Avavi| cÖK…wZi Acvi `v‡b ab¨ meyR k¨vgj G‡`k‡K wb‡q Avgv‡`i Me© nq| G †`‡ki AevK Kiv i~c Avgv‡`i AnsKvi| G †`‡ki iv‡Zi AvKv‡k i‡q‡Q dzUdz‡U Zvivi †gjv| b`x‡Z i‡q‡Q evZv‡m †XD‡qi †Ljv| †Kv_vI i‡q‡Q cvnvo, †Kv_vI gvV fiv dmj| Mv‡Qi Wv‡j Wv‡j †`Lv hvq cvwLi †gjv| cvwLi K‡É i‡q‡Q mygayi Mvb| mewKQy wgwj‡q G‡`k †hb GKwU †mvbvi Qwe| ZvB GZ my›`i †`‡k Rb¥ MÖnY K‡i Ges G‡`k‡K wb‡q Avgiv Me© Kwi| c„ôv-104

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖvwYRMr GK we¯§q  k㸇jvi A_© wkwL I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi wewPÎ

⎯ bvbv e‡Y©i, bvbv ai‡bi, my›`i| ⎯ mviv `ywbqvq KZ wewPÎ cÖvYx evm K‡i|

msiwÿZ ⎯ iÿv Kiv n‡q‡Q Ggb| we‡kl D‡Ï‡k¨ hLb †Kv‡bv e¯‘ ev cÖvYx ev ¯’vb‡K wbw`©ó K‡i ivLv nq | ⎯ mvgwiK Rv`yNi ˆZwii Rb¨ G ¯’vbwU msiwÿZ Av‡Q| `jcwZ

⎯ `‡ji †bZv, m`©vi| ⎯ †Ljvayjvq `jcwZi wb‡`©k †g‡b Pj‡Z nq|

weKU

⎯ A™¢yZ| †`L‡Z ev ïb‡Z fq nq Ggb| ⎯ ivZ`ycy‡i weKU AvIqvR ï‡b Avgvi Nyg †f‡O †Mj|

iMPUv

⎯ †h mn‡R †i‡M I‡V| fxlY ivMx ev †Rw`| ⎯ Kx †h iMPUv †jv‡Ki cvj−vq c‡owQ, K_vq K_vq †i‡M I‡V!

kw³ai

⎯ kw³gvb| Mv‡q †ek †Rvi Av‡Q Ggb| ⎯ my›`ie‡bi i‡qj †e½j UvBMvi kw³ai wnsmª cÖvYx|

Mnxb

⎯ Mfxi, Nb| ⎯ Mnxb Ai‡Y¨ c_ fyj n‡Z cv‡i|

ˆ`Z¨cvwL ⎯ ˆ`Z¨i g‡Zv weivUKvq, wekvj cvwL| ⎯ DUcvwL‡K ejv nq ˆ`Z¨cvwL| ivÿz‡m wL‡` ⎯ cÖPÐ ÿyav| ⎯ mviv w`b D‡cvm K‡i Zvi GLb ivÿy‡m wL‡` †c‡q‡Q|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL: cÖk:œ nvwZ †`L‡Z †Kgb? ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ nvwZ Kx Kx KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i? DËi: ÔcÖvwYRMrÕ GK we¯§q cÖe‡Ü wewfbœ cÖvYxi K_v D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ †KD evm K‡i cvwb‡Z †KD Wv½vq| †KD kvšÍ wbixn, Avevi †KD wnsmª, †KDev kw³kvjx| G‡`i g‡a¨ wKQy cÖvYx‡K gvbyl †cvl gvwb‡q‡Q| wKšÍy †ewki fvMB †M‡Q e‡b-R½‡j, cvnv‡o-ce©‡Z, Nb Ai‡Y¨, giy I †giæ A‡j| †cvlv I ey‡bv cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ Ggb me cÖvYx i‡q‡Q hviv †Kej †`L‡ZB A™¢yZ bq, AvPviAvPi‡YI we¯§qKi| Wv½vi cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ †Zgwb GKwU cÖvYx nj nvwZ| PZz®ú` cÖvYxi g‡a¨ nvwZ me©v‡cÿv e„nr cÖvYx| Wv½vi cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ nvwZi g‡Zv eo wØZxq †Kv‡bv cÖvYx †bB| GB cÖvYxwU ¯Íb¨cvqx I wbivwgl‡fvRx| nvwZi Mv‡qi is Kv‡jv| G‡`i Pvgov cyiæ| nvwZi gv_v cÖKvÛ I †MvjvKvi| nvwZi Kvb `ywU Kz‡jvi g‡Zv| Gi cv¸‡jv Lv‡gi gZ| nvwZi †PvL Zvi kix‡ii Zzjbvq A‡bK †QvU| ZvB †m KL‡bv wb‡Ri kixi †`L‡Z cvq bv| nvwZi wekvj †`‡ni me‡P‡q A™¢y` A½wU n‡”Q Zvi ïuo| G ïuowU w`‡q Mv‡q cvwb wQwU‡q †Mvmj ‡m‡i †bq †m| G ïuo GKwU eo iK‡gi MvQI Dc‡o †djvi kw³ iv‡L| Avevi ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ †m eo eo c„ôv-105

