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STRATEGIC SERVICE FOR FUTURE PUBLIC LIBRARY ENGAGING KNOWLEDGE&BOOK SHARE IN COMMUNITY


Jian Shen A.A 2013-2014 Tutor: Fabrizio Maria Pierandrei Faculty of Design Product Service System Design

BCM In coperation with

Bibliotech Comunali di Milano

e


ABSTRACT People is becoming impatient in reading. And library is seen as a place for kids and retiree. I started my thesis aim to create a new experience for library. The focus point in research stage is how to enrich the user journey especially the steps access to information (aware information, decide information ) and steps after getting information( share, discuss, review and recall). The existing library has the value of information, education and little leisure for niche user. The new experience should make library experience more leisure and creative. It may provide possibility for user to generate knowledge/information and even build on knowledge/information on each other. So the new relationship of library and user is exchanging (material and knowledge) rather than feeding(only from library to user). Amici is a library service to engage library user sharing their private books and book related information such as notes, knowledge and opinion. The information sharing part uses book related short video to build people’ reading motivation, exposure them to suited books and even build social network. The book sharing part creates the possibility for audience to borrow the book from story teller. The virtual credit model, transparent profile, coupon rewarding and monitor&compensation system are include to encourage people open to share. The service works mainly base on the existing facility and workflow without additional labor cost . The thesis starts with wide range of perspective to explore strategy solutions. From a deep understanding of context trends, strategy experience map and reading behaviors from In-depth interview, I am able to sketch the promoting directions. The final concept is formed with series rapid testing to clarify and solve the anchor points.

Key Words: Public service experience; book sharing; personal book related story; Transparency and trust; Community information exchange


ABSTRACT La gente sta diventando impaziente nella lettura. E la biblioteca è visto come un posto per bambini e pensionati. Ho iniziato la mia tesi come un obiettivo di creare una nuova esperienza per la biblioteca. Il punto di messa a fuoco in fase di ricerca è come arricchire il viaggio d’utente in particolare i gradini di accesso alle informazioni (informazioni consapevole, decide informazione) e passi dopo che aver ottenuto informazioni (compartecipazione, discutere, rivedere e richiamo). La biblioteca esistente ha il valore di informazione, educazione e poco tempo libero per l’utente di nicchia. La nuova esperienza dovrebbe rendere l’esperienza biblioteca più svago e creativo. Si può prevedere la possibilità per l’utente di generare conoscenza / informazione e anche costruire sulla conoscenza / informazione a vicenda. Così il nuova relazione di biblioteca e utente consiste nello scambiare (materiale e conoscenza) piuttosto che l’alimentazione (solo dalla biblioteca a utente). Amici è un servizio di biblioteca a impegnarsi l’utente biblioteca condividere i loro libri privati ​​e le informazioni sui libri correlati, come gli appunti, la conoscenza e opinione. La parte di condivisione delle informazioni utilizza libro relativo breve video per costruire la motivazione di lettura della gente, si esporrono ai libri adatti e anche costruire una rete sociale. La parte di book sharing crea la possibilità per le platee di prendere in prestito il libro da narratore. Il modello di credito virtuale, profilo trasparente, cedola gratificante e monitoraggio e sistema di compensazione si comprende per incoraggiare le persone aperte a condividere. Il servizio funziona principalmente di base sulla facilità esistente e del flusso di lavoro senza costi di manodopera supplementare.

La tesi inizia con un’ampia gamma di prospettive a esplorare le soluzioni strategiche. Da una profonda comprensione delle tendenze di contesto, la mappa dell’esperienze strategiche e comportamenti di lettura da un’ intervista approfondita, sono in grado di abbozzare le indicazioni di promozione. Il concetto finale è formata con la serie di test rapido per chiarire e risolvere i punti di ancoraggio. Parole chiave: Esperienza di servizio pubblico; book sharing; book personali correlate storia; Trasparenza e fiducia; Scambio di informazioni Community


INDEX 1 Current situation of public library 1.0 Project context 1.1 Challenge& opportunity 1.2 Changing reading behaviours 1.3 Community involvement

2 Case study 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Case study CitizenJ in Queensland state library Open library in Denmark Kids Museum Passports in Chicago public library The occupy wall street library The Children’s Interactive Library concept in Aahus I street press in Sacramento public library

3 Public library experience mapping 3.0 Experience of internet & library 3.1 Information retailer 3.2 Library experience realms map 3.3 Primary research overview

4 Field observation 4.0 Library journeys 4.1 Target journey 4.2 Exploration journey 4.3 Inhabit journey

5 User research

5.0 Respondent recruitment 5.1 Interview guide

4 6 11 14

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

24 25 27 29

34 35 36 38

43 45


6 Analysis

6.0 Personas overview 6.1 User framework 6.2 Insight summary 6.3 Design themes 6.4 Design principles

7 Ideation

7.0 Ideation 7.1 Concepts map 7.2 Concept board

55 61 68 75 78 80 81 83

8 Testing & framing 8.0 Rapid prototyping overview 8.1 Rapid prototyping process

96 97

9 Meet the concept

9.0 Concept strategy 9.1 Insights for concept 9.2 System map 9.3 Concept story 9.4 Service journey 9.5 Experience principle 9.6 Benefit chart 9.7 Blue print 9.8 Book sharing/knowledge sharing

10 Design process

10.0 System touchpoints 10.1 Product design 10.2 Interface design

11 Final Test & Synthesis

11.0 Concept testing workshop 11.1 Workshop process 11.2 Synthesis of the concept

102 103 105 106 109 110 125 127 129

132 133 136 140 141 147


LIBRARY WAS BORN HUNDRED YEARS AGO WITH OFFERING FREE MATERIAL TO COMMUNITY

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IN DIGITAL AGE, PEOPLE CONNECT TO INFORMATION AT ANYWHERE AND IN ANYTIME. 2


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CURRENT SITUATION OF PUBLIC LIBRARY 1.0 PROJECT CONTEXT 1.1 CHALLENGUE & OPPORTUNITY 1.2 CHANGING READING BEHAVIOURS 1.3 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT


1.0 PROJECT CONTEXT Library in MI

Milan public library system was found in early 20s and later gradually grow into a system with 25 libraries spread around the city. It address citizens of all ages with a wide range of free services and information resources. Accessing and consultation onsite are free, while the loan service is for residents in Lombardy. For first use it requires enrollment in the library.

Service provide

Milan public library provide free service of book&reading, Meeting&conference, Workshop, course&visiting guide, reading workshop for baby, Exhibition, Reading group. Providing products includes books, newspapers and magazines, DVDs, CDs, CD for language courses. They are directly accessible on the shelf and available at consultation counter. The study rooms offers encyclopedias, dictionaries and general reference. Library system provide internal loan service. User could borrow book from other community library within two days. There is a mobile book bus lend book in five different spots during week. Library also provide an online medialib for e book, music, video downloading and a digital library with some material in stock digitalized.

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Cassina Anna Quatro Oggiaro Gallaratese

Dergano Bovisa Vllapizione Accursio

Harar

Crescezago

Zara Parco Venezia Sempione

Sicilia Baggio Lorenteggio

Vigentina Tibaldi

Valvassori Peroni

Calvairate 25 Community libraries Milano area: 181.8 km2

Oglio

2.5km 2.5km

Fra Sant Ambrogio Cristoforo Chiesa Rossa

Every library in 7 km2 reach below 20 mins on foot

Distribution in city

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Zone 1: ParcoSempione, Vigentina Zone 2: crescenzago, Zara Zone 3: ValvassoriPeroni, Venice Zone 4: Calvairate, Oglio Zone 5: Chiesarossa, FraCristoforo, Tibaldi Zone 6: Lorenteggio, Sant’Ambrogio Zone 7: Baggio, Harar, Sicily Zone 8 : Accursio, Gallarate, QuartoOggiaro, Villapizzone Zone 9: Affori, CassinaAnna, DerganoBovisa, Niguarda


1.1 CHALLENGE & OPPORTUNITY Budget for book takes very small part in whole expense. The budget of Milan public library system remain the similar amount in the past years. Meanwhile the demand of public use in technology classes, eletronic resources, computers and wifi increase rapidly. Around 85% budget is used in staff expense and the rest part is for book collection and running maintaining. Library buy books from the biggest bookstores with delivery service to library. Hardly it purchases secondhand books becuase of budget pressure on book and lack of material channel. It collects book donation if the books are qualified.

Librarian cost takes around 85% badget. Many human resource work as a book traffic flow manager to check out return, organize and neat the library. Administration COMMUNITY LIBRARY Purchase/catalog office It collect popular book/DVD titles from librarians and form the final decision in purchasing. Catalog books and put on shelf. Most books from biggest Italian publishing company is collected.

Techology office It manage digitalize materials and build digital library with e book, music and video.

Conservation/ promotion office It maintains the book and monitor the borrowing for late return (suspend card for a while if there are) It organize exhibition to promote special edition and author in library.

Book circulation It helps user browse in catalog, make desicion and finding books onsite.

Renference office It offers professional support in finding interesting info user want and consultation.

Serial office It collect interesting magazine/newspaper/DVD to user. Providing photocopy service and Internet using. Answering the call for consultation and guide.

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Librarian’s mind become the barrier in moving forward Milan public library system has more than 300 employee in full time and half time. 90% of them get humananity degree to be a librarian. The rest part are only high school graduate. In past years, library have not recruit volunteer officially because the librarian fear of the competition from free out of system and the difficulty in finding fit volunteer which meet temporary need. And they fear technology devices because change of working ways.

The limited book budget of public library leave far behind the booming book and divesed need The percentage of their budgets public libraries spend on materials has been trending steadily downward for many years now. What’s worse, library have been stretching declining materials budgets to pay for other things like databases, DVDs and ebooks. The actual number of books added to public library shelves has also dropped substantially over the past 20 years. Books are booming. Decline in library bookbuying has taken place right in the middle of one of the single greatest booms in book publishing in the history of the world.As more and more books are published, the number of books purchased by library shared smaller and smaller part in books published every year. Library only could buy the most popular book from bigges publishing editions which could not meet the diversed need of patron.

Publishers Underestimate the value of libraries Publisher see the cannibalization of book sales by libraries as user would not buy the books if they found in library(especially for e book). This view is unbias(Research show many people buy the book after they read or see in library). Without public libraries to promote the culture of reading and build communities of interconnected readers, publishers would face a diminished market for their titles. Indeed, the fact that reading remains a vibrant part of people’s life is somewhat startling in the face of the competition for consumers’ attention: movies, video games, television, online shopping, browsing and social networking.

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Library help with book discovery lead to greater recognition for books and more sales. The threatened by Amazon, which depresses margins and promotes self-published authors who routinely underprice the market and the declining number of bookstores makes it harder for publishers to develop new authors and new genres. Libraries can help with this. Library is a window to public for books and the limited new book collection every year could create explosure for books and authored selected. The few copy collection in library will ignate the popularation of books.Libraries have not made the point that it can be an important piece in the discovery process. While libraries have long perceived themselves as the “place to get great book recommendations� this mission has always been accomplished on a library-by-library basis. Today, the number of titles published is too great to make such ad hoc efforts effective.

Books Published vs. Library Budget for Materials 350,000 300,000 25.0%

250,000 200,000

15.9%

150,000

15.2%

100,000

11.7%

50,000

2010

2000

1990 1980 1970 1960

1950 1940 1930 1920 1910 1900

1890 1880

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1700S THE EVOLUTION OF LIBRARY

FINANCIAL SOURCE

Church library

1742 Subscription library

Church collection of book are availi- Subscription able to public library brought access to books for residence who buying the stock Church‘s budget

Member’s stock

Late 1700s Circulation library Open in book stores or print shops and rented out books. They offered popular materials such as latest fiction Client’s fee

SERVICE Offer popular books

FEEDBACK/ TREND

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Book is expensive so people clubed to buy books

1830s School district libraries were available for students later they open to adults

Local tax

1876

1890

America library Melvil Dewey association constandardize ference about sort libraries system of readers to allow and sort of books to permitted

Local tax

Local tax

Accept book donation to grow the storage Card sort approach to improve the efficiency of librarian

People realize reading is not only for student. The book from donation is usually not very interesting

Growing number of publication make book selection necessary


1900 Carnegie estate donate 50 million to spread libraries into small town

1970s

1980s The budget from goveronment support reduced. Volunteers are taken to assist full time staff

2000

2005

Book club reborned. People with same interests socialize and share their ideas after reading

2000

Lend e book with lisence link to borrow. Musical instruments, tools, seeds, science equipmment and information technology are provided in library

2013

Open library with fully open hour and high self service facilities get popular in Denmark

Local/state/federal tax+private source

Open shelf library Photocopy service

Library bus reduce the distance of library and people’s life

Borrow book from library in distance

Return box in community Internet service

Library try to expand into People go together for socialize and share community and involve reading activity community in service

E book is offered in library

Industrial facility reduce workload

Self check out and Book stock colreturn device lect books delivered by librarian

APP make Automatic library is used offline easier to cover more area Technology bring the efficiency of library system and the independence and flexibility to user

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1.2 CHANGING READING BEHAVIOURS Meet explosion information everyday Fewer people (down from 48.2% in 2006) go to library because they get more channels in getting information and more and more entertainment activities. People in digital age become impatient in reading explosion of information. Many people were scared with the amount of information. They start to only put their attention through easy taking information channels like internet and avoid filter valuable information.

