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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN CENTRE OF ARCHITECTURE STUDIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (MASSA)

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) (ARCHITECTURE) BUILDING SCIENCE 2 (BLD61303) PROJECT 1: LIGHTING & ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & DESIGN

AMPM CAFÉ SS15

AIMI FARZANA BINTI AHMAD NORIZAN

0317621

FARAH AKMAL BT MOHD ZAMZURI

0315884

GHADA RASHAD ABDULHAMEED NOMAN

0315601

KIMBERLEY EE SZE ANN

0315391

MUATASIMAH BILLAH BINTI SALEH MOHAMED

0316071

SHERY EDRINA BINTI SALEHUDDIN

0316321

‘ TUTOR: MR. SIVARAMAN KUPPUSAMMY


TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 LIGHTING 1.1

Introduction…...………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.1.1

1.2

Aim and Objective…………………………………………………………………1

Journal……………………………………………………………………………………………….… 1.2.1

Literature Review………………………………………………………………… 2 1.2.1.1 Architecture Lighting …………………………………………………….2 1.2.1.2 Daylight Factor…………………………………………………………. 4 1.2.1.3 Lumen Method………………………………………………………….. 5

1.2.2

Lighting Precedent Studies……………………………………………………... 6 1.2.2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………7 1.2.2.2 Result and Discussion………………………………………………… 8 1.2.2.3 Questionnaire Survey………………………………………………….. 9 1.2.2.4 Matrix of the lighting analysis for UKM architecture studio………… 10 1.2.2.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………. 10

1.3

1.4

1.5

Research Methodology………………………………………………………………………………. 1.3.1

Measuring Device………………………………………………………………... 11

1.3.2

Data Collection Method…………………………………………………………. 13

Case Study………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 1.4.1

Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………….. 16

1.4.2

Limitation & Constraint……………………………………………………………………. 19

Lighting Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………… 1.5.1 Tabulation of data……………………………………………………………………………. 20 1.5.1.1 Data Findings at the zones……………………………………………………… 23 1.5.2 Sun path Diagram……………………………………………………………………………. 29 1.5.3 Natural Lighting Analysis………………………………………………………………………... 1.5.3.1 Daylight factor calculation……………………………………………………….. 31 1.5.3.2 Lighting Diagrammatic Analysis (Daylight) ……………………………………. 46 1.5.4 Artificial Lighting Analysis…………………………………………………………………… 47 1.5.4.1 Identification of lighting fixture…………………………………………………... 47 1.5.4.2 Artificial light location on floor plan……………………………………………... 49 1.5.4.3 Material Reflectance Index……………………………………………………… 50 1.5.4.4 Lumen Method Calculation for Artificial Light…………………………………. 64


1.5.4.5 Lighting Diagrammatic Analysis (Artificial Light)……………………………… 82 1.5.5 Lighting Contour Diagrams……………………………………………………................... 83 1.5.6 Photographs at the site……………………………………………………………………… 86 1.6

Conclusion….…………………………………………………………………………………….... 89

1.7

References…..……………………………………………………………………………………… 90

2.0 ACOUSTIC 2.1

Introduction…...………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.1 Aim and Objective……………………………………………………………………………. 91

2.2

Journal………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.2.1

Literature Review………………………………………………………………………….. 92

2.2.2

Acoustic Precedent Studies……………………………………………………………… 95 2.2.2.1 Design Intention (Function)……………………………………………………... 96 2.2.2.2 Space Specification…………………………………………………………….... 97 2.2.2.3 Reverberation Analysis………………………………………………………….. 98 2.2.2.4 Analysis of Sound transmission class (STC)…………………………………. 99 2.2.2.5 New Proposed Baffled System…………………………………………………. 100 2.2.2.6 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………… 101

2.3

Research Methodology………………………………………………………………………………. 2.3.1

Measuring Equipment…………………………………………………………………….. 102

2.3.2

Data Collection Method…………………………………………………………………… 104

2.3.3

Limitation & Constraint……………………………………………………………………. 105

2.4

Case Study………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106

2.5

Lighting Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………… 2.5.1 Site Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.5.1.1 Outdoor Noise Source…………………………………………………………… 108 2.5.1.2 Indoor Noise Source……………………………………………………………... 109 2.5.2 Tabulation of data……………………………………………………………………………. 111 2.5.2.1 Data Findings at the zones……………………………………………………… 113 2.5.3 Material Absorption Coefficient……………………………………………………………... 119 2.5.4 Calculation of Sound Intensity Level (SIL)………………………………………………… 131 2.5.4.1 Sound Intensity Level (SIL) Analysis and Conclusion………………………... 137 2.5.5 Calculation of Sound Reduction Index (SRI)………………………………………………. 141


2.4.5.1 Sound Reduction Index (SRI) Analysis and Conclusion……………………… 147 2.5.6 Calculation of Sound Reverberation Time (SRT)…………………………………………. 149 2.5.6.1 Sound Reverberation Time (SRT) Analysis and Conclusion………………… 153 2.5.7 Acoustic Ray Diagrams……………………………………………………………………… 157 2.6

Conclusion….…………………………………………………………………………………….... 161

2.7

References…..……………………………………………………………………………………… 163


1.0 LIGHTING


1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Aim and Objective This project focuses on the lighting and acoustic of the chosen case study building, AMPM Cafe, USJ 21, Subang Jaya. Architectural lighting is essential in creating a pleasant environment for the interior and exterior of buildings. Without lighting, people would not be able to perceive solid volumes, colours, enclosed spaces nor textures and thus would not be able to appreciate architecture. This project exposes students to the methods of designing good lighting acoustic systems through a series of calculation. The objective of the lighting analysis is to understand the daylighting and artificial lighting while acoustic analysis will study acoustic characteristics and acoustic requirements in the case study. Moreover, the objectives of this project are to determine the characteristics and functions of the day lighting and artificial lighting as well as sound & acoustic within the space. Finally, another objective of this project is to critically report and analyse the space based on the data collected.

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1.2 Journal 1.2.1 Literature Review 1.2.1.1 Architecture Lighting

Importance of Light in Architecture Light is the most important factor in the appreciation and understanding of Architecture. The relationship between light and architecture is grounded in the principles of physics; it is about energy and matter but in this particular case it also implies an emotional effect on people. The word of space is directly connected to the way light integrates with it. Light interact with us and the environment by our vision, experience and interpretation on elements. Based on architecture study, in any dimension we can analyse such as space, material or colour, it is essentially dependent on the lighting situation that involves both the object and the observer. The dynamic daylight and the controlled artificial lighting are able to affect not only distinct physical measurable setting in a space but also to instigate and provoke different visual experiences and moods. In addition, light can perceive different atmospheres in the same physical environment. It also integrates an element of basic relevance for the design of spaces which plays a significant role in the discussion of quality in architecture.

Natural Daylighting & Artificial Electrical Lighting Natural light has always been important for architects. In a way, architects sculpt buildings in order that the light can play off their different surfaces. If done well, space and light can evoke positive emotional responses in people. Although architects should always strive towards achieving a building which can draw in as much natural daylight as possible, it is almost impossible to go on without electrical lighting taking into consideration in design especially that it need to function both day and night. Moreover, certain building typologies and uses are not suitable for daylighting such as museums and galleries because exposure to natural light could damage the artifacts. It is an important understanding of limitations and opportunities in using natural daylighting as well as artificial lighting and be able to apply it architecturally to achieve the best performing building.

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Balance between Science & Art The balance of science & art will create a visually appropriate light scene accordingly to the character and use of a space. Sciences of light production and luminaire photometric are important as they are balanced with the artistic application of light as a medium in our built environment. Electrical lighting systems and daylighting systems should be integrated together while considering the impacts of it. There are three fundamental aspects in architectural lighting design for the illumination of building and spaces, including the aesthetic appeal, ergonomic aspect and energy efficiency of illumination. Aesthetic appeal focuses on the importance of illumination in retail environments. Ergonomic aspect is the measurement of how much function the lighting produces. Energy efficiency covers the issue of light wastage due to over illumination which could happen by unnecessary illumination of spaces or over providing light sources for aesthetic purposes. Each of these aspects are important when lighting works are carried out. It allows exploration on the attractiveness of the design by either providing subtle or strong lighting sources which creates different emotions for the users.

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1.2.1.2 Daylight Factor It is a ratio that represents the amount of illumination available indoors relative to the illumination present outdoors at the same time under overcast skies. Daylight factor is usually used to obtain the internal natural lighting levels as perceived on a plane or surface, in order to determine the sufficiency of natural lighting for the users in a particular space to conduct their activities. It is also simply known to be the ratio of internal light level to external light level, as shown below: Daylight Factor, DF Indoor Illuminance, Ei Outdoor Illuminance, Eo

Where, Ei = Illuminance due to daylight at a point on the indoor working planes, Eo = Simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane from an unobstructed hemisphere of overcast sky. Zone

DF (%)

Distribution

Very bright

>6

Large (including thermal and glare problem)

Bright

3-6

Good

Average

1-3

Fair

Dark

0-1

Poor

Table 1: Daylight Factor and Distribution .

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1.2.1.3 Lumen Method Lumen method is used to determine the number of lamps that should be installed in a space. This can be done by calculating the total illuminance of the space based on the number of fixtures and determine whether or not that particular space has enough lighting fixtures. The number of lamps can be calculated by the formula below:

Where, N = Number of lamps required E = Illuminance level required (Lux) A = Area at working plane height (m2) F = Average luminous flux from each lamp (lm) UF = Utilisation factor, an allowance for the light distribution of the luminaire and the room surfaces MF = Maintenance factor, an allowance for reduced light output because of deterioration and dirt

Room Index, RI, is the ratio of room plan area to half wall area between the working and luminaire planes. Which can be calculated by:

Where, L = Length of room W = Width of room Hm = Mounting height, the vertical distance between the working plane and the luminaire

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1.2.2 Lighting Precedent Studies UKM Architecture Studio, University Kebangsaan Malaysia

Figure 1: Location of University Kebangsaan Malaysia

Lighting can be efficiently used to maximize occupant comfort, and to conserve energy. A good building design requires sufficient daylight for tasks performed within a space. This is achieved by allowing a sufficient amount of light to enter the building while blocking direct light from the sun to prevent heat gain and glare. At UKM architecture studio, lighting is important to the students as high quality lighting is able to improve student moods, behavior and concentration which will subsequently affect their learning. As artificial light is used most of the time in UKM architecture studio to optimize student vision and comfort, the paper focuses on lighting in UKM architecture studio space in order to achieve better IEQ.

Figure 2: Exterior view of University Kebangsaan Malaysia.

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1.2.2.1 Introduction The study was conducted firstly by collecting the lighting data and second by a questionnaire survey. Lighting level was recorded by using the equipment LM -8100 (for physical measurement) and FLUKE Thermal Imager (for infra-red image). Lighting measurement was taken at 3 specific locations at L1, L2, and L3 as in Figure 1 and the reading was taken for 11-hours over 2 days at UKM year 3 architecture studio.

Figure 3: Location of data collection as labelled L1, L2 and L3

The studio chosen for this study was located on the south of the building with floor area of 182 m2. Figure 2 shows the interior and exterior views of architecture studio.

.

Figure 4: (left to right) the interior views and exterior perspective of the of the year 3 architecture studio

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1.2.2.2 Result and Discussion Lighting Analysis The findings in Figure 4 and 5 show that the lighting measurement at L1, L2 and L3 vary on day 1 and day 2. The lighting data recorded at L1 on day 1 and day 2 shows the lighting rates are very low compared to at L2 and L3. From the L1 lighting analysis, it is found that the lighting measurement from 8am to 6pm was in the range of 0 lux close to 100 lux. This means that this location (L1) is not suitable for working or studying. However, this area is part of the students working area; despite supposedly being the entrance area only. At L2 and L3, lighting readings for both locations are within 150lux to 250lux. This level of lighting is still not in accordance to Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2007, where the appropriate illuminance for drawing office (studio) is in the range of 300-400 lux. The lighting results for L1, L2 and L3 for both days show the illuminance in the UKM year 3 architecture studio is below the standard.

Figure 5: Lighting readings at year 3 studio on day 1 and day 2

studio

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1.2.2.3 Questionnaire survey Questionnaires were distributed to all year 3 architecture students. There are three parameters used to identify the students’ perspective of lighting comfort level: daylighting, glare, and brightness. The scores are calculated based on response on the importance of lighting comfort and existing scenario. Figure 7 shows that daylighting and brightness are perceived as important to the students, but daylighting is not provided in the studio. The scores show that glare is not important at all (as the case should be) for them. But in existing scenario, the daylighting is not available. This scenario occurred because the studio is located far from the sources of sunlight. Moreover, this space is not originally designed for use as an architecture studio. This is the reason why natural lighting is almost 0% for this studio.

Figure 6: Day lighting, Glare and Brightness scores votes for all architecture student year 3.

studio

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1.2.2.4 Matrix of the lighting analysis for UKM architecture studio

Figure 7: Matrix of the lighting analysis for UKM architecture studio studio

The objective of the matrix in Figure 8 is to evaluate the overall results on lighting analysis towards the IEQ for UKM architecture studio. This study is conducted using 2 methods, namely physical measurement and survey where the lighting measurement result for indoor studio environment is not up to standard (poor) and the result of the questionnaire for existing scenario shows that 70% of students are satisfied with the brightness in the year 3 studio (good). The overall result of the lighting analysis based on in the matrix shows that UKM year 3 architecture studio need improvement in lighting level.