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Mv‡Qi ¸uwoI †U‡b wb‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ cvwb cvb K‡i| bvbv iKg †Ljv †`Lvq| nvwZ ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq me KvRB K‡i| GKgvÎ ïuoB nvwZi Avnvi I hveZxq KvR Kivi Aej¤^b| cÖk:œ MÛvi‡K AvRe cÖvYx ejv n‡q‡Q †Kb? †i‡M †M‡j †m Kx K‡i? DËi: Wv½vi cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ †Zgwb GKwU AvRe cÖvYx nj MÛvi| MÛv‡ii bv‡Ki Ici GKUv ev `y‡Uv wks _v‡K| GB wks Avm‡j cyiæ †jv‡g ˆZwi| MÐvi‡K fxlY fq cvq e‡bi Avi me cÖvYx| Ggb wK evN wmsnI av‡i †Nu‡lbv| wec‡` co‡j †m wks evwM‡q Zxi‡e‡M †Z‡o hvq| MÛv‡ii `„wókw³ ÿxb, wKšÍy NÖvYkw³ cÖLi| MÐvi Zvi weivU evû wb‡q PgrKvi muvZvi KvU‡Z cv‡i| cvwb‡Z GKevi Wye w`‡q A‡bÿY KvwU‡q †`q †m| MÛvi `vuwo‡q, KvZ n‡q ev nvuUz gy‡o Dcyo n‡q Nygvq| NÈvq †m wÎk †_‡K Pwjøk gvBj †e‡M QyU‡Z cv‡i| GBme Kvi‡YB MÐvi‡K AvRe cÖvYx ejv nq| MÐvi †ek iMPUv cÖvYx| †i‡M †M‡j †m e‡b nyj¯’~j KvÐ evuwa‡q †`q| cÖk:œ Avgv‡`i †`‡k †Kvb †Kvb cÖvYx wejyß n‡q hv‡”Q? G‡`i evuwP‡q ivLvi Rb¨ Avgiv Kx Ki‡Z cvwi? DËi: cÖvwYRMr GK gnvwe¯§q| m„wóKZ©vi g‡bvig I Ac~e© m„wó| wKšÍy `ytLRb n‡jI GK_v mZ¨ †h cÖvwYRM‡Zi w`b w`b K‡g Avm‡Q| cÖvK…wZK cÖwZK‚jZv I myôz e¨e¯’vcbvi Afv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki wKQy wKQy RxeRšÍy cÖvq wejyß n‡q †M‡Q| ‡hme cÖvYx wejyß n‡q †M‡Q Ges hv‡”Q Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q MÐvi, ey‡bv Miæ, ey‡bv †gvl, ey‡bv QvMj I ey‡bv KzKzi| evsjv‡`‡k wejyß nIqv cÖvYxi g‡a¨ AviI Av‡Q nvowMjv, wgVv cvwbi Kzwgi, ivR kKzb, †mvbvwj weovj, bxj MvB I nbygvb, evN, nvwZ, nwiY, eb‡gviM, g`b‡UK, Kzwgi, K”Qc, ¸Bmvc, ebiæB, Mqvj, evNWvum, mRviæ, DošÍ KvVweovwj, †mvbve¨vO cÖf„wZ GLb Avi Lye †ewk †bB| Ggb wK my›`ie‡bi i‡qj †e½j UvBMviI GLb msL¨vq K‡g †M‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki RxeRšÍy G†`‡kiB A_©bxwZi m¤ú`| ZvB Gme cÖvYx evuwP‡q ivLv Avgv‡`i KZ©e¨| G‡`i evuwP‡q ivL‡Z †hme c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z cvwi Zv n‡jv : 1| G†`‡ki cï-cvwL, RxeRšÍy‡`i †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx cwi‡ek ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| 2| G‡`i Rb¨ AfqviY¨ ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| 3| AwZw_ cvwLmn mKj RxeRšÍy wkKvix‡`i K‡Vvi n‡¯Í `gb Ki‡Z n‡e| 4| wewfbœ cÖvYx wejyß n‡q hvIqvi KviY wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e Ges KviY¸‡jvi weiæ‡× K‡Vvi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| 5| miKvi‡K mwVK AvBb cÖYqb K‡i Zv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z n‡e| 6| m‡e©vcwi gvby‡li g‡a¨ m‡PZbZv m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e| 7| wewfbœ MYgva¨‡g cÖPvi K‡i welqwU m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZv m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e| Gme c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡j G†`‡ki cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` Ges †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖZxK RxeRšÍy‡`i wejywßi nvZ †_‡K iÿv Kiv hv‡e| c„ôv-106

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

mevi Avwg QvÎ mywbg©j emy (1902-1957)

 Kwe cwiwPwZ Kwe I wkï mvwnwZ¨K mywbg©j emy fvi‡Zi eZ©gvb SvoLÐ iv‡R¨i wMwiwW‡Z 1902 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcZ…K wbevm XvKvi weµgcy‡ii gvjLvbMi MÖv‡g| wkï-wK‡kvi‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi ARmª Qov, KweZv, Mí, Kvwnbx, iƒcK_v, ågY Kvwnbx, nvwmi bvUK I Dcb¨vm i‡q‡Q| Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš¸ ’ ‡jv nj : ÔQvbveovÕ, Ô†e‡o gRvÕ, Ô†nu‡UÕ, Ôûj¯’‚jÕ, ÔcvZZvwoÕ, Ôkû‡i gvgvÕ, ÔQ‡›`i UysUvsÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb 1957 wLªóv‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|

 KweZvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB gvbyl cÖK…wZi AvenvIqvq jvwjZ mšÍvb| ZvB cÖK…wZi Kv‡Q Avgv‡`i A‡bK wKQy †kLvi Av‡Q| wekvj AvKv‡ki w`‡K Avgiv hLb ZvKvB, ZLb Zvi Kv‡Q wkÿv cvB D`viZvi| †Zgwbfv‡e evqyi Kv‡Q wkÿv cvB Kg©x n‡Z, cvnv‡oi Kv‡Q wkÿv cvB †gŠb-gnvb n‡Z, †Lvjv gv‡Vi Kv‡Q w`j- †Lvjv n‡Z| m ‡h©i Kv‡Q wkwL Avcb †Z‡R `xß n‡Z, Puv‡`i Kv‡Q wkwL gayiZv I bgªZv| mvM‡ii Kv‡Q wkwL wekvj AšÍ‡ii AwaKvix n‡Z, Avi b`xi Kv‡Q wkwL `ªyZ †e‡M QyU‡Z| Ggwbfv‡e gvwU, cv_i, Sibv cÖf…wZi KvQ †_‡KI Avgv‡`i A‡bK †kLvi Av‡Q| ZvB G wekvj c„w_ex Avgv‡`i †kLvi I Rvbvi GK weivU cvVkvjv|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I e¨vL¨v wjwL D`vi

⎯ gnr, `vbkxj| ⎯ †k‡i evsjv G. †K. dRjyj nK wQ‡jb GKRb D`vi gvbyl|

†gŠb-gnvb ⎯ bxie I †kªô| †kªô n‡jI †h wb‡R‡K †kªô e‡j `vwe K‡i bv| ⎯ cvnvo I AvKvk gvbyl‡K †gŠb-gnvb nIqvi wkÿv †`q| w`j-†Lvjv ⎯ gy³cÖvY, D`viü`q| ⎯ w`j-†Lvjv gvbyl mK‡ji wcÖq| gš¿Yv

