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The Bartlett School of Architecture MArch Graduate Architectural Design Research Cluster 01

PARANET BRAID is a research team in The Bartlett School of Architecture, MArch GAD program. The individuals that make up the group are Mo Wang, Shengchen Yang, and Tianqi Wang.

project: PARANET team: PARANET Mo Wang, Shengchen Yang, and Tianqi Wang. Tutor: Alisa Andrasek / Daghan Cam / Maj Plemenitas

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Acknowledgment

A research-thesis projects are usually complex multi- disciplinary subject that seldom due the efforts of the team alone. Firstly, we would like to thank The Bartlett School of Architecture, for providing us the opportunity and facilities to carry out our research. We would like to deeply thank the program director and our tutor Alisa Andrasek, for constantly supporting and guiding us through the project. Without her insight the project wouldn’t have been possible. We are grateful for course tutors Maj Plemenitas and Technical Daghan Cam for carrying us through the conceptual and technical difficulties. In addition, we extend our sincere appreciation to Denis Vlieghe for helping us to develop Ardruino robots. To Tsinghua University for hold the wonderful and productive workshop. To all the workshop member, Tianhao Lo, Hang Li, Hang Zheng, Ke Liang, Kuiwei Gan for being supportive to assemble the robot and developing the project further. To our family and our own country. A big thank you to all of those we might have missed out. It wasn't a conscious effort to do so. Mo Wang, Shengchen Yang, and Tianqi Wang.

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Contents Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION A./// Studio agenda B./// Prototyping design C./// Logic agenda D./// Thesis Statement Chapter 2 Logic exploration and research A. ///SPACE NAVIGATION LOGIC B./// WEAVING RESEARCHES B.1/ Researching at UAL B.2/ Logic weaving and patterning B.3/ Structural Properties B.4/ Host structure and material test Chapter 3 PROTOTYPING BRAID SET UP A./// INITIAL RESEARCH A.1/ Inspirations and analysis A.2/ Physical Prototyping A.3/ Agency braiding A.4/ Adaptive structure B./// SIMULATION PROTOTYPING B.1/ Multi-agent system research B.2/ Computational physics B.3/ Braiding catalog B.4/ Hierarchy Study B.5/ Digital tooling C./// FABRICATION RESEARCHES C.1/ Robotic Arm Research C.2/ Robotic Arm Fabrication C.3/ Adaptation in construction (robotic development) D./// MOBILE ROBOT RESEARCH D.1/ Arduino Research D.2/ Motor speed control research D.3/ Path Control Chapter 4. BEHAVIORS STUDY A./// Simulation Behavior A.1/ Basic Braiding Behavior A.2/ Fabrication Behavior on Robots A.3/ Parent children behavior A.4/ Change parent behavior

B./// B-BOT basic Behavior B.1/ Aliment B.2/ Encounter Behavior B.3/ Boundary B.4/ Light control C./// B-Bot Research and Development and Productization C.1 B-BOT version update C.2/ Fabrication Behavior Braiding Test C.3/ Hand-made Model C.4/ Principle Test

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115 116 116 120 113 125 129 130 135

Chapter 5 COLUMN REPRESENTATION A./// Column Slice Diagram B./// Redundancy study C./// Resolution of structure D./// Braided Elevation E./// Braided Section F./// Braided Diagram G./// Braided Wall

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Chapter 6 Future Application A./// Data matrix and agent distribution B./// Parasite fabric

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Chapter 7: Real scale construction A./// Workshop assemble A.1/ Components preparation A.2/ Hand making A.3/ Workshop Tsinghua A.4/ Teaching in Tsinghua B./// Robotic Braiding set up B.1/ Braiding Site Set Up B.2/ Projector Adjustment B.3/ Light control C./// Braid process

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BRAID - Chapter 1 Introduction

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The logic is extremely similar between spider silk’s generating and industrial braiding ropes, this idea can be transform into different scale, as potential as building blocks to build architecture or structures.

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BRAID - Chapter 1 Introduction

Stuidio Agenda

Prototyping Design

At the core of RC01 research is the premise that architecture excels in its ability to creatively synthesise myriad of agencies involved in the formation of design and beyond. Since non-trivial and simultaneously legible synthesis is in high demand in the age of large data and increased engagement with complexity, such special skill architecture possesses is opening the field towards applications beyond what is traditionally understood as a domain of design.

Proto-design uses behavioral, parametric and generative methodologies of computational design are coupled with physical computing and analog experiments to create dynamic and reflexive feedback processes. New forms of spatial organization are explored, which are not type- or site- dependant but rather examine scenarios that evolve as ecologies and environments seek adaptive and context specific features. This performance-driven approach seeks to develop novel design proposals concerned with the everyday. The iterative methodologies of the design studio focus on the investigations of spatial, structural and material organization, engaging in contemporary discourses on computation and materialization in the disciplines of architecture and urbanism. We specific looking into the composition and built of logic or material that could portainly as building block.