1.2.2.5 Conclusion In conclusion, the findings from the measurements show that the lighting level in the year 3 studio is not within the range of Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2007. However, according to the questionnaires, the students perceived it as normal (good) and thus are not hindered from staying for long hours inside the studio. This situation will eventually affect student’s health as it will have a negative impact on their vision. The overall result presented in the matrix indicates that the lighting in year 3 studio “Needs Improvement�. The improvement is needed on the lighting level for UKM architecture studio to achieve a better IEQ scenario.

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1.3 Research Methodology 1.3.1 Measuring Device

-

Digital Lux Meter

Lux meter is an electronic equipment for measuring luminous flux per unit area. It is used to measure the illuminance level. This device is sensitive to illuminance and accurate for the reading.

Features: -

High accuracy in measuring. Sensor COS correction factor meets standard. LSI circuit provides high reliability and durability. LCD displays use backlighting to enable low light measurement reading. Easy to carry out and operate.

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-

Camera

Camera was used to capture the lighting condition and lighting appliances to our case study cafĂŠ.

-

Measuring Tape

Measuring tape was used to measure the height of the position of the lux meter at 1.5m high to ease the data collection for light illuminance level. It is also used to measure the 1.5m x 1.5m grid on the floor while talking the reading.

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1.3.2 Data Collection Method In prior to the data collection, 1.5m x 1.5m gridline are drawn on the floor plan perpendicularly as a guideline to record the reading. In order to collect accurate reading, both hands are used to optimally position the photo-detector and the module at the same height from the floor at every point which is 1.5m. This standard was used to ensure the data collected to be accurate. Each recording was done by facing similar direction to achieve consistent result. The lux meter level should be facing upward and the person holding it should not block the source of light that will fall on the sensor probe for accurate result. The process is then repeated for several times in different zones to achieve a minimum reading of the light.

Figure 8: 1.5x1.5 grid line marked on the plan

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1.4 Case Study Located right next to Main Place mall in USJ, AM/PM is a cozy café where people come to have coffee and cakes. Occupying two floors, AM/PM Cafe has one floor that is suitable for having functions and events. The 1st floor sits up to 60 people and is set within a cafe setting. The café is also located at the sidewalk where it is accessible directly from the street. Therefore, the source of noise could be coming from the vehicle on the street and might affect the acoustic comfort of the café and give discomfort to the user.

Figure 9: Zoning of areas in ground floor and first floor plan

ZONE A: Outdoor Dining Area

ZONE D: Semi Outdoor Dining

ZONE B: Dining Room

ZONE E: Dining Area

ZONE C: Food and Beverages Preparation area

ZONE F: Study/Reading area 14


‘

Zone A: Outdoor Dining Area

Zone D: Semi Outdoor Dining

Zone B: Dining Room

Zone E: Dining Area

Zone C: Study/Reading area

ZONE F: Food and Beverages Preparation area

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1.4.1 Data Collection The lux meter readings at a height of 1m and 1.5m are recorded at each grid point (1.5m x 1.5m) marked on the ground floor and first floor plans at 11am, 4pm, and 9pm.

Figure 10: Lux meter readings at 11am 0

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Figure 11: Lux meter readings at 4pm

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Figure 12: Lux meter readings at 9pm

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1.4.2

Limitation & Constraint

Human Error Different holding position of the sensor of the meter might affect the data collection on site.

Natural Causes Whether are the main natural causes that had cause inaccuracy of the lux value on site. This is because the weather changes during the period of the time during the recording of the measurement.

Zone Limitation Some areas are inaccessible, thus not all areas were recorded. The areas include the kitchen and food storage space.

Device Error Reading taken before the stabilized value might cause readings taken to be inaccurate.

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1.5 Lighting Analysis 1.5.1 Tabulation of data Daytime lux meter reading at 11am - 1pm

Zone A: Outdoor dining area 1

Zone D: Semi-outdoor dining area

Zone B: Indoor dining area 1

Zone E: Indoor dining area 2

Zone C: Bartender/ F&B preparation area

Zone F: Reading area 20


Daytime lux meter reading at 4pm – 6pm

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Nightime lux meter reading at 9pm – 10pm

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1.5.1.1 Data Findings at the Zones Zone A – Outdoor dining area 1

Figure 13: Floor plan of zone A

AREA

GRIDLINE

Ground floor

J1 J2 J3 J4 K1 K2 K3 K4 L1 L2 L3 L4 M1 M2 M3 M4

Zone A

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 93 150 50 101 56 73 56 65 130 150 154 250 169 131 18 24 150 360 100 320 70 200 17 20 900 950 780 900 650 880 421 740

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 78 130 42 98 49 54 47 52 98 137 45 56 48 68 12 24 82 128 63 82 52 72 5 8 373 425 232 393 138 295 192 305

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 63 75 33 48 37 46 34 49 88 121 26 50 33 45 13 23 62 118 54 80 33 47 4 7 62 85 74 105 51 95 67 102

Table 1: Lux meter reading in zone A

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Zone B- Indoor dining area 1

Figure 14: Floor plan of zone B

AREA

GRIDLINE

Ground floor

D2 D3 D4 E2 E3 E4 F3 F4 G3 G4 H3 H4 I3 I4

Zone B

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 105 137 17 22 170 123 93 112 8 16 53 68 14 23 68 78 58 42 140 216 50 62 210 227 139 145 106 140

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 103 128 13 19 166 95 67 81 7 13 31 53 13 19 53 77 22 33 107 125 31 39 163 165 95 112 103 132

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 93 121 14 17 160 90 55 58 8 11 26 45 11 17 48 78 23 34 98 102 26 32 131 152 49 52 98 129

Table 2: Lux meter readings in zone B

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Zone C- Bartender/F&B area

Figure 15: Floor plan of zone C

AREA

GRIDLINE

Ground floor

F1 F2 G1 G2 H1 H2 I1 I2

Zone C

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 211 185 68 75 85 95 42 79 85 137 60 106 111 120 180 115

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 170 163 50 60 72 84 37 53 82 122 56 98 77 106 155 107

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 160 152 60 48 68 78 29 40 79 107 69 87 72 90 127 99

Table 3: Lux meter readings in zone C

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Zone D- Semi-outdoor dining area

Figure 16: Floor plan of zone D

AREA

GRIDLINE

First floor

L1 L2 L3 L4 M1 M2 M3

ZONE D (Semi outdoor dining)

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 195 401 239 327 75 284 155 192 1200 1545 1280 1320 730 980

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 188 191 121 205 68 118 125 132 385 628 420 604 348 393

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 98 163 88 129 42 78 68 `104 39 82 26 31 19 28

Table 4: Lux meter readings in zone D

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Zone E- Indoor dining area 2

Figure 17: Floor plan of zone E

AREA

GRIDLINE

First floor

F1 F2 F3 G1 G2 G3 H1 H2 H3 I1 I2 I3 J1 J2 J3 J4 K1 K2 K3 K4

Zone E

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 28 35 239 290 29 38 34 37 88 108 35 48 37 32 68 75 44 55 70 81 58 70 48 64 69 115 64 68 91 82 73 85 48 106 108 113 193 270 120 80

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 16 26 186 195 24 33 19 22 72 80 37 45 35 26 52 64 39 40 43 45 37 67 31 47 33 56 51 58 29 40 45 50 42 68 58 95 30 44 32 73

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 11 17 182 190 23 26 33 37 55 62 32 37 22 19 53 59 29 37 20 36 32 41 29 43 30 33 49 52 19 23 32 49 31 65 49 63 23 26 31 68

Table 5: Lux meter readings in zone E

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Zone F- Reading area

Figure 18: First Floor – Reading area

AREA

GRIDLINE

First floor

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 D3 D4 E1 E2 E3

Zone F (Reading area)

Morning (11am – 1pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 67 93 61 98 56 85 188 191 29 34 85 100 86 86 230 393 48 51 82 66 86 70 175 246 23 38 66 91 67 78 126 225 25 36 72 90 88 150

Evening (4pm – 6pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 18 42 34 53 23 46 156 182 23 35 71 82 66 81 211 344 34 47 48 63 48 61 120 152 22 26 62 84 62 74 78 85 23 32 70 77 82 111

Night ( 9pm – 10pm) 1.0 M 1.5 M 13 28 27 35 24 40 135 175 22 23 60 67 50 66 99 190 32 44 17 57 41 46 73 218 24 26 58 72 48 58 54 67 23 28 56 63 78 84

Table 6: Lux meter readings in zone F

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1.5.2 Sun path diagram Note that the orientation of the building is north-south orientation and is place in between two buildings. Sun path diagram at 11am

Figure 19: Sun path diagram at 11am

Figure 20: Floor plan Affected areas

The position of the sun at 11am is at the East side which exposes the incident sunlight to zone A, zone D and zone F. Thus, the sunlight receives by the zones during those hour is very efficient. However, due to some glaring problem the cafĂŠ has installed wooden blinds at each opening in the cafĂŠ which can be used to prevent the excessive amount of sunlight from penetrating in to the zones. 29


Sun path diagram at 4pm

Figure 21: Sun path diagram at 4pm

Figure 22: Floor plan Affected areas

The position of the sun at 4pm is at the West side which also exposes the incident sunlight to zone A, zone D and zone F. However, even though, it is being exposed to incident sunlight, the sky condition affects the amount of sunlight receives during that day. Artificial lights may still be needed to at certain hour of the day to supply lights to the zones. Due to only having opening on the north and south sides of the building, the amount of daylight that enters may sometimes not be sufficient enough to light up the space in the evening.

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1.5.3 Natural Lighting Analysis 1.5.3.1 Daylight factor Calculation The daylight factor was analyzed at 2 different hours, 11am to 1pm and 4pm to 6pm. Note that the sky during 11am to 1 pm is overcast sky whereas the sky at 4pm to 6pm is cloudy sky. Zone A (Gridline J-M)

Figure 23: Ground floor: Outdoor seating area 1

Time 11am 4pm

Weather Clear sky Overcast sky

Average lux reading 1m 1.5m Illuminance 120,000 lux 110,000 lux 20,000 lux 1,000- 2,000 lux <200 lux 400 lux 40 lux < 1 lux

Luminance at 1m 17-900 5-373 11am 238.4 332.1

Average 238.4 51.5

Luminance at 1.5m 20-950 8-425

Average 332.1 64.3

4pm 51.5 64.3

Example Brightest sunlight Bright sunlight Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday Typical overcast day, midday Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday Sunrise or sunset on a clear day (ambient illumination) Fully overcast sunset/sunrise Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunset/rise

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Daylight factor calculation formula: D = E internal __________ x 100% E external Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

11am 238.4 20,000 lux D = 238.4 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 1.1 332.1 20,000 lux D = 332.1 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 1.6

Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

4pm 51.5 6600 lux D = 51.5 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.7 64.3 6600 lux D = 64.3 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.9

DF,% >6 3-6 1-3 0-1

Distribution Very bright, with thermal and glare problem Bright Average Dark 32


Discussion Zone A is located at the south area of the building and it is an outdoor seating area. Due to the location on the outdoor area, zone A manages to receive a decent amount of sunlight at 11am with percentage of 1.1% and 1.6% which is considered as an average. Thus, it does not need any artificial lighting to light up the space in the morning whereas, the percentage of daylight factor decreases in the evening at 0.7% and 0.9% due to the sky condition (overcast sky) and also limited amount of sunlight coming in. The percentage falls under the dark distribution area. Even though, it does not receive lots of sunlight in the evening, the zone can still be use without artificial lighting, as zone A is open to the outdoor facing the street and lights coming from every direction and reflected from the ground light.

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Zone B (Gridline D-I)

Figure 24: Ground floor: Indoor seating area 1

Time 11am 4pm

Weather Clear sky Overcast sky

Average lux reading 1m 1.5m Illuminance 120,000 lux 110,000 lux 20,000 lux 1,000- 2,000 lux <200 lux 400 lux 40 lux < 1 lux

Luminance at 1m 8-210 7-166 11am 87.9 263.4

Average 87.9 51.5

Luminance at 1.5m 16-227 19-165

Average 49.3 64.3

4pm 49.3 12.5

Example Brightest sunlight Bright sunlight Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday Typical overcast day, midday Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday Sunrise or sunset on a clear day (ambient illumination) Fully overcast sunset/sunrise Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunset/rise

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Daylight factor calculation formula: D = E internal __________ x 100% E external Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

11am 87.9 20,000 lux D = 87.9 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 0.5 263.4 20,000 lux D = 263.4 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 1.3

Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

4pm 49.3 6600 lux D = 49.3 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.4 12.5 6600 lux D = 12.5 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.3

DF,% >6 3-6 1-3 0-1

Distribution Very bright, with thermal and glare problem Bright Average Dark

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Discussion Zone B is located inside of the café on the ground floor and it is where the dining area is located. Due to the building is located between the buildings, the only access for the sunlight is through the south (front façade) and north (rear façade). The café locates its kitchen at the rear area thus it does not allow any sunlight to come in to zone B except from the front façade. Due to limited openings, zone B could not receive sufficient amount of daylight and have to depend on the artificial lights to operate the space. The outcome of the data shows at 11am the daylight factor falls under average (1.3%) and dark (0.5%) whereas at 4pm the daylight factor is considered dark (0.4% and 0.3%) and also due to the sky condition during that day. Note that some of the front part of the zone receives some daylight whereas the back part of the zone depends totally on artificial lighting.