⎯ civgk©, hyw³, Dc‡`k| ⎯ gnvb wkÿ‡Ki Kv‡Q †h gš¿Yv jvf K‡iwQ Zv Avgvi Rxe‡b me‡P‡q eo wkÿv|

Bw½Z

⎯ Bkviv, ms‡KZ| ⎯ †kªYxwkÿ‡Ki Bw½Z †c‡q K¬v‡mi mevB GK‡hv‡M `uvwo‡q †Mj|

†Z‡R

⎯ Av‡jv‡K, cÖfvq, DËv‡c, cÖLiZvq|⎯ m~‡h©i †Z‡R c„w_ex DËß nq|

AšÍi

⎯ gb, ü`q| ⎯ mevi AšÍi †nvK wbg©j, my›`i I D`vi|

iZoe-AvKi ⎯ i‡Zoei AvKi, gwYgy³vi Lwb|⎯gnvmvM‡ii Aci bvg iZoe-AvKi| mwnòzZv ⎯ mn¨kw³, mnbkxjZv| ⎯ mwnòzZv gnr ¸Y| c„ôv-107

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

`xÿv

⎯ †Kv‡bv we`¨vq ev Kv‡R wKsev msKí mva‡b we‡kl Dc‡`k jvf| ⎯ Avwg wkÿ‡Ki Kv‡Q †_‡K †`k‡cÖ‡gi `xÿv MÖnY K‡iwQ|

k¨vg

⎯ k¨vgj, meyR| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki k¨vg iƒc †`L‡j †PvL Rywo‡q hvq|

ebvbx

⎯ eo eb, AiY¨| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki cve©Z¨ †Rjv¸‡jvi Mfxi ebvbx‡Z bvbv iKg RxeRš‘ evm K‡i|

w`evivÎ

⎯ w`bivZ|⎯ cixÿv mvg‡b, ZvB w`evivÎ cowQ|

 K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB nB †hb fvB †gŠb-gnvb ⎯ cvnvo AvKv‡i eo n‡jI wb‡R‡K wb‡q eovB K‡i bv| Kwe ej‡Z Pvb †h, cvnvo eo n‡jI †kªôZ¡ `vwe K‡i bv| †Zgwb gvbylI bvbv¸‡Yi AwaKvix n‡e, wKš‘ AvZ¥cÖPvi ev AnsKvi Ki‡e bv| w`j-†Lvjv nB ZvB †i ⎯ †Lvjv gv‡V Avgiv †h w`‡K B”Qv †m w`‡K †h‡Z cvwi| g‡bi Avb‡›` Ny‡i †eov‡Z cvwi| †Lvjv gvV cÖk¯Í Zvi cÖZxK| G Rb¨ ejv n‡q‡Q, †Lvjv gvV Avgv‡`i g‡bi cÖmviZv evov‡bvi wkÿv †`q| AšÍi †nvK iZoe-AvKi ⎯ mvM‡i gy³v I cÖevj cvIqv hvq| Gme wRwbm Lye g~j¨evb| mvMi †hgb bvbv iKg gwYgy³v aviY K‡i, †Zgwb Avgv‡`i AšÍiI mr ¸Yvewj‡Z cwic Y© _vKv DwPZ| k¨vg ebvbx mimZv ⎯ k¨vgj AiY¨ Avgv‡`i djg j I bvbv cÖKvi Lv`¨ †`q| Avevi Ac e© †mŠ›`h©I `vb K‡i| †m iƒc I im †`q e‡j Kwe Gfv‡e GB PiY mvwR‡q‡Qb| wek¦‡Rvov cvVkvjv †gvi ⎯ GB wek¦ A‡bK eo| c„w_exi cÖK…wZ QvovI P›`ª I mƒh©‡K Kwe c„w_exi Ask wn‡m‡e Kíbv K‡i Zvi †_‡K wkÿv MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| ZvB c„w_ex‡K ejv nq GKwU wekvj cvVkvjv| Zvi KvQ †_‡K Avgv‡`i wkÿvi †kl †bB|

 wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wkwL : cÖk:œ AvKvk, evqy I cvnvo Avgv‡`i Kx wkÿv †`q? DËi: Kwe mywbg©j emy Zvui Ômevi Avwg QvÎÕ KweZvq cÖK…wZi jxjvwb‡KZb †_‡K wewfbœ Dcgv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| AvKvk, evqy I cvnv‡oi wekvjZ¡ †_‡KB Avgiv gn‡Ë¡i wkÿv MÖnY Ki‡Z cvwi| Kwe c„w_exi wekvj fvÛvi †_‡K wecyj AvMÖ‡n wkÿv MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ Aby‡cÖiYv hywM‡q‡Qb| AvKvk,evZvm, cvnvo-ce©Z, b`-b`x, P›`ª-m~h¨© cÖf„wZi cÖwZ AšÍ`„wó w`‡q ZvKv‡j wewPÎ Ávb AR©b Kiv hvq| AvKvk GK wekvj f~eb| Zvi wekvj‡Z¡i †hb †kl †bB| ZvB Kwe AvKv‡ki KvQ †_‡K wk‡L‡Qb J`vh©| AvKvk Avgv‡`i D`vi n‡Z wkÿv †`q| evqy Aweivg ïay e‡qB P‡j‡Q| Kwe K¬vwšÍnxb evqyi KvQ †_‡K K‡g©i †cÖiYv †c‡q‡Qb| evqy Avgv‡`i Kg©x n‡Z wkÿv †`q| wekvj cvnvo Zvi D”PZv wb‡q AvKvk Qyu‡q `uvwo‡q _v‡K| cÖ‡qvR‡b AcÖ‡qvR‡b gvbyl wbg©gfv‡e cvnvo Lyuo‡Q, Pvlvev` Ki‡Q| c„ôv-108

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

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cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

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c„ôv-111

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

mvB‡K¬vb kvgmyi ivngvb

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 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB cuvwR

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⎯ k•L | ⎯ gw›`‡i kuvL evR‡Q|

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⎯ †gviM, Kz°zU|⎯ †fvi n‡j MÖv‡g KuyK‡ov Wv‡K| c„ôv-112