Reading everywhere Because of multi screens compete with traditional paper book, learning becomes everywhere and more individualism, less interaction and mind of community development. American scholar Mizuko Ito emphasized that learning is taking place in informal learning networks through “friendship-driven and interest-based participation” and that such networks stretch beyond institutional boundaries. Like Illich, Gee, and Ito, we think that learning situations are located both inside and outside of institutions.

Digital media fosters the ability to learn&read Digital media start to play a positive role in this process of transformation. The future of learning& reading will not be determined by tools but by the re-organization of power relationships and institutional protocols. Empowering today’s learners, should not be about “just-in-timeknowledge” and hyperspecialized competencies but about the ability to learn/read.

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Diversed entertainment Carton LEISURE

e book

Magazine fiction/novel Life/health

EDUCATION

History/society/ economy

Science/expertise

Journal Newspaper INFORMATION

Info from portable device or pc

Reading value Reading habit

In depth/ concentrate reading

Sustained attention reading

No linear reading

Reanding selectively

One time reading

Keyword spotting

Browse scan

Time spending Reading modes map

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User get lost in information explosion age The growing number of publication in wider ranges and the specific and diverse needs make people difficult in meeting the information they want. In e commerce world/social media there is a trend named “The F factor” which is all about how friends, fans & followers greatly influence consumers’ purchasing decisions in ever-more sophisticated ways. here are just five of the ways that the F-FACTOR influences consumption behavior: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

F-DISCOVERY: How consumers discover new products and services by relying on their social networks. F-RATED: How consumers will increasingly (and automatically) receive targeted ratings, recommendations and reviews from their social networks. F-FEEDBACK: How consumers can ask their friends and followers to improve and validate their buying decisions. F-TOGETHER: How shopping is becoming increasingly social, even when consumers and their peers are not physically together. F-ME: How consumers’ social networks are literally turned into products and services.

Library as an free information provider don’t offer information/books specific to different users. User feel not confident spending time in library and don’t aware the information which may helpful to them.

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1.3 COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT Community involvement is the answer to financial pressure Library services are changing rapidly at the moment. Communities have always been involved in their local libraries but current social trends and the scale of financial reductions in local government are prompting the significant reshaping of services and accelerating discussions about what role communities might be able to play. Their intentions are long-term, not short term. Many are proving to be adept at recruiting volunteers and raising funds. They are pragmatic about sharing spaces and overheads. They are keen to increase opening hours and extend membership. They have ideas about new activities. Some are enterprising about developing new services and income streams. It is possible that community libraries – perhaps in many different shapes and sizes.

Involve community and give right back to user In the last few years, there has been a rapidly growing trend to involve communities in library service delivery in more significant ways – not only to support and enhance library services but also in some places to manage them or even take on ownership and management of library. User could be more engaged with greater autonomy.

Community involvement create meeting point in information taking With boom information online get more accessible and approachable, user demand less in the library as an information provider. On the other hand they are look for an information taking experience which is more interactive, flexible and vertical in thinking. Community involvement provide the experience.

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2

CASE STUDY 2.0 CASE STUDY 2.1 CITIZENJ IN QUEENSLAND 2.2 OPEN LIBRARY IN DENMARK 2.3 KIDS MUSEUM PASSPORT 2.4 THE OCCUPY WALL STREET LIBRARY 2.5 THE CHILDREN’S INTERACTIVE LIBRARY CONCEPT 2.6 I STREET PRESS


2.0 CASE STUDYS OF LIBRARY SERVICE Meanwhile public library see book and other information material offering as its main business, many libraries around the world have been experienced various new service offerings and library models to answer the changing of people’s reading behaviour. Library renovation for the new age became a hot topic these years. It is worth wide to take an over look and analysis on existing library service. Based on the function of library offering, which has been mentioned in the previous part, I used the matrix below to synthesize the function of case study service and which is the presentence of new experience. The case study listed in coming pages are small of examples I found. The overall trend from case study is telling: library gives more power to user to let them customize and create for themselves.

LOCAL INFO

LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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2.1 CitizenJ in Queensland state library CitizenJ is a pioneering new-media journalism project in Queensland state library offering support, training, publication and experimentation opportunities, and hosting the monthly Walkley Media Talks. Citizen journalism is simply people telling real stories about their community. It might be an eyewitness account to something newsworthy, the story of a local person/organisation doing good work, a review of a local play or exhibition, or an article about an important issue in that community. Community residences get the power to add new perspectives and define for themselves who they are in community and what’s important for them, which is all know the power of the media. Citizen journalists hold the power of media at hands.

“Give speaker to community residence for amplifying their voice” LOCAL INFO

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR


2.2 Open library in Denmark In Denmark “Open Libraries” appear which allow users to access the library space in principle 24/7 and serve them- selves with loans and return materials. And use the computers, read or maybe even set up a meeting or an event, if the space allows it. In the first instance the term ‘open library’ was chosen as the concept was implemented in libraries that had typically been branches with short – and often inconvenient – opening hours. And ‘open library’ is also a term preferable to ‘self service library’, as this concept requires another kind of professional support enabling the users to complete the necessary transactions themselves and to find their way in the library. Open library is well accepted from small villages to neighbourhoods in cities. The public library has a position comparable to the church that has for centuries been run with open, unguarded houses. People seen it their second home. Few examples of theft and vandalism have been reported.

“Give space and facilities back to user in community” LOCAL INFO

LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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2.3 Kids Museum Passports in Chicago public library Chicago Public Library provide a free Kids Museum Passport to 15 of Chicago’s world-class cultural institutions. Made possible by Museums Work for Chicago, the Kids Museum Passport program represents the organization’s commitment to support the development of Chicago’s kids. Each library location has a limited number of Museum Passports for each of the 15 museums. Community residence could borrow Museum passport at librarian counter and return soon after visiting. The overdue fine is charged if user return late. And continuely borrowing books from same library is also forbiden.

“Community library could become a window to the world outside”

LOCAL INFO

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR


2.4 The occupy wall street library The People’s Library is the collective, public, open library of the Occupy Wall Street leaderless resistance movement. Located in the northeast corner of Liberty Plaza during the height of the occupation, the library provided free, open and unrestricted access to our collection of books, magazines, newspapers, ‘zines, pamphlets and other materials that had been donated, collected, gathered and discovered during the occupation. The facilities there and most of the collection were destroyed by the NYPD under the authority of Mayor Bloomberg in the November 15 raid on Liberty Plaza. Library 3.0, twice-resurrected book-sharing system, consists of a few mobile units – shopping carts, crates - used by librarians to ferry free books in and out of the OWS storage facility and to Liberty Plaza and actions around the city. The librarians see this as temporary, and are dedicated to finding a space to allow for greater access to the collection.

“Gather private resource to serve the community” LOCAL INFO

LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TTOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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2.5 The Children’s Interactive Library concept in Aahus The Children’s Interactive Library was a collaboration between Interactive Spaces, the Department of Computer Science, University of Aarhus, the Department for Design, Aarhus School of Architecture, and others. “The Children’s Interactive Library project was an untraditional interdisciplinary research and innovation project exploring the children’s library of the future. The objective was to create spaces for children in the library that offer new experiences, learning, events, sense impressions and physical activity. And at the same time acknowledging the library’s unique capacity of being the place where children come in order to acquire information and knowledge.”

“Enrich the experience by gamify and body interaction” LOCAL INFO

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR


2.6 I street press in Sacramento public library The public library in Sacramento has offered workshops on writing, self-publishing, and design and layout to help patrons create a product of which they can be proud. Authors are encouraged to print an extra copy of their work and donate it to the library’s growing local au-thors collection. By creating a self-published local authors collection, SPL is essentially archiving the cre-ative output of its community. In the age of self-publishing and digital publishing, libraries have a tremendous opportunity to enable, make available, and collect the creative output of their communities. Whether they can afford an Espresso Book Machine or can spare the time and technology to publish their community members’ works online, there are ample opportunities for libraries large and small to become dynamic publishing hubs in their communities.

“Library provide facility and skill for user to create materials ” LOCAL INFO

LEARNING

ENTERTAINMENT

SOCIALIZE/ KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR GENERATOR

TANGIBLE (LAYOUT, DISPLAY, TOUCHPOINTS)

INTANGIBLE ( SERVICE)

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3

PUBLIC LIBRARY EXPERIENCE MAPPING

3.0 EXPERIENCE OF INTERNET & LIBRARY 3.1 INFORMATION RETAILER 3.2 LIBRARY EXPERIENCE REALMS MAP 3.3 PRIMARY RESEARCH OVERVIEW

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3.0 INFORMATION EXPERIENCE FROM INTERNET AND LIBRARY The traditional public library is gradually losing competition with online information and more and more emerging media as people see library a free information provider but rather than an exclusive knowledge taking experience provider. The public library in the future should differentiate the experience from online knowledge experience.

ONLINE KNOWLEDGE EXPERIENCE INDIVIDUAL

SCATTERED NOTIONS

PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE

ANSWER INSTANT

ENORMOUS

LIBRARY KNOWLEDGE EXPERIENCE CONNECTIVE

CONSTRUCTIVE

KNOWLEDGE SHARING

MIND FITNESS

FILTERED

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3.1 INFORMATION RETAILING EXPERIENCE BENCHMARK

Looking through experience of other information retailers could help me better understanding which kind of experience library should offer. The personal and leisure oriented future library experience requires learning user experience from leisure base and entertainment base information retailer. For majority of people, library is seen as a place serious and bald. Besides seniors and students, most people won’t spend long time there. Usually people go to library with clean idea which book to borrow or which topic of book to borrow. Book store has clean communication system and display books or other products in different levels of priority. User feel more clear and relax exploring in bookstore because it has multiple offers and has no volume control. Cinema provides an onlive information consuming journey. It provides booklet and poster to raise expectation. Client temporary own a comfortable seat and be feed information without searching wanted information. Coversely, library don’t promote information for decision making at category searching table/ librarian counter.

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LIBRARY

BOOK STORE

STAFF

Librarian is seen more serious than book store staff. They are seen as “role manager” somehow.

Book store staff stand at a service provider more than a manger. Maybe because you think you pay and you are client.

OFFERING

Books out of date, newspaper and magazine are all seriously on shelf. The way keep the book all show the side face of book. The communication system has no clear guide locally. The latest book is always onloan if library has.

Bookstore offer multi offering which satisfy user with new staffs(book, product, stationary..) and service(cafe, lounge area and service offer kit) People like going bookstore even they think they won’t buy anything.

CINEMA

Cinema offer films with more information available such as the guide of story, characters which help decision offering. Additional service such as food, couple seats.

The display in bookstore is in multi layers. People see latest, promotion and different levels of priority info which make unbending experience. Book store display communicates with user in helping decision.

DISPLAY

JOURNEY

Exploration /Decision making/ Search/Information taking

Exploration (specific book directly ask staff) /Window shopping/ Information taking

Decision making/Information taking

OUTPUT

Book for reading in period

My new book, fresh mind

Memory of story and topic for sharing 26


3.2 LIBRARY EXPERIENCE REALMS MAP

Knowledge is the application of information to work activities that results in positive organizational or individual performance. Learnig is a process for gaining expertise. Grounded in a relatively permanent change in behavior. Learning occurs when information is understood and remebered by an organization or individual. Education is formly receiving knowledge among group of people or in an organization because of sort motivation. Communities encompass people performing the same or similar work activities. They develop information networks through which they can seek answers to tell stories, exchange experience, invent new ways of doing things, conspire, debate and develop shared memories as well as connections to their daily work environment. These informal and sometime formal networks provide the connective tissue of organizational memory.

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ABSOPTION

PUBLIC LIBRARY BOOK STORE

The shift of library in the future

PASSIVE PARTICIPATION ONLINE BOOKSELLER

KNOWLEDGE

LEARNING

EDUCATION

COMMUNITIES

ACTIVE PARTICIPATION

ONLINE READING CLUB CINEMA

IMMERSION

“Library in the future stimulates an actively learning motivation with group share or retrieve knowledge, inspire each other.” 28


3.3 PRIMARY RESEARCH OVERVIEW Libraries have four core missions: promoting reading, promoting culture/civilization, offering access to information and anchoring communities.Currently public library in Milan offer information,education and leisure service. But things could be improved. Generally

The problem/challegue library is facing: 1. Limit of budget in labor and book investment become barrier of growing 2. Adapt attitude of librarian in change of working way with new technology 3. Digitalization materials and community involvement

Thoughout the information, education and leisure service provide, user feel: 1. Unknown the offering 2. Library is serious,bald and quietly 3. Get lost in information offered

The context need(pulishing, author and bookstore): 1. Competition for consumers’ attention with other media 2. Book exposure to user

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Library strategy shift - global reading/learning For public library(especially locate in community), strately bring in treatment/entertainment and engage people to create locally is necessary to differentiate the online information and enhance the power of community. Meanwhile a global reading/learning experience with all steps completed in journey could compete with other information material offering channel such as bookstore, online seller.