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Zone C (Gridline F-I)

Figure 25: Ground floor: Food preparation area

Time 11am 4pm

Weather Clear sky Overcast sky

Average lux reading 1m 1.5m Illuminance 120,000 lux 110,000 lux 20,000 lux 1,000- 2,000 lux <200 lux 400 lux 40 lux < 1 lux

Luminance at 1m 42-211 37-170

Average 105.3 10.1

11am 105.3 114

Luminance at 1.5m 75-185 53-163

Average 114 11.5

4pm 10.1 11.5

Example Brightest sunlight Bright sunlight Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday Typical overcast day, midday Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday Sunrise or sunset on a clear day (ambient illumination) Fully overcast sunset/sunrise Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunset/rise

Daylight factor calculation formula: D = E internal __________ x 100% E external

37


Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

11am 105.3 20,000 lux D = 105.3 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 0.5

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

114 20,000 lux D = 114 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 0.57

Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

4pm 10.1 6600 lux D = 10.1 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.15 11.5 6600 lux D = 11.5 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.17

DF,% >6 3-6 1-3 0-1

Distribution Very bright, with thermal and glare problem Bright Average Dark

38


Discussion Zone C is also located inside the cafĂŠ and is divided by glass window to allow daylight to enter to the area. Based on the data collected at 11am the daylight factor are 0.5% and 0.57% this is due to the sunlight coming in through the glass window whereas the daylight factor at 4pm are 0.15% and 0.17%. The percentage declines due to the sky condition during that day. The area needs support from artificial lights to supply sufficient amount of light on that area due to it being a bartender and preparing food area for the customers which needs at least 2% to be considered average. Zone C and zone B receives alm ost the same amount of the daylight due to its location being close to each other.

39


Zone D (Gridline L-M)

Figure 26: First floor- Semi-outdoor area

Time 11am 4pm

Weather Clear sky Overcast sky

Average lux reading 1m 1.5m Illuminance 120,000 lux 110,000 lux 20,000 lux 1,000- 2,000 lux <200 lux 400 lux 40 lux < 1 lux

Luminance at 1m 75-1280 68-420

Average 553.4 125

11am 553.4 721.3

Luminance at 1.5m 284-1545 118-628

Average 721.3 180

4pm 125 180

Example Brightest sunlight Bright sunlight Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday Typical overcast day, midday Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday Sunrise or sunset on a clear day (ambient illumination) Fully overcast sunset/sunrise Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunset/rise

Daylight factor calculation formula: D = E internal __________ x 100% E external

40


Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

11am 553.4 20,000 lux D = 553.4 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 2.7 721.3 20,000 lux D = 721.3 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 3.6

Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

4pm 125 6600 lux D = 125 _______ x 100% 6600 = 1.9 180 6600 lux D = 180 _______ x 100% 6600 = 2.7

DF,% >6 3-6 1-3 0-1

Distribution Very bright, with thermal and glare problem Bright Average Dark

41


Discussion Zone D receives sufficient amount of daylight due to it being located on the first floor, having large openings (8 window panels) and facing the front faรงade. Based on the data collected at 11am the daylight factor percentage falls under average (2.7%) and bright (3.6%) whereas the percentage at 4pm falls under average only (1.9% and 2.7%). In the morning and evening, the zone can be function without using any artificial lights. Even though, it manages to supply sufficient amount of daylight in the zone, sometimes glaring is a problem due to the reflective sunlight coming from the opposite shopping mall which uses glass as part of its building.

42


Zone F (Gridline A-E)

Figure 27: First floor- Study/reading area

Time 11am 4pm

Weather Clear sky Overcast sky

Average lux reading 1m 1.5m Illuminance 120,000 lux 110,000 lux 20,000 lux 1,000- 2,000 lux <200 lux 400 lux 40 lux < 1 lux

Luminance at 1m 23-230 18-211 11am 92.1 121.6

Average 92.1 15.8

Luminance at 1.5m 34-246 26-344

Average 121.6 91

4pm 15.8 21.3

Example Brightest sunlight Bright sunlight Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday Typical overcast day, midday Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday Sunrise or sunset on a clear day (ambient illumination) Fully overcast sunset/sunrise Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunset/rise

43


Daylight factor calculation formula: D = E internal __________ x 100% E external Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

11am 92.1 20,000 lux D = 92.1 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 0.4 121.6 20,000 lux D = 121.6 _______ x 100% 20,000 = 0.6

Time Average lux reading at 1m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

Average lux reading at 1.5 m (Internal) Standard direct sunlight Calculation

4pm 15.8 6600 lux D = 15.8 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.2 21.3 6600 lux D = 21.3 _______ x 100% 6600 = 0.3

DF,% >6 3-6 1-3 0-1

Distribution Very bright, with thermal and glare problem Bright Average Dark 44


Discussion Zone F receives 0.4% and 0.6% daylight factor at 11am and 0.2% and 0.3% at 4pm. Base on its location, which is at the rear area of the building, zone F should be receiving sufficient amount of daylight as it is close to the windows which have large openings but the owner of the restaurant decided to pull down the wooden blind in zone F the most of the time as to consider the customers privacy due to the back building located quite close to each other. Thus, zone F does not receive much sunlight and it needs artificial lights to brighten up the space.

45


1.5.3.2 Lighting Diagrammatic Analysis (Daylight)

Rear

Front Figure 28: Section A-A

Sectional diagram shows the amount and way of the daylight penetrates into the building. Zone A and zone D receives ample amount of light due to it being at the front area of the building where as Zone F at the back receives low amount sunlight. The middle part of the café only receives partial amount of sunlight thus it requires artificial light to brighten up the area. The café does not have any openings in the middle to allow sunlight to penetrate into the spaces. Sometimes, due to glaring from the opposite mall, wooden blinds are pulled down at the front façade to decrease the problem.

46


1.5.4 Artificial Lighting Analysis 1.5.4.1 Identification of Lighting Fixture

Type of lighting fixture Type of light bulb Dimension, mm Lamp Wattage, W Colour Rendering Index, Ra Colour Temperature, K Colour Designation Lumens, LM Rated Life, H Cap Base

Ceiling Mounted Downlight Compact Fluorescent Lamp Integrated (CFL) 160 x 49 20 W 82 Ra 2730 K Cool White 1200 Lm 10 000 hours E 27

Type of lighting fixture Type of light bulb Dimension, mm Lamp Wattage, W Colour Rendering Index, Ra Colour Temperature, K Colour Designation Lumens, LM Rated Life, H Cap Base

Pendant Light Incandescent bulb â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tungsten Filament 250 mm x 150 mm 40 W 100 Ra 2100 K Warm White 130 lm 30 000 hours E 27 47


Type of lighting fixture Type of light bulb Dimension, mm Lamp Wattage, W Colour Rendering Index, Ra Colour Temperature, K Colour Designation Lumens, LM Rated Life, H Cap Base

Track light Halogen 77mm x 50mm 40 W 82 Ra 2700 K Warm White 800 Lm 2000 hours E 14

Type of lighting fixture Type of light bulb Dimension, mm Lamp Wattage, W Colour Rendering Index, Ra Colour Temperature, K Colour Designation Lumens, LM Rated Life, H Cap Base

Wall Light Incandescent bulb 532 mm x 138 mm 60 W 100 Ra 2700 K Warm White 245 Lm 3000 hours E 26

48


1.5.4.2 Artificial Light Location on Floor plan

49


1.5.4.3 Material Reflectance Index Zone A - Outdoor Dining

Figure 29: Floor plan of zone A

Element

W A L L

C E I L I N G

Material

Colour

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2

Grey

Surface Finish Matte

Concrete

Brick

Red

Matte

20

16.3

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

15

26.2

18.37

50


Ceramic

Grey

Glossy

60

26.2

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

20.87

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

35

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

35

F L O O R

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

6

Table 7: Reflectance value for components in zone A

51


Zone B - Dining Area 1

Figure 30: Floor plan of zone B

Components

Material

Colour Grey

Surface Finish Matte

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 38.48

Concrete

Fly Ash Brick (FAB)

Grey

Matte

25

11.47

Brick

Red

Matte

20

8.88

W A L L

52


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

15

37.04

Ceramic

Grey

Glossy

60

37.04

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

8.75

Cushion

Green and Yellow

Luster

50

14.54

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

15

4.9

Wooden

Light brown

Glossy

35

2.9

F L O O R

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

Table 8: Reflectance value for components in zone B

53


Zone C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Bartender/ F&B area/

Figure 31: Floor plan of zone C

Components

Material

Colour Grey

Surface Finish Matte

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 6

Concrete

Porcelain

White

Glossy

70

6

Fly Ash Brick (FAB)

Grey

Matte

25

7.03

W A L L

54


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

15

14.4

Ceramic

White

Luster

70

14.4

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

6.48

Concrete

Light Grey

Luster

40

6.3

Wooden

Black

Luster

15

2.6

F L O O R

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

Table 9: Reflectance value for components in zone C

55


Zone D- Semi outdoor dining area

Figure 32: Floor plan of zone D

Component

W A L L

C E I L I N G

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Brick

Red

Concrete Dark Grey

Matte

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 14

Matte

20

21

Luster

15

20.6

56


Ceramic

Grey

Glossy

60

20.6

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

4.8

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

21.91

Wooden

Brown

Luster

15

Wooden

Brown

Luster

15

F L O O R

W I N D O W

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

5.88

Table 10: Reflectance value for components in zone D

57


Zone E- Indoor dining area

Figure 34: Floor plan of zone E

Components

W A L L

C E I L I N G

Material

Colour

Surface Finish Matte

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 21.7

Concrete

Grey

Plastered

Black

Matte

10

36.5

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

15

36.6

58


Ceramic

Grey

Luster

60

36.6

Glass

Clear

Smooth

8

21.91

Glass

Semi-clear

Smooth

15

5.5

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

35

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

15

F L O O R

D O O R

P A R T I T I O N

F U R N I T U R E

12.4

59


Wooden

Brown

Matte

25

1.38

Table 11: Reflectance value for components in zone E

60


Zone F- Reading area

Figure 35: Floor plan of zone F

Element

Material

Colour Grey

Surface Finish Matte

Reflectance Value 25

Area, đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 22.05

Concrete

Brick

Red

Matte

20

17.4

Plastered

White

Luster

80

32.0

W A L L

61


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Grey

Luster

15

47.4

Ceramic

Grey

Glossy

60

47.4

Blinds

Bamboo

Luster

15

15.44

Glass

Semi-clear

Smooth

15

5.5

Cushion

Green Yellow Purple

Luster

50

14.54

F L O O R

W I N D O W S P A R T I T I O N

F U R N I T U R E

62


Wooden and Cushion

Green and Purple

Luster

50

5.4

Table 12: Reflectance value for components in zone F

63


1.5.4.4 Lumen Method Calculation for Artificial Light Zone A: Outdoor Dining

Figure 36: Position of artificial lights in zone A

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI = đ??ť

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;

đ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

Tracklight 6 800 3.7 0.75 2.95

5.3 x 4.5 2.95 (5.3 + 4.5) = 0.82

Utilization Factor, UF Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux E=

3.7 0.75 2.95 Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.25 Floor = 0.6 5.3 x 4.5 2.95 (5.3 + 4.5) = 0.82

Pendant Light 10 130 2.7 0.4 2.3

5.3 x 4.5 2.3 (5.3 + 4.5) = 1.06

0.43

0.43 0.8

0.48

6(800 x 0.43 x 0.8)

2(1200 x 0.43 x 0.8)

10(130 x 0.43 x 0.8)

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š) đ??´

5.3 x 4.5 23.85 Downlight 2 1200

= 69.23

23.85

= 34.62

23.85

= 18.75

23.85

64


Total Illuminance level, Lux Standard illuminance, Lux Required illuminance, Lux No. of light required to reach the required illuminance

122.6 200 200 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 122.6 = 77.4 77.4 x 23.85 800 x 0.43 x 0.8 = 6.7 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 7

77.4 x 23.85 1200 x 0.43 x 0.8 = 4.5 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 5

77.4 x 23.85 130 x 0.48 x 0.8 = 36.9 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 37

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´

N = đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.95 = 2.95

S = 1.0 x 2.95 = 2.95

S = 1.0 x 2.3 = 2.3

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

65


Discussion The dining area can be counted as an outdoor meeting space whereby it is quite open to the recessed fivefoot way. Being partially exposed, light from street as well as the brightly lit shopping mall located just opposite of the cafĂŠ might contribute little illuminance to the space. The material being used in this area is mostly of low reflectance compromising of brick walls, concrete walls and concrete plastered ceiling. Thus it does not assist much in illuminating the space. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of a dining area is 200 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone A is 122.6 lux whereby it does not meet the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Another 77.4 lux is required to achieve the desired illuminance of 200 lux. Type of Lighting Fixtures: Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Downlight Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)

Pendant light Incandescent bulb

Downlight 5

Pendant light 37

Number of additional lightings required: Fixture No. of light

Tracklight 7

As for the lighting fixtures, zone A uses mostly halogen bulbs to light up the space which has a high lumen index of 800 Lm, high CRI value of 82Ra and moderate colour temperature of 2700K which radiates warm white illuminance to the space. Zone A utilizes a mixture of ambient lighting and accent lighting to illuminate its space. By using a formula, the number of light required to achieve the desired illuminance is calculated according to the type of lighting fixtures. Energy efficiency wise, instead of having an additional 37 pendant lights / 7 tracklights to achieve the required lux, a suggestion of 5 downlights can be used in order to minimize energy consumption. Depending on the ambience the space would like to achieve, the interplay of lighting fixtures (tracklight, downlight, pendant light) can be done accordingly to suit the mood. In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.95m for tracklight, 2.95m for downlight and 2.3m for pendant light can be used.