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evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

A‡cÿv †mwjbv †nv‡mb (1947- )

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⎯ mvgwiK evwnbx| M‡í cvwK¯Zvwb nvbv`vi evwnbx‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q|

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A‡cÿvq _vKv

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c„ôv-113

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

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cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

Rmxg e½eÜzi 7B gv‡P©i fvl‡Y ï‡bwQ‡jb Gev‡ii msMÖvg Avgv‡`i gyw³i msMÖvg| Gev‡i msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg| Rmxg GB HwZnvwmK fvlY ï‡b hy‡× hvIqvi Rb¨ D`MÖxe n‡q I‡Vb| kni †_‡K Avmv †Q‡j‡`i KvQ †_‡K wZwb ivB‡dj Pvjv‡bv wk‡L wb‡q M‡o †Zv‡jb gyw³evwnbx| Rmxg‡`i b`xi av‡iB wQj evRvi| wZwb weKvj †ejv evRv‡i wM‡q cvwK¯Ívwb wgwjUvwii mvg‡b c‡o hvb| †m mgq wgwjUvwiiv evRv‡ii †`vKvb Avi Ni evwo‡Z Av¸b jvwM‡q †`q| †mB m‡½ Zvi ¸wj Qyuo‡Z Qyuo‡Z mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q Av‡m| GiB g‡a¨ GKwU ¸wj G‡m †j‡M hvq Rmxg‡`i ey‡K| mv‡_ mv‡_ wZwb c‡o hvb| i‡³ †f‡m hvq gvwU| Rmxg‡K Gfv‡e cÖvY nviv‡Z nq| cÖk:œ Mfxi iv‡Z iægv-iæev‡`i evwo‡Z Kviv AvmZ? Zviv Kv‡`i m‡½ jovB KiwQj? DËi: Mfxi iv‡Z iægv-iæev‡`i evwo‡Z gyw³‡hv×viv AvmZ| †`k gvZ…Kvi gvb evuPv‡Z hviv m`v RvMÖZ| Avi G mvnmx ‡hv×viv jovB KiwQj ee©i cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx I Zv‡`i †`vmi G †`kxq wKQy gvby‡li weiæ‡×| cÖk:œ iægv I iæev iv‡Z wVKg‡Zv Nygv‡Z cv‡i bv †Kb? DËi: 1971 mvj| evOvwj RvwZ Zuv‡`i Aw¯Í‡Z¡i msMÖvg K‡i Pj‡Q| Pvwiw`‡K hy‡×i `vgvgv, g„Zz¨ Avi AvnvRvwiZvq AvKvk-evZvm fvwi n‡q D‡V‡Q| ARvbv me Avk¼v Zv‡`i g‡b R‡b¥| ZviciI Zviv A‡cÿv K‡i _v‡K| gyw³hv×v‡`i Rb¨, Zv‡`i GKwU WvK †kvbvi Rb¨| KviY †`‡ki Rb¨ ZvivI msMÖvg Ki‡Q, Zv‡`i g‡Zv K‡i| Gme wKQy fvebv K‡i iægv I iæev iv‡Z wVKg‡Zv Nygv‡Z cv‡i bv|

c„ôv-115

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

wecixZ kã cÖ`Ë kã gy»

wecixZ kã wei³

cÖ`Ë kã mvgvb¨

wecixZ kã AwaK

Abv`i

Av`i

`iKvix

A`iKvix

¯^vaxb

civaxb

`~‡i

Kv‡Q

gyw³

Aw¯’i

w¯’i

†kvK

Avb›`

avwg©K

Aavwg©K

AvKvk

cvZvj

Av‡ivMx

†ivMx

eb¨

†cvlv

Ávbx

g~L©

WvOv

cvwb/Rj

mvay

Amvay

Nb

cvZjv

jvf

ÿwZ

cwZ

cZœx

`ykgb

†`v¯Í

bxie

mie

myeyw×

Kzeyw×

wgÎ

kÎæ

mywe‡a

Amywe‡a

ÿxY

¯’~j

cÖksmv

wb›`v

kvšÍ

PÂj

my›`i

KzrwmZ

D`vi

Aby`vi

mvnm

fq

†gŠb

gyLi

wek¦vm

Awek¦vm

†Lvjv

kw³kvjx

`ye©j

R¡jv

†bfv

m¤¢e

Am¤¢e

mwnòzZv

AmwnòzZv

weNœ

wbwe©Nœ

K‡Vvi

†Kvgj

nvjKv

fvix

Rb¥

g„Zz¨

AvnZ

AbvnZ

hy×

kvwšÍ

g„Zz¨

Rb¥

Kvbœv

nuvwm

gvbyl

Agvbyl

`~i

wbKU

cÖKvk

AcÖKvk

fiv

k~b¨

Avb›`

†e`bv

ïK‡bv

†fRv

cwieZ©b

AcwieZ©b

_vgv

Pjv

mvdj¨

e¨_©Zv

fxiæ

mvnmx

m¤§vb

Acgvb

fvj

Lvivc

e¨eüZ

Ae¨eüZ

mij

KwVb

AvKl©Y

weKl©Y c„ôv-116

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

cÖ`Ë kã A`„k¨

wecixZ kã `„k¨

cÖ`Ë kã mKvj

wecixZ kã weKvj

Kv‡Q

`~‡i

Mixe

abx

DËigyLx

`wÿYgyLx

wewµ

µq

c~e©

cwðg

Kuv`v

nvmv

eo

†QvU

wbR

ci

gvb

Acgvb

myL

`ytL

hk

Achk

†jvf

wb‡j©vf

welv`

nl©

kvw¯Í

cyi®‹vi

cyÎ

Kb¨v

DbœZ

AebZ

hy³eY© mg~n Avgv‡`i GB †`‡k » = M + a = wø», `y» Ä = T + R = AÄbv, ¸Äb •L = O + L = k„•Ljv, k•L ÿ = K + l = ÿq, ÿgv ½ = O + M = M½v, g½v ó = l + U = bó, Kó ¯Í = m + Z = we¯Z…Z, we¯Ívi Avlvp Ü = b + a = eÜ, MÜ šÍ = b + Z = kvšÍ, åvšÍ `yLy Avi myLy Ø = a + e = wØZxq, Øv`k Ð = Y + W = KvÐ, LÐ| ü = n + Y = wPý, ga¨vý ø = m + b = øvZK, †R¨vrøv

