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PART I: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE 2 EXPERIENCE: FLOW TRANSPARENCY: GLASS PAVILION PERSONAL PROJECT. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE 8 LOUVRE ABU DHABI PARAMETRIC DESIGN 11 PERSONAL PROJECT: CAGE P_WALL AIR&WEATHERING 14 WEATHERING OF P_WALL

CUT: DEVELOP 16 CUT: FABRICATE 24

CONTENTS

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST DOCUMENT 32

PART II: RESEARCH PROJECT

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PART III: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 82


The content of this journal tells my engagement with the world or computational design as well as my understanding and interpretation of two prominent discourses of architecture; optimisation and the concept of transparency. The architectural realm encompasses a huge range of discourses, my reasons for specifically exploring optimisation and transparency comes with the goal to not only fulfil the brief for the Wyndham City GateWay project, but to fulfil it with a concrete link to its immediate context as well as to strengthen the perception of computational architecture at a more global level.

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ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

:EXPERIENCE

a r c h i t e c t u r e 1 the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings.

FLOW

THE art or practice of designing and constructing buildings may be an appropriate way to define architecture, but it is no longer the dominating and most comprehensive definition in todays ever-progressing society. For one, it fails to include the imporatance of experience and the complex level of communication, integration and interaction with other fields of study. Richard Williams, in his work, Exploring Visual Culture, suggested the need for architecture to be thought of less as a material outcome but rather, more as “a range of social and professional practices that sometimes, but by no means always, lead to buildings”(Williams, 2005, p.108). By stating this, I believe that he is alluding that there is no longer a need or desire for architecture to be restricted to buildings and this, opens up a whole new discourse to what architecture can be in today’s age and society.

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By ZAHA HADID Milan, Italy

Zaha Hadid is a well known architect, the influential designer behind many outstanding architecture in the world. However here, as aims to explore what architecture may be, I have chosen to study not her architectural works but rather, one of her sculptural designs. Patrick Schumacher, a company director and senior designer within Zaha Hadid Architects identifies architecture as a system of communications and states that completed buildings and spaces are but architectures more obvious contributions and communications to and with society (Schumaker, 2011, p.3).

1 1. Flow 2. Flow at Sepertine Party 3. Flow at Milan Show (sourced from Zaha Hadid Architects website)

The projects in the photographs are titled Flow at the Sepertine Party (black and white) and Flow at the Milan Show (colour). These sculptural lit up forms are a replica of her product design Flow Vase at a larger scale. At this scale and installed at such events, I feel that these sculptural forms set a certain mood and reinforces the prominence of the events. I feel that it sits in it’s location, not just a static sculptural form; but as a life form (especially when lit up) interacting with its surroundings, the people and contributing to the overall atmosphere. It contributes to the experience of these places and events.

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Architecture doesn’t have to be all about buildings, it should be more about the experience if provides to the community.

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ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

:TRANSPARENCY

TRANSPARENCY in architecture became a phenomenon that grew with modernism. The new usage of steel and glass provided new and exciting possiblities to design and construction. Buildings cladded in steel and glass appeared light weight and seemingly floating as opposed to the brick and stone constructions that dominated prior.

Rowe and Slutzky describe transprency as; simultaneity, intepenetration and ambivalence. I think that, as opposed to enclosed and solid spaces, spaces that are ambivalent and ambiguous in their purpose and status offer a much more memorable experience. I think that spaces that are ambivalent and ambiguous are also the ones that are able to adapt and change with time.

Transparency in architecture is undeniably aethetically pleasing. It also offered a new way of experiencing space. Using transprent materials as facades blurred boundaries to the public and private sphere, allowing an experience of intepenetration and simultaneity in perceiving the space and moving through it. Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky in their book, Transparency (1997) addresses Transparency and how it is translated from concept to architectural form as a discourse. They identified two main translations, literal and phenomenal. Literal transparency is an “inherent quality of a substance” (Rowe and Slutzky, 1997, p23); transprency represented through matarial. While phenomenal transparency is an “inherent quality of organisation” (Rowe and Slutzky, 1997, p23); the spatial planning of space.

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The Toledo Museum of Contemporary Art designed by SANAA, for example, allows the possibility of addressing more than one purpose. It was designed to serve two roles; one, as a museum and two, as a studio. “The glass walls divide space, while their transparency encourages visitors to connect objects and activities across boundaries. The Pavilion is thus unique in that it fosters a close physical—and transparent— relationship between the art in the galleries and the artists in the glassworking studios.” (Toledo Museum website)

THE GLASS P A V I L I O N

TOLEDO MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART

By SANAA ARCHITECTS Toledo, Ohio THE Glass Pavilion designed by architects Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa is an entirely transparent form of architecture. The replacement of walls with glass panels not only to the external walls but also many of the interior walls allows a high level of intepenetration of space between the built environment and it’s surrounding as well as the spaces within.