66


Zone B : Dining area 1

Figure 37: Position of artificial lights in zone B

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI =

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160; đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

Utilization Factor, UF Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux E=

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š)

9.1 x 4.1 37.3 Tracklight 15 800 3.7 0.75 2.95 Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.25 Floor = 0.6 9.1 x 4.1 2.95 (9.1 + 4.1) = 0.96 0.48 0.8 15(800 x 0.48 x 0.8) 37.3

đ??´

= 123.54

Total Illuminance level, Lux

123.54

67


Standard illuminance, Lux Required illuminance, Lux No. of light required to reach the required illuminance

200 200 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 123.54 = 76.46 76.46 x 37.3 800 x 0.48 x 0.8

= 9.28 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 10

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´

N = đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.95 = 2.95

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

68


Discussion The indoor dining area of zone B is the most highly used space on daily basis. Thus, it is important that this space provides comfort for its users. Having a full length glass partition and door on its front façade enables light from zone B to be reflected and penetrate through the space in zone B. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of a dining area is 200 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone B is 125.5 lux whereby it does not meet the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Another 76.46 lux is required to achieve the desired illuminance of 200 lux. Type of Lighting Fixtures : Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Number of additional lightings required : Fixture No. of light

Tracklight 10

The entire of zone B uses tracklights to illuminate its space in order to achieve a poetic and laidback ambience to the area. Halogen bulbs of 800 Lm, high CRI value of 82Ra and moderate colour temperature of 2700K is used which radiates warm white illuminance to the space. By using a formula, the number of light required to achieve the desired illuminance is calculated according to the type of lighting fixtures. An additional 10 tracklights is required to achieve the required lux to meet MS1525 standards. Zone B focuses more on accent lighting where the light focuses on a particular area and objects which adds â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dramaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to the area by creating visual interest, this creates a poetic and comfortable ambience for customers to enjoy their meal. In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.95m for tracklight is required to achieve an optimal illuminance.

69


Zone C: Bartender/ F&B Preparation

Figure 38: Position of artificial lights in zone C

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI = đ??ť

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;

đ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

Tracklight 8 800 3.7 0.75 2.95

6.0 x 2.4 2.95 (6.0 + 2.4) = 0.58

Utilization Factor, UF Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux E=

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š) đ??´

Total Illuminance level, Lux Standard illuminance, Lux

6.0 x 2.4 14.4 Downlight 3 1200 3.7 0.75 2.95 Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.32 Floor = 0.6 6.0 x 2.4 2.95 (6.0 + 2.4) = 0.58

Pendant Light 8 130 2.7 1.2 1.5

6.0 x 2.4 2.3 (6.0 + 2.4) = 0.75

0.35

0.35 0.8

0.43

8(800 x 0.35 x 0.8) 14.4

8(1200 x 0.35 x 0.8) 14.4

10(130 x 0.43 x 0.8) 14.4

= 124.4

= 186.67

= 31.06

342.13 300 70


Required illuminance, Lux No. of light required to reach the required illuminance

342.13 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 300 = 42.13 (excess) 42.13 x 14.4

42.13 x 14.4

42.13 x 14.4

800 x 0.35 x 0.8

1200 x 0.35 x 0.8

130 x 0.43 x 0.8

= 2.7 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 3 (excess)

= 1.8 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 2 (excess)

= 5.6 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 6 (excess)

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´

N = đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.95 = 2.95

S = 1.0 x 2.95 = 2.95

S = 1.0 x 1.5 = 1.5

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

71


Discussion Functioning as a food and beverages preparation area, zone C is the most critical area in the cafĂŠ which requires the highest illuminance on a daily basis in order to function. For such a small floor area, zone C has the highest number of lighting fixtures as compared to zone A and B. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of food and beverages preparation area is 300 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone C is 342.13 lux whereby it exceeds the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Zone C is thereby brightly lit where its illuminance exceeds 42.13 from the optimal illuminance due to the redundance of lighting fixtures in the area. Type of Lighting Fixtures: Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Number of additional lightings required: Fixture Tracklight No. of light 3

Downlight Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)

Pendant light Incandescent bulb

Downlight 2

Pendant light 6

Compromising of mostly tracklight and pendant lights, zone C utilizes mostly halogen bulbs and incandescent bulb. Incandescent bulb from the pendant light have a low lumen index of 130 Lm, high CRI value of 100Ra and moderate colour temperature of 2100K which radiates warm white illuminance to the space. By using a formula, the number of lighting fixtures exceeding the MS1525 standards is calculated. In order to achieve the optimal illuminance, a choice of either reducing 3 tracktlight / 2 downlight / 6 pendant light can be done. Zone C requires an ample lighting illuminance for food preparation purposes. Nonetheless, the use of 8 pendant lighting near the counter area functions more as a decorative element rather than its functionality as it does not contribute much of the illuminance to the area. The downlight works as an ambient light overhead whereas the pendant light works as a task lighting to illuminate the counter space area. In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.95m for tracklight, 2.95m for downlight and 1.5m for pendant light can be used.

72


Zone D: Semi-outdoor Dining area

Figure 39: Position of artificial lights in zone D

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI = đ??ť

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;

đ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

Tracklight 3 800 3.0 0.75 2.25

6.2 x 3.5 2.25 (6.2 + 3.5) = 1.0

Utilization Factor, UF Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux E=

Total Illuminance level, Lux Standard illuminance, Lux Required illuminance, Lux

3.0 0.75 2.25 Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.2 Floor = 0.6 6.2 x 3.5 2.25 (6.2 + 3.5) = 1.0

Pendant Light 5 130 2.0 1.0 1.0

6.2 x 3.5 1 (6.2 + 3.5) = 2.24

0.48

0.48 0.8

0.62

3(800 x 0.48 x 0.8)

3(1200 x 0.48 x 0.8)

5(130 x 0.62 x 0.8)

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š) đ??´

6.2 x 3.5 21.7 Downlight 3 1200

= 42.5

21.7

= 63.7

21.7

= 14.86

21.7

121.06 200 200 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 121.06 = 78.9

73


No. of light required to reach the required illuminance

78.9 x 21.7

78.9 x 21.7

78.9 x 21.7

800 x 0.48 x 0.8

1200 x 0.48 x 0.8

130 x 0.62 x 0.8

= 5.57 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 6

= 3.7 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 4

= 30.3 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 30

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´

N = đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 1.0 = 1.0

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

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Discussion For this zone, the space is passively ventilated whereby it gives an outdoor feeling to the area. Zone C is located nearest to the window openings where recess lights from the streets and opposite building illuminates the space at night. Red brick walls and concrete plastered ceilings are the main wall and ceiling element in zone C whereby it has low reflectance value to light. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of a dining area is 200 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone D is 121.06 lux whereby it does not meet the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Another 78.9 lux is required to achieve the desired illuminance of 200 lux. Type of Lighting Fixtures: Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Downlight Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)

Pendant light Incandescent bulb

Downlight 4

Pendant light 30

Number of additional lightings required: Fixture No. of light

Tracklight 6

Having a mix of track lights, pendant lights and downlights of varying lumens, CRI index, and colour temperature. The pendant lights found at the front of the bar seating area provides little to no function to the space. The pendant lamp is mainly used for decorative purpose and to enhance the overall mood of the space. By using a formula, the number of light required to achieve the desired illuminance is calculated according to the type of lighting fixtures. Energy efficiency wise, instead of having an additional 30 pendant lights / 6 tracklight to achieve the required lux, a suggestion of 4 downlight can be used in order to minimize energy consumption In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.25m for spotlight, 2.25m for downlight and 1.0 m for pendant light can be used.

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Zone E - Indoor Dining area 2

Figure 40: Position of artificial lights in zone E

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI =

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160; đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

Utilization Factor, UF

6.2 x 7.8 48.36 Tracklight

Downlight

Pendant Light

Wall light

7

3

6

5

800

1200

130

245

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

0.75 2.25

0.75 2.25

1.0 1.0

0.75 1.25

6.2 x 7.8 2.25 (6.2 + 7.8) = 1.53 0.53

Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.1 Floor = 0.6 6.2 x 7.8 6.2 x 7.8 2.25 (6.2 + 7.8) 1.0(6.2 + 7.8) = 1.53 = 3.45 0.53

0.62

6.2 x 7.8 1.25(6.2 + 7.8) = 2.76 0.62

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Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux

0.8 7(800 x 0.53 x 0.8)

E=

= 49.1

48.36

3(1200 x 0.53 x 0.8) 6(130 x 0.62x 0.8)

= 31.56

48.36

48.36

=8

5(245 x 0.62x 0.8) 48.36

= 12.56

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š) đ??´

Total Illuminance level, Lux Standard illuminance, Lux Required illuminance, Lux No. of light required to reach the required illuminance

101.2 200 200 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 101.2 = 98.8 98.8 x 48.36

98.8 x 48.36

98.8 x 48.36

98.8 x 48.36

800 x 0.53 x 0.8

1200 x 0.53 x 0.8

130 x 0.62 x 0.8

245 x 0.62 x 0.8

= 9.4 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 10

= 74

= 39

= 14.08 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 14

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´

N = đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 1.0 = 1.0

S = 1.0 x 1.25 = 1.25

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

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Discussion This space is usually occupied ocassionaly for private functions or gatherings. Having a full length glass partition and door enables light from zone D to be reflected through the space in zone E by a small amount. The black painted walls in zone E gives very little reflectance value to the space. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of a dining area is 200 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone D is 101.2 lux whereby it does not meet the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Another 98.8 lux is required to achieve the desired illuminance of 200 lux. Type of Lighting Fixtures: Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Downlight Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)

Pendant light Incandescent bulb

Wall light Incandescent bulb

Number of additional lightings required: Fixture No. of light

Tracklight 14

Downlight 10

Pendant light 74

Wall light 39

Having mostly bulbs of warm white colour temperature, this area is rather dim most of the time. By using a formula, the number of light required to achieve the desired illuminance is calculated according to the type of lighting fixtures. Instead of having an additional 74 pendant lights / 39 wall lights / 14 tracklights to achieve the required lux, a suggestion of another 10 downlight can be used in order to minimize energy consumption. Depending on the ambience the space would like to achieve, the interplay of lighting fixtures (tracklight, downlight, pendant light, wall light) can be done accordingly to suit the mood. In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.25m for tracklight, 2.25m for downlight, 1.0m for pendant light and 1.25m for wall light can be used.

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Zone F - Reading Area

Figure 41: Position of artificial lights in zone F

Space Dimension (m) Total floor area (đ?&#x2018;&#x161;2 ) Type of lighting fixture No. of lighting fixtures / N Lumens of lighting fixtures / F (Lm) Height of luminaire (m) Work Level (m) Mounting height (đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; ) Assumption of Reflectance Value Room Index / RI RI = đ??ť

đ??żđ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x160;

6.2 x 8.8 54.56 Tracklight

Downlight

Pendant Light

Wall Light

7

3

3

3

800

1200

130

245

3.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.4

2.25

2.25

1.25

1.6

6.2 x 8.8 2.25 (6.2 + 8.8) = 1.6

Ceiling = 0.15 Wall = 0.5 Floor = 0.6 6.2 x 8.8 6.2 x 8.8 2.25 (6.2 + 8.8) 1.25(6.2 + 8.8) = 1.6 = 2.9

6.2 x 8.8 1.6(6.2 + 8.8) = 2.27

đ?&#x2018;&#x161; (đ??ż+đ?&#x2018;&#x160;)

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Utilization Factor, UF Maintenance Factor, MF Illuminance level, Lux E=

đ?&#x2018; ( đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š)

0.59

0.67

0.65

0.8 7(800 x 0.59 x 0.8) 54.56

= 48.4

3(1200 x 0.59x 0.8) 3(130 x 0.67x 0.8) 3(245 x 0.65x 0.8) 54.56 54.56 54.56

= 31.1

= 3.8

=7

đ??´

Total Illuminance level, Lux Standard illuminance, Lux Required illuminance, Lux No. of light required to reach the required illuminance N=

0.59

90.3 150 150 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 90.3 = 59.7 59.7 x 54.56

59.7 x 54.56

59.7 x 54.56

59.7 x 54.56

800 x 0.59 x 0.8

1200 x 0.59 x 0.8

130 x 0.67 x 0.8

245 x 0.65 x 0.8

= 8.6 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 7

= 5.75 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 6

= 46.7 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 47

= 25.6 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 26

đ??¸đ?&#x2018;&#x2039;đ??´ đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6;đ??š đ?&#x2018;&#x2039; đ?&#x2018;&#x20AC;đ??š

Spacing requirement for light fitting (m)

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 2.25 = 2.25

S = 1.0 x 1.25 =1.25

S = 1.0 x 1.6 = 1.6

S = 1.0 x đ??ťđ?&#x2018;&#x161; (Direct Light)

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Discussion Functioning as a reading and working space, this area should provide sufficient illuminance. The right amount of lighting is needed in order to ensure a comfortable working ambience. As for the material, this space compromises of mostly white plastered walls of high reflectivity index which indirectly helps to enhance the illuminance of the reading area. According to MS1525, The standard illuminance level of casual reading area is 150 lux. However, based on the calculations tabulated, the total illuminance level of Zone F is 90.3 lux whereby it does not meet the MS1525 room illuminance standard. Another 59.7 lux is required to achieve the desired illuminance of 200 lux. Type of Lighting Fixtures: Fixture Type of bulb

Tracklight Halogen

Downlight Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)

Pendant light Incandescent bulb

Wall light Incandescent bulb

Number of additional lightings required: Fixture No. of light

Tracklight 7

Downlight 6

Pendant light 47

Wall light 26

Zone C uses a variety of different lighting fixtures from downlights, tracklights, pendant lights to wall lights. This produces different and uneven lighting tones throughout the area. For a space mainly used for reading and working purposes, downlight would be a better choice which has a high lumen index of 1200 Lm, high CRI value of 82Ra and radiates cool white illuminance to the space. By using a formula, the number of light required to achieve the desired illuminance is calculated according to the type of lighting fixtures. Energy efficiency wise, instead of having an additional 47 pendant lights / 26 wall lights / 7 tracklights to achieve the required lux, a suggestion of 6 downlight can be used in order to minimize energy consumption. Since zone F is used mostly for reading and working purposes, a well-lit space with sufficient illuminance is needed to ensure comfort in reading. In order to ensure illuminance does not fall below a minimum value, the fittings must be placed in a regular grid pattern and their spacing must not exceed certain distances. A proposed spacing of 2.95m for trackight, 2.95m for downlight and 2.3m for pendant light can be used.