LEARNING COMPREHENSION AWARE

DECIDE

TAKE INFO

DECODE/IMAGINE

SHARE/ DISCUSS

REVIEW/ RECALL

RESONATE

CREATE

TAKING INFO-LEARNING-CREATE

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Library stratgy shift - offering The diagram below shows the three exisiting offering information, education, leisure. The red column new service creation is the extension from user’s reading/learning. As the context is for public library, the creation part should be overlaping with leisure. User create knowledge or understanding though leisure activity. PROGRAM FOCUS LIBRARY IS A KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR

CREATE

READING COULD BE TREATMENT/ENTERTAINMENT

BETTER GLOBAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE

LOCAL INFO BRIDGE

LEISURE

EDUCATION

INFORMATION

USER DEMAND BE KNOWN

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SELF ESTEEM

FULFILMENT,EASE

SELF-ACTULASATION (Problem solving, creativity spontaneity)


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4

FIELD OBSERVATION 4.0 THREE LIBRARY JOURNEYS 4.1 TARGETED JOURNEY 4.2 EXPLORATION JOURNEY 4.3 INHABIT JOURNEY


4.0 ANALYSIS ON THREE USER JOURNEYS IN LIBRARY The journey on the top is target to the specific. It requires focus on specific so there are process before to get to the idea which specific to borrow. There are mainly three journeys in library context. The main journey in the middle is onsite exploration which take more time but provide suprise, inspiring and knowledge pursue. The journey on bottom summarys the inhabit activities in library(read, internet, study, activity...). Librarian spend most of time in introduce, supervisw, search code and put book back which could be done with other support. And the reference work should be the main activity of librarian to bridge user with demand information.

PHOTOCOPY/PRINT

SEARCH

“SPECIFIC FLOW”

RENEW

CHECK

“EXPLORATION FLOW” MAKE CARD

DECISION

INFO

BORROW

EXPLORE

RETURN SHARE

STORAGE

“INHABIT FLOW”

INHABIT(READ, INTERNET, STUDY, ACTIVITY...)

INTRODUCE/ SUPERVISE CONSULT SEARCH CODE

GUIDE

RENFERENCE

CHECK OUT

RECEIVE

PUT BACK

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4.1 JOURNEY 1- TARGETED JOURNEY PHOTOCOPY/PRINT

SEARCH RENEW

CHECK

MAKE CARD

INFO

DECISION EXPLORE

BORROW

RETURN SHARE

STORAGE

INHABIT(READ, INTERNET, STUDY, ACTIVITY...)

This man go to library and ask librarian just for renew books. Then browse the photography exhibition quickly. User have to go back or call library for renew.

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A man ask the book code with info on the phone which may be the pic of book. He was asked to come back in days to pick the internal loan books. Some come with book title lists on paper

My friend look for info of architecture for Brera area. He found some books with sentences introduction in library system. But he is not sure the books is helpful for him. So he decide to go to find there.

Few user are willing to search book code by themselves. Human service is more liked by user.

Mum help kid copy some pages from book to let he practice drawing on chracter he like. “This page is nice!”. The librarian come forward to give inform them speak lightly.


4.2 JOURNEY 2- EXPLORATION JOURNEY PHOTOCOPY/PRINT

SEARCH RENEW

CHECK

MAKE CARD

INFO

DECISION EXPLORE

BORROW

RETURN SHARE

STORAGE

INHABIT(READ, INTERNET, STUDY, ACTIVITY...)

The new book stand is popular but not able to use by two people together. User stand and rotate it to skim books’ cover. There is no background info which introduce books.

Librarian provide multi service but it haven’t show. The working positions in library are the same. Many users are not clear which service could ask for,where to ask and whom to ask.

Kid share her mum’s selection of DVD to other kids. “Do you like watch this DVD?” Children have their friends in library.

Make card need personal information like birthday, address, e mail, telephone number, personal document, company/ school. User speak info and check at the same time at normal counter.

The info/event on the board is mixed(accomodation, job, event, class...) User need to look for among them.

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37

User read in the library and go on read the next time. The way to mark the previous page is wanted.

The DVD in media room is positioned by first letter of title. User can’t easily find their favourite film and even hard to be recommend or give info to help making decision. Mum ask kid“What film you like to watch”

User come back to librarian counter for asking help in other zones. Librarian(big commuity library has this problem).

The lady wander in different zones. Books, new book stand, book code table, local event stand and librarian counter. She left with two magazines in 12 mins

A mum ask another mum where she find the book which she is reading to her son. Information exchange between user.

User come to return and borrow new books. Exploring books first because the librarian is busy.

Librarian simply explained the service, the role and the system to new user in 5mins because other user wait behind.

Who is the author? What’s his/ her background? The setting of story. How other reader think about this book?


4.3 JOURNEY 3- INHABIT JOURNEY PHOTOCOPY/PRINT

SEARCH RENEW

CHECK

MAKE CARD

INFO

DECISION EXPLORE

BORROW

RETURN SHARE

STORAGE

INHABIT(READ, INTERNET, STUDY, ACTIVITY...)

The senior sit there and do nothing while her granddaughter is playing. The books for adult are in different area.

Internet point is very popular and people wait for others finishing using computer on the bench behind. Internet user feel been monitored. Maximum time is one hour per day.

The seats in study room will be took from back to front. User like the atmosphere but they also want a little cosy and private.

User like students and jobless people may spend whole day in library. So they go out to have lunch and active body. (The student in front of me ask for taking care his staff at noon.)

When call come in, user walk distance get out of library to pick the call. Library require the silent in most area and not clear the border.

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39

Many parents leave during the story reading event and come back at end of activity. Some surf Internet or take books around to read.

The magazine and newspaper are shared by user. User choose material like and bring to seat.

Seniors come to library with own laptop in searching spanish cuisine, print out and chat about.

Seniors come to library reading newspaper and spend time in public area(compare to stay at home). But the silent of library become the barrier communicate with others.

User sometimes just want digital version of some info in book.

This old lady come to donate many books to library.

A girl was learning typing with the help of mum. Later she show her work to her friends.

The DVDs(magazine, language, ) on shelf back to librarian is not frequently borrowed may because unknown to user.


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5

USER RESEARCH 5.0 RESPONDENT RECRUITMENT 5.1 INTERVIEW GUIDE


42


5.0 RESPONDENT RECRUITMENT

5

LIBRARY USER Emanuela Murari, Maximiliano Romero, Xing Wang, , Weiye Pu, Azim gomaa (from left to right and top to down)

A rational selection of interviewee is crucial. Base on the primary research, I contacted people who has different knowledge background for screening interviewee. The factor of screening are reading hours in life, the driver of reading and whether he/she is library user. Non library user interviewee is important because strategyly I hope the concept could include potential user who want to read and people who don’t have library visit routine in library. At end I selected nine different users, four librarian, library manager and one reading group member at home or in context. The deep interview bring insights which could not realize from field observation. The interview focus on 4 topics: reading behaviour, attitude to library, book ownership and knowledge processing habbit. The talk with librarian are mainly focus on the problems and challegues they are facing. 43


1

READING GROUP MEMBER

4

LIBRARIAN Aldo Pirola, Francesco Ferrini , Julia Moretti, Francesco Cosenza

Margherita Calegari

4

NON LIBRARY USER Qin Xiao, Azzarella Ferrero, Tobie Pettitt, Marius Schmid,

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5.1 INTERVIEW GUIDE Reading behaviour The In-depth interview is divided into four parts 1. Reading behaviour 2. Reading journey and library in their life 3. Book sharing and mind/experience sharing 4. Probe deep with open specific questions. After creating discussion guide, I made three work sheets to framework the discussion guide. These sheets could help me guide the conversation better and more efficient. The toolkit also help me during the next phase of debriefing. The talk for reading behaviour start with general questions to warm up. The topics focus on his/her reading related life and books like. Here I list the discussion guide topics on the right of coming pages. 1. Life & Social How will you spend your leisure time? What’s your entertainment in general. How you arrange working& studying time for weekday and weekend? 2. Work The current work? The past career journey. Does it require reading book? Hours work everyday. Have you change reading frequency in different period of your life? What’s the value reading bring? 3. Books (use the reading behaviour sheet) Read which kinds of books? The percentage of time spending. ( If the interview is hold at home. Ask the interviewee show books he/she collected and answer with specific books) What’s the motivation and value of reading? The approaches in reading different kinds of book. Does the reading outcome meet your motivation? Enough effort on reading? What’s the barriers to reach the expectation?

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READING BEHAVIOUR Name

Profession

Time spending % / Types of book

EDUCATION

Working hour per week

Motivation(Why to read? other media?)

Barriers in reading activity

Studytextbook Socialization reading Leisure Working Self education Information

Reading time per week/hours

6 am

12 am

6 pm

12 pm Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

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Reading journey & library in life The reading journey & library in life focuses on people’s choice on different types of book from exploring books to maintaining books after reading. The map with touch point-journey steps matrix could capture the various journeys. The opportunities for the thesis show at, how to enrich/ expand the experience on entire journey, how to help people better link to what they want to know and how to engage self in keeping a health reading habit. The start of reading journey base on the books they read and like which refered in first part of interview. Talking on specific could help interviewee share their ways and concerns behind about this journey easily, 1. Reading journey How did you meet the books you have? through which channels? (Use reading journey sheet and inspire past story from private books ) Do you go to bookstore and library? How often? If yes, in which context you go and the motivation? Any preparation before going? If not library user, what’s the reason? Do you pay attention book recommandations? use App like good reading? Which information help to make decision? How to decide in which channel to get books? The factor you decide. 2. Library visiting (if is library user) Which books you will borrow from library? How long stay there? Which libraries you go? the distance from home. Does the books in library could satisfy all you need? Will you go bookstore as well. The relevant context.

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READING JOURNEY & LIBRARY IN LIFE For books read, what’s the way to get? What’s the influencer in choosing touchpoints? EXPLORE

DISCOVER

DECIDE

INHABIT

BORROW/ DOWNLOAD

PURCHASE

READ

SOCIALIZE

RETURN/DEAL WITH

ONLINE LIBRARY BOOKSTORE WORD OF MOUTH READING CLUB MOBILE E BOOK PAPER

Which types of book? The context

Frequency of library visit

What’s library to me? Understanding? Things could improve

Search journey Time stay of library visit

Explore journey Inhabit journey

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Book/mind sharing & receiving This part focus on people’s openess to share and to be shared on book and mind. The book share and mind share are difficult to imagine without specific case. For book sharing, I asked about book names of his/her favourite and not like. For mind sharing, the information could be inspired from favourite books or skill or the knowledge field they are good at. 1. Book sharing What’s your favourite books and books not like? Will you deal them after reading? Will you friends or connection borrow books from you? Whom do you accept to share? The factors you concern. Is there certain price as sharing point? Will you be more open to share if that one also share what he/she has? Any poor book sharing experience?(use the book sharing sheet) 2. Mind sharing Will you recommand good books to friend? If yes, what is the driver? If not, what’s the barrier? Do you use online reading community service or offline reading group like service? What’s advantage and disadvantage? What will you do if you have different opinion with others? What’s the ideal knowledge/mind exchange experience with people share same interest? Do you like to hear others’ opinion with same book after reading? For which motivation. Base on what you experienced from past, are there something could be valuable to share?

49


FACTOR&PROCESS IN BOOK/MIND SHARING&RECEIVING The motivation of share& receive

Public Personal network Friend Only self

BOOK SHARE MIND/EXPERIENCE SHARE

50


The probe deep phase is the stage when researcher throw out assumption and ideas base on the talk. It helps to validate the understanding about user along the talk. Questions for probe deep are prepared for different kinds of users. The main topics I treated were the understanding of future library experience, ideal reading experience and socialization from reading. Probe questions If you are going to be director of this library, how will you modify to meet user’s need? Make an engaged, memorable and personalized experience. What could be the analog to the library in your life? What’s the ideal analog for you? What’s do you think the best book recommendation format to stimulate your reading motivation? Will you like to think what book tells in your daily life? learning after fully digesting or decoding. Does your reading behaviour change with your family and different period of your life? Do you have personal learning approaches?

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6

ANALYSIS

6.0 PERSONAS OVERVIEW 6.1 USER FRAMEWORK 6.2 INSIGHT SUMMARY 6.3 DESIGN THEMES 6.4 DESIGN PRINCIPLES


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6.0 PERSONAS OVERVIEW

Hermoine granger

Utilitarian reader

Family focused

New Hunter

Routine Inhabit

The overall understanding of reading behaviours, motivation and knowledge processing from the user research drove me to the definition of 5 fundamental personas of reader. The final purpose of this synthesis is not to give a complete description of all the different readering behavioral types but to highlight the most relevant ones for the further development of this thesis. At the same time, the correspondence between interviewee’ behavioral types and the the 5 personas is not always direct: While some personas have been derived directly from some interviewee, some others are the result of a mix and match process of different interviewee’ feedbacks filtered b my personal understanding. Each personas is described through an evocative name, a statement that synthesis the attitude toward reading and other behavioral patterns such as the socialization driver in reading, the dependence of mind, the avenue for reading resource and so on.

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Meet Paola, the New Hunter in info taking. Paola is an office clerk at 47 years old. She is a light reader. Visiting bookstores on her way back home is a way to relax. On Saturday, she sometimes go to community library to expose to books/magzines she may not known and events going organized in community. She support the regional author/poets’ work too. Not everytime she borrow book home after wandering around. Her reading interest changes with the influence of life and she enjoy the time in bookstore/library with the relax atmosphere, surprise and inspiring.

SOCIAL AWARENESS READING AWARENESS INCOME ISOLATION (MIND) INDEPENDENCE (PROCESS) FREQUENCY VISIT PB

READING/LEARNING ROUTINE 6:00

12:00

Internet news

News Leisure book

18:00

News Leisure book 24:00

WEEKDAY

Self education

“ I don’t only read the latest publication but I am interest to see the latest publication. I think stick on own reading habbit will constrain mind.” “I read slowly and can’t finish book before the return date of library”

News

WEEKEND

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Meet Marco, Family focused think spending individual reading is luxury for family life. Marco is the father of a 7 years old boy. He is a professor of physical computing with 40 hours working per week. He was used to go to library every week with his son in order to build the reading habbit and language learning years ago. Later his son borrow books from primary school so he don’t go library since one year and half ago. He like reading but feel the limited spare time should spend with family. He buy book online or in bookstore sometimes when he meet the interesting book casually. But hardly deliberately go to library.