msKí šÍ = b + Z = hyMvšÍi, ¯’vbvšÍi G = G i djv ( ª ) = hš¿Yv, gš¿Yv ³ = K + Z = gy³v, †fv³v `ª = ` + i djv ( ª ) = mgy`,ª P›`ª k¦ = k + e = wek¦, Ck¦i we`vq nR ”Q = P + Q = B”Qv, ¯^”Q Ï = ` + ` = D‡Ïk¨, LÏi ¯ú = m + c = ci¯úi, ¯úk© ô = l + V = wbôzi, Iô Z¥ = Z + g = AvZ¥mvr, AvZ¥v å = f + i djv ( ª ) = åó, ågi R¡ = R + e = DR¡j, cÖR¡jb

c„ôv-117

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

k‡Li g„rwkí í = j + c = wkí, Kíbv ›` = b + ` = Avb›`, cQ›` Ù = ` + g = cÙv, cÙ ®‹ = l + K = cwi®‹vi, Avwe®‹vi Ë = Z + Z = DËi, DËvc cÖ = c + i djv ( ª ) = m¤cÖwZ, m¤cÖxwZ †K? ß = c + Z = ¸ß, myß ó = l + U = e„wó, wgwó

Zzjbv š^ = b + e = A‡š^lY, Zš^x Ä = T + R = Ávbx, weÁvb ”P = P + P = ev”Pv, mv”Pv Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyjebv kª = k + i djv ( ª ) = kª×v, kªg ¾ = R + R = wec¾bK, DR¡j Û = b + W = KvÛ, VvÛv ®ú = l + c = wb®úvc, ev®ú exi‡kªô †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj ô = l + V = †kªô, wbôv cø = c + j = cøveb, cøvUzb k¦ = k + e = wbtk¦vm, wek¦vm nŸ = n + e = wenŸj

ˆ`Z¨ I †R‡j K¬ = K + j = K¬všÍ, †K¬k Yœ = Y + b = welYœ  = T + P = cÂg, ewÂZ Zœ = Z + b = iZœ, hZœ ã = e + ` = kZvãx, kã

Mv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi Djøvm jø = j + j = Djøvm, D‡jøL‡hvM¨ b¥ = b + g = Rb¥w`b, Db¥v` ¤¢ = g + f = m¤¢e, `¤¢ É = Y + V = KÉ, jÉb

Kzg‡ov I cvwLi K_v Ü = b + a = eÜ, AÜ ¯^ = m + e = ¯^xKvi, ¯^‡`k MÖ = M + i djv ( ª ) = = MÖn, MÖnxZv R¡ = R + e = R¡jšÍ, R¡vjv

Avðh© cv_‡ii K_v ð = k + P Avðh©, cðvr

GKv_©K ev cÖwZkã 1| AiY¨  eb, Kvbb, ebvbx|

6| Avkv  B”Qv, mva, evmbv|

2| A½

7| B”Qv

 kixi, †`n, Mv|

 AvKv•ÿv, Kvgbv, AwfiæwP|

3| AwZw_  †gngvb, Af¨vMZ, M„nvMZ|

8| DËg  fv‡jv, †miv, cÖavb|

4| Av‡jv  `xc, cÖ`xc, Av‡jvK|

9| FY

5| Avjøvn  †Lv`v, mªóv, ingvb|

10| Kcvj  wbqwZ, jjvU, fvM¨|

 KR©, avi, †`bv| c„ôv-118

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

11| K_v

 Dw³, evK¨, fvlY|

19| Sibv  wbS©i, †dqviv, SY©v|

12| Lei

 msev`, evZ©v, †LuvR|

20| UxKv

 e¨vL¨v, wUàbx|

13| M„n

 Avjq, evwo, wbevm|

21| VvÆv

 iwmKZv, Dcnvm, we`ªæc|

14| †PvL

 bqb, Pÿz, †jvPb|

22| Zxi

 ZU, cywjb, ˆmKZ|

15| wPÎ

 Qwe, bKkv, †jLv|

23| ab

 A_©, m¤ú`, weË|

16| QvÎ

 wkÿv_©x, wkÿvbwem, we`¨v_©x|

24| wcZv  RbK, evev, Rb¥`vZv| 25| c„w_ex

17| †Q‡j  cyÎ, mšÍvb, `yjvj| 18| Ávb

 aiYx, RMr, emyÜiv|

 †eva, eyw×, kw³|

cyiæl I ¯¿xevPK kã: cyiælevPK kã RbK gq~i gvwj gvbe †Mvqvjv my›`i cwZ †meK mgªvU ivRv Kwe cyiæl mfvcwZ KZ©v wfLvix

              

¯¿x kã Rbbx gh~ix gvwjbx gvbex †Mvqvwjbx my›`ix cZœx ‡mweKv mgªvÁx ivYx gwnjv Kwe bvix mfv‡bÎx wMbœx wfLvwibx

cyiælevPK kã †R‡j Kz‡gvi cvÎ wmsn bi MvqK kvnvRv`v mvaK wkÿK Kvgvi iwmK ei weØvb Aa¨vcK

             

¯¿x kã †R‡jbx Kz‡gvibx cvÎx wmsnx bvix MvwqKv kvnvRv`x mvwaKv wkwÿKv Kvgvibx iwmKv K‡b we`ylx Aa¨vwcKv