Potential for greater designability is explored via synthetic capacities of simulation through newly found resources of algorithmic profile of matter. Focus is on the accelerated convergence of matter and information, whereby computational physics as well as myriad of algorithmic protocols are being synthesized within design process. Expanding discoveries in material science are being incorporated through simulation into massive resolution design speculations across various scales, opening doors for weird syntheses and fissuring established preconceptions of what architecture could be. Architects can go beyond geometry to directly design the structure of matter itself. Resultant architecture is drawing upon large data from the finer-grain physics of matter – matter as information enabled by computation. This not only expands technically enriched material formations, but also activates previously hidden material powers toward designs beyond our anticipation in both formal imagination and performance. Matter acquires active agency in the process of becoming instead of being treated as a passive design ingredient.

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BRAID - Chapter 1 Introduction

Logic agenda "Computation is impregnating built ecologies, soon to exist deep within the fibres of its structure. Increasing the material resolution and levels of information while having access to the coding of material, structural and organisational behaviours will also intensify the ability of designed systems to learn and adapt to complex cost?conditions, narrowing the gap between matter and information. Additionally, there is an emergent phenomenon evident in the changing qualities of the nature of design. The more is not just more, the more is different. Large populations of agents are interlinked by microtransactions taking place over a vast territory and reflecting selfregulatory pressures within environment, global migratory patterns and complex programming. This intelligence is being encapsulated as series of proto-architectural entities capable of rewriting existing protocols, including the inability of architecture to productively and creatively address acute issue of ecology. Within the PROTOCOLS design-research series, ADAPTATION is targeting generations of micro-ecologies ?highly adaptive and capable of learning??embodying specific host data under precisely established constraints of architectural systems for inhabitation along coastlines. The focus will be in the adaptability of clearly outlined structural, typological, material and organisational criteria, as well as the input of specific topological, weather and similar host data into the co-evolution of proto-architectural specimens. ADAPTATION is a poly-scalar, multi-dimensional micro-ecology with a capacity of processing various scales of ecological and human / nonhuman probabilistic population patterns. It performs as a convergence of novel material, structural, organisational and aesthetic behaviours through reinventing programmatic and tectonic protocols. It offers a critique of current development strategies both strategically and politically. As its driving force it embraces change and the conditions of dynamic stability. In moving away from the linear, serial differentiation that dominated digital design practices in the past decade, the studio will engage with production of singularities; highly heterogeneous and adaptive systems of development across various scales. Computationally, emphasis will be placed on high-population agent-based systems that are based on non- deterministic principles capable of adaptation to and re-patterning of the found conditions. Focus will be on development of generative design systems, methods for their trans-coding and explicit connection to constraints. Prototyping sequences in the studio will consist of explicit reprogramming of production processes, be it direct encoding of constraints of fabrication and material,or strategies for larger scale construction processes." Alisa Andresek

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BRAID - Chapter 1 Introduction

Thesis Statement Architecture has been always faced different difficult situation and crisis. In order to survive in changing environments, adaptability should be given to architecture. By learning from biological self-organizing system, designers could create buildings enjoy an open-end adaptability, throughout all design phase, construction phase and occupation phase. So, we come up with a hypothesis that self-organized behavior based system can be a mean to make architecture more adaptive and achieve biological open-ended adaptability with decentralized, parallel and redundancy building system, throughout design phase, construction phase, and the occupation phase. The adaptability will be truly dynamic and consistently keep adapting evaluating and mutating. Complex adaptive behaviors frequently found in biology _ such as collective organization of flocks of birds and school of fish were deployed as a model for robotic manufacturing of increased resolution fabric of space. This model was applied to the behavior of robotic swarms as possible speculative scenario for the future of construction. Such algorithmically trained swarm is designed to weave intricate spatial fabrics. In so constructed design ecology, students worked on simulation processes to develop series of speculative designs for the space filling fabrics. These kind of light tensile structures are characterized by high intricacy, ability to organize heterogeneous spatial sequences and yield fresh aesthetics for architectural and design applications. Recent developments of fibers and new high-performance materials can help us envision high performance structures, whereby different fibers of architectural fabrics such as infrastructural elements (light, energy storage and transmission, multi-colored patterns and similar) can be interwoven into superstructure.