SOCIAL AWARENESS READING AWARENESS INCOME ISOLATION (MIND) INDEPENDENCE (PROCESS) FREQUENCY VISIT PB

READING/LEARNING ROUTINE 6:00

12:00

“ I want to spend my spare time with family so I read only at toilet or in bed for leisure. I will spend much time in bookstore if I were there”

Info for working Info for working

18:00

24:00

Training

News/leisure

WEEKDAY

57

Self education News/leisure

WEEKEND


Meet Viola, Utilitarian reader who only invest time/money which benefits Viola is a young profession in texture company just graduated two years ago. She spend spare time in party and travelling. Internet is her main info and solution provider. She also read profession related books for the individual time and have a serious selection. The review online or comprehesive recommand from friend convince her to buy the book. She sometimes read leisure book but she can’t see the archievement.

SOCIAL AWARENESS READING AWARENESS INCOME ISOLATION (MIND) INDEPENDENCE (PROCESS) FREQUENCY VISIT PB

READING/LEARNING ROUTINE 6:00

12:00

Training Language book

Training

Language book 18:00

24:00

“ I don’t confident in spending time in library, I don’t know which books I could find and if it fit me”

Leisure e book Self education News/leisure

WEEKDAY

Self education

WEEKEND

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Meet Julia, Hermoine granger who read heavily and willing to analyse and share Julia is a 66 years old retired reading fans. She never go somewhere without something to read. She finish book less than two weeks and visit library and bookstore often. Regularly she meet friends to discuss finding, opinion and interesting reading material. She has a big collection of books at home. She like read old book to her grandson to let him know her life.

SOCIAL AWARENESS READING AWARENESS INCOME ISOLATION (MIND) INDEPENDENCE (PROCESS) FREQUENCY VISIT PB

READING/LEARNING ROUTINE 6:00

News 12:00

Leisure book Leisure book

18:00

Leisure book 24:00

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“ I get unbias understanding though discuss and exchange opinion with others. Reading is a way engage me and my mind”


Meet Pietro, Routine Inhabit who see visiting library as part of life Pietro retired from bus driver position last year. He lives with his wife. They travel twice per year. Every morning, Pietro walks from home to library and wait it to open. After library open, Pietro read newspaper that day and sometimes also browse the magazines. There are other seniors or immigrants come everyday. But people just say hello and don’t have deep (the context is not good to talk.) Pietro is also keen on the events hold inside library or outside. He will also ask his wife to participate sometime.

SOCIAL AWARENESS READING AWARENESS INCOME ISOLATION (MIND) INDEPENDENCE (PROCESS) FREQUENCY VISIT PB

READING/LEARNING ROUTINE 6:00

News 12:00

“ I go to library every morning to see newspaper or interesting events going to be hold”

18:00

TV 24:00

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6.1 USER’S READING BEHAVIOUR IS MAINLY INFLUENCED BY THE PATTERNS

The In depth interview and field observation drove me the pattern in reading behaviours. Social wellness and Book ownership are two basic parameters of sharing in reading activity. People has different opening in mind exchange and book exchanging. Knowledge, Internet, Time and time mind, reading amount are patterns framing different users in reading. These patterns could not apply on each type of user.

SOCIAL WELLNESS

BOOK OWNERSHIIP

People(mainly seniors) visit library everday as they want to engage themselves and being accepted into community. They are the most active participator for community activity.

Some people has passion in own book/info. They like the possession of information. Their enthusiastic may disappear after getting the info. The other think secondhand book is dirty.

Most seniors can’t use computer so the newspaper and magazine in library is a window to the world.

Usually people don’t buy book if they can borrow. But many buy books after they see it in library or even read it already. Profession don’t aware the importance of reading want a fast and simple process in taking information.

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KNOWLEDGE

INTERNET

TIME

READING

Low educated people hasn’t reading habbit. They are maybe tired of thinkig part in reading and also no driver of reading from work. They get news to keep them updated. But they still appreciate the reading. Immigrant has limited information channel to the society. They have big need to be informed with things happening surrounding and the awareness from others. For some of them do not have Italian skill they get no physical material to read.

The internet online is well updated and specific in different fields. For some people(young generation and researcher) don’t aware importance of reading because they could find almost all information online.

Profession usually is busy in working and especially after having family, they spend most spare time companying family. Reading as an indivusual activity is “luxury”.

Less educated people and children are more open in book selection. Profession usually buy specific material which library don’t provide. Strong reader(15% of population) has a strong selection in books so they go library.

Most people feel busy because of their busy mind. They get time in reading if they want. People want to shift into relax mood after hard active working/study.

People(mainly retired) who get plenty of time and also like reading finsih a book less than 2 weeks. They are the most common visitor of libraries. They also buy book in bookstore.

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User framework This framework is made to identify users’ reading needs and book purchasing behaviour. Every square represents a type of user which partially direct to persona. The blue area on left is using library resource in their book need. The grey area is book purchasing. The framework shows four barriers for user using library or no reading habbit. Among which the time barrier and Internet barrier could most likely be reduced with more diverse experience and self evaluation tool. THE FOUR BARRIERS: Knowledge barrier (Comprehension & Reading habbit) Internet barrier (Approachable & Leisure) Time barrier(Mind of time to read) Reading amount (Enrich book category)

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FROM PUBLIC LIBRARY

PURCHASE

BOOK INVESTMENT LINE

ROUTINE INHABIT Seniors read newspaper in library as their routine. They also interest in the activities and happening in community.

HERMOINE GRANGER People get time and finish one book less than two weeks, like free large amount of books offering from library UTILITARIAN READER

Time barrier

Mainly humanity students NEW HUNTER and researcher do research. People like use spare time Many profession want read but reading to relax. They are spend little time reading bealso the visitor of library. cause they get “busy” in mind People’s leisure time increase toward to retired age.

Internet barrier

FAMILY FOCUS Young professioners use spare time to read specialty books to improve their skill and thinking. They are not confident finding wanted books in library

Knowledge barrier

UTILITARIAN READER People(mainly young generation and researcher) has not access in reading as they satisfy from the information online ROUTINE INHABIT Less educated don’t have reading habbit. They rarely buy books. The internet service and free newspaper/magazine in library is mainly used by small part of them. INFORMATION

EDUCATION PROFESSION

Reading amount

LIBRARY MATERIAL OFFERING LEISURE

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+SELF MONITORING

BORN RETIRE

GENERATION

RETIRE

KNOWLEDGE

KNOWLEDGE

+SELF AWARENESS +SELF MONITORING

INFORMATION

STABLE

BORN GENERATION

+INTEREST

INFORMATION

STABLE SCHOOL

SCHOOL

+SELF MANAGEMENT

HAVE BABY

+SELF AWARENESS

HAVE BABY

UNIVERSITY CAREER

+SELF MONITORING

CAREER

TODAY

+META LEARNING

UNIVERSITY

IN FUTURE

Life long learning The research also shows people’s reading motivation and behaviours vary along different periods of life. Their mindset and skill of reading also changes in life. According to theory of life learning, there are four steps people need to purcue. The circle shows the mindset or skill people should most gain in life lope to foster a health reading/learning behaviour. The different layers shows the processing of learning 1. information-get to know 2. knowledge- digest and understand 3. reflect and apply in life. The ideal learning behaviour for community citizens are the image on the right. Knowing the learner (self awareness) Planning for learning(self management) Understanding how to learn(meta learning) Evaluating the learning (self monitoring)

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AGE 1 After born Child learn language, how to behave and the value mind at early age. They don’t aware the meaning of learning and building interest in story telling and engagement is important to stimulate. AGE 2 School life Child in school start to learn basic knowledge. They don’t aware how important learning is for them. Self awareness could make them learn actively and build life long reading mind easily. AGE 3 University College student gradually get knowledge and they generate concepts for the better competition in job market and reward effort spending. This age need meta learning and mainly supported by academic organizations. AGE 4 Start career Young profession need sense of lackness and specific skill to adapt the requirement from work. The learning here is more expert centered learning. The professional behaviour/experience is valued to them. AGE 5 Having family The learning for family is more experience based and obvious, such as cooking, next generation education and finance management. Adult need good self management about time and approaches for themselves. AGE 6 Stable age People between 45 and 60 have children grow up and stable in career. They get plenty of time in reading and learning. Self awareness is the drive for start. AGE 7 Retired Retired people get much time and how to organize life positively and sufficient is important. The memorization, socialization and sharing in learning is important. INFORMATION CIRCLE Life long learning make the information circle more stable and multi source as self awareness make reading self driven. KNOWLEDGE CIRCLE Life long reading mind make people prepare for knowledge required forward and fast reaction. People get knowledge from others though they may get relatively little time in reading and when they shift in different period of life. GENERATION CIRCLE Generation needs confidence and proper approach. Rewarding, experiencable and visible output stimulate generation and build sustanable circle. Generation help building good show and sharing climate.

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DIBREIF FROM INFORMATION COLLECTED

Format the feedback of respondents on the wall and distill the valuable insights. The insights creation process is run by two rounds. The role of insights creation follows firstly be open and then narrow down by combining/grouping relevant insights and eliminate the lonely/subjective insights.

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6.2 INSIGHTS SUMMARY The general overview emerged at end of the primary and second research pictures an extremely fragmented and problematic situation. Most of the insights collected, synthesized here, highlight systematic and minor issues; unfaced, unconsidered or unsolved needs; implicit and explicit virtuous behaviours and behaviours could be modified; maketing opportunities; non obvious notions everntually relevant for further development of the thesis. Most of these insights will be used to define the design themes and design principles in next phase. All the insights presented here , as explained before, are the result of a direct analysis and interpretation of information collected during the research phase. These insights are grouped into four topics which are the main focus in research.

CONTEXT INSIGHTS Out of date & lack of choice offering Many people who don’t go to library often isn’t confident to find what they want there. Going library could be waste of time.

Unclear about the service offering Library is creating service like printing, kid story and consult service. But many people don’t clear about what library offers though sometimes they need that.

Window of book access

1 2 3

Many people even part of no library user see library as a window to book access. They browse in library and explosureis themselves to suitable books. Market opportunity exists in library to link with book saler.

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Limit number of staff constrains

4

The labor cost of librarian takes around 85% budget of library. The limit of librarian numbers also constrains the development of Milan public library.

Social need VS Serious image

5

The neighbor relationship in Milan is not close. Besides providing books, library is hoped to be a meeting point for people reading, relax and socialization. The silent role of library and Monotonous offering become the barrier being a relaxed library. It is lack of sharing for book and knowledge in community.

Poor quality VS Big willing in donated book

6

Public library receive many donated book but many of them are not qualified. People is willing to donate books to satisfy their contribution to society but for valuable books they would keep with them.

Single layer of information offering

7

Library provide information mainly as books, magazine or digital book. The offering is not extendable and exchangable which is different with multi layer offering online.

Barrier servicing for immigrant community Large amount of immigrants in Milan have reading need. They eager to be accepted by local community . The lauguage work flow could not offer immigrants well because language barrier, lack of book with specific language and mind exchanging.

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8


DRIVER/BEHAVIOUR INSIGHTS Building expectation raises reading passion

9

The cover of book and the abstract is important to promote a book. Usually reader don’t have time and patient to read summary or book review for purchasing decision.

Reading is a process allign on with content and author

10

The reading process is also a process build relationship with content and author. User usually want to keep the book even they won’t read anymore if they truely agree or has their opinion about what author say in book.

Mindset of lack time for reading Reading is seen as time consuming and individual. Many people especially has their family don’t have time to read. This greatly depends on people’s mindset toward reading. Planing well and using spare fragment time could engage people reading.

Stick on reading habbit constrain mind

11

12

Reading is seen as time consuming and individual. Many people especially has their family don’t think have time to read. This greatly depends on people’s mindset toward reading

Reading is a free slow pace teacher

13

Reading companys people longer and engage people thinking and imagining compare to other information taking channels. It could drive people to do further exploraration. It brings pleasure slowly but constantly.

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MATERIAL/TAKING INSIGHTS Meet right book is difficult Many books are publicated every year. Reader feel lost making decision in front of tens of books similared. Mostly of time, reader could not realize to some books answered and could help them to solve problems they facing.

Mind to own for good books

14

15

For good books, many people will have intention to own one. They will get it instantly in case they forget. Owning book gives reader feeling of owning knowledge even before they read.

Bookownership grows with age Many factors influences bookownership such as education, personality and income situation. The interviewees and people around me tells bookownership grows with age. Young generation could relatively easy to share or borrow books.

My books represent my taste and knowledge People admire readers though many of them do not turn to action. The books and information reader read and focus reflect the taste and intelligence of themselves. It reflects people click “like“ without reading when seeing a sound good information online.

Enthusiastic lost after receiving books People complain themselves that have not read books they borrowed/bought. One reason of enthusiasm lost because they are impatient in reading. Reading group tells, reading in group stimulates reading passion.

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16

17

18


Necessity user look for specific information

19

Readers such as students, young generation and heavy reader look for specific information. Library could not satisfy reader who look for specific.

Some books value only last short period of time

20

Books like novel and text book only works for short period of time. There is little value for collecting books like that.

PROCESS/OUTCOME INSIGHTS Sharing is a process review myself Rethink and review what have read and experience help people learn. Sharing is a process digest and organize the information in readers’ mind and tell others. People who share share mind benefit from this process.

Hearing different voice avoid bias Reading group member told me the group discussion help her to see things from others’ perspective. They physically sit together and build on opinion on each other which is different with scattered information online.