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1.5.4.5 Lighting Diagrammatic Analysis (Artificial Light)

Rear

Figure 42: Section A-A

Front

Figure 43: Section B-B

Front

Rear

Sectional diagram shows the positioning and intensity of artificial lightings being used in the cafe. Zone C which is the F&B preparation area shows the highest amount of illuminance whereas zone B shows the lowest level of illuminance. It can clearly be depicted that am pm cafĂŠ uses a variety of lighting fixtures to light up the respective spaces ranging from downlights, track lights, wall lights and pendant lights with different colour rendering index and colour temperature.

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1.5.5 Lighting Contour Diagrams Daylighting Contour Diagram

Figure 44: First Floor Daylight Contour

Figure 45: First Floor Daylight Contour

The diagram shows the daylight contour penetrating into the cafĂŠ during daytime. Zones that affected the most are zone A, zone D and zone F due to its location which is near the entrance or near large openings. Only some part of zone C, zone B and zone E is affected by the sunlight due to its position being quite far from the openings. The amount of light entering from zone A to zone C is still quite strong due to the strong sunlight during that day. Some part in zone D and zone F only receive partial of the sunlight due to the position being at the back of a column. However, the space behind the column in zone D can still function well without artificial light due to the strong sunlight. 83


Daylighting and Artificial light Contour Diagram

Figure 46: Ground Floor Daylight and Artificial Light Contour

Figure 47: First Floor Daylight and Artificial Light Contour

The diagram shows the lighting contour of combined daylight factor and artificial light factor in the cafĂŠ. It shows that the zones are better and well lit up compared to when the spaces only depends on the sunlight for lighting in the evening. Due to the artificial lighting, zone C, zone B and zone E receives better intensity of light thus it the lighting needed to be switch one most of the time starting from the evening until late night. However, with added artificial lights in the evening, zone B and zone E still have the lowest intensity of light receive compared to other area, this is due to it being the dining area and the owner intended to have a warm and calm ambience by applying less artificial light in these areas. 84


Artificial Lighting Contour Diagrams

Figure 48: Ground Floor Artificial Light Contour with lighting positions

Figure 49: First Floor Artificial Light Contour with lighting positions

The artificial lighting contour diagram shows the illuminance level of the cafĂŠ during nighttime. Zone A and Zone C shows the highest lux readings of up to 160 lux. The lux reading gradually decreases from the central space of Zone B towards the back area where the lux reading dropped to as low as 8 lux. The stimulation of the artificial light for the upper floor of the cafe shows a lower illuminance level as compared to the ground floor where lighting fixtures positions is quite dispersed throughout the floor with no focus area. Zone D have a more consistent illuminance level and a slightly higher reading than zone E. The lux reading later shows a decrease in illuminance in zone F. 85


1.5.6 Photographs at the site

Figure 50: Wooden blind is installed in front of the cafĂŠ to minimize glaring problem Location: Exterior of the cafe

Figure 51: Glass and steel door which acts as a transparent partition allowing sunlight from the outside to penetrate into the interior Location: Zone A

Figure 52: Zoom in of the bartender area and food preparation area from the outside, showing the spaces needs support from the artificial lights to light up the space. Location: Zone C

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Figure 53: Wooden blind installed is pull down most of the time considering the privacy of the customers. Location: Zone F

Figure 54: During the day, only limited amount of sunlight managed to enter the zone from the back area due to the wooden blind being pulled down. Location: Zone F

Figure 55: Due to space being located in the middle part of the building and having dark scheme colour as the wall, the zone does not receive much sunlight during the day, thus have to rely on the artificial lights to brighten up the space. Location: Zone E

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Figure 56: During the day, sufficient amount of sunlight penetrates into the zone due to having large openings. Location: Zone D

Figure 57: During the night, the space is brighten up with artificial lights and reflectance from the shopping mall opposite the cafĂŠ. Location: Zone D

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1.6 Conclusion The right lighting can make one feel relaxed or productive, but beyond that, there’s function. Lighting in general is important within restaurants and cafes to create the desired mood and ambience. Cafe lighting may vary depending on the interior's needs, however the right illuminance level can add to the diner's experience. Based on the observation and data collected, it can be concluded that the daylight factor at the café is mostly below average of a daylight factor required in a café which is mostly 2%. Due to having only 2 openings which is at the front and at the back, most areas in the café does not receive sufficient amount of daylight. The centre part of the café only receive partial amount of daylight due to the spaces located far from the openings. In addition, the interior spaces of the café itself uses materials of mostly low reflective index which does not assist in illuminating the spaces. Artificial light is needed most of the time at the interior part of the cafe in order for the space to obtain at least an average luminance. When it comes to food and ambience, nothing sets the mood faster than the play of lights. At Ampm café, different space area require various options of lighting. The artificial lights here are not meant to imitate the natural light, it is much warmer and meant to attract customers. The space has a lot of different luminaires and the most interesting ones are the pendant lights and wall lights which are mostly used as a decorative purpose rather than its functionality. A good lighting plan combines ambient, task and accent lighting to light an area according to the function and style. Ampm café utilizes mostly ambient and accent lighting to add drama to the space or to provide a cozy and intimate atmosphere. The data finding from the lumen method calculations in general shows that all spaces in the café does not reach the MS1525 standards except for the F&B preparation area. In other words, the spaces are considered to be dimmed or poorly lit. To conclude, the daylight gain in Ampm café is not sufficient to illuminate the spaces, thus it needs artificial lighting most of the time to light up the areas. Nonetheless, it depends on the mood and atmosphere the café wants to achieve whereby some spaces in the cafe is purposely made dim to create the cozy and intimate feel to the space.

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1.7 REFERENCES 1. Daylight factor. (n.d.). Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.newlearn.info/packages/clear/visual/daylight/analysis/hand/daylight_factor.html 2. Designing Buildings Wiki The construction industry knowledge base. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2016, from https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/The_daylight_factor 3. Daylight Factor. (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2016, from http://patternguide.advancedbuildings.net/using-this-guide/analysis-methods/daylight-factor 4. The Engineering toolbox (n.d). Light reflecting factor materials . Retrieved November 06, 2016, from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/light-material-reflecting-factor-d_1842.html 5. Christopher, N. (2015) How to optimize your lighting based on color temperature. Retrieved November 06, 2016, from http://www.techhive.com/article/2887143/how-to-optimize-your-homelighting-design-based-on-color-temperature.html 6. Morte, R. (2011). Reflectance and reflectivity. Retrieved November 06, 2016, from http://ricmorte.com/index.php/light-a-colour/optics/reflectance-a-reflectivity

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2.0 ACOUSTIC


2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Aim and Objective This project focuses on the lighting and acoustic of the chosen case study building, AMPM Cafe, USJ 21, Subang Jaya. Architectural acoustics is essential to promote the creation of environments, both indoors and outdoors, involving rooms with good listening conditions within a building. Therefore, it has to be reasonably free from intruding noise and vibrations and designed with acoustic comfort. This project exposes students to the methods of designing good acoustic systems through a series of calculation. The objective of the lighting analysis is to understand the daylighting and artificial lighting while acoustic analysis will study acoustic characteristics and acoustic requirements in the case study. Moreover, the objectives of this project are to determine the characteristics and functions of the day lighting and artificial lighting as well as sound & acoustic within the space. Finally, another objective of this project is to critically report and analyse the space based on the data collected.

2.2 Journal 2.2.1

Literature Review

Acoustics is defined as the science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound. It is the study of mechanical waves such as vibration, sound and infrasound from gases, liquids and solids form. Accordingly, the science of acoustic spreads across many facts of human society which are music, medicine, industrial production, warfare and architecture. Many people mistakenly think that acoustics is strictly musical or architectural in nature. While acoustics does include the study of musical instruments and architectural spaces.

Architectural Acoustic Architectural acoustics is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a building. It is the process of managing how both airborne and impact sound is transmitted and controlled within a building design. While practically every material within a room from furniture to floor coverings to computer screens affects sound levels to one degree or another.

91


Importance of Acoustic in Architecture Sound serves to connect sound source to people. Human use their senses of hearing to understand space and works together with other senses to help people navigate and construct the understanding of forms, distances and objects. Thus, the acoustic quality of an architectural space is quite important.

Acoustic Comfort Acoustic comfort is essential to attain adequate level of satisfaction and moral health amongst patrons that reside within the building, indoor noise and outdoor noise. These two aspects contribute to acoustical comfort (or discomfort).

92


Sound Intensity Level Sound intensity is measured as a relative ratio to some standard intensity, lo. The response of the human ear to sound waves follows closely to a logarithmic function of the form R = k log I , where R is the response to a sound that has an intensity of I, and k is a constant of proportionality . Thus, the formula is,

The formula:

Reverberation Time Reverberation time (RT) is defined as the length of time required for sound to decay from its initial level. It is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed by the surface of object in the space including furniture, people and the air.

The formula: Where : RT is reverberation time, s : V is volume of the room, m^3 : A is absorption coefficient The absorption of a surface is determined by multiplying its surface area (S) by its absorption coefficient (a). The total room absorption (A) is simply sum of the products, with the inclusion of audience absorption plus other room contents.

The formula:

Where S = Area of each surface from A = Absorption coefficient of each surface from

93


Sound Reduction Index Sound Reduction Index is used to measure the level of sound insulation provided by a as structure such as wall, window, door or ventilator.

The formula:

Where : SRI is a sound reduction index, dB : T is a transmission of sound frequency

94


2.2.2

Acoustic Precedent Studies

The Music CafĂŠ, August Wilson Centre

Figure 1: Location of August Wilson Center

Acoustics is an important but often overlooked element of architectural design. In certain cases, a poor acoustical design can ruin an otherwise well designed space. For the August Wilson Centre, acoustics is certainly paramount. As a centre for arts and culture, the centre will be home to a variety of acoustical situations from spoken word performances to small recitals to lectures to full theatrical performances. Located at sidewalk level on Liberty Avenue, The August Wilson Centre is designed to where it is accessible directly from the street and from within the center. The facility is a center for the visual and performing arts for international music and education. The two-story 64,500 gsf facility includes a 486seat proscenium theatre, 11,000 gsf of exhibit galleries, a flexible studio, a music cafĂŠ, and an education center.

Figure 2: Exterior view of August Wilson Centre

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2.2.2.1 Design Intention (Function)

Figure 3: Interior perspective of music cafe

The music café is designed to function as a multipurpose space and as a traditional museum café and sidewalk café during the day. According to architects Perkins + Will, the music café is modeled after New York’s BAM café or Joe’s Pub the Café. It is designed to accommodate an on‐going menu of programs and to function as an alternative performance space for intimate performances with limited seating for jazz, spoken word, poetry and other new performance forms in a club setting at night. Not only that, a seating terrace is also located outside and adjacent to the café. Wired for internet access and designed to accommodate a wide range of emerging technologies, the Café provides an electronic link to visitors worldwide.

Figure 4: Interior of August Wilson Center

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2.2.2.2 Space Specification

Figure 5: First floor plan of August Wilson Centre

The music café is a large rectangular box with three glass facades, a hard floor, and sound absorbing treatment located behind baffles and ductwork on the ceiling. The design does account for acoustical needs as hanging metal baffles and acoustical blanket covers over 80% of the ceiling. Based on the needs stated by the architects Perkins and Will, a reverberation time of approximately 1.0 second would be ideal. It means the space would be somewhere between speech and speech/music use. According to the Architectural Acoustics : Principles and Design, a high STC value over 60+ between the Music Café and lobby would be desirable. This is relevant so that both spaces do not suffer the noise coming from both sides. For example, a poetry performance in a café would suffer if the crowds were to gather at the lobby after a musical performance in the main theatre.

97


2.2.2.3 Reverberation Analysis

Figure 6: Reflected ceiling plan

Table 1: Reverberation time (Existing Design)

Table shows that the reverberation times are not ideal. One important factor that needs to be considered is that the manufacturer of the metal baffles ceiling system (Chicago Metalic) did not have acoustical data for the product. Thus, the product is omitted in the calculations. Including the baffles that would likely reduce the very high reverberation times at the lower frequencies, but it would also reduce the reverberation times at the higher frequencies, which is already lower than ideal number.

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2.2.2.4 Analysis of Sound transmission class (STC)

Sound transmission class (STC) is an index rating of how well a building partition attenuates airborne sound. Analysis of the sound transmission class (STC) on the wall between the cafÊ and the main lobby reveals a potential for unwanted noise transfer between the spaces. At 46, the calculated STC falls far below the ideal value of 60+. This problem is generated by the use of glass doors and partitions between the spaces instead of proper separating walls. By changing the glass from ½ tempered glass to ½ laminated glass improves the STC to 49 but it is only marginal increase. Therefore, architectural changes are required to improve this situation in order to counter the unwanted noise.