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C O N T O U R ING MAN’S LAND UNEARTHING THE LAYERS OF OUR PAST

Contouring Man’s Land is a project I produced for Archiecture Design Studio: Earth in 2nd year. The brief was to design a discovery centre exhibiting the history of Herring Island. Herring Island is the location - a man made island on the Yarra River four kilometres east of central Melbourne. The characteristics of this island contradicts greatly to the general conceptions of an island. Herring Island is “natural” yet located in close proximity from the city, isolated yet friendly and welcoming. With all its ‘natural’ representation of wilderness, one would not realise that it is man made without further research. This land has gone through many changes within the past century, with each stage serving different purposes. My concept was: to journey through the layers of history to find out the form of our past. This concept was translated to architectural form through the language of contours. Reason being: the ‘form’ of the past is ambiguous, no such form really exists. Similarly, contours in the architectural sense, are also inexistent. They are man’s method of representing the topography of the earth, we have created them simply to aid us in understanding the form of the earth and the changes it has been through.

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Through the linkage of two ambiguous concepts, my design aims to provide visitors with the experience of literally journeying through the layers of the earth. In the process, they will uncover the ‘layers’ of history that shaped the present island. My project contributes to both the discourse of experience in that one must physically journey through the building to understand it’s purpose and the story it holds. Judging by Rowe and Slutzky’s definitions, I think that my project also contributes to the discourse of Transparency in the phenomenal sense in that the reason for an extruded contour representation for ‘discovering the past’ is not immediately transparent.

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COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE OPTIMISATION, rather than being a design intent, is a technique applied to a design intent or concept to achieve the best possible outcome. It is commonly used in computational design to create an optimal structure. In the case of the dome of Louvre Museum, not only has optimisation been applied structurally to ensure that the right amount of material is placed where it is needed, it has also been applied to achieve the optimal translucency in the patterning of the dome (Burry, 2010, p.64).

:OPTIMISATION

LOUVRE ABU DHABI By ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi, UAE Designed to resemble a ‘lost city recovered archaeologically from the sands’ (Burry, 2010, p.63) this architecture is composed of simple buildings that is united by a seemingly floating shallow dome of 180m (diameter) overhead. The done -a central feature- reflects the Islamic tradition of a perforated screen with the use of fractal organisation of patterning to create a special microclimate for the micro-city below (Burry, 2010, p.63). Computational design plays an important role in the development of the dome. Digital modelling, analysis and optimisation has allowed the architect to explore and develep the dome’s patternin and it’s relationship to the environment that it is surrounded by and the environment it creates. Responding mostly to the consideration of lighting, digital technology enables the patterning to be adjsuted according to five precisely controlled parameters; grid, base pattern, rotational orientation, scale, and member thickness (Burry, 2010 p.65). The exploration through these parameters gives the final outcome of an highly aesthetic and complex geometry which filters light in a very interesting way.

1. The five primary parameters within the circle grid; basic pattern, element, rotation, scale, and member width. (Burry, p.63) 2. Dome structure, exploded into the many construction and design layers. (Burry, p.64) 3. Two variations of the dome that explores the form that will achieve an optimal transparency (Burry, p.65) 4. Optimisation in structure (Burry, p.64)

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` The Wyndham City Gateway Project for the Western interchange presents an oppurtunity to which the implication made my Williams can be explored. The city of Wyndham asks for a design that will enhance the physical environment through the visual arts. Wyndham city also asks that while doing so, to consider the existing ”intensive” relationship between the natural environment and the activities of human settlement.

Through the intent of optimising the translucency of its dome, this architecture has been attributed as ‘a world-class destination that bridges global cultures’ (Burry, p.63). Similarly, in the GateWay project for the City of Wyndham, optimising transprency levels with the design intent of enhancing site lines aims to bridge the gap between the developing area and the developed grounds of Melbourne city; to allow the environment and atmosphere of the two distinct worlds to interpenetrate as one moves along the freeway. Ultimately my team and I aim to provide the driver and passengers an experience of transition in space in which they do through a physical engagement of travelling past (and/or perhaps through) the design. Optimisation cannot exist on its own, it is an application to achieve/bring out the best in what is already in existence. Therefore, this is why I think Optimisation is best suited for the City of Wyndham. The people of the area are proud to call Wyndham their home, and optimisation can optimise the perception of the city to outsiders through their personal engagement with the gateway design located at the entrance of thie area.

“Transparency is not the same as looking straight through a building: it’s not just a physical idea, it’s also an intellectual one.” - Helmut JAHN 10

WYNDHAM CITY GATEWA Y PROJECT AND ITS POSITION IN THE DISCOURSE OF ARCHITECTURE

PA R A METRIC DESIGN

:GRASSHOPPER

CAGE By SHENIA LAY (During BEND Workshop, organised by ExLab) CAGE was digitally designed in Rhinoceros and Grasshopper and fabricated manually with the aid of a wire-bending wooden platform. To me, this project was an introduction to the world of digital design so although the techniques involved in the process were quite basic, I learnt that their involvement provided a fast, effective and close to accurate method of delivering a design to physical form. Digital design and fabrication can be seen adapted to far larger scales today, encompassing not only the field of Architecture but also Furniture Design, Fashion, Sculptural Designs et cetera. One of the many existing discussions within the expanding employment of these techniques involve the endless posibilities that come with it in regard to the extent of complexity in design; alternative fabrication and installation methods; and accuracy levels during construction. These possibilities, although alluring, has also led to many criticisms targetting the genuinity in designs of such digitally generated outcomes. To elaborate, digital design can be simple enough to grasp, however an application involving genuine understanding and control over your design can be harder to master.