Finding right people sharing opinion is important

21

22

23

People sees the value of internet connecting to people in other part of world. The experience looking for answer online is imefficient and untargeted sometimes. But reader feel difficult to find right people to ask or share in their life.

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Picking information from others’mind help to understand them and oneself

24

Many reality TV shows get popular because everyone has interest to know others. It is interesting and helpful to hear the mind from people shared interest and background. Seeing what happen on others also help to self-reflection.

Sharing information takes time and skill

25

Many people are willing to share what they have learn and understand from book and life. But the sharing takes too much time . Some people are not confident about the information and the way to share.

Everyone could be teacher

26

There is Chinese saying, people could find teacher among any three people. It could be helpful if people could share what they good at in certain platform easily. The power of community could amplify.

Nobody say no to new Many people like to read classic novel because they trust classic is the testimony of quality. But still everyone has interest to new publications.

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27


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6.3 DESIGN THEMES FROM INSIGHTS CLUSTER

Mapping the insights on the context, reading attitude, book and knowledge processing four realms. These realms are reflections of project context which target from different focus. The insights close to the boundary of reams are related to multi realms. This could help to prioritize the opportunities. Look through insights and cluster the relevant one could help me highlight the possible design themes. This approach creates opportunity landscape and avoids project going toward minor and unsystematic issue.

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“LIFE LONG READING/ LEARNING- MIND FITNESS”

DRIVER/BEHAVIOUR Necessity user look for specific information Enthusiastic lost after receiving books

Building expectation raises reading passion

Mind to own for good books Some books value only last short period of time

CONTEXT

Bookownership grows with age My books represent my Reading is a process align taste and knowledge on with content and author Meet right book is difficult Reading is a free Stick on reading slow pace teacher habbit constrain mind Picking information from Single layer of inothers’mind help to unformation offering derstand them and self Barrier servicing for about the The process explore info is pleaimmigrant community Unclear sure, especially find suprise service offering and gold mine on the go Finding right people shareing Window of book access opinion is important Out of date & lack Hearing different of choice offering voice avoid bias Sharing information Social need VS Serious image takes time and skill Limit number of staff constrains

Poor quality VS Big willing in donated book

MATERIAL/TAKING

Mindset of lack time for reading

“MUTUAL COMMUNITY”

“MIND JOUNERY”

Sharing is a process review myself Everyone could be teacher

PROCESS/OUTCOME

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Design themes The design themes got from insights cluster are general directions which could be developed. Reviewing the insights behind the theme and information from primary research and secondary research, I created design principles for each themes. These principles and the themes are not always exclusive. They are derived to guide ideation and project orientation. The final concept could be built via originating/intergrating from one or more than one themes with design principles listed in next page.

MUTUAL COMMUNITY Target personas:

MIND JOUNERY

Target personas:

MIND FITNESS

Target personas:

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-Build up an information material sharing community for wider and more freely info access. -Bond the relationship between community citizens with more info sharing between. (perhaps through info media) -User manage and customize solution for themselves

Hermoine Granger, Utilitatian Reader, Family Focus -Feeding surprise and inspiration in onsite experience and use journey. -Detect user’s need and customize in feedng. -Provide multi layers of information for exploration. -Library provide link to other information/knowledge provider online and offline. -Build a tool make people more sensitive to info and fast, easy share.

New Hunter, Hermoine Granger, Family Focus, Routine Inhabit -Help people understand the importance and easiness in keep reading/learning habit(espe cially for middle age) -Make “library” more close to people’s daily jounery. -Make reading/learning a team avitivty(especially between family members)

New Hunter, Family Focus, Utilitarian Reader


6.4 DESIGN PRINCIPLES 18 Experience design principles work as critera and driver working toghether with pesonas and patron’s journey in ideation stage. The principles mainly base on the design criteria for themes with considering some important minor issues.

1. Plan well to create time and mind to read and learn.

2. Sense, enjoy and create little interesting insight in life

3. Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others.

4. Create/amplify/refine the knowledge with the power of community.

5. Offer surprise and inspiration in onsite and offsite experience.

6. Offer multi layers of information for enrich and extend the journey.

7. Detect user’s need and customize in feeding.

8. Make the experience in library personal and intimacy.

9. Offer diversed demanded information instantly.

10. Link patrons to information/knowledge/site outside of library.

11. Offer the service on the people’s daily routine.

12. Make reading and learning become a team activity.

13. Transmit a free and versetile image to the world.

14. Transparent the activities and role onsite and offsite.

15. Bridge the language barrier in service.

16. Make the achievement appreciable and rewarding.

17. Build self service mind and be partially as a librarian.

18. Customize the need to satisfy self.

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7

IDEATION 7.0 IDEA IDEATION 7.1 CONCEPTS MAP 7.2 CONCEPT BOARD


Brainstorming

7.0 IDEATION WORKSHOP I hold an ideation workshop to kick off the ideation stage. The aim of workshop is building opportunity landscape. Material from previous stage such as personas, user frame, design principles, user journey and insights are provided for orienten brainstorming. The output of ideation are grouped by individual opportunity, system opportunity and strategy opportunity. After the workshop I added more opportunities and integrated the related opportunities to initial concepts. The concepts will be reviewed by checking break points for prototyping.

Concept boards

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7.1 CONCEPTS MAP CREDIT

Concept-link map is built to identify high value concepts and combine those that complement each other. The resulting solutions meet a broader set of needs and principles in a holistic way. This concepts map used function of library offering as the base and the requirement of citizen relationship as vertical axis for systhemizing them into holistic solutions. The red concepts are system concepts. The grey concepts are experience refinement concepts. The arrow with different colours show the relationship between concepts.

credit flow

â‚Ź financial flow outsource

topic flow

3

Info center

2

Language bridge

1

INFO

81

Easy info feeding

Interaction bridge lan

Easy and clear start

Ma cle


COMMUNITY IS A FAMILY

4

2

Encourage skill/knowledge sharing more closely in community

Resource community

6

Value balance of brain, labor, material and discount from external service

7

Versatile space

Make valued info brochure Experential learning game to train thinking skill and observation especially for kids. Participator collect and share the most valuable info to community.

Different spaces for various demands make library more intimacy and personalized

5

Promote my story and/with book Stimulator of sharing own experience related with book and building material flow in community

7 3

Knowledge kit Shared info, tips and knowledge from others’ past experience build short cut

nfo center

6

Company account

Locate in routine and build social pressure

Journey surprise Bring surprise and inspiring in library journey

5

Easy info feeding

Language bridge

O

Everyone is teacher

Bookstore table Widen the info offering and bring book business in library

Interaction touch point bridge language barrier

Easy and clear start

Make service/role clear and personal

4

Library box 24/7

1

“Extend” service time

Mind fitness gym Individual life long reading/learning mindset training. It creates people and topic flowing to other concepts

EDUCATION/PROF

LEISURE

GENERATION

INTELLIGENT INDIVIDUAL

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7.2 CONCEPT BOARD System concepts (blue colour) After brainstorming session, I intergrated the ideas into system concepts, take each of the design principles and think of system opportunities indicate possiblities for a set of components like people, things, and environments, all working together for a common purpose. In next pages, I list the 7 system concepts which were prototyped or were probed people around me to see the value to bring into next steps. The system concepts are not direct link to final concept. During the process, they could be splited ot combine.

Individual concepts (grey colour) Depending upon the nature of the project, the individual concept might be a product, service, process, message. or the like. The individual concepts are usually more problem solving targeted on pain point presentence. In experience refining project, a group of individual concepts with similar principle could become the solution.

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1

MIND FITNESS GYM

1

3

THE WAY BUILD GOOD MINDSET AND HABBIT

Download App for phone or pc and activate with ID number

2

Write diary and search questions online if there are something unclear

4

The App and software help user build good mindset for life long learning habbit. User could monitor knowledge by comparing with lead user’s attribute. Diary feature stimulates habbit of thinking, observation and sharing. The App tell the attribute of mind like curiosity, time spending, reflection and socialization

A librarian with psychology background provides suggestion base on user’s situation. The suggestion is customized for visiting people/place, reading book, doing activity or socialization and so on

5

Keeping a good mindset and thinking skill is crucial for self developing

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 1

Plan well to create time and mind to read and learn

2

Sense, enjoy and create little interesting insight in life

3 5

Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others Offer surprise and inspiration in onsite and offsite experience

7

Detect user’s need and customize in feeding

8

Make the experience in library personal and intimacy

Link patrons to information/

10 knowledge/site outside of library

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2

RESOURCE COMMUNITY

1

4

BUILDING COMMUNITY BY CONVERSION DIFFERENT OFFERINGS

Every book is taged by user and librarian for building material map.

Join in resource group made up of users with similar interest in close neighborhood

2

Join in virtual group according to personal selection. The group user joined will be update base on books they borrowed

3

User in virtual group could join in resource group if they get enough credit by the ways belowing 1. Lead user shares appreciated personal experience, tips, book review, create material kit. 2. Lead user shares knowledge/ skill though video or workshop. 3. User participates experiential learning workshop 4. User shares private material to resource group. 5. Frequent visitor provides delivery favor in close neighborhood

6 5

Member of resource group benefit from each other by sharing knowledge closely, sharing private material and delivery of books in passing.

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 3 4

85

Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others

11 people’s daily routine

Create/amplify/refine the knowledge with the power of community

16 preciable and rewarding

Offer the service on the

Make the achievement ap-

Build self service mind and

17 be partially as a librarian

User get credit after offering benefit to other members. Their user level make progress. So user could join in more resource group or get discount from partner bookstore, travelling agency.


3

EVERYONE IS A TEACHER

THE POSSIBLE TO ORDER KNOWLEDGE SHARING FACE TO FACE

“Teacher” could make a

4A video for wanted skill if User votes for most

1A wanted skill and

teacher if they have in mind

1B

attendance could be difficult. The video will play in library

Librarian sends

2A invitation for the

5 Get reward and credit

most popular “teacher” and contact for further step

Anyone could send recommendation for sharig their skill concerning the motivation of social, reputation or business

3

Librarian sends out the workshop info to related groups after getting confirmation from “teacher”. Sometimes the participation donation is required considering the cost of material and attendance fee

Organize a workshop to share

4B konwledge/skill face to face

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 3 4

Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others Create/amplify/refine the knowledge with the power of community

7

Detect user’s need and customize in feeding

Transparent the activities

14 and role onsite and offsite

Link patrons to information/

10 knowledge/site outside of library

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4

RESOURCE COMMUNITY

BUILDING COMMUNITY BY CONVERSION DIFFERENT OFFERINGS

2

1

Jian has a dream to be a painter. He also want to learn cooking chinese cuisine

4

Jian writes his learning experience after months for knowledge kit. Putting down personal experience helps user to rethink and reflect.

He sees a collection of material base on others’ experience for learning painting. The material include the most useful books collection, the best learning experience from others(tips and understanding, video helpful, link of useful info online though scaning info mark)

6 5

Librarian reviews the info marks collected and refines/creates the knowledge kit considering others’ vote of info mark

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 3 4

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Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others Create/amplify/refine the knowledge with the power of community

7

Detect user’s need and customize in feeding. Link patrons to information/

10 knowledge/site outside of library

Transparent the activities

14 and role onsite and offsite

3

He begins learning painting base on starter kit. He ask question online to one of experience sharers

Offering good/helpful learning experience is highly appreciated wtih getting credit and progressing user level


5

PROMOTE MY STORY AND/WITH BOOK

1

2

Jian can not find wanted book in library system. He need that book as soon as possible

STORY BUILDS EXPECTATION AND GIVES PLEASURE

He buys one from Amzon

3

The book is nice but Jian don’t want to keep it after reading/ He wants share the story of this book to others

4

He records a 4 min video according to guideline in library to share the story/ his story with book/ understanding of this book

6B User could buy private

5

His book story could be watched with book at side in library. User watches videos for building expectation of book

6A secondhand books. User checks out at librarian counter

User could buy book from “bookstore” in library. They can get book instantly or receive at home. The credit of library could create discount of book. Many latest books own by bookseller are display here for reading

Library possibly purchases

6C book from private user if the book is highly appreciated and it is not stock in library

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 3 5

Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others Offer surprise and inspiration in onsite and offsite experience

6 9

Offer multi layers of information for enrich and extend the journey Offer diversed demanded information instantly

Customize the need to

18 satisfy self

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6

VERSATILE SPACE

MULTI FUNCTION SPACE BRINGS LEISURE IMAGE

4

1

Sport area with exercise guide helps people activate body to refresh mind. The food area run by external supplier is inhabit friendly.

User could share info(book review, story related) with info mark. Going to library is for material and knowledge/experience/story around material

DESIGN PRINCIPLE

8

89

Library has a serious image now because of quiet requirement. Bring in block space could build up versatile space for different using. The hall space becomes calling and socialization friendly

5

Library bridges the user with business partners which are relavant with theme offering.(Such as tourism agency, museum)

Library now seperates area by types of material which is different with user’s first mind logic. Dividing library by theme help to build group and give customized feeling in offering

2

6

3

Offer multi layers of information for enrich and extend the journey

10 knowledge/site outside of

Make the experience in library personal and intimacy

18

Link patrons to information/ library Customize the need to satisfy self


7

MAKE VALUED INFO BROCHURE

1

4

Peter and his mom are going to participate the community voice brochure making. They do reading, creating and collecting material for preparation

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PUT KNOWLEDGE IN PRACTICE

2

Children start to create the cover and back of “community voice” while parents are reoragnizing, simplifying and giving comment to material for brochure.