Figure 7: Proposed baffle system:

These changes may include changing the glass to another material such as wood or creating a small vestibule at the entrances. By adding absorptive insulation (eg: fiberglass batts, recycled cotton denim batts) in the wall increases the STC for fiberglass to more than 50 with cotton denim depending on stud and screw spacing. In contrast to that, improving the reverberation time is a much more realistic approach. In order to do this, a new baffle system is proposed by eliminating the metal baffles and acoustical blanket, replacing them with floating fiberglass sound absorbing panels that are faced in perforated metal.

Figure 8: Existing hanging metal baffle system from Chicago Metallic

99 from Chicago Metallic.


2.2.2.5 New Proposed Baffled System

Figure 9: Reflected Ceiling Plan (New Design)

Table 2: Reverberation Time (New Design)

Table 3: New Baffle Schedule of Materials

100


2.2.2.6 Conclusion In conclusion, the analysis of the original reverberation time and STC rating of The Music Café was not ideal at all. The proposed solution for improving the reverberation times is both economical and ideal for the music café. Hence, it can be concluded that the improvement of reverberation time and increasing the STC value can achieved noise reduction within a space. The analysis also shows that the new reverberation times are very close to the ideal values and are optimum as acoustic reverberation. According to Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Design, optimum reverberation times at 125 hertz should be 1.3 times the ideal reverberation time at 500 hertz and a multiplier of 1.15 should be used at 250 hertz. These multipliers are used to correct for the fact that the human ear is less sensitive at lower frequencies. With these factors included, the new design is very near the target. The new ceiling system will provide superior acoustical performance at a reduced cost. The café is somehow similar to our case study - AMPM Café as it is also located facing the street which may contribute to more noise.

101


2.3 Research Methodology

2.3.1 Acoustic Measuring Equipment

-

Sound Level Meter A sound level meter is an instrument that can measure sound pressure level. It is commonly used in noise pollution studies for different kinds of noise especially for industrial, environmental and aircraft noise.

-

Camera Camera was used to capture the source of noise and also all the components that will affect the acoustic performance in the cafĂŠ.

102


-

Measuring Tape Measuring tape was used to measure the height of the position of the sound level meter which is at 1.5m high. The measuring tape is also used to measure the 1.5m x 1.5m grid on floor while taking the reading.

103


2.3.2 Data Collection Method

Measurements were taken on different times, 12 -3pm (non-peak hour) and 4-7pm (peak hours) intervals with one set of data each. The sound meter was placed on the intersection points at a standard of 1.5 meter height from the ground. Each recording was done by facing the similar direction to achieve consistent result. This standard was used to ensure the data collected to be accurate. The person holding the sound meter will not talk and make any noise so that the readings will not be affected during the data recording. Floor plan with a perpendicular of 1.5m x 1.5m grid lines were used as guideline to create intersection points to aid the data collection. Same process is repeated in each zone as well as different time zone (peak and non-peak).

Figure 10: Shows grid line of 1.5m x 1.5m on the floor plan

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2.3.3 Limitation & Constraint

Human Limitation The digital sound level meter device is very sensitive to the surrounding with ranging of recording between data difference of approximately 3-4 stabilization. Hence, the data recorded is based on the average data shown on the screen. The device might have been pointed towards the wrong path of sound source, hence causing the reading taken to be slightly inaccurate.

Zone Limitation Some areas are inaccessible, thus not all areas recorded. The areas include the kitchen and food storage space.

Sound Stability During peak hours, the vehicles sound from the street in front of the cafĂŠ varies from time to time. This might also influenced the data to vary depending on the traffic condition.

105


2.4 Case Study Located right next to Main Place mall in USJ, AM/PM is a cosy café where people come to have coffee and cakes. Occupying two floors, AM/PM Cafe has one floor that is suitable for having functions and events. The 1st floor sits up to 60 people and is set within a cafe setting. The café is also located at the sidewalk where it is accessible directly from the street. Therefore, the source of noise could be coming from the vehicle on the street and might affect the acoustic comfort of the café and give discomfort to the user.

Figure 11: AM/PM Cafe

Figure 12: Zoning of areas in ground floor and first floor plan

ZONE A : Outdoor Dinning Area

ZONE D : Semi Outdoor Dining

ZONE B : Dining Room

ZONE E : Dining Area

ZONE C : Food and Beverages Preparation area

ZONE F : Study/Reading area 106


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Figure Zone A: Outdoor Dining Area

Figure Zone D: Semi Outdoor Dining

Figure Zone B: Dining Room

Figure Zone E: Dining Area

Zone C: Study/Reading area Data Figure Collectio

Figure Zone F: Food and Beverages Preparation area

107


2.5.1

Site Study

2.5.1.1 Outdoor Noise Source The vehicular circulation around the site is the main contributor to the outdoor noise. The AMPM Café is the second shop lot in the row of shop houses located at jalan USJ 21/7. Therefore, it is exposed to most of the noise coming from the adjacent Elite highway as well as the cross junction at the side of the road. The vehicular circulation across the road gradually increases during peak hours as the area serves plenty of cafes, restaurants and the Jaya Grocer, these hangouts too contribute to the noise source however they are minor. Due to the heavy vehicular traffic, primarily, and the recreational activities, secondly, the outdoor noise recorded is around 75dB - 80dB which is considerably high as the exterior noise received highly affects the front zones of the café.

Figure 13: AMPM café site plan showing exterior noise source

108


2.5.1.2 Indoor Noise Source Human activities are the main noise source in the cafĂŠ. Either guests chatting and laughing or staff walking around, moving objects from one place to the other or handling orders in the preparation area and main kitchen. The second distinctive noise source are the speakers distributed in each zone for background music. Followed by the kitchen appliances such as the coffee machine and food blender handled in the open preparation area. The cooling system however acts as a minor noise source.

Figure 14: Ground floor plan and 1st floor plan showing indoor noise sour, AMPM cafĂŠ

109


Rear

Front Speaker

Figure 15: Speakers position in section

The speakers are located on the wall or next to a column of the dining areas allowing the sound from the speaker to travel along the spaces. The placement of the speakers is proportionate on each zone to ensure equal sound transmission of each space for the diners to enjoy music while eating.

Rear

Front Food and bev erages preparation area

Figure 16: Preparation area in section

The bar Area causes unfavorable noise to the area where the mixers and coffee machine produces loud and disturbing noise that affects the acoustic quality of the space. This may give discomfort to some diners and users at the cafĂŠ as the noise may interrupt userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention to neither conversation nor work.

110


2.5.2

Tabulation of Data

Sound level meter is used to record the acoustic reading at each grid point (1.5m x 1.5m) marked on the ground floor plan and first floor plan. The height of the sound level meter is maintained to achieve a consistent reading of data.

Figure 17: Acoustic reading, peak hours

111


Figure 18: Acoustic reading, non- peak hours

112


2.5.2.1 Data Findings at the Zones Zone A

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

1

2

3

J

73

71

72

K

71

70

68

L

73

71

72

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak) Grid

1

2

3

J

78

73.5

74.5

K

79.9

73

74.9

L

75.4

74

76

Table 1: Sound level meter meter readings in zone A

Figure 19: Ground floor plan, AMPM cafĂŠ

113


Zone B

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

2

3

4

D

61

70

70.3

E

59

64

71

F

61

63

65

G

62.5

64

H

62

63

I

64

65

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak) Grid

2

3

4

D

66

75

76

E

67

72

75

F

67.4

70.2

76

G

67.3

71

H

72.1

69

I

70.5

70

Table 2: Sound level meter meter readings in zone B

Figure 20: Ground floor plan, AMPM café

114


Zone C

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

1

2

F

58

61

G

67

62

H

66

63

I

68

60.5

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak) Grid

1

2

F

75

67.4

G

74

75

H

76.8

68

I

75

72

Table 3: Sound level meter meter readings in zone C

Figure 21: Ground floor plan, AMPM café

115


+Zone D

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

1

2

3

4

L

73

68

70.5

69

M

71.5

71

72

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak) Grid

1

2

3

4

L

76

70

73

71

M

74

75

75

Table 4: Sound level meter meter readings in zone D

Figure 22: 1st floor plan, AMPM cafĂŠ

116


Zone E

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

1

2

3

4

F

63

62

61.5

G

66

66

62

H

64

64

63

I

65

65

68

J

65

63

60

62.5

K

62

63

64

61

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak) Grid

1

2

3

4

F

70

69

65

G

78

76

69

H

74

78

75

I

76

78

68

J

73

78

76

73

K

69

77

78

72

Table 5: Sound level meter meter readings in zone E

Figure 23: 1st floor plan, AMPM café

117


Zone F

Time: 10am - 12pm (Non-Peak) Grid

1

2

3

4

A

59

57.5

61

58

B

61.5

62

57

60

C

64

60

59

57.5

D

64

62

60

59

E

63

60

58

F

63

62

61.5

Time: 2pm - 4pm (Peak)

+

Grid

1

2

3

4

A

65

66

66

70

B

70

70

63

70

C

69

63

65

72

D

68

70

64

70

E

66

67

60

F

70

69

65

Table 6: Sound level meter meter readings in zone F

Figure 24: 1st floor plan, AMPM café

118


2.5.3

Material Absorption Coefficient

Zone A

Figure 25: Floor plan of zone A

Components

Absorption Coefficient 500Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete+

Grey

Smooth Matte

0.02

0.02

0.05

Brick

Red

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

W A L L

C E I L I N G

119


F L O O R

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

Concrete

Grey

Smooth Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

0.15

0.18

0.20

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

Table 7: Absorption coefficient for components in zone A

120


Zone B

Figure 26: Floor plan of zone B

Components

W A L L

Absorption Coefficient

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Matte

0.03

0.04

0.07

Brick

Red

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

Fly Ash Brick (FAB)

Grey

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

500Hz

2000Hz 4000Hz

121


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

F L O O R

Porcelain

Grey

Glossy

0.03

0.05

0.05

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

0.15

0.18

0.20

Upholstered

Green and Yellow

Luster

0.26

0.50

0.55

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

Table 8: Absorption coefficient for components in zone B

122


Zone C

Figure 27: Floor plan of zone C

Element

W A L L

Absorption Coefficient 500Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Smooth Matte

0.02

0.02

0.05

Ceramic

White

Glossy

0.01

0.02

0.02

Fly Ash Brick (FAB)

Grey

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

123


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

F L O O R

Ceramic

White

Glossy

0.01

0.02

0.02

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Wooden

Brown

Matte

0.15

0.18

0.20

D O O R

F U R N I T U R E

Table 9: Absorption coefficient for components in zone C

124


Zone D

Figure 28: Floor plan of zone D

Element

Absorption Coefficient 500Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Smooth Matte

0.02

0.02

0.05

Brick

Red

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

F L O O R

Porcelain

Grey

Glossy

0.03

0.05

0.05

W A L L

125


D O O R

W I N D O W

F U R N I T U R E

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Wooden

Brown

Glossy

0.15

0.18

0.20

Table 10: Absorption coefficient for components in zone D

126


Zone E

Figure 29: Floor plan of zone E

Element

W A L L

Absorption Coefficient 500Hz 2000Hz 4000Hz

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Matte

0.03

0.04

0.07

Brick

Red

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

Plastered

Black

Matte

0.01

0.02

0.02

127


C E I L I N G

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

F L O O R

Porcelain

Grey

Glossy

0.03

0.05

0.05

Glass

Clear

Smooth 0.04

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.15

0.18

0.20

D O O R

P A R T I T I O N F U R N I T U R E

Glass

Wooden

Semiclear

Brown

Smooth

Glossy

Table 11: Absorption coefficient for components in zone E

128


Zone F

Figure 30: Floor plan of zone F

Element

Absorption Coefficient

Material

Colour

Surface Finish

Concrete

Grey

Matte

0.03

0.04

0.07

Brick

Red

Matte

0.02

0.05

0.05

Concrete

Dark Grey

Luster

0.02

0.05

0.05

500Hz

2000Hz 4000Hz

W A L L

C E I L I N G

129


F L O O R

P A R T I T I O N

W I N D O W

F U R N I T U R E

Porcelain

Grey

Glossy

0.03

0.05

0.05

Glass

Semiclear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Glass

Clear

Smooth

0.04

0.02

0.02

Upholstere d

Green and Yellow

Luster

0.26

0.50

0.55

Table 12: Absorption coefficient for components in zone F

130


2.5.4

Calculation of Sound Intensity Level (SIL)

Zone A

Figure 31: Floor plan of zone A

Peak Hours 80 dB 73 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 80 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 8.0 = log (IH /1x10-12) 108 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 108 (1x10-12) IH = 1 x 10-4 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 73 dB 70 dB SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 73 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 7.3 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.3 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.3 (1x10-12) IH = 1.995 x 10-5 W/m 2

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 73 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 7.3 = log (IL /1x10-12) 107.3 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 107.3 (1x10-12) IL = 1.995 x 10-5 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 70 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 7.0 = log (IL /1x10-12) 107 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 107 (1x10-12) IL = 1 x 10-5 W/m 2

Total Intensity, TI

TI = IH + IL TI = (1 x 10-4) + (1.995 x 10-5) TI = 1.11 x 10-4

TI = IH + IL TI = (1.995 x 10-5) + (1 x 10-5) TI = 2.995 x 10-5

Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) -4 -12 SIL = 10 log (1.11 x 10 /1x10 ) SIL = 10 log (2.995 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 80.5 dB SIL = 74.8 dB