evK¨ ms‡KvPb ev GK K_vq cÖKvk 1| An¼vi K‡i †h  AnsKvix|

6| A‡MÖ Mgb K‡i †h  AMÖMvgx|

2| Awfbq K‡i †h  Awf‡bZv|

7| Ab¨vq I AwePvi Kiv  †kvlY|

3| AnsKvi bvB hvi  wbinsKvi|

8| Ac‡ii Aaxb  civaxb|

4| Ab¨ †`k  †`kvšÍi|

9| AvKv‡ki P‡i †h  †LPi|

5| A‡b‡Ki †ga¨ GKRb  Ab¨Zg|

10| Avwg‡li Afve  wbivwgl| c„ôv-119

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

11| AvKvk c‡_ P‡j †h hvb  b‡fvhvb|

19| GK †`k †_‡K Av‡iK †`k  †`kvšÍi|

12| Bwmnvm †j‡Lb whwb  HwZnvwmK|

20| GKB mg‡q eZ©gvb  mgmvgwqK|

13| Ck¦‡i wek¦vm †bB hvi  bvw¯ÍK|

21| GKB ¸iæi wkl¨  mZx_©|

14| Ck¦‡ii wek¦vm Av‡Q hvi  Avw¯ÍK|

22| KweZv †j‡Lb whwb  Kwe|

15| DcKvi Kivi B”Qv  DcwPKxl©v|

23| Lye kxZI bq Lye MigI bq  bvwZkx‡Zvò|

16| DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi K‡i bv †h  AK…ZÁ|

24| †h DcKvixi AcKvi K‡i  K…ZNœ|

17| Dcvq †bB hvi  wbiæcvq|

25| †h

†ewk

K_v

e‡j

evPvj|

18| FY Av‡Q hvi  FYx|

wµqvc‡`i PwjZiƒc mvayiƒc AvuwKqv Nywi‡Z‡Q Kwi‡Z‡Q Avwm‡Z‡Q KwiZvg NygvBI hvB‡Z nB‡e hvB‡j NygvBqvQ nB‡Z‡Q hvB‡Z‡Q ewjqvwQ‡jb LvBj DwVqv‡Qb †`wLe gwi‡Z‡Q QywU‡Z‡Q Pwj‡Z‡Q †LwjZvg nBZ hvBZ ïwbqvwQ hvBqv

                       

PwjZiƒc AvuKe Nyi‡Q Ki‡Q Avm‡Q KiZvg NywgI †h‡Z n‡e †M‡j Nywg‡qQ n‡”Q hv‡”Q e‡jwQ‡jb †Lj D‡V‡Qb †`Le gi‡Q QyU‡Q Pj‡Q †LjZvg nZ ‡hZ ï‡bwQ †h‡q

mvayiƒc LvBqv ïwbqv R¡wj‡Z‡Q ïwbe nuvwU‡Z jvwM‡jb ïB‡Z _vwKe KivB‡eb DwV‡e wjL wj‡Lb Kwiqv ïb‡Z‡Q Kuvw`‡Z‡Q hvBe Mvwne hvB‡ZwQ bvwP‡ZwQ hvBm w`‡ZQ nuvwUqv nBqv‡Q Kwi‡Z‡Q QyU‡Z‡Q

                       

PwjZiƒc †L‡q ï‡b R¡j‡Q ïbe nuvU‡Z jvM‡jb ï‡Z _vKe Kiv‡eb DV‡e †jL †j‡Lb K‡i ïb‡Q Kuv`‡Q hve MvBe hvw”Qj bvPwQ hvm w`”Q †nu‡U n‡q‡Q Ki‡Q QyU‡Q c„ôv-120

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

GK K_vq DËi: 1| Avgv‡`i evwoN‡ii KvVv‡gv Kx w`‡q ˆZwi? DËi: euvk I KvV w`‡q| 2| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki K‡qKwU eo b`xi bvg †jL| DËi: cÙv, †gNbv, hgybv I eªþcyÎ| 3| gv‡Q fv‡Z evOvwj ejv nq †Kb? DËi: gvQ Avi fvZ evOvwji wcÖq Lv`¨ e‡j gv‡Q fv‡Z evOvwj ejv nq| 4| Ô`yLy Avi myLyÕ Mí †_‡K Kx ai‡Yi wkÿv cvIqv hvq? DËi: fv‡jv Kv‡Ri mydj Avi g›` Kv‡Ri Kzdj| 5| gnvbex nhiZ gynv¤§` (mt) gvby‡li Kv‡Q †Kvb evbx †cuŠ‡Q w`‡q‡Qb? DËi: mZ¨, b¨vq I gvbeZvi evYx| 6| wnRwi KZ mv‡j we`vq nR¡ AbywôZ nq? DËi: wnRwi `kg mv‡j| 7| kvjeb wenvi †Kv_vq Aew¯’Z? DËi: Kzwgjøvi gqbvgwZ‡Z| 8| KvšÍRxi gw›`i †K wbg©vY K‡ib? DËi: gnvivRv igvbv_ ivq| 9| Kwei g‡Z, G c„w_ex‡Z avwg©K †K? DËi: me© Rx‡e †h `qv K‡i, †mB avwg©K| 10| cÖK…Z Ávbx e¨w³ †K? DËi: hvi fv‡jvg›` †evSvi ÿgZv Av‡Q, †mB cÖK…Z Ávbx| 11| AvKv‡ki †P‡q Kvi D”PZv †ewk? DËi: AvKv‡ki †P‡q m‡Z¨i D”PZv †ewk| 12| cv_‡ii †P‡q k³ Kx? DËi: cv_‡ii †P‡q k³ Avjøvni †cÖ‡g gMœ ü`q|

13| Zzó ü`q‡K Kx ejv n‡q‡Q? DËi: mvM‡ii †P‡q abevb| 14| c„w_exi †P‡q IR‡b fvix Kx? DËi: wb®úvc R‡b †`vlv‡ivc Ki‡j †h cvc nq Zv c„w_exi †P‡q IR‡b fvix| 15| RbwnZKi KvR K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j Ô`vbexiÕ ejv n‡Zv Kv‡K? DËi: iY`v cÖmv` mvnv‡K| 16| Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªæqvix- MvbwUi myiKvi †K? DËi: AvjZvd gvngy`| 17| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj Kx wek¦vm Ki‡Zb? DËi: †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj wek¦vm Ki‡Zb, ˆmb¨‡`i g‡bvejB Avm‡j `y‡f©`¨ `yM|© 18| †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj KZ Zvwi‡L knx` nb? DËi: 18B GwcÖj 1971| 19| Puv‡`i †RvQbv Kxfv‡e Qwo‡q c‡o? DËi: wdbwK w`‡q| 20| wkïi LjLj nvwm‡K Kwe Kx e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb? DËi: LjLjvwb| 21| PviæevK Kv‡K ejv nq? DËi: †h my›`i K‡i K_v e‡j Zv‡K ejv nq PviæevK| 22| K‡qKwU †jvKmsMx‡Zi bvg †jL| DËi: fvIqvBqv, fvwUqvwj, evDjMvb, gvBRfvÐvix Mvb BZ¨vw`|