5

Jury session base on watching other’s story collected from services in system. A guideline is given for criteria and stimulator of thinking during jury.

Select the template to fill in the material

6

3

Youngster present their decision, giving reason about what’s the value in application and how to apply. They negotiate with others

Give several brochures to “editor“ for distributing. The brochure will be given to any “raw” knowledge/experience/story provider as well and the rest will display in library for sharing

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 1

Plan well to create time and mind to read and learn

2

Sense, enjoy and create little interesting insight in life

3 4

Easily, safely and confidently share my information to others Create/amplify/refine the knowledge with the power of community

Make reading and learning

12 become a team activity in 16

family Make the achievement appreciable and rewarding

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1

EASY STARTER

Touch screen is used for self service for new user. User fill in profile info such as their good at skill, interest.The service offering of library will show as videos in multi language choice. At end the card with noting area comes out from device

DESIGN PRINCIPLE Transmit a free and ver-

LANGUAGE BRIDGE

Touchpoint works as a language bridge. User choose language and the step in journey they need support. Their doubts could be answered by video explaining common questions or librarian support (google translator embeded to translate wanted support)

DESIGN PRINCIPLE Transmit a free and ver-

13 setile image to the world

13 setile image to the world

18 Customize the need to

15 in service

satisfy self

91

2

Bridge the language barrier


3

INFORMATION CENTER

4

LIBRARY BOX 24/7

The info board is divied by different topics such as job, course, assitance, workshop, discount.

DESIGN PRINCIPLE Transparent the activities

14 and role onsite and offsite

User could order books wanted with App or online, Librarian puts wanted books in library box outside of gate. User could come to pick books at anytime.

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 8

Make the experience in library personal and intimacy Customize the need to

18 satisfy self.

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5

BOOKSTORE TABLE

6

JOUNERY SURPRISE

Bookstore table display the most important latest publication for user reading/browsing on site. Library is a window of book info and it bridges user with book seller by discount if user using credit of library. Some books user could get instant, some will be send home if they are not in stock in library

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 6

Offer multi layers of information for enrich and extend the journey

10 Link patrons to information/ knowledge/site outside of library

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Recommendation from friend and system will show in site map with game like information. Sugar, capsule shows the treatment of recommendation. User could see the attributes of books (indicate number for mind health, skill acquisition or just for fun) and make borrowing decision

DESIGN PRINCIPLE 5 7

Offer surprise and inspiration in onsite and offsite experience Detect user’s need and customize in feeding

Customize the need to

18 satisfy self


7

COMPANY ACCOUNT

Company account could help buiding reading culture in people’s daily routine. People’s reading habbit is greatly influenced by social pressure. Library could get lead user support from company as reward

DESIGN PRINCIPLE Offer the service on the

11 people’s daily routine

12 Make reading and learning become a team activity

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8

TESTING & FRAMING

8.0 RAPID PROTOTYPING OVERVIEW 8.1 RAPID PROTOTYPING PROCESS


8.0 RAPID PROTOTYPING I did three rapid prototyping tests for the initial ideas: 1. book related story sharing 2. book sharing in interest group. The third test combines the outcome from previous tests. The feedback of book sharing in interest group came out not positive, so I found another sharing model Virtual credit for the book sharing. Below is the general process.

WATCHING STORY TEST

CREATING STORY TEST

Ask friend sharing what he has read recently on talk with simple preparation. Try to inspire him to review and share and record the sharing in audio.

Show the video story to unacquaianted people who may interest to this video. See the feedback and intention of audience sharing her story.

STORY SHARING & BOOK SHARING TEST

Ask people display private books and fill in book possession map. Introduce the interest group concept and show simulator website. See how many books could be enrolled in the service. Ask to fill story template and share one book they finished.

TOOL Book possession Web simulator map

Record audio

OUTCOME

Decide percha Kucha story

C Form story template

Define features of Use Virtual credit recording app

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8.1 RAPID PROTOTYPING PROCESS SCENARIO: CREATING STORY

QUESTIONS TO ANSWER

INSTRUCTION

What’s the “story“ like? which kind of information relate with book people is people willing to share? How to make the story sharing process simple and interesting? Ask friend sharing what he has read recently on talk with simple preparation. Try to inspire him to review and share. Record the sharing in audio. People is interested to share their “story” about book.

EXPECTATION

OUTPUT

OUTLOOK

The difficulty of creating story and the time of creating story is acceptable 1. Putting guideline on paper on story template help to reduce the mistakes and break off. 2. Percha kucha like video is easier to make and less privacy than recording video. 3. Story teller control recorder to record or pause 4. Human communication helps to engage thinking and remembering 5. User worry to share info which is too personal and subjective Concerning the limit of librarian, a app could be used to provide introduction in creating story. Will the story teller like to share his story to his friends?

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SCENARIO: WATCHING STORY

QUESTIONS TO ANSWER

INSTRUCTION

EXPECTATION

What’s the feedback of people watch story video? Could the video stimulate reading motivation? What’s the information in story audience want to see for good book recommendation? Show the video story about architecture to people unacquianted with story teller but study architecture as well. See the intention of audience sharing her story.

People get reading motivation after watching the video about the book potentially suitable for them. The background of story teller could be interesting to audience and the possibility to build network. 1. Audience is interested to the story teller and the book. She told me she probably buy one if the book is avaliable.

OUTPUT

OUTLOOK

2. The story teller is willing to lend the book to audience after telling him an architecture phd interest in his book. The book connects two of my friends.

What’s the information of story teller profile which could convince audience?

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SCENARIO: STORY SHARING&BOOK SHARING

QUESTIONS TO ANSWER

INSTRUCTION

EXPECTATION

OUTPUT

Will people have interest to join in group with people share same insterest? Will they share private book in group? Could people generate information for sharing after filling story card? Ask people display private books and fill in book possession map. Introduce the interest group concept and show simulator website. See how many books could be enrolled in the service. Ask to fill story template and share one book they finished. The service could enroll books could share to public and partly books could lend to friend. Story teller could use story template to prepare story sharing easily. 1. The feedback of sharing book in interest group is negative. People don’t want to share their books for the potential knowledge or book benefit from others. 2. The story template helps to prepare for story sharing (faster and independent). How to make the profit from book sharing more visible? How to let user benefit from book sharing before contribute.

OUTLOOK

99

How does the app reduce break off? How could it make the audio cutting as simple as possible?


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9

MEET THE CONCEPT 9.0 CONCEPT STRATEGY 9.1 INSIGHTS FOR CONCEPT 9.2 SYSTEM MAP 9.3 CONCEPT STORY 9.4 SERVICE JOURNEY 9.5 EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE 9.6 BENEFIT CHART 9.7 BLUE PRINT 9.8 BOOK SHARING/KNOWLEDGE SHARING


9.0 CONCEPT STRATEGY

LIBRARY NOW

LIBRARY IN THE CONCEPT

The public library today is a single material source from which users borrow books. There is little information/understanding/experience transmit between user/user and user/library. This system allows lack of book collection and difficulty in satisfying diverse users. The concept stimulates book/story sharing by amplify the secondhand book selling, socialization and wider range of book borrowing need. And the reading expectation built by interesting stories shared by users could also bring extra profit from book store to library. With this concept, users could share their books, stories, understanding, experience with others and get to know people with similar interest in community. The concept could build a library experience with open source and multi source platform for both material and knowledge.

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9.1 INSIGHTS FOR CONCEPT

SHOW OFF MY VOICE These insights out from hundred insights are distilled for support the final concept base on the mutual community direction. They capture people’s altitude to book, reading and library. Insights in concept explortion stage is used to drive ideation and frame into value hypothesis. In the development stage is used as criteria to refine and recall the concept to see the value of output. Your books represent your taste and mind

SHARE PRIVATE RESOURCE

Keep good books after reading even may not read again

103


INSPIRE TO READ

OFFER WIDER&TRANSPARENT

Building expectation raises reading motivation

People feel inconfident that library has what they look for

OFFER LATEST BOOK/INFO

BOOK RELATED RELAX

Limited latest book in library could not meet need

Library is not seen as place for leisure

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9.2 SYSTEM MAP Possible Journey

Journey

Money

Bonus

Story watcher

Story watcher may borrow books on shelf or send reading request to book sharer (become book borrower)

Secondhand book seller

secondhand book money from librarian

Private book display

1 2 3 4

LIBRARY

Story share room

%

Store watching corner

€ Book sharer (Motivation 1. For credit 2. Socialization 3. Business)

BOOK STORE

Book store table C

Librarian Book borrower 510 %

Store watching/book category

The system is made up of book sharing, book selling and knowledge sharing. The book sharing is run by virtual credit system. User could share books to get credit firstly by updating book information in system. The credit could be used to borrow books user want from others. Story&book allows user share their story/understanding about their books which stimulate reading motivation and also create better business to book store. Book store will award book coupon to people share most popular stories and library. User could also sell secondhand books through promotion at story&book. The service could also build connection between people with similar reading interest. 105


9.3 CONCEPT STORY Be shared book/ book story sharing CONCEPT STORY

https://vimeo. com/89292694

JOIN IN SERVICE Sign up to join in service with library card Pay 15 euro deposite Get 5 virtual credit for starting

MEET SERVICE

WATCH BOOK STORY

User could watch story in library or on service website

Watch story and get motivation to read. (The book may be avaliable for purchase/ borrow in library/owner’s home

FIND THE BOOK

SCAN THE BOOK

Find the book on shelf. This book costs 3 virtual credit to borrow.

Scan to demonstrate book status before check out

106


Share book (at home)

UPLOAD BOOKS INFORMATION Upload images of books willing to share, set credit for each books (Juria choose optional share for keeping books at home)

PASS THE BOOK Leave the book in locker box inside library. The status “wait for pick up” and password will automatically updated in system

107

EVALUATE REQUEST A want to read request from Luca. Luca’s profile, history review and the motivation convince Juria to accept the request

REMIND(RETURN&PICK)

RATE

An automatic reminder to take the book back from locker box after Luca returned the book.

Rate satisfaction for this borrowing to Luca base on the book maintaining, possible reading review, time following and so on


Share story in library

CREATE STORY Take some photoes for the book according the audio. Choose the operation for this book(for sell, share, in library/at home)

PREPARE

TELL STORY

Want to promote a book (sell, get more credit or promote own work/publication business). Fill the card provide

Tell story in front of pad about your story, understanding with this book, the content of book and for the proper reader.

PUT ON SHELF Put the book at the location system designated together with story card

REMIND(MONEY) Remind of selling money arrive into account

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9.4 SERVICE JOURNEY READING MOTIVATION WATCH STORY

SHARE OPINION BOOK (share at home)

BOOK (share in library)

BE SHARED ACTIVATE SERVICE

PICK BOOK & SCAN CHECK OUT

WANT TO READ REQUEST

PREPARE FOR RECORD STORY STORY SHARING

RENEW

RETURN

COMPENSATION

LIBRARY

OPEN SHARE

SHARER

RETURN REMIND

CONDITIONAL SHARE

SHARING BOOK

BORROWING REQUEST PROCESS

PASS BOOK

PROCESS REQUEST

TAKE BACK APPEAL

RATE

GET COUPON

Service journey helps to framework the concept and bring the possibility to evaluate and refine. Journey map use circle(the size reflects the amount of user include) to represent activity step and arrow for the logic flow between steps. Through this, designer see the user enrollment in this concept and work on breakpoints or missing steps. Service design refinement is a process starting from several “black box” activities to “open” them layer by layer until building a journey. The refinement for each step follows according priority of each steps. The value of stakeholders and feasibility should be considered along the process. In next pages, I will explain the experience principle service provide for book sharing and story sharing base on the journey map. The experience principle recalls the experience principle in the ideation stage.

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9.51 EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE - GENERATE & EXCHANGE READING MOTIVATION WATCH STORY

SHARE OPINION BOOK (share at home)

BOOK (share in library)

BE SHARED ACTIVATE SERVICE

PICK BOOK & SCAN CHECK OUT

WANT TO READ REQUEST

PREPARE FOR RECORD STORY STORY SHARING

RENEW

RETURN

COMPENSATION

LIBRARY

OPEN SHARE

SHARER

RETURN REMIND

CONDITIONAL SHARE

SHARING BOOK

BORROWING REQUEST PROCESS

PASS BOOK

PROCESS REQUEST

TAKE BACK APPEAL

RATE

Rethink what have read

Watch others’ story and build on opinion

Sell secondhand book/ promote books

Connect every corner of the city

Story card at record studio help story sharer inspire and rethink what they read.

User get to book related information efficient and pleasure by watching story shared. They could leave message to story sharer which create knowledge exchange

User could promote books which they like to sell by telling story. Small publishing and local author could also use this to promote their work

The existing internal loan system makes book sharing/shared between every corner of city possible

GET COUPON

110


Rethink what have read and experience Story card is displayer out of record studio. It helps story teller to review and rethink what they have read and experience and build structure for the story. Filling the card takes around 15 mins and user could share what they want to share base on the information on the card. For books share in library, book owner could keep the card in the book. The card itself reduces the distance between book owner and borrower. The process building story helps people think what happen in book and things around their life. It is a platform for people share their mind after reading.

ADDTIONAL INFORMATION

111


Recording studio The recording studio stand in library providing one seat for filling card and one seat for recording. The recording is done with a tablet and the process of recording is: Fill the story card which help to recall and construct story Set the order of story and record chapter by chapter Take photoes and attach photoes on the audio track Complete the information for the story. Choose share or sell and set price or credit according to user’ decision APP DEMO

https://vimeo.com/86659333

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Watch other’s story and build on opinion The story stand in library is a window user watch what others read and their opinion about that. These could help people making reading decision and creating reading motivation. Choose book related videos for wide range of category Watch personal story, knowledge, notes about one book shared by others Click like to favourite video See the profile of story teller and send a message for sharing opinion or connection If audience is interest in the book, click want to read(conditional share) or find the book in library to borrow (open share).