Highest Reading Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

131


Zone B

Figure 32: Floor plan of zone B

Peak Hours 76 dB 66 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 76 = 10 log (IH /1x10-12) 7.6 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.6 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.6 (1x10-12) IH = 3.981 x 10-5 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 70 dB 59 dB SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 70 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 7.0 = log (IL /1x10-12) 107 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 107 (1x10-12) IL = 1 x 10-5 W/m 2

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 66 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 6.6 = log (IH /1x10-12) 106.6 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 106.6 (1x10-12) IH = 3.981 x 10-6 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 59 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 5.9 = log (IL /1x10-12) 105.9 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 105.9 (1x10-12) IL = 7.943 x 10-7 W/m 2

Total Intensity, TI

TI = IH + IL TI = (5.012 x 10-5) + (3.981 x 10-6) TI = 4.379 x 10-5

TI = I H + I L TI = (1 x 10-5) + (7.943 x 10-7) TI = 1.079 x 10-5

Highest Reading, Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL SIL = 10 log (4.379 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 76.4 dB

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (1.079 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 70.3 dB

132


Zone C

Figure33: Floor plan of zone C

Peak Hours 76 dB 67.3 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 76 = 10 log (IH /1x10-12) 7.6 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.6 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.6 (1x10-12) IH = 3.981 x 10-5 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 68 dB 60.5 dB SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 68 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 6.8 = log (IH /1x10-12) 106.8 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 106.8 (1x10-12) IH = 6.31 x 10-6 W/m 2

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 67.3 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.73 = log (I L /1x10-12) 106.73 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106.73 (1x10-12) IL = 5.37 x 10-6 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 60 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.0 = log (IL /1x10-12) 106 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106 (1x10-12) IL = 1 x 10-6 W/m 2

Total Intensity, TI

TI = IH + IL TI = (6.31 x 10-5) + (5.37 x 10-6) TI = 4.518 x 10-5

TI = IH + IL TI = (6.31 x 10-6) + (1 x 10-6) TI = 7.31 x 10-6

Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (6.847 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 76.8 dB

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (7.31 x 10-6/1x10-12) SIL = 68.6 dB

Highest Reading Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

133


Zone D

Figure34: Floor plan of zone D

Peak Hours 76 dB 70 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 76 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 7.6 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.6 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.6 (1x10-12) IH = 3.981 x 10-5 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 73 dB 68 dB SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 73 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 7.3 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.3 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.3 (1x10-12) IH = 1.995 x 10-5 W/m 2

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 70 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 7.0 = log (IL /1x10-12) 107 = (I0L /1x10-12) IL = 107 (1x10-12) IL = 1 x 10-5 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (IL IO) 68 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.8 = log (IL /1x10-12) 106.8 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106.8 (1x10-12) IL = 6.31 x 10-6 W/m 2

Total Intensity, TI

TI = IH + IL TI = (3.981 x 10-5) + (1 x 10-5) TI = 4.981 x 10-5

TI = IH + IL TI = (1.995 x 10-5) + (6.31 x 10-6) TI = 2.626 x 10-5

Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (4.981 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 77 dB

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (2.626 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 74.2 dB

Highest Reading, Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

134


Zone E

Figure35: Floor plan of zone E

Peak Hours 78 dB 68 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 78 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 7.8 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.8 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.8 (1x10-12) IH = 6.31 x 10-5 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 66 dB 61 dB SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 66 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 6.6 = log (IH /1x10-12) 106.6 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 106.6 (1x10-12) IH = 3.981 x 10-6 W/m 2

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 68 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.8 = log (IL /1x10-12) 106.8 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106.8 (1x10-12) IL = 6.31 x 10-6 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 61 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.1 = log (IL /1x10-12) 106.1 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106.1 (1x10-12) IL = 1.259 x 10-6 W/m 2

Total Intensity, TI

TI = IH + IL TI = (6.31 x 10-5) + (6.31 x 10-6) TI = 6.941 x 10-5

TI = IH + IL TI = (3.981 x 10-6) + (1.259 x 10-6) TI = 5.24 x 10-6

Highest Reading, Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL SIL = 10 log (6.941 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 78.4 dB

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (5.24 x 10-6/1x10-12) SIL = 67.2 dB

135


Zone F

Figure 36: Floor plan of zone F

Highest Reading, Lowest Reading

Intensity of Highest Reading, I H

Intensity of Lowest Reading, I L

Total Intensity, TI

Peak Hours 70 dB 63 dB SIL = 10 log (I H /IO) 70 = 10 log (IH /1x10-12) 7.0 = log (IH /1x10-12) 107.0 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 107.0 (1x10-12) IH = 1 x 10-5 W/m 2

Non-Peak Hours 64 dB 57 dB SIL = 10 log (I H IO) 64 = 10 log (I H /1x10-12) 6.4 = log (IH /1x10-12) 106.4 = (IH /1x10-12) IH = 106.4 (1x10-12) IH = 2.512 x 10-6 W/m 2

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 63 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 6.3 = log (IL /1x10-12) 106.3 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 106.3 (1x10-12) IL = 1.995 x 10-6 W/m 2 TI = IH + IL TI = (1 x 10-5) + (1.995 x 10-6) TI = 1.11 x 10-5

SIL = 10 log (I L /IO) 57 = 10 log (I L /1x10-12) 5.7 = log (IL /1x10-12) 105.7 = (IL /1x10-12) IL = 105.7 (1x10-12) IL = 5.012 x 10-7 W/m 2 TI = IH + IL TI = (2.512 x 10-6) + (5.012 x 10-7) TI = 3.013 x 10-6

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) Combined Sound Intensity Level, SIL SIL = 10 log (1.11 x 10-5/1x10-12) SIL = 70.5 dB

SIL = 10 log (TI /1x10-12) SIL = 10 log (3.013 x 10-6/1x10-12) SIL = 64.8 dB

136


2.5.4.1 Sound Intensity Level (SIL) Analysis and Conclusion

A

A

B

B

A

A

B

A

B

Figure 37: Ground floor plan and 1 st floor plan, AMPM cafe

Zones Zone A, Outdoor Dining Zone B, Dining Area Zone C, Food Preparation Area Zone D, Semi Outdoor Dining Zone E, Dining Area Zone F, Study/Reading Area

Sound Intensity Level Non-Peak Hours Peak Hours 74.8 dB 80.5 dB 70.3 dB 76.4 dB 68.6 dB 76.8 dB 74.2 dB 77 dB 67.2 dB 78.4 dB 64.8 dB 70.5 dB

Table 13: Sound intensity level of all zones during peak non- peak hours

137


Front

Figure 38: Section AA, AMPM café

Rear

138


Rear

Figure 39: Section BB, AMPM café

Front

139


As seen in table 13, the highest sound intensity level during peak hour is 80.5 dB at zone A, the outdoor dining area. This is due to its contact to the outside chaotic environment as seen in section AA and section BB, where buffers like trees and fencing are absent causing direct exposure to the noise coming from the road. However, the presence of an outdoor space at the entrance acts as a buffer to the main indoor dining area. Even though it’s not extremely effective due to the thin glass partition that separates the two areas, as seen in tablex, it does help in reducing the sound intensity level of the interior zones, zone B and C. The second highest sound intensity level during peak hour is 77 dB at zone D, the semi outdoor dining area located at the 1st floor. Although the SIL is high due to its exposure to the exterior noise traffic, however compared to zone A, the SIL at zone D is slightly reduced due to the use of the wall and window barrier, as seen in the sections above, whereas in zone A it is directly open and exposed to the exterior noise. The third highest sound intensity level during peak hour is 76.8 dB and 76.4 dB at zone C and B respectively. The SIL exceeds the ideal sound level at a restaurant which is about 70 dB (Restaurant Engine, 2016). This is primarily because of the linear floor plan layout with minimal partitions. As seen in section AA, zone B, the main dining area with lots of occupants, loud chatters and laughers during peak hours is exposed to zone C, which is the food and beverages preparation area, which as well have a high noise source, from electrical appliances like food blender and coffee machines, to staff moving around preparing food. The open floor plan with minimal partitions, exposes various noise sources to each other, hence, the distance between the noise source and the receiver is reduced. Besides that, less partitions and barriers between spaces means less sound absorbing materials. Furthermore, the linearity of the open floor plan layout allows the sound to easily propagate throughout the whole space increasing the overall sound pressure. The zone with the least sound intensity level 70.5 dB is zone F, the reading area, located at the 1st floor. Zone F is the only zone at the café that meets the sound requirement for restaurant which is 70 dB (Restaurant Engine, 2016). Zone F was able to successfully meet the sound level requirements of restaurants, primarily due to its location in the café. It is located at the back area of the café’s 1st floor, where as seen in the sections above, it is facing the back lane from one side where there is no noticeable noise source, while on the other side, it is partially separated with partitions and walls from the rest of the dining, as seen in section AA and section BB. Apart from that, it has ample cushioned and upholstered furniture which helps in absorbing the sound. Therefore, zone F is the most ideal zone in the café to offer studies and reading activities. To conclude, except for zone F, all the other zones at the café highly exceeds the restaurant’s sound level requirement. This is due to the outdoor chaotic environment, the linear open floor plan that exposes the spaces to each other and the little consideration to sound absorbing materials. 140


2.5.5

Calculation of Sound Reduction Index (SRI)

Zone A & Zone B, Wall 1

Figure 40: Ground floor plan, AMPM café

Surface Type Wall - Smooth Concrete Door/Partition - Glass

Sound Reduction Index, SRI (dB) 50 30

Transmission Coefficient, T 1 x 10-5 1 x 10-3

Area, S(m 2) 7.58 11.32

141


Concrete wall SRI = 10 log (1/T) 50 = 10 log (1/T) 105 = (1/T) T = 1/ 105 T = 1 x 10-5

Glass Door/Partition SRI = 10 log (1/T) 30 = 10 log (1/T) 103 = (1/T) T = 1/ 103 T = 1 x 10-3

Tav = ( (1 x 10-5 x 7.58) + (1 x 10-3 x 11.32) ) / 18.9 = (1.139 x 10-2) / 18.9 = 6.026 x 10-4

SRI = 10 log (1/T) = 10 log (1/6.026 x 10-4) = 32.2 dB

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Zone B & Kitchen, Wall 2

Figure 41: Ground floor plan, AMPM café

Surface Type Wall - Fly Ash Brick Door – Polished Wood Window - Glass

Sound Reduction Index, SRI (dB) 54 28 26

Transmission Coefficient, T 3.981 x 10-6 1.585 x 10-3 2.51 x 10-3

Area, S(m 2) 30.27 1.5 0.42

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Brick wall SRI = 10 log (1/T) 54 = 10 log (1/T) 105.4 = (1/T) T = 1/ 105.4 T = 3.981 x 10-6

Wooden Door SRI = 10 log (1/T) 2.8 = 10 log (1/T) 102.8 = (1/T) T = 1/ 102.8 T = 1.585 x 10-3

Glass Window SRI = 10 log (1/T) 2.6 = 10 log (1/T) 102.6 = (1/T) T = 1/ 102.6 T = 2.51 x 10-3

Tav = ( (3.981 x 10-6 x 30.27) + (1.585 x 10-3 x 1.5) + (2.51 x 10-3x 0.42) ) / 32.19 = (3.55 x 10-3) / 32.19 = 1.102 x 10-4

SRI = 10 log (1/T) = 10 log (1/1.102 x 10-4) = 39.6 dB 144


Zone D, Wall 3

Figure 42: 1st floor plan, AMPM café

Surface Type Wall - Smooth Concrete Window - Glass

Sound Reduction Index, SRI (dB) 50 26

Transmission Coefficient, T 1 x 10-5 2.51 x 10-3

Area, S(m 2) 4.9 9.8

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Concrete wall SRI = 10 log (1/T) 50 = 10 log (1/T) 105 = (1/T) T = 1/ 105 T = 1 x 10-5

Glass Window SRI = 10 log (1/T) 2.6 = 10 log (1/T) 102.6 = (1/T) T = 1/ 102.6 T = 2.51 x 10-3

Tav = ( (1 x 10-5 x 4.9) + (2.51 x 10-3 x 9.8) ) / 14.7 = (2.46 x 10-2) / 14.7 = 1.673 x 10-3

SRI = 10 log (1/T) = 10 log (1/1.673 x 10-3) = 27.8 dB

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2.4.5.1

Sound Reduction Index (SRI) Analysis and Conclusion

Figure 43: Ground floor plan and 1 st floor plan, AMPM cafe

Structure Wall 1 Wall 2 Wall 3

Sound Reduction Index 32.2 dB 39.6 dB 27.8 dB

Table 14: Sound reduction index of wall 1, wall 2 and wall 3

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Sound reduction index is used to measure the level of sound insulation provided by a structure and its components such as walls, doors, windows…etc. The table below shows the sound reduction index according to its hearing conditions.

Table 15: The table compares the degree of acoustic privacy with the sound reduction index. (Mcgarth and Alter, 2000)

From the table above, we can identify the effectiveness of the walls found in the café. Wall 1 and wall 3 of the café has a sound reduction index of only 32.3 dB and 27.8 dB respectively, this means norm al speech can be easily and distinctly heard through the walls. This is due to the use of large area of glass door/partition to separate zone A from zone B and zone C from the exterior. Wall 1 and 3 are considered to be insufficient due to their low sound insulation, in which the outdoor noise can be easily heard affecting the overall acoustic performance of the interior zones. In order to increase the SRI of the two walls to avoid exterior noise from penetrating, the glass area on the wall needs to be reduced and the thickness of glass needs to be increased. Wall 2 separates the main kitchen from zone B, the dining area. The wall has a sound reduction index of 39.6, this means that loud noise can be understood fairly well. This is inadequate for the café as the main kitchen needs to have a higher SRI as to prevent loud noise from the kitchen to penetrate in to the dining area.