RELEVANCE TO WESTERN GATEWAY PROJECT: Wyndham City is still a relatively new area, if the final design outcome was to be obtained through the employment of an (also) relatively new design and fabrication method, I think the ‘statement’ that the Wyndham City is seeking for, will be achievable. The use of a relatively new design process in the area will also generate interest not only with benefits to Wyndham ity but also the digital design world

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P_Wall

By ANDREW KUDLESS MATSYS

This is a project commissioned for the exhibition Sensate: Bodies and

Design.

Consisting of one hundred and fifty hexagonal tiles of undulating, bulbous forms, the P_Wall is a successful example where digital design in collaboration with a well thought out fabrication method has brought forth an innovative design that reflects clearly in the aesthetic values and materials. “THE approach is that there is an integration between form, growth and behaviour.” -Andrew Kudless

“THE average person doesn’t realise how fluid concrete is as a material” -Andrew Kudless

Although I am not sure what algorithms was fed to Grasshopper, but parametric design here would have allowed to Kudless to efficiently trial many iterations for the design.

The results that Andrew Kudless has arrived at was acheived with with the use of Grasshopper. Kudless has fed Grasshopper a set of algorithm which in turn has generated points that will define the degree of undulating in the form to a certain degree. Contradicting the complex appearance of the form, the fabrication process is rather simple. It involves stetching Spandex Lycra (elastic fabric) across a hexagonal framework, with dowels attached to points generated by the computer algorithm. With the formwork set, plaster is poured in, and left to set. The bulbous forms we see are the result of the weight of the plaster against the resistance of the Spandex and the dowels.

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WEATHERING OF P_WALL This project explores the potential weathering of P_Wall. The idea is that, while alot of architects of modern buildings aim to produce minimal and timeless buildings with “antiseptic materials”, they unintentionally forget that their work will take on a life of it’s own once established in context. The P_Wall once set up in it’s position in the exhibition Senate Bodies and Design, is proof of this very notion. The nature of it’s form, alluring and alluding a soft touch, attracts hand contact from many of the exhibition visitors. As time progresses, finger marks and scratches can be seen on the surface. Weathering of the P_Wall project takes this notion to the next level and sets the location outdoors, rather than in a gallery environment. Outdoors, the P_Wall is expose to elements such as wind, rain, sun as well as other living forms, ie. Animals, insects, plants. Overtime, this is how the designers imagine the wall to appear; weathered by the atmosphere and becoming habitat to other life forms.

In addition to studying the P_Wall, I thought it’ll interesting to look into the Weathering and acknowledge the possibility of drastic changes in both aesthetics and form once it settles in an outdoor environment. This project sets as a reminder that the design for the Wydnam Gateway project is to be located outdoors and thus, considerations and measures for such enivronment should be taken during the design process.

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FABRICATE TO allow us to fully and concretly understand the transparent qualities in exploration of our matrice work, we fabricated four examples for further analysis. 1. This definition uses Overlapping patterns and multiple maths functions. It is successful in framing through variaions in aperture size. However the mathematical nature of the definition creates a symmetrical layout which doesn’t lend itself effectively to a site specific response. 2. This form is created by the Surface Grid and Image Sampler. It produces a mix of hiding, progressive reveal and framing again through a progression of aperture size. An image sampler could be an effective tool in identifying site lines on the freeway which we may choose to focus on. THESE sets of matrixes were produced by my team members, Lucy Griffith and Beltas Jap. Contrasting my approach, they took on Kalay’s breadth approach. 3. the use of a rectangle grid and a maths function created a filter.

4. The rotate output creates clumped holes hence focused views and hidden portions with minimal or no perforation both which were contrasted against a regular grid. Density was the main technique and the only fabricated matrice to disregard aperture size.

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TOKYO AIRSPACE

BY Faulders Studio TOKYO, JAPAN

IN our analysis of Tokyo Airspace we discovered the creation of filtering through layering. There are no intentionally framed views, however the interplay of pattern between layers achieves areas of density and diffusion which alters the opacity levels much like the Louvre Abu Dhabi.

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PERSPEX Building upon our achievements in the re-creation of our case study, we begu to incorporate the concept of transpanrency in our form. We tested perspex for it’s “total” transparency quality. This “total” transparency was altered through a matrix driven etch and the apertures were inspired by Tokyo Airspace. Viewed at a distance, this experiment appears completely transparent; however the closer you are from it, the more clearly you can see the subtle changes in opacity created by the etch. The overly transparent quality of the material however was a restricting factor in this prototype.

Although the fabricated results of this design were visually pleasing, the results in acheiving varying levels of transparency were only mediocre. The matrix driven etch can be seen as a filter for the view and apertures as the sight line, while I think that these techniques can be effective, I think that we have made a wrong decision in applying it to clear perspex.

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POLYPROPYLENE To connect the technique explorations to the context and the design intent of controlling the sight lines on the freeway, we attempted a layering technique which refined focal points, as opposed to the previous layering examples which created a filter. Translucency in materials was tested with a md-strength opacity using polupropylene. The voronoi used in this model was inspired by Tokyo Airspace however our next aim was to depart from the voronoi because its pre-prescribed mathematical form has little connection to our design intent. Despite this, this interation most successfully achieved our set criteria and used a variety of our specified techniques. The layered planes create a progressive reveal in one direction and conceal in the other direction. Alterations in aperture size and density between layers results in directed and framed views and effective hiding. A filtering effect is achieved through the semi opaque material, and also through viewing the model at an angle when the patterns overlap rather than align.