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Internal loan

Delivery between library branches

Amici “Private� library

Connect every corner of the city Library system has internal loan service which connect 26 library branches around the Milan city. With this existing service, Amici intergrates the book resource from potential service user in 13000 library users in Milan. This ideally could build a huge private library

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9.52 EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE - ASSURED & TRANSPARENT READING MOTIVATION SHARE OPINION

WATCH STORY

BOOK (share at home)

BOOK (share in library)

BE SHARED ACTIVATE SERVICE

PICK BOOK & SCAN CHECK OUT

WANT TO READ REQUEST

PREPARE FOR RECORD STORY STORY SHARING

115

RENEW

RETURN

COMPENSATION

LIBRARY

OPEN SHARE

SHARER

RETURN REMIND

CONDITIONAL SHARE

SHARING BOOK

BORROWING REQUEST PROCESS

PASS BOOK

PROCESS REQUEST

TAKE BACK APPEAL

RATE

Open for library user

Compensation system

Full profile and review

Monitor system

Showing ID card and verified telephone number and addrees is necessary to become a library user

User pay deposite when activate this service. The deposite could be used to pay for late return, book lost or damage.

Full profile such as who are they,their interested books and activities, what they good at and their reading/library habbit is shown. The service records what they shared and the review got from others.

Borrower check the book to verify it is not damaged and scan it to demonstrate book status. Book owner could appeal for compensation according the number they set if damage happen.

GET COUPON


Full profile and history review Every user will be asked to enrich their profile base on their basic information in library system. The profile information is about who are they, which kind of books and activities they interest in. User also be encouraged to upload photoes of their private books. This book images could be used for book owner to see the book maintainance habbit of borrower. These images convince book sharer especially at beginning when the borrowing history comment is not build up. These images together with full profile, the book and story they may share, books they have read and the history review they receive from previous borrowing builds possiblity for people with similar interest resonate and open to share. The information about the sharing history of borrower and the deposite rested also help to convince book owner.

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Compensation and monitoring assure

BOOK LOST

IF...

CHECK THE BOOK DAMAGE

BORROWER

RETURN

LATE RETURN

€ BOOK OWNER

DEPOSITE OF BOOK OWNER

PAY MONEY

€ DEPOSITE OF BORROWER

LIBRARIAN

CHECK OUT

SCAN THE BOOK (COVER, BACK AND INJURIED PAGE)

PICTURE

It is necessary for user pay deposite in order to activate the service. The deposite could be 15 euro or 25 euro which depend on user. More deposite could help to convince book owner to share. The deposite is kept by library. When book get lost or return late, the system will pay book owner the number of money which he/she setted at beginning of share. The severe damage is also considered. Borrower should check the book the first time he/she get it, then scan the cover and back, the pages defected and the required pages if book owner noted before check out. If the book owner find severe damage after taking book back without notice from the borrower, they could appeal library to judge with the pictures collected. If the damage is proved, the borrower will pay for their damage and get poor review which make them difficult to borrow conditional sharing book.

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9.53 EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE - FLEXIBLE READING MOTIVATION WATCH STORY

SHARE OPINION BOOK (share at home)

BOOK (share in library)

BE SHARED ACTIVATE SERVICE

PICK BOOK & SCAN CHECK OUT

WANT TO READ REQUEST

PREPARE FOR RECORD STORY STORY SHARING

RENEW

RETURN

COMPENSATION

LIBRARY

OPEN SHARE

SHARER

RETURN REMIND

CONDITIONAL SHARE

SHARING BOOK

BORROWING REQUEST PROCESS

PASS BOOK

PROCESS REQUEST

TAKE BACK APPEAL

RATE

GET COUPON

Set the role and the type of sharing

Decide the way and time pass book

Watch story in library or at home

Renew request

User could share at home for conditional share or share in library for open share. They set credit and role of sharing. The role could be about borrowing date, renew, late return, book damage, the way and time pass book.

After book owner accept the request, they can get agree about when and how to pass the book

Story shared could be access both at home on service website or story stand in library. Story stimulates reading motivation.

Borrower could renew if book owner accept their renew request.

118


Set the role and the type of sharing Book owner coould choose conditional share, open share for their books. The conditional share means they publish their book information on website and keep the book at home. When they receive want to read request, they decide if accept the request or ingore. Besides upload an image and set which type of share, a few information could be clarified. Such as the credit of borrowing, the borrowing avalible time, is there late return charge, library visit frequency and additional information about using tips. After book owner accept request, he/she inform the borrower the possibie date for drop the book or pass the book face to face.

119


120


Book possession with sharing type The conditional share enrolls more books in system. The book possesive is divided by three ranges for most people. (1. Reading by self 2. Shared to trustable people 3. Share to everyone).

ONLY FOR SELF

SHARED TO

unfinished book ultra precious/favourite read again book book with memory

good book infrequent book with

For most books which could shared to connections, people want to keep with them because they think they may read it few time later, keep for memory or emtional/mind carrier. This part of books are not been accessed for people out of network. This concept expand people’s knowledge and book sharing network and make people open to share with assured, transparent and rewarding factor.

privacy line

Private + ~Quality + 121


SELF

SHARED TO TRUSTABLE PEOPLE

SHARE TO EVERYONE

book ous/favourite book memory

good book infrequently read again book book with memory

old book never read again not good to read

DONATION BOOK

Non reader

CONDITIONAL SHARE

OPEN SHARE

book care line

social concern line

privacy line

KEEP

Reader

COULD SELL

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9.54 EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE - REWARDING JUNIOR USER

Story watcher

POSITIVE REVIEW CREDIT

99%(DETAIL)

story

BOOK COUPON (If the story get more than 30 likes)

10

The credit trade to lend one book Thecould storybetween and book sharing re1-5 points.isUser warding. Story sharer 1 credit become senior levelget when the for credit each sharing. If the story get is higher than 30(Mojority of many “Like”, the are story tellerreaders could these people heavy getwho bookpurchase coupon from bookpartner often), senior book stores library. user couldofget 20% off for every purchasing in partner book stores The credit for sharing a book vary from 1-5 points. Senior user who get more than 30 points(share much more than borrow) could get 20% off for every purchasing at partner book stores.

story teller (1. knowledge communication 2. Socialization 3. Business)

PROMOTION(If the book told is avaliable)

BOOK DISCOUNT

story +1 credit +1

LIBRARY

SHARING STORY

credit -n PAY CREDIT Book borrower

credit +n

GET CREDIT

Book sharer (1. For credit 2. Socialization)

123

BOOK STORE

%

2

20

READING

%

2

%

STORY

10

3

5-

MATERIAL

Senior user get 20% off for each purchasing


Book coupon & book purchasing The device standing at the exit of library is for purchasing book and printing book coupon. Library is the place where book purchasing motivation happens. User could not find the book they want or user have reading motivation are the potential client of book store. They could buy book with cash or card from partner stores on this device and their book will be delivered to their home in days. High credit user and appreciated story teller could print book coupon with their library ID.

124


9.6 BENEFIT CHART

LIBRARY

Find/purchase what user really want more precisely

KNOWLEDGE

Get more latest and high quality book avaliable to browse from book store and users

SOCIAL

FINANCE

125

COMMUNITY

USER

Foster reading culture by provide book information and good book accessibility

Encourage sharing/ watching stories about book make explosure to demand books

Bond the relationship of community citizen

Introduce self to community and get to know people with same interest in community

Create additional finicial avenue for potential business possibility

Way to sell secondhand book easier and appreciative

Ask user share investment for good book

Borrow books from ideally 0.13 million users

BOOK STORE

Bring business to where book purchasing motivation happens


LIBRARY

USER

BOOK STORE

Watch book stories in library is an interesting activity roughly read book

TIME

COMMUNICATION

COMMUNITY

Offer latest publicated book reading in library to satisfy new hunt user

Social responsibility image elevating the social value of the brand

Shift library toward a leisure and information creating and sharing hub

126


9.7 BLUE PRINT

BLUE PR

Secondhand book seller

sign up at librarian counter

fill in personal profile

pay 15 euro deposite

upload photoes of 10 private books activate account

share private books by upload cover image, title and simply description set credit for each shared book

fill story template card bookmark key pages rehearse

tell story take photo with book and key pages of book category choose share/sell put on shelf

Book sharer

STORY +1

wat

see of st telle

Book borrower

create new account Librarian

receive deposite

BOOK STORE Book store

APPLY

NOTES

127

ACTIVATE

UPLOAD

PREPARE

STORY

W


BLUE PRINT OF “STORY FRIEND” LEAVE BOOK IN

tell story

KEEP BOOK AT

money save into account

take photo with book and key pages of book category

put on shelf +

STORY +1

put book in a box in library

accept and time for next visit

(or meet book borrower) +

C

watch story find the book and see profile borrow of story teller -

check profile and history

C

check out the book

buy secondhand book at librarian

pick book from the box in library review renting

C

system email to reminder

pick book from box

put book back to a box in (renew with library additional credit)

(or meet the book owner)

new book at “book-

-

get book coupon if the story is liked by more than 50 people %

receive credit

10

choose share/sell

5-

ate fill story template card ge, bookmark key pages n rehearse for ed

C

-

C

purchase books in most liked stories if they are not on shelf

receive money of secondhand book €

offer book coupon

money transmit into account

%

sell books to library

PREPARE

STORY

WATCH

1. BORROW

2. PURCHASE

5-

10

€ ACCEPT

TRUST ISSUE

GET/MEET

REMIND/RENEW

RETURN/REVIEW

ON SHELF

UNEXPECTED DAMAGE/LOST

128


9.8 BOOK SHARING/KNOWLEDGE SHARING The main concept is about book sharing and personal knowledge about book sharing which is not totally new. These years many private resource sharing service appear in our life. Some of them like “mini library” and “123 library” are well accepted. They provide additional value for unused book desides donating to library. User enjoy the bigger access to others’ resource with sharing personal resource. Service related with knowledge sharing also show in different types. The Quer travelling community is a good success case demonstrate user could find a balance between sharing personal knowledge and the satisfaction bring from that. I realize travelling is more relax and easy to bond people. But reading as a way of mind travelling, it is also valuable to share the knowledge/experience from past experience, in some sorts, it could be more meaningful and educational. If we see reading group as a event base knowledge sharing, this concept could include more people to be shared and to share without requirement of same space and time.

1. The mini library in neighborhood in USA is becoming popular as people could exchange books with others Patt Opdyke, 67, installed a “Little Free Library” last week outside her home in Portland’s Portsmouth neighborhood. Opdyke’s is among a growing number of the small community lending libraries that have cropped up in neighborhoods throughout the city.

129

Mini library in neighboorhood in Potland


For more than 15 years, the box has provided neighborhood residents and visitors with an ever-evolving selection of titles, free for the taking. In exchange, neighbors restock it with their own books, giving new life to stories that otherwise would rest forgotten on a living room bookshelf or coffee table.

2. A travelling information website in China runs with information contributed from its users. Quer.com is a travelling website base on providing interesting and practical travelling tips and guide since 10 years ago. It is mainly target to chinese backpack tourist for abroad trip. User of this website learn from the information shared to plan their trip and many of them share what happen to them after travelling. Because the information shared is like photo diarys about international travelling, many people read them even without any travelling plan.

Screen cut of qyer.com

130


10

DESIGN PROCESS

10.0 SYSTEM TOUCHPOINTS 10.1 PRODUCT DESIGN 10.2 INTERFACE DESIGN


10.0 SYSTEM TOUCH POINTS registeration

1. request 2. appointment 3. review

1. activate account 2. set role

story friend model

locker box

â‚Ź

User could purchase books by cash or card here. High credit user and appreciated story teller could use library ID to print book coupon from parter book stores.

book store stand small room with pad and scaner make the story telling video made easily

book coupon from partner book store rewards the promotion made from high quality story

5-

10 %

pad interface

1. story stimulation 2. story edit 3. story watch

Locker box locates in library with secret code lock is for book sharer to drop book and temporary keep for borrower come to pick

10 %

service interface

1. upload book information 2. set credit

circulation model

5-

Book share model

book coupon

story studio book stand with pad show/make story video which recommand book, sell secondhand book and stimulate reading and socialization in community

book story stand STORY

book stand with pad show/make story video which recommand book, sell secondhand book and stimulate reading and socialization in community

story template

132


10.1 DESIGN TOUCHPOINTS The product architecture of tablet stand should be defined before exploring form. The architecture related with space, people, interface and possible book display directly define the user experience. As a few stands supposed to stay in digital area of library, each stand should not take too much space. I sketched various product architectures and evaluated with space taking and interfaction between users. An ideal story watching experience should be personal but possible for friends or parent and kid watch together.

INDIVIDUAL (FOCUS)

SOCIAL SPACE 

133


Form exploration from the product architecture selected. 134


135


10.2 INTERFACE DESIGN Before sketching wireframe, I put down the interface structure tree for website and application. The structure refers the information content I defined from service concept. The app interface uses a mission flow which try to simplify creating story with recording in chapters. So user could easily redo the recording of chapter if they don’t satisfy. The website is the main platform user interact with each other. Besides private library, profile, book shared, book reading and story shared, I put a message center which user could check borrowing request, system reminder and audience message together. The steps with blue background are steps which user need to set at first time using website. The interface structure gives me a global view for wireframe making. Considering the priority of information and working flow, designer could use it to arrange key information with different variations before unpacking each box.