c„ôv-121

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

g‡Wj cÖkœ- 1 mgq : 2 c~Y©gvb -100 1| KweZv I Kwei bvg D‡jøL K‡i Ô†KÕ A_ev ÔAvlvp, - KweZvi cÖ_g AvU jvBb gyL¯’ wj‡Lv| 10 2| cÖm½ D‡jøL K‡i eywS‡q wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv GKwU): 05 K) bvixi Ici cyiæ‡li †hiƒc AwaKvi Av‡Q, cyiæ‡li IciI bvixi †miƒc AwaKvi Av‡Q| L) Avgvi †`‡ki gvwUi †Q‡j bwg evisevi, †Zvgvq †`‡L P~Y© †nvK mevi AnsKvi| 3| wb‡Pi †h‡Kv‡bv wZbwU cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: K) gvwUi wkí Avgv‡`i †MŠie I HwZ‡n¨i welq †Kb? L) mvay I g~L© e¨w³i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †Kv_vq? M) †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î gy`ªbhš¿, QvcvLvbv I B›Uvi‡b‡Ui f~wgKv Kx? N) †Kvbw`b Avgiv Ôknx` eyw×RxexÕ w`em cvjb Kwi Ges †Kb? O) knx` wZZzgxi †Kb Agi n‡q Av‡Qb? 4| k‡ãi A_© wjL (†h‡Kv‡bv 5wU) †gvni, `ykgb, K‡Vvi, †aby, eiY, w`evivÎ, mvaK|

4× ×3 = 12

1× ×5 = 5

5| wb‡Pi kã w`‡q evK¨ iPbv K‡iv (5wU) 1× ×5 = 5 Rbc`, †ebviwm, †`kvšÍi, evKwkí, †mŠRb¨, Mnxb, MYnZ¨v| 6| wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wUi h_v¯’v‡b hwZ ev †Q` emvI: 5 cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl Kvco †evbvi R‡b¨ weL¨vZ GKKv‡j G‡`‡k ˆZix nZ g~j¨evb gmwjb Kvco ZuvwZiv GLbI †ikwg Rvg`vwb I mywZ Kvco †ev‡b gmwjb †ikg Zmi Mi` gyMv gUKv Rvg`vwb Uv½vBj I evjyPix G‡`‡ki weL¨vZ e¯¿ 7| K) L) M) N) O) P) 8|

eÜbxi ( ) ga¨ †_‡K mwVK DËi evQvB Ki: 1× ×5 = 5 iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii g„Zz¨mvj n‡jvÑ (1913 / 1943 / 1941) kn‡ii iv¯Ív¸‡jv Kx Øviv ˆZixÑ (wcP I wm‡g›U / BU I cv_i / KvV I cv_i) Ôk‡Li g„rwkíÕ iPbvwU‡Z D‡jøwLZ Kz‡gvo cvovi bvg KxÑ (Avb›`evRvi / †g‡nw`cyi / Avb›`cyi) ˆ`Z¨‡K †K ew›` K‡iwQjÑ (`vD` / ev`kvn my‡jgvb / †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj) cvwL Pvq Ñ (†LvKvi fv‡jvevmv / ¯^vaxb gy³cÖvY / †mvbvi LuvPv) e‡b †K Av¸b jvwM‡qwQj Ñ (gvbyl / †`v‡qj / UzbUzwU) wb‡gœi Aby‡”Q` c‡o cuvPwU cÖkœ ˆZix Ki: 5 wZZzgx‡ii hLb Rb¥, ZLb Avgv‡`i evsjv‡`kmn cy‡iv fviZel© wQj civaxb| Pj‡Q Bs‡iR ivRZ¡| Bs‡iRiv PvjvZ AZ¨vPvi| Ab¨w`‡K wQj †`kx Rwg`vi‡`i Ryjyg| Bs‡iR Kg©Pvixiv †Nvov c„ôv-122

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

QzwU‡q PjZ `viæb `vc‡U| wZZzgxi Gme †`L‡Zb Avi fve‡Zb, G‡`i nvZ †_‡K Kxfv‡e gyw³ cv‡e †`‡ki gvbyl| 9| wb‡Pi hy³eY©¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i 2wU K‡i kã ˆZix K‡iv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): Ù, ô, ¼, ›`, ”Q, k¦, ³| 10| wb‡Pi k㸇jvi 2wU K‡i mgv_©K kã wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): ivwÎ, m~h,© MMb, AiY¨, cvwb, aibx, †PvL| (A_ev) wecixZ kã †j‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): e¨eüZ, cwieZ©b, kw³kvjx, fq, DrK…ó, ÿxY, ¯^”Q| 11| wµqvc‡`i PwjZiƒ‡c wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): Avwm‡Z‡Q, †Lwj‡Z‡Q, †`wLe, AvuwKe, Kwie, Avwme, NygvB‡Z‡Q, QzwU‡Z‡Q|

1× ×5 = 5

12| GK K_vq cÖKvk K‡iv (‡h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): hvi AšÍ †bB, fq †bB hvi, hv ¯’vqx bq, Rxeb ch©šÍ, Rvbvi B”Qv, cvwLi WvK|

1× ×5 = 5

13| mswÿß DËi `vI (†h‡Kv‡bv PviwU): K) evsjv‡`‡k Drcvw`Z avb¸‡jvi bvg †j‡Lv| L) Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸‡ßi g‡Z Ávbx e¨w³ †K? M)we`vq n‡Ri eQi bexi mv‡_ n¾¡ cvjbKvixi msL¨v †Kgb wQj? N) wkïi iwOb †Vuv‡Ui nvwm‡K wK‡mi ms‡M Zzjbv Kiv n‡q‡Q? O) ax‡i›`ªbv_ `Ë †K wQ‡jb? P) †RvbvwKiv †Kv_vq G‡m wfo Rgvj? Q) gvIjvbv fvmvbx KZ mv‡j MY Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡jb? R) Avgiv †Kv_vq mey‡Ri †XD AvuKv †`wL? 14| ÔmsKíÕ A_ev Ômevi Avwg QvÎÕ KweZvi g~jfve wjL| 15| †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU wel‡q iPbv †j‡Lv: K) Avgvi wcÖq eB| L) evsjv‡`‡ki K…lK| M) kx‡Zi mKvj| O) knx` wZZzgxi| P) Aa¨emvq|