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST: WYNDHAM

CITY

GATEWAY

PROJECT

SHENIA LAY BELTAS JAP LUCY GRIFFITH

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Optimising Transprency essentially combines two discourses within architecture. One of concept and the other of technique.

GATEWAY PROJECT CITY OF WYDNAM

The brief for the Wyndham City GateWay Prject asks for a design to enhance the physical environment through the visual arts. This Expression of Interest document addresses this requirement through the creation and refinement of the site lines experienced by the people passing by in their cars on the freeway.

OPTIMISING TRANSPARENCY To achieve this, the technique is to use grasshopper to Optimise Transparency. Optimisation is a technique aplied to a design concept to achieve the best possible outcome. It is commonly used in computational design to create an Optimal Structure. In our case, we are looking to apply optimisation to achieve an optimal experience of perception. This experience will be optimised through changes in transparency levels.

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Where there was only a requirement to explore one discourse of computational design technique for this course, my team and I, having chosen the discourse of Optimisation, found it hard to explore as we did not know where to start. We soon learnt that Optimisation is an application to achieve the best of something. With this understanding, it became clear to us that we did not have a starting place because we have not identified something to optimise. Optimisation cannot happen if there is nothing there to optimise. So through thoughtful research, we came across another discourse within architecture; the discourse of transparency. From reading Rowe and Slutzky’s book Transparency, we have learnt that this discourse revolves around what is percieved as literal transparency and phenomenal transparency and how both of these have been explored as concepts in regards to architetcure. How it is easier to translate literal transprency from concept to physical form in architecture. How it is difficult and most of the time, avoided, to translate phenomenal (abstract) transprency from concept to physical form in architecture. In our approach, ‘optimising transparency’, we aim to explore transparency both in the literal sense and as well as the phenomenal sense as identified by Rowe and Slutzky. However in doing so, while we will keep in mind Rowe and Slutzky’s identifications, we will mainly explore in accordance to our own findings and criterion.

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ART ACADEMY STUTTGARD

BY DR_D LAB

DIRECTIONAL visibility in The Dr_D Lab project at the Art Academy Stuttgart in 2005 creates a filtered quality. “Camouflage interacts with its context mimicking the natural and effectively disguising what it covers” (DR_D Studio, 2006, p.63) Not only does it create a filtered quality, it is effective in establishing site lines with its camouflaging qualities. DR_D Architects are big explorers of the concept of camouflage and their techniques try to obtain an unfocused quality by visually blurring the object into the background (DR_D Studio, 2006, p.66). In regards to optimising transprency and enchancing site lines, I think that utilising the potentials of camouflage as how DR_D explores it, may prove helpful in hiding and framing views. While filtering can achieve the same result, camouflage will provide that subtlety and progressive quality in which we aim to achieve.

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RESEARCH PAVILION BY Achim Menges “Achim Menges demonstrates how material information should become generative driver rather than an afterthought in design computation.” (Achim Menges, p.35) ACHIME MENGES is a team who explores the physical properties of materials in computational design processes. Their aim in producing the Research Pavilion was to demonstrate possibilities and potential in considering matrial properties and incorporating it in the computational design process. In regards to optimising transparency, the Research Pavilion by Achim Menges appears both opaque and porous when viewed from different angles. These opposing perceptions created by the directional visibility are accomplished through the use of layering. The fact that Achim Menges pays so much attention to physical properties and materials during the computational design process also serves as a reminder that through use of certain materials, we can either explore and extend, or limit and restrict the meaning of transprency in our design outcome.

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THE RESPONSIVE SURFACE STRUCTURE I BY Achim Menges & Steffen Reichert In this project Achim Menges and Steffen Reichert explores the material properties of timber in relation to humidity levels. This is a climate-responsive project that places no reliability on technology (unlike most climte-responsive architecture, in which relies on technology to function as it does). It looks towards nature and their methods of response to moisture over time and applies their behaviour to timber (Achim Menges, 2008 p.53). Timber is able to absorp moisture when dry and release it when wet, it keeps its’ level of moisture content at equilibrium to that of the atmosphere. It is through the absorption and desorption of moisture that the form of the design changes shape (Achim Menges, 2008, p.54).

3D SPACER BY Achim Menges

In contrast, the 3d Spacer and the dome of the Louvre Abu Dhabi explores filtering. Variations betweena greater and lesser transparency were effectively achieved through the aperture size, density, and layering.

While moisture content is high in the timber flaps, their structure will remain flat, however when moisture content is low, the flaps will open up. In regards to the optimising trasparency this project not only uses aperture size and directional focus to explore a progressional conceal and reveal, it introduces an entirely new approach at exploring how site lines can be enhanced in relation to change over time. This is not only effective in producing interesting site lines (over time) as one travels along the freeway, it introduces the possibilities of viewing enhanced site lines in relation to the change of time in a day or in a year (different moisture content in different times of the day or different periods in the year) . This places nature in control of the design. It gives nature the power to permit when a specific siteline can be viewed.