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2.5.6

Calculation of Sound Reverberation Time (SRT)

Zone B and C

Figure 44: Floor plan of zone B and zone C

Surface Type

Surface Area, (m 2)

Wall - Rough Concrete Wall – Smooth Concrete Wall - Fly Ash Brick Wall – Bricks Wall - Ceramic

37.9 9.6 18.13 8.88 11.1

Absorption Coefficient, (500Hz) 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

Door/Partition - Glass

11.32

0.04

0.453

0.02

0.226

Ceiling - Concrete

50.8

0.02

1.016

0.05

2.54

Floor - Porcelain Tiles Floor - Ceramic

36.6 14.2

0.03 0.01

1.098 0.142

0.05 0.02

1.83 0.284

Furniture - Wood Furniture - upholstered

34.22 3.7 15

0.15 0.26 0.46

5.133 0.963 6.9

0.18 0.50 0.51

6.16 1.85 7.65

Occupants Total Absorption (A)

Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 500Hz Room Volume of zone B, V = 50.8 x 3.7 = 187.96m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 187.96) / 17.684 = 1.7s

Sound Absorption (500Hz)(m2 Sa) 1.137 0.192 0.363 0.178 0.111

Absorption Coefficient, (2000Hz) 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.02

Sound Absorption (2000Hz)(m2 Sa) 1.516 0.192 0.192 0.444 0.222

17.684

23.821

Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 2000Hz Room Volume of zone B, V = 50.8 x 3.7 = 187.96m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 187.96) / 23.821 = 1.26s 149


Zone D

Figure 45: Floor plan of zone D

Surface Type

Surface Area, (m 2) 10 18

Absorption Coefficient, (500Hz) 0.02 0.02

Sound Absorption (500Hz)(m2 Sa) 0.2 0.36

Absorption Coefficient, (2000Hz) 0.02 0.05

Sound Absorption (2000Hz)(m2 Sa) 0.2 0.9

Wall â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Smooth Concrete Wall - Bricks

22.05

0.04

0.882

0.02

0.441

Window - Glass

9.8

0.04

0.392

0.02

0.196

Ceiling - Concrete

20.6

0.02

0.412

0.05

1.03

Floor - Porcelain Tiles

20.6

0.03

0.618

0.05

1.03

Furniture - Wood

5.88

0.15

0.882

0.18

1.058

4

0.46

1.84

0.51

2.04

Door/Partition - Glass

Occupants Total Absorption (A)

5.586

6.895

Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 500Hz Room Volume of zone D, V = 20.6 x 3.5 = 72.77m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 72.77) / 5.586 = 2.08s Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 2000Hz Room Volume of zone D, V = 20.6 x 3.5 = 72.77m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 72.77) / 6.895 = 1.68s

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Zone E

Figure 46: Floor plan of zone E

Surface Type

Surface Area, (m 2)

Absorption Coefficient, (500Hz)

Sound Absorption (500Hz)(m2 Sa)

Absorption Coefficient, (2000Hz)

Sound Absorption (2000Hz)(m2 Sa)

Wall - Rough Concrete Wall - Concrete (black paint finish)

21.7 36.65

0.03 0.01

0.651 0.367

0.04 0.02

0.868 0.733

Door/Partition - Glass

27.6

0.04

1.104

0.02

0.552

Ceiling - Concrete

36.6

0.02

0.732

0.05

1.83

Floor - Porcelain Tiles

36.6

0.03

1.098

0.05

1.83

Furniture - Wood Furniture - Wood Panels

12.4 1.38

0.15 0.17

1.86 0.235

0.18 0.10

2.232 0.138

11

0.46

5.06

0.51

5.61

Occupants Total Absorption (A)

11.106

13.793

Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 500Hz Room Volume of zone E, V = 36.6 x 3.5 = 128.31m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 128.31) / 11.106 = 1.85s Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 2000Hz Room Volume of zone E, V = 7.8 x 4.7 x 3.5 = 128.31m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 128.31) / 13.793 = 1.49s 151


Zone F

Figure 47: Floor plan of zone F

Surface Type

Surface Area, (m 2) 33.35 25.38 20.44

Absorption Coefficient, (500Hz) 0.02 0.03 0.02

Sound Absorption (500Hz)(m2 Sa) 0.667 0.761 0.409

Absorption Coefficient, (2000Hz) 0.02 0.04 0.05

Sound Absorption (2000Hz)(m2 Sa) 0.667 1.015 1.022

Wall - Smooth Concrete Wall - Rough Concrete Wall - Brick Window - Glass

15.44

0.04

0.6176

0.02

0.3088

Ceiling - Concrete

47.4

0.02

0.948

0.05

2.37

Floor - Porcelain Tiles

47.4

0.03

1.422

0.05

2.37

Furniture - Wood Furniture - upholstered Furniture - Curtain

5.44 9.1 9.8

0.15 0.26 0.15

0.816 2.366 1.47

0.18 0.50 0.37

0.9792 4.55 3.626

8

0.46

3.68

0.51

4.08

Occupants Total Absorption (A)

13.157

20.988

Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 500Hz Room Volume of zone F, V = 47.4 x 3.5 = 165.9m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 165.9) / 13.157 = 2.02s Reverberation Time when Absorption Coefficient at 2000Hz Room Volume of zone F, V = 47.4 x 3.5 = 165.9m 3 Reverberation Time = (0.16 x V) / A = (0.16 x 165.9) / 20.988 = 1.26s

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2.5.6.1 Sound Reverberation Time (SRT) Analysis and Conclusion

Figure 48: Ground floor plan and 1st floor plan, AMPM cafe

Zones Zone B and C, Dining Area + Preparation Area Zone D, Semi Outdoor Dining Zone E, Dining Area Zone F, Study/Reading Area

Reverberation Time (Peak Hours) 500Hz 2000Hz 1.7s 1.26s 1.08s 1.68s 1.85s 1.49s 2.02s 1.26s

Table 16: Reverberation time of all zones during peak hours

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As seen from table 16, all the zones highly exceed 0.6s reverberation time which is the required period for sound to decay according to the Ashrae standards. This is mainly because of the inadequate acoustic absorption materials used in the cafĂŠ. In addition to that, the infill design layout of the building doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow for window openings along the elongated floorplan, which will allow some of the sound energy to escape the enclosed space instead of reflecting it within.

Figure 49: Floor plan of zone D with materials

As seen in table 16, taking the highest frequency of 2000Hz, it can be seen that zone D has the highest reverberation time where sound decays in 1.68s. Referring to figure 49, zone D is enclosed with glass from both sides. A glass partition of 22.05m 2 on one side and a glass window of 9.8m 2 on the other side facing the roadway. The abundance use of glass in the space is inadequate as smooth and non-porous materials tend to reflect more sound than they absorb. Hence, the glass reflects back most of the sound energy and absorbs only small amount of the sound produced. In addition to that, although the space offers a window openings, however, most of the time the window remains closed due to the unfriendly outdoor noises. This prevents the sound from escaping and instead propagates it through the space.

154


Figure 50: Floor plan of zone E with materials

The second highest reverberation time is at zone E. Although zone E accommodates multiple customers that can considerably enhance the acoustic surrounding, as humans are sufficient in absorbing sound, these are overshadowed by the extensive use of poor sound absorption materials in the area. As seen in figure 50, the use of porcelain flooring, glass partitions on both ends, smooth concrete wall and black paint finish are materials of smooth and glossy surfaces that are hardly sufficient in absorbing the sound energy, this affects the overall sound performance of the space, making it acoustically uncomfortable during peak hours.

155


Figure 51: Floor plan of zone B and zone C with materials

Figure 52: Floor plan of zone F with materials

Zone B, C, and F have the least reverberation time of 1.26s. As seen in figure51 and figure 52, this is primarily because of the abundant use of cushions, upholstered furniture and curtains in the area. The porous nature of these materials help in absorbing the sounds sufficiently, the more fibrous the material the better the absorption. In addition to that, these zones use rough surfaces like brick walls and rough concrete rather than smooth concrete and paint finishes used in other zones. These Rough surfaced materials have slightly higher absorption coefficient compared to smooth concrete. This is because when sound is projected the friction between rough area and the air increases resulting in a higher sound absorption. Apart from that, costumers tend to concentrate in these two areas, hence human considerably enhance the acoustic environment as they have high absorption coefficient.

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2.4.7 Acoustic Ray Diagram

Figure 53: Acoustic ray diagram for speaker

The diagram above shows the acoustic rays originated from the speaker located at the ground floor as indicated in the floor plan. The red circle indicates the position of the speaker. Based on figure 53, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone A tends to be concentrated to the stairs as it is position in a way that the sound will reflect back to the inside of the cafe. Zone A is an outdoor area so most of the sounds ray disperse to the exterior. Hence, the acoustic rays are reflected but do not contain in the space as it is quite an open space. Other than that, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone C concentrated on the north-east side of the plan while the bouncing rays in zone B is concentrated to the south-west side of the plan. This is due to the open floor plan with minimal partitions, exposed various noise sources to each other.

157


Figure 54: Acoustic ray diagram for speaker

The diagram above shows the acoustic rays originated from the speaker located at first floor as indicated in the floor plan. The red circle indicates the position of the speaker. Based on figure 54, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone B tends to be concentrated equally to all sides of the floor plan. This is due to the location of the speaker and the enclosed space. Zone D is a semi-outdoor area but the windows are closed due to the noise coming from the exterior. Hence, the acoustic rays are reflected and contained in the space. Based on the diagram, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone E tend to be concentrated on the south-east side of the plan. Due to the position of the speaker and some of the ray escape to the other side of the wall when it is reflected. While the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone F tend to be concentrated equally on all side due to the location of the speaker. Some of the ray s made through pass other zones due to minimal partition in the space.

158


Figure 55: Acoustic ray diagram for human activities

The diagram above shows the acoustic rays originated from the speaker located at ground floor as indicated in the floor plan. The red circle indicates the position of the speaker. Based on figure 55, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in the zone B and C are distributed evenly to all side while zone A tend to be concentrated on the east and west side of the plan. 159


Figure 56: Acoustic ray diagram for human activities

The diagram above shows the acoustic rays originated from the speaker located at first floor as indicated in the floor plan. The red circle indicates the position of the speaker. Based on figure 56, we can observe that the concentration of the bouncing rays in zone F for human activities noise tend to be concentrated equally on all side while some of the rays gets to zone E. Hence, the acoustic rays are reflected and don't contain in the space. 160


2.6

Acoustic Conclusion

Figure 57: Acoustic ray diagram for human activities

Figure 58: Acoustic ray diagram for speaker

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Based on the observations and analysis, it can be seen that the noise levels in AMPM Café are higher in zone B and zone C due to the fact that most of the customers are located there. Moreover, the presence of speakers also contributes to the noise level in the cafe. In zone B, the noise produced by the speaker is concentrated on the southwest of the area which is zone C, while the noise produced by the speaker in zone C is concentrated on the northeast of the area, zone B. This is due to the open floor plan with minimal partitions, exposed various noise sources to each other. The sounds propagate throughout the whole space easily with increasing the overall sound pressure. During peak hours, zone B will have lots of occupants and it is exposed to zone C, which is the food and beverage preparation area, which as well have a high noise source coming from the electrical appliances to staff moving around preparing food. But the sounds from the electrical appliances have no significant noise due to their noise is overshadowed by the loud noise from the speakers and the human activities. In addition to that, the use of large glass door/partition to separate zone A from zone B and zone C from the exterior is insufficient due to their low sound insulation. The outdoor noise can be easily heard from the interior thus affecting the overall acoustic performance of the interior zones, zone B and zone C. Zone B and zone C are situated near zone A which has the highest sound intensity level during peak hour due to its contact with the outside chaotic environment with no buffers like trees or fences causing direct exposure to the main indoor dining area. These causes zone B and zone C to be the noisiest area in the café. On the other hand, zone F has the lowest noise level in the café. This is because of its strategic location and the only zone that meets the sound requirement for a restaurant. Zone F is located on the first floor at the back area of the café, facing the back lane. It will only open to customers during peak hour. Thus, with the lowest occupancy, the sound tends to be concentrated evenly and equally to all sides of the area. The presence of ample cushioned and upholstered furniture helps in absorbing the sound sufficiently. In addition to that, this zone use rough surfaces material which has slightly higher absorption coefficient compared to smooth concrete like brick walls and rough concrete. In conclusion, zone B and zone C are the noisiest zones during peak-hour. Whereas zone F is the least noisy zone regardless the peak hour or non-peak hour.

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REFERENCES 1. Oosterhoff, H. (2015). Sounds right, Build 149. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from http://www.buildmagazine.org.nz/assets/PDF/Build-149-68-Feature-Noise-In-Buildings-SoundsRight.pdf 2. Paroc. (n.d.). Sound absorption. Retrieved November 09, 2016, from http://www.paroc.com/knowhow/sound/sound-absorption 3. Woodford, C. (2016). Soundproofing a room | Science of noise reduction. Retrieved November 09, 2016, from http://www.explainthatstuff.com/soundproofing.html 4. August Wilson Center for African American Culture / Perkins Will. (2011). Retrieved November 06, 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/163047/august-wilson-center-for-african-american-cultureperkinswill/ 5. Importance of INTERIOR ACOUSTICS for Architect and ... (n.d.). Retrieved November 6, 2016, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/importance-interior-acoustics-architect-designer-praveenmishra 6. https://www.engr.psu.edu/ae/thesis/portfolios/2008/mpr184/files/final_report/Body_Full.pdf

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