2× ×4 = 8

5

5

8 12

c„ôv-123

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

g‡Wj cÖk-œ 2 mgq : 2 NÈv c~Y©gvb -100 1| KweZv I Kwei bvg D‡jøL K‡i ÔcvwLÕ A_ev ÔGZ nvwm †Kv_vq †c‡jÕ KweZvi cÖ_g AvU jvBb gyL¯’ wjL| 10 2| cÖm½ D‡jøL K‡i eywS‡q wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv GKwU): 05 K) MvQcvjv Qvov Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj| L) KvwjgvLv †g‡N Icv‡i Avuavi Nwb‡q‡Q †`L Pvwn‡i I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm‡b N‡ii evwn‡i| 3| wb‡Pi †h‡Kv‡bv wZbwU cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: K) Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †g‡qiv Aemi mg‡q Kx Kx wRwbm ˆZix K‡i? L) †Uiv‡KvUv ej‡Z Kx †evS Ges k‡Li nuvwoi ˆewkó¨ Kx? M) Kxfv‡e KvVywiqvi Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b n‡jv? N) e‡b Av¸b †j‡M Kx ÿwZ n‡jv? Av¸b †bfv‡Z Kviv Qz‡U Gj? O) iv‡njv evby `yg‡Vv Pvj Kjwm‡Z Rwg‡q iv‡L †Kb? 4| k‡ãi A_© wjL (†h‡Kv‡bv 5wU) cwiLv, Gev`Z, e‡ib¨, wb`k©b, Ac~e,© †`vmi|

4× ×3 = 12

1× ×5 = 5

5| wb‡Pi kã w`‡q evK¨ iPbv K‡iv (†h‡Kv‡bv 5wU) 1× ×5 = 5 AwfwnZ, cvi`k©x, `xÿv, `yM,© AšÍi, Avabv| 6| wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wUi h_v¯’v‡b hwZ ev †Q` emvI: 5 †gjv †_‡K ‡mw`b Avgiv A‡bK †Ucv cyZzj †Nvov nvwZ †QvU Kjm wKbjvg gvgv ej‡jb GB †h GZ my›`i is †`LQ GmeB MÖv‡gi wkíx‡`i ‰Zix bKkv¸‡jv Zviv gb †_‡K Avu‡K Avi iO ˆZix K‡i wkgyj †m¸‡bi im KuvVvj Mv‡Qi evKj †_‡K 7| eÜbxi ( ) ga¨ †_‡K mwVK DËi evQvB Ki (†h‡Kv‡bv 5wU): 1× ×5 = 5 K) †mvbvwj Avuk Ñ(ikg / ckg / cvU) L) †R‡ji w`b KvUZÑ (gnvmy‡L / Kvq‡K¬‡k / Avb‡›`) M) KvVywiqv †ivR †hZÑ (e‡b / evMv‡b / kn‡i) N) cvwLi †Pv‡L ¯^cœ Rv‡M Ñ (e‡Yi / LuvPvi / Qvbvi) O) †gv¯Ídv Kvgv‡ji DcvwaÑ (exi‡kªô / exi DËg / exi weµg) P) †RvbvwKi ey‡K R¡‡j Av‡jviÑ (wkLv / PzgwK / evwZ) 8| wb‡gœi Aby‡”Q` c‡o cuvPwU cÖkœ ˆZix Ki: 5 gvbyl Avengvb Kvj †_‡K myLx-my›`i Rxebhvc‡bi ¯^cœ †`‡L Avm‡Q| gvby‡li my›`i Rxeb hvc‡bi Rb¨ PvB K‡qKwU †gŠwjK Dcv`vb| Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Lv`¨, e¯¿, evm¯’vb, wPwKrmv I wkÿv| GB †gŠwjK Pvwn`v¸‡jv c~iY Ki‡Z cvi‡j gvby‡li c‡ÿ Zvi Kvw•ÿZ Avkv †gUv‡bv m¤¢e| c„ôv-124

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx


evsjv 1g cÎ (cÂg †kªwY)

9| wb‡Pi hy³eY©¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i 2wU K‡i kã ˆZix K‡iv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): š¿, ¯^, Ü, Z¥, ô, ², ¼| 10| wb‡Pi k㸇jvi 2wU K‡i mgv_©K kã wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): Kcvj, †VuvU, cÙ, wcZv, gq~i, jvB‡eªwi, ivZ| (A_ev) wecixZ kã †j‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): wbK…ó, cÖksmv, wZi¯‹vi, bxie, A`„k¨, †Kvgj| 11| wµqvc‡`i PwjZiƒ‡c wj‡Lv (†h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): LvBqv‡Q, ïwb‡ZwQj, nBqvwQj, †Lwjjvg, ewjqvwQjvg, KwiI|

1× ×5 = 5 5

5

12| GK K_vq cÖKvk K‡iv (‡h‡Kv‡bv cuvPwU): 1× ×5 = 5 kyK‡bv cvZvi kã, †h †`k‡K fvjev‡m, cÖniv †`q †h, †h DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi K‡i bv, fvlv msµvšÍ we`¨v Av‡Q hvi, AnsKvi †bB Ggb| 13| mswÿß DËi `vI (†h‡Kv‡bv PviwU): K) iægvi eqm KZ? L) Kwe e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv †Kb? M) N~wY©S‡o cï-cvwLi Kx Ae¯’v nq? N) exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgv‡ji Kei †Kv_vq? O) kªgmsMxZ Kx? P) cwiLv Kx? 14| Ô†RvbvwKivÕ A_ev Ôwkÿv¸iæi gh©v`vÕ KweZvi g~jfve wb‡Ri fvlvq †j‡Lv| 15| †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU wel‡q iPbv †j‡Lv: K) Avgv‡`i †`k L) GKRb exi gyw³‡mbv M) we¯§qKi cÖvwYRMr N) g„rwkí O) kx‡Zi mKvj|

2× ×4 = 8

8 12

c„ôv-125

cÖv_wgK wkÿv mgvcbx



class_5_bangla-1st-paper-full-note