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CONCLUSION TO PRECENDENCE

LOUVRE ABU DHABI By ATELIERS JEAN NOUVEL Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi, UAE The dome of Louvre Museum, not only has optimisation been applied structurally to ensure that the right amount of material is placed where it is needed, it has also been applied to achieve the optimal translucency in the patterning of the dome (Burry, 2010, p.64). Through the intent of optimising the translucency of its dome, this architecture has been attributed as ‘a world-class destination that bridges global cultures’ (Burry, p.63). Similarly, in the GateWay project for the City of Wyndham, optimising transprency levels with the design intent of enhancing site lines aims to bridge the gap between the developing area and the and the developed grounds of Melbourne city; to allow the environment and at`mosphere of the two distinct worlds to interpenetrate as one moves along the freeway. This precedence perhaps out of all precendence is the object that has optimisation most rigourosly appied to it. Variations between greater and lesser transparency were effectively achieved through the aperture size, density, and layering.

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OUR precedence described a number of techniques through which transparency can be achieved. As we specifically looked at precedence displaying the effects of transparency - whether it be literal or abstract, it was an interesting and convenient discovery that there were reocurring and overlapping techniques producing more or less similar results. Our initial approach in analysing these precendence was to understand the techniques they used in incorporating transparency as a concept. I learnt that while the focus of these projects was not to covey transparency -whether literally or phenomenally-, they successfully do so anyway, with the use of their own techniques. For example, Art Academy Stuttgart has done so through camouflage, the Research Pavilion through material and spacing and the Responsive Surface Structure I through the outcomes of studying nature. They have also encouraged us to think about others way in which the concept of transparency can be unintentionally explored. eg. Responsive Surface Structure I.

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OUR own approach to this design used kalay’s two step design selection process from Architecture’s New Media. Firstly we produced a number of design from candidates through the breadth first approach by trialling a range of possible outcomes. Secondly the “right” or “best” approach was selected by criticaly analysing our results using a selection critia. The recurring themes of most interest to us in the precedence were refined into an exploration criterion; framing views, hiding views, progressive reveal and conceal, directional views and filtering. The techniques we defined to achieve these aims are; aperture size, layering, density and material qualities. Each design exploration was tested against our criteria to find the most optimal design outcome.

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TO allow us to fully and concretely understand the transparent qualities in exploration of our matrice work, we fabricated four examples for further analysis.

3. a

The use of a rectangle grid and maths function created a filter.

1. This definition uses Overlapping patterns and multiple maths functions. It is successful in framing through variaions in aperture size. However the mathematical nature of the definition creates a symmetrical layout which doesn’t lend itself effectively to a site specific response.

2. This form is created by the Surface Grid and Image Sampler. It produces a mix of hiding, progressive reveal and framing again through a progression of aperture size. An image sampler could be an effective tool in identifying site lines on the freeway which we may choose to focus on.

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4. The rotate output creates clumped holes hence focused views and hidden portions with minimal or no perforation both which were contrasted against a regular grid. Density was the main technique and the only fabricated matrice to disregard aperture size.

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THE BANQ Restaurant looks at directional transparency through layering. - prevents and allows view depending on angle and approach - layering provides a textured affect

IN our analysis of Tokyo Airspace we discovered the creation of filtering through layering. There are no intentionally framed views, however the interplay of pattern between layers achieves areas of density and diffusion which alters the opacity levels much like the Louvre Abu Dhabi.

TOKYO AIRSPACE

BY Faulders Studio TOKYO, JAPAN

The Restaurant Aoba-Tei by Hitoshi Abe explores filtering using aperture size. -aperture size: the amount, the distance they are located from one another controls the level of penetration for vision allowed.

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DIRECTIONAL views are created by the ability to see out of the building during the day, and into the building during the night. This creates a reversal in transparency over time.

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PERSPEX We tested perspex for it’s “total” transparency quality. This “total” transparency was altered through a matrix driven etch and the apertures were inspired by Tokyo Airspace. Viewed at a distance, this experiment appears completely transparent; however the closer you are from it, the more clearly you can see the subtle changes in opacity created by the etch. The overly transparent quality of the material however was a restricting factor in this prototype.

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POLYPROPYLENE To connect the technique explorations to the context and the design intent of conrolling the site lines on the freeway, we attempted a layering technique which refined focal points, as opposed to the previous layering examples which created a filter. Translucency in materials was tested with a md-strength opacity using polupropylene.

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The voronoi used in this model was inspired by Tokyo Airspace however our next aim was to depart from the voronoi because its pre-prescribed mathematical form has little connection to our design intent.

Alterations in aperture size and density between layers results in directed and framed views and effective hiding. A filtering effect is achieved through the semi opaque material, and also through viewing the model at an angle when the patterns overlap rather than align.

Despite this, this interation most successfully achieved our set criteria and used a variety of our specified techniques. The layered planes create a progressive reveal in one direction and conceal in the other direction.

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The next step in refining our concept was the exclusion of the voronoi. This approach aims to achieve all the best qualities of the polypropylene model. In addition, this technique uses both framing and filtering combining the focused views of the polypropylene model and the filtering created in Tokyo Airspace. Distortiion of the grid also achieves this focus and density which was emphasised in the rotation output explored in the matrices. In this example we used digital documentation to manually fabricate the model. In relation to motion on the freeway, this model displays the gradual optimisation of the selected site lines. One of the many criteria it is successful in is the framing of views demonstrated through the tunnelling views to specific focal points.