CREATE STORY

LOGIN

SET ORDER OF CHAPTER

RECORD

ATTACH PHOTOES

PREVIEW& COMPLETE

STORY TELLER PROFILE

APP

WANT TO READ REQUEST WATCH STORY

CHOOSE STORY(BY CATEGORY OR LIKES)

LIKE SHARE MY VOICE SHARE TO FRIENDS

“PRIVATE” LIBRARY

CATEGORY

READING REQUEST

PROFILE&CREDIT&REVIEW

WEBSITE

FILL PROFILE

UPLOAD BOOK IMAGE

BOOK SHARED

PUBLISH A BOOK

BOOK READING/FINISHED STORY SHARED

BORROWING STATUS

BORROWER PROFILE

READER MESSAGE

MESSAGE CENTER

136


From wireframe to visualization Base on the information flow, I use wireframe tool sketching on printed boxes. Pencil gives me the possibility to modify the layout of interface. At this moment, I fous on the connection of pages and the approachability of framework to user. After that, I put the sketch in digital to define the actual layout and the hirerarchy of information.

137


Interface test After visualization slides of website and APP, I used the prototyping APP POP to build simulator for story creating part. Simulating experience were organized in library with library user and library manager. Participators are able to more fully experience a concept design and describe preference. People’s feedback shows the application is friendly to people who has experience with smartphone and tablet. I presented my concept in front of director of public library. He appreciated this concept and decided to organize a workshop for final testing of my thesis.

138


11

FINAL TEST & SYNTHESIS 11.0 CONCEPT TESTING WORKSHOP 11.1 WORKSHOP PROCESS 11.2 SYNTHESIS OF CONCEPT


11.0 CONCEPT TESTING WORKSHOP I hold a workshop in Milan public library for testing feedback from user. 9 participators participated into workshop. The workshop is used to test the book enrollment in service, people’s attitude in book sharing and story sharing.

PREPARATION Ask participators takes photoes for latest three books they have read and bring one book which make sense to share to others. Ask to fill book possession form and user profile. PROBLEM & CONCEPT STATEMENT Present context statement, Insight statement, Concept board. Understnd if the concept works and things could be improved. ASSUMPATION 1 Book enrollment test Check the people’s intention of sharing their private book and the proportion of books they own in this service . ASSUMPATION 2 Book sharing test Are people willing to borrow books from others? What’s the factor influences for people accept conditional sharing? ASSUMPATION 3 Story test Are people interest in book related story and willing to make their story? If so, what’s the motivation of watching or making story? How is the effect of reading motivation build up from hearing story? FEEDBACK What’s feedback from overall experience? What are the points could be improved?

140


11.1 WORKSHOP PROCESS 1. Concept statement 3. Book displaying

141

2. Book enrollment

4. Book browsing


5. Voting wanted 7. Sharing story

6. Request processing 8. Feedback

142


Participators express feedback orally along the process and through sheets prepared. 143


Book possession test 9 participators brought 24 private books for the workshop. Before present the concept, these books are asked to fill in the book possession chart according preference and the openness in sharing. 5 books in 24 are considered could share to friend and another 10 books are sharable to public. After introducing the concept, 3 of 5 books could share to friend are possible to enroll in book sharing in service. The borrower’s transparent and interesting profile and good borrowing history comment could help to convince the book owner to share.

Favourite books (if there are stories )

ONLY FOR SELF

X

COULD SHARE TO TRUSTABLE FRIEND

X

COULD SHARE TO PUBLIC

X

Books not bad

6 4 5

X

X

2

X

5

X

Books don’t like

1

5

X

X

2

X

1

X

1

5

Things worried for sharing (any poor experience, personalilty, factors...) Criteria in sharing decision to different people

Forget returning the book and me either. Lost with any reason. My note on the book may influence others’ reading Extend the loan with any reason Photocopy/scan the book People haven’t take care of my book and return the book in damage(incomplete).

Underline the books which could sell

144


Attitude of story sharing & watch The number in box show people’s attitude in sharing and watching story.

SELL SECONDHAND BOOK

Like having my voice /attendance in community and meet people

Wow,that’s useful for me

STORY /INFO SHARE

Would have a try

4

Wouldn’t say no

2

No thanks

1

SCENARIO

STORY WATCH

1

Watch stories online in leisure time

5

Deliberately going in leisure time for this

2

145

FOR QUICK/MORE CREDIT

2

Useful for collecting credit quicker/more

Would have a try when get time

5

Won‘t share

1

The thing is not urgent. Can wait to get credit for borrowing.

Satisfied from the benefit bring to others

2

Like only share to some people but not for everyone

Share more books help collect more credit.

FOR REWARD(AFTER SEEING OTHERS’ STORY)

4

FOR BUSINESS

Share my story/informatio because I benefit from others

4

Useful for promote my work(author)

4

The process sharing story sounds fun

4

Useful for promote the selling for book(bookstore)

3

3

1

ATTITUDE

Go to library and see the stories by the way

Won’t spend time on watching

SOCIALIZATION(SELF INTRODUCE)

See others’story/understanding about book is interesting

3

Increase possibility to explosure good books

5

No interest. Book information for me is enough from other channels

1

SOCIALIZATION

REACTION

Will interest to book sharer’s background

May buy new book if it sounds fit me

Interest to meet the book sharer if have similar interest

No interest

4

3 1

Possible buy the secondhand book from story sharer Just borrow the book if it is avaliable Just for want watch because more efficient and ease

GRANRANTEE FOR SERVICE

4

(More money convince people sharing book)

10-15 Euro

2

15 Euro

5

25 Euro

1

2

2

35 Euro


Feedback

WHAT WORKED ...

WHAT COULD BE IMPROVED?

Bond library users with book shareing

The story recording process(the process attach image on audio) is complicated especially for average people. For educated students, it could be acceptable. Managing the credit system is complicate as well.

Increasing possibility to explosure good books

The large amount of videos will lose people’s patient to click and watch. It’s may be waste of time to watch video from people not qualified and with bias. The passion of story sharing may disappear after sharing story but not appreciated by others. The book demonstration could not work for the damage in the book. The user profile could cover more information to build resonation among similar user.

QUESTIONS.

IDEAS.

Why share the story as video rather than text?

If the recording story is open with mobile app or website and at the same time simplify into an audio with one image. More people could be include in sharing their story Remind users sharing their information about the book just finished while they returning books in library. Sharing information could attach on existing journey. Ask a talktive librarian recording information and publishing from good text understanding collected from user. The personal stories could be shared in high quality in both content and communication. The booking sharing service works perfect for univertiy students or kids who use books temporary. The interaction platform for users communicate base on the story shared. The library could be a good meeting point for people with same interest share and talk.

146


11.2 CONCEPT SYNTHESIS Book enrollment test The workshop reflects many people seen book as privacy product which they don’t like to share. Their books are the presentence of memory,treasure and life taste. They share books which has little value to them. Usually these books could also be acceptable to donate. The feedback from workshop and respondent interview reflects young generation is more open to share their books. The blue area below shows the books enrolllment accroding to book possesion ONLY FOR SELF

SHARED TO TRUSTABLE PEOPLE

SHARE TO EVERYONE

unfinished book ultra precious/favourite read again book book with memory

good book infrequently read again book book with memory

old book never read again not good to read

DONATION BOOK

Non reader

book care line

social concern line

privacy line

KEEP

Private + ~Quality +

147

Reader

COULD SELL

-


Service user

TARGET USER

BOOK SHARING/BORROWING

STORY WATCHING

STORY SHARING

Utilitarian Reader Family Focus

Utilitarian Reader Hermoine Granger Routine Inhabit New Hunter

Utilitarian Reader Hermoine Granger

BOOK SHARING/BORROWING Utilitarian Reader is the main user of book sharing as they are usually more open to share. They look for wide range of books which suitable them and has less book possession mind. The value of book is the information they get from reading rather than the book itself. Utilitarian Reader is usually young generation which do not have enough space for book storage. Family Focus has demand of kids book, book about next generation education and the books providing information about better living environment or health condition of family. They read for better interaction and treat their family members so the book value disappear after reading. Hermoine Granger is heavy reader but they usually have not open in book sharing. STORY WATCHING User who keen in book information and be curious about others are the target user of story watching. Utlitarian Reader and New Hunter desire to meet book suitable for them and are interest seeing personal background from others. Hermoine Granger is keen in hearing others’ opinion about books they interested. STORY SHARING Utilitarian Reader has the need to socialize and show his/her voice in community. The book coupon rewarding for appreciated story and the credit achievement stimulate them to share their story about book. Hermoine Granger has great passion sharing their opinions and receiving voice from others. He/she satisfies from process engaging his/her self to review the book she have read.

148


Book types in sharing The open of book sharing also greatly influence by which types of book. Below is the book value goes with time. Text book, kids book and part of novel&fiction lose the value after reading. They are easier to be enrolled in this service.

BOOK VALUE

TOOL BOOK/ PROFESSIONAL COLLECTION

NOVEL

NOVEL TEXT BOOK KIDS BOOK

FINISH READING

149

TIME


ACKNOWLEDGE The thesis lasts half year and thanks to my tutor Prof Fabrizio Pierandrei could be always avalible and give me feedback and tips time and time again along the process. He inspired me to be more logic in process and to be focus at the starting point of project for expected output. My thesis starts with the self motivation topic - public library experience, as I see the change and the possible change in library in this digital age. Many traditional library steps are already be complemented with self service touch points. But the service offering itself has barely updated according to change of people’s need. During my research and concept stage, I closely contact with Milan public library system and get great support from them.

Thanks to my classmates Arthur Carlucci and Yulya Besplemennova. They participated the brainstorming of my thesis and also assisted me in video taking. Thanks to my parents, my finacee Mengdi Chen and my friends Yu Wan and Zhonghuan Wang. Your encouragement help me to focus on the thesis. Sorry to you that many times I brought this exhausting topic into our conversation.

Thanks to the director Stefano Parise, former director Aldo Pirola giving me feedback on my concept and also scheduling a workshop to prototype the concept. Big thanks to Giuseppina Carrera from library system for planing the workshop and being interpreter. Thanks to Margherita Calegari the reading group founder and owner from book store international melting point. She patiently share opinion and deep- sensitive understand to readers’ behaviour though face to face talk and e-mail review. Thanks to all respondents I have visited. Especially Emanuela Murari and her Pietro, they meet me several times in process according to my request. At beginning of thesis, I just worried to get unacquainted people spend hour with me. Nice people give me valuable support to finish the thesis. Thanks to the people come to my workshop. I hope it was not boring that morning.

150


REFERENCE Books

Websites

- [1] Vijay Kumar, 101 design methods, A structured approach for driving innovation in your organization, 2013

http://www.webuybooks.co.uk http://uk.themindgym.com/home/ http://www.quora.com/ https://www.goodreads.com/

- [2] Vicnezo Centinaro, Going places, How a peer-to-peer financial platform and web 2.0 economy can help Chinese students to develop their capabilities studying abroad and, in a long-run plan, it can generate social growth, 2013 - [3] Design Council, Design methods for developing services. - [4] Mike Kuniavsky, Observing the user experience | A practitioner’s guide to user research, 2009 - [5] François Jégou, Ezio Manzini, Collaborative services | Social innovation and design for sustainability. - [6] Jonathan Fortunati, Yaaawn | Abrand platform to create a new paradigm for sleep wellness. - [7] IDEO, HCD TOOLKIT, 2011 - [8] Stickdorn, Marc; Schneider, Jakob, This Is Service Design Thinking, 2012. - [9] Francesca Rizzo, Daria Cantù, Live Piloting and Prototyping Services, 2013.

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Articles - Why Public Libraries Matter: And How They Can Do More - by David Vinjamuri, 2013 ( http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidvinjamuri/2013/01/16/why-public-libraries-matter-and-how-they-can-do-more/3/ ) - Aging in Place series - by Frog Design, 2013 ( http://designmind.frogdesign.com/blog/aging-in-place-3-early-concept-development.html ) - Envisioning the library of the future - by Arts Council England, 2012 ( http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/what-we-do/supporting-libraries/library-of-the-future/ ) - Great idea: Library as virtual supermarket, 2010 ( http://outofprintclothing.com/2010/03/great-idea-library-as-virtual-supermarket/ ) - Why borrowing an e-book from your library is so difficult - by K. T. Bradford, 2013 ( http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/e-book-library-lending-broken-difficult/ ) - 33 priorities for engaged information & library services - by Andy Priestner, 2013 ( http://www.slideshare.net/AndyPriestner1/33-priorities-for-engaged-information-library-services) - The Library – Why go? What’s really in there? - by Michael, 2008 ( http://studenttavern.com/2008/09/the-library-why-go-whats-really-in-there/ ) - The Importance of Library Today and Into Tomorrow - by Maria lorena lehman, 2013 ( http://sensingarchitecture.com/7031/the-importance-of-library-today-and-into-tomorrow/ ) - Renowned “brain fitness” expert: 8 tips to keep your mind sharp - by Kristina Puga, 2013 ( http://nbclatino.com/2013/06/20/8-tips-on-how-to-workout-your-brain/ ) - Reading behaviour in wide media age - by Bert, 2013 ( http://cdc.tencent.com/?p=7607 ) - 14 Ways to Cultivate a Lifetime Reading Habit - by Leo Babauta, 2013 ( http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/14-ways-to-cultivate-a-lifetime-reading-habit.html )

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