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DESIGN

DRIVERS

FOR

THE

FOCAL

POINTS

The focal points are a key proof of concept in our design. The driving factors that determine the location and number of focal points are yet to be refined but at this stage, we are certain that it will be site speific. The tunnelling aspect of these focal points and their location will be determined by the angle of approach of a car towards the design on the freeway. The number of focal points and where they sit specifically will be determined by what specific site lines we feel the need to enhance. In order to do this, my team and I have agreed that the next most appropriate step to take will be to do a site visit and analysis of the freeway. In doing this site visit and analysis, we not only aim to find the concluding factor to solidify our concept but also to consider how to intergrate our design into the given context.

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C

O

N

C

L

U

S

I

O

N

The aim of this technique is to explore and ultimately redefine and enhance the site lines on the freeway through subtle interventions and optimisation using transparency levels. We have approached the challenge of creating an innovation design using Grasshopper, a computational design method. The arametric nature of the grasshopper software allows for many iterations of a design. Each iteration can be optimised to suit the intended experience at different locations on the site through incremental changes. The innovation of our approach reconceptualises the use of optimisations and transparency. Transparency is often thought og in relation to the characteristics of a certain material, for example glass, where full penetration is allowed for vision and light. Our approach goes beyond the one dimensional understanding of visibility though materials. We are exploring how transparency can create multiple perceptions.

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Directed by optimisation, our technique can enhance the physical environment through visual arts by manipulating transparency in terms of: framing views, hiding, progressive reveal and conceal, and filtering. Strategic hiding, focused views, and designed site lines are the result of successful optimisation of transparency. Despite the simplicity of the concept, our approach integrates many worthwhile themes. Patterning is apparent through layering and distorition of repetitve shapes. Materiality is addressed meaningfully through the concept of transparency and visual perception is core to the optimisation of experience and affected by the movement of cars trvaelling past on the freeway. The distortion of the grid creates the illusion of a 3D form where, in actuality, it is not. Creating a 3D form would be the next path for further exploration. While our design is specific to the brief of the Wyndham GateWay Project, it all relates to a much broader context as well. One obvious factor, being that the experience is accessible to anyone driving on the freeway and another, being that the nature of the design process involves progressively evolving technology that contributes prominently to the discourse of architecture.

EOI END.

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ambivalence. WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROPOSAL

DESIGN AND FABRICATION PROCESS A/N: The weekly tasks for week9-12 are not in the required weekly order, however all the tasks have been addressed. I have ordered the tasks in the process in which I worked.


:SITE & CONTEXT To address the feedback provided for our Expression of Interest Proposal and to more comprehensively satisfy the brief, a site visit was needed. Upon arrival, contrary to what we imagined, the site was far more vast and flat. Travelling at 100km/p, there is nothing that immediately stands out. It wasn’t until we pulled over and really looked that we noticed the site does have potential- not so much in the immediate objects and surroundings but in its’ landscapes and distant horizons. This ‘potential’ may be subjective, but if addressed correctly with an appropriate design, it could work out to be objectvie to the site. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

I think that the site has its’ beauty in its’ vast and flat qualities, but at the same time, it is because of the extent of vastness that the beauty has been overlooked. The problem is that, the site presnts itself poorly to the community of Wyndham and to the users of the road. What it needs is an intervention to break this vast quality so that what lies behind it can be noticed.

Through our own experience, the drivers’ sight line is very much directed by the curvature of the road. We roughly identified four sections where the drivers sightline changes in accordance to the road. Within these four sections, a horizon with the potential to be enhanced is chosen with the location of the aperture for the sightlines determined by the angle of approach of the vehicle. The sight lines selected optimise were: a) the mound between the free ways b) the horizon to the North East c) a portion of sky d) landscape and vegetation towards the South East To optimise the impact of these sight lines, we have decided on a tunnel structure for the reasons of: a) maximum control of transparency over sight lines across a 180 spectrum, hence a comprehensive mangement of the sight lines. b) max-ed amound of intervention, drawing the drivers attention to the optimised sight lines.

SITE PLAN

AREA ANALYSED

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How to adapt our EOI concept to the site and effectively achieve the focused site lines from the drivers line of vision was a task that also needed to be addressed through a site visit.

There was also a need to adapt the tunnelling qualities of the sight lines proposed in the EOI to the freeway. As opposed to a straight and un-angled sight line, the sight lines on the freeway needs to be angled with accordance to the direction of the moving vehicle. So that, the effects can be achieved with minimal effort and co-operation from the driver.

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FINAL_

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:DESIGN

GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION

I would guess that to fix the dilemma risen in trial 2, I would perhaps need to reparametise each surface or something similar to re-fix the axis to each surface space, so that the x- and y-axis extrusion would sit in accordance with the curve. If time permitted, we would have tried, however with the time allowed, our next best method was to create flat forms (templates) and then manually construct them into tunnel forms during fabrication.

Although this method lacks efficiency in some areas, it is beneficial in others. As a beginner in using Grasshopper and digital design softwares, being able to make the decisions for the second half of the design away from the computer gives me control and definitely, a final say in what the design should be. Although compromised in efficiency, my design remains to an extent, uncompromised.

Although our design is still parametric, this compromisation has taken away the instant visual feedback one is granted (most of the time) in computational design. It also demands utmost care in measurements, in the placement of apertures and it places a lot of responsibility on your imagination to picture what the outcome may look like. Accuracy is important. Visually, it isn’t very pleasing. Not being able to visually offer the designer the appearance of the final outcome, but only a template that must be altered during assembling; this method also demands patience and solid belief in one’s design. Perserverance is important.

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:CONSTRUCTION

P R E C E D E N T: C O R T E N AUSTRALIAN PAVILION PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

WOOD MARSH SHANGHAI EXPO 2010

THE Australian Pavilion for the 2010 Shanghai Expo is clad entirely in Corten steel. Wood Marsh’s aim in using was to draw a connection back to the Australian Landscape; the stereotyped image of the desert and the big rock -Uluru. Marsh’s intention is to reinforce this image to visitors prior to entering the building, where after, the interior of the building will present the actual diversity of Australia.

3 3

4

4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6MM OXIDATED STEEL SHEETING 250UB WITH 20MM INSULATION STEEL BRACING 70MM INSULATION FOOTING

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1 1

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Similar to Wood MArsh’s intentions, in selecting corten as our material, we wished to reinforce the Australian landscape of the location.

This construction detail describes the importance of offsetting the material from the ground to direct water from the structure, which will prevent further corrosion, Feedback: (Must Consider) > Size of design in relation to available sizes of Corten. Would most likely need, Corten in panels with an overlapping joint. > Load of the Corten. Would need a truss system at intervals to support the arching span of Corten sheets. > A lot more bolting and bracing is needed PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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:MATERIAL Material selection became quite an important decision to our design concept. The material we have chosen was Corten, otherwise known as oxidised or weathering steel. Corten is a steel which rusts to a certain extent. A Stabilised patina is eventually created and the materil ceases to rust. In ten eral ent

consideration to is not a transparent sense, however it qualities wihtin the

transpareny, Cormaterial in the litembodies transparphenomenal sense.

Returning to Rowe and Slutzky, transparency could be defined as: simultaneity; interpenetration; and ambivalence. Based on these definitions, weathering steel is illustrative of the transparency we wish to achieve between the man-made and the natural - it is contradictory yet mixed together. Use of steel shows human intervention; the steel rusts over time because of the impact of water and air. This shows the reaction of nature towards human impact and the result is the two elements blending together within the structure. In the short term, change over time is felt moving along the freeay, experienced through the enhanced sight lines. While in the long term, change is shown by the rusting of the steel work in an unseen war between nature and human. This is nature’s retaliation.

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FINAL CONCLUSION/SPEECH

The brief for the Wyndham City Gateway Project asks for a design to “enhance the physical environment through the visual arts.” To achieve this, we used Grasshopper to investigate the optimisation of transparency to redefine sightlines on the freeway, to strengthen our investigation we drew a link back to the site. We chose to use the sight lines to focus in on the “intensive relationship between the natural environments and the activities of human settlement,” a quality emphasized in the project documentation. In architecture, Optimisation and Transparency have been explored extensively; in our approach both optimisation ad transparency becomes mutually dependant as we explore the discourse in parrallel to each other. We have chosen to explore both discourses because Optimisation cannot exist on its own. In our case we are applying optimisation to achieve an optimal level of experience of perception. This experience is optimised through changes in transparency levels. Rowe and Slutzky described transparency as; simultaneity, interpenetration, and ambivalence. These figurative definitions of transparency are ideal for communicating the coexistence and juxtaposition between the man-made and natural feastures of Wyndham City.

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While optimisation is our technical approach and transparency our conceptual approach, the relationship between nature and human settlement is our design driver for the Wyndham brief. “Human settlement”, often comes with a negative connatation. Our intent is to instead bring out the potentials of the site through a man-made object. The optimisation of transparency levels manipulates the experience and understanding of the connection between the man-made and the natural through strategic management of sight lines. The discourse of transparency is depicted by Rowe and Slutzky in their book Transparency. Discussing the use of transparency in art and architecture, splitting it into two categories; literal -an inherent quality of substance, and phenomenal -an inherent quality fo organisation. During the Expression of Interest stage, we explored transparency in both the literal and phenomenal sense to discover a technique which achieved our selected design criteria. The criteria we developed to explore transprency in terms of refinement of sight lines was: framing views, hiding, progressive reveal and conceal, directional views and filtering. The techniques we used to investigate, achieve and optimise these aims were, aperture size, layering density and material qualities.

Our previous explorations included: Matrix driven perforations exploring density and aperture size amd reverse engineering of a case study which described filtering and layer. Further explorations consisted control of transprarency through materials (perspex and polypropelene). Our final technique focused on phenomenal transparency. This technique fulfilled all of the management of grid density, layering and apertue size. The focus of our final design development was imbuing the design technique qith a meaningful connecion between human impact and natural features. Firstly, we manipulated the form of our Expression of Interest technique to suit the site. Secondly, a selection fo views were derived based on their significance. Thirdly, the need for directional visibility was adressed. Finally, a material decision was decided upon. Corten: Corten is not a transparent material in the literal sense, however it embodies qualities within the phenomenal sense.

Our technique expresses transparency though framing hiding, progressive real and conceal, directional views, and filtering; and are optimised through aperture size, layering and density tocreate strategic hiding and design sight lines. Our final proposal also achieved the conceptual aim to explore the relationship between natural and manmade, with particular focus on the enhancement of the natural features. We approached the challenge using phenomenal transparency and exploring how it can creat multiple perceptions. Two interpenetrating worlds are represented by the process of looking through the layers of weathering steel towards a natural backdrop. The physical environment is enhanced by the visual arts by taking a vast and monotonous landscape and utilising it in an artistic expression by focusing in on its best features and contrasting it against a manmade frame. This relationship represents Wyndham as a town with a connection to city and to country -innovative and up to date as well as strongly connected to community and place.

Corten steel is illustrative of the transparency we wish to achieve between the man-made and the natural -it is contradictory yet intergrated.

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PART III: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES Undertaking this course has undeniably been challenging, demanding and a lot of the time, fustrating and stressful. However with that said, I have to admit that upon completion, the end results have also made it all very rewarding; the knowledge and practice I have gained has been a major learning curve in my current position as a student and will, without doubt, be an advantageous skill for my future endeavours.

As the semester progressed, in attempting to satisfy the Wyndham City GateWay brief I was pushed to learn new ways of designing and fabricating; new ways of thinking about material; and new ways in considering the intergration and interaction between the built and natural environment.

PART I: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST For me, Virtual Environments in first year was a bad introduction to digital design. At that age, I didn’t know enough about architecture in general, let alone know about computational architecture - and admittedly, mentally I hadn’t been mature enough to have dwelled into my own research regarding it. So although I managed to pull through with an average grade at the end, V.E. left a bad impression and since then, I had continued on with my architectural studies with no desire to ever touch digital design again. (Not saying that the content taught in V.E. was badly taught in any way). Having to face another course aiming to teach “cutting edge” design and technology in third year is -I am able to say now, which certainly wouldn’t have been the case in week 1- lucky, rather than unlucky. Lucky, because this course offered me another go at digital design with a more mature mind set that knew and appreciated architecture more than I did in first year. It was even more lucky, that I had undertook Grasshopper classes with ExLab prior to this course (an attempt to re-engage with digital design as I was beginning to see how prominent it is becoming in architecture), which prepped me to some extent with the challenges in learning Grasshopper. Starting this course with little desire to be in it, made struggling, inevitable. Struggle was most apparent in the first couple of months -where the discourse was introduced, and grasping and solidly understanding it proved almost impossible at the time- and is evidently reflected in the clumsy narrative of the earlier versions of my progress journal. Reflecting back now, I think trying to grasp the discourse was the biggest hinder in my progress. Once I sort of had a grasp on it, this course became more bearable.

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Argument Formulating a strong and solid argument was an achievement in this part as the important and necessity of it was constantly re-inforced by my tutors. Almost every iteration in our argument we came up with were challenged and questioned. Although very fustrating, this was very good in helping us solidifying and strengthening our argument. Parametric design and digital fabriction: Grasshopper and Laser Cutting. As a beginner, I find that the most beneficial quality in using Grasshopper for design and a lasercutting machine for fabrication is the efficiency it guarantees in the time needed to produce, alter and execute a design (provided that you have the required knowledge). The matrices produced in week 4 are a perfect example of this efficiency. Although a large number of matrices were required (90 in total), the time taken to produce them were rather fast, if I were to compare with another method of design (e.g. by hand?). In turn, lasercutting these matrices (as we did, see pg.21) is an incredibly fast method of making it, as compared to manually cutting it (which we also did- see EOI proposal and final GateWay design proposal). Air: Corten and weathering. The requirement to consider ‘air’ was done through an atmopheric interpretation; through material and weathering

Computational design and innovation I think being innovative was the most challenging requirement to demonstrate in this course. Learning (so that I could be in command of my designs) alone, has been a huge task. Trying to be innovative when my skills are limited has therefore, come with great struggle. My attempt at innovation therefore, lies more in the concept than the parametric control of my design. My attempt was to re-interpret optimally directed design and the concept of transparency in architecture through experience in relation to vision (see EOI), and I think to an extent, I have succesfully done so.

This course has allowed me to see the positives in using digital design. And whereas at the beginning of the course, I couldn’t picture myself designing with computer aided programs, I now cannot imagine continueing my studies without the help of these programs.

PART II: RESEARCH PROJECT Working in a team Working in a team was great. In a position where we are more or less on the same level in terms of knowledge and experience, we were able to lend each other support and advice. Teaching and in turn learning new things from each other. Design & Fabrication Hand cutting the white card and aluminium sheets wasn’t the most smartest idea. It was time consuming and painful, we all had swollen fingers for days. But the rugged esults of achieved from manually cutting it with the effect from the rusting paint was worth it. Sticking to traditional methods of fabricating have its bonuses. FINAL I can admit that our final design still has a lot more room for improvement and refinement, because I know I that in the amount we were given, we have done the utmost amount we were capable of. And considering my skills and knowledge at the beginning of the course, compared to what I know and can do now, I am satisfied with my efforts and the amount of knowledge I have gained.

JOURNAL END.

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REFERENCES Burry, Mark & Jane, (2010) The New Mathematics of Architecture, (United Kingdom,Thames & Hhudson Ltd) Rowe, Colin, & Slutzky, Robert, (1997) Transparency, (Basel, Boston, Berlin: birkhauser) Williams, Richard, (2005) Exploring Visual Culture Schumacher, Patrick, (2011) The Autopoieisis of Architecture - A New Framework for Architecture Kalay, (2004) Architecture’s New Media

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