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CHAPTER 2 LOGIC EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH At the beginning of development of the project, we look into many logic and done a lot of researches trying to find a potentialbuilding block.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koch_snowflake

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peano_curve

The first four iterations of the Koch snowflake

Three iterations of a Peano curve construction, whose limit is a space-filling curve. Such fractal logics we are interested in is their ability to fill up or occupy space, blow up simple geometry and add resolutions. Although the logic is very simple mathematics, with this iteration, unlimited growing patterns can be created.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion

Brownian motion is the random moving of particles suspended in fluid. The motion is caused by the impact and bombardment of fast moving atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. Because of the density and population of the particles, these molecules changes their direction frequently. And also it will be very hard to predict their direction and speed. On the other hands, the trails leave by these particles create a 3 dimensional fold line

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

S PA C E N AV I G AT I O N LOGIC By manipulate the behavior of clusters of agents, the way how they travel though space and navigating space will form weaving patterns. Fractal infill of space and white line generating interlock of strand. The initial study we did is exploring the possibility of growing of vexel or lines filling space conduct by the logic of ' random walk'. But pure random is meaningless, so we start to control the movement by giving this particles a destination or direction.

As you can see from the diagram is that these particles move in one trend or will get to one target at last. But countless alternative route can be generated. It can be strait forward or zigzag. The study is suggesting that using of 3 dimensional navigation system to activate and creating non- linear space.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

WEAVING RESEARCHES We started to look into some logic can give these strand structural meaning and performance.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

Researching at UAL In order to study the logic of weaving and interlocking, we went to the University Art of London to study are the latest commercial and academic researches. We saw different looms and study them, some of using shuttles and some of using needles. The logic to create interlock structures using now are weaving, knitting, braiding, sewing and so on. Each of this logic has one purpose which is creating interlock structure, but with different methods and techniques to create knots. And each of this methods can be put into industrial fabrication by using specific machines such as, looms to weave, knitting needle to knit, braiding machine for braiding. By borrowing and learning these methods already put into manufacturing, we can combine with our simulation weapon and fabrication weapon to create our prototypes.

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02 03 weaving looms 04 the school is also researching their own weaving logic, the picture is a braiding project researching by one of their students. 05 Many kinds of techniques in textile 06 The knitting techniques are able to create many kinds of patterns like the one shown by the picture 07 Sewing project, as can see the green wool wire is the secondary infill layer add to the frame layers 08 Shuttle 09 One of our friends is demonstrating how to use a knitting machine


BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

We started to look into some logic can give these strand structural meaning and performance. Weaving is one the concepts that easy to be explored as a basic construct can be used in parametric notion. By this means, different variation of patterns have different structural performance can be created and valued by digital tools. But also complicated enough, to be the generator of complex hierarchical systems. Because of the intrinsic properties of the fabric which makes it free-form object, yet comprised of small continuous element, its transformation into digital algorithmic space would be helpful for development of similar free-form surfaces with the same properties and a generative logic behind.

Two way cross

Three way cross

The diagram shows that two logics of weaving patterns created by either soft and rigid materials. One privilege of weaving is that this logic can be applied into many different materials and also different material can be weaved together to create new material properties.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

Logic weaving and patterning Weaving described as a systematic interlacing of two or more elements to form a structure. This interlock logic give us a way to organize individual fibrous material into a integrate structure.

No structrual meaning

No structrual meaning

Structrual meaning

A two dimensional grid set up a site to study the potential and possible patterns to infill space and could structurally weave each other. After a series of studies, we find out the most effective and efficient patterns is two way cross or three way cross, shown as the diagram on the left. And it will not create a structural fabric just wrapping strand on the grid. The strands has to go on different side of each other. Just as the logic of knitting of weaving. So, the final structure in this page, we used a toothpick to knit the thread in order to create knots.

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Knitting Knots


BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES We explore the capacity for design systems to evolve architectural elements with the capacity to self-organizing, respond and evolve. The adaptation appear both in genotype and phenotype explorations construct parallel structural prototypes. Like spider web can be built in many different site, even in growing trees. Any fabric or cloth texture material, braiding structure has the adaptability towards external environment. For example, like cloth put on bodies, the forms of fabric will change according to the movement of host. As the diagrams shown on left, we used finger as frame to make the structural in tension. While, we are manipulated the form of it at the same time. There is a wide range of deformation the structure can provide.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

Textile structure is soft structure has to fix on rigid frames. With different frames we used, different fabric will appear. same interlock weaving logic.

Weaving is not only limited in two dimensional patterns, but has the ability to create three dimensional structure as well. The model we did here is studying the logic to create multiple layering of the structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 2 Logic Exploration And Research

HOST STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL TEST The model is the study of possible host structure of this weaving structure. And also the study of different materials test using the same interlock weaving logic.

As we mention before, the interlocking logic can be apply to many different materials. The picture shown the model made by two different material wires and wood sheet. The soft wire bring softness to the mix structure, which you can see the model can band and twist long horizontal direction. On the other hand, the wood sheet also bring rigid properties. The interlocking logic have the ability to create new mixed properties and even new materials.

Borrowing the ideas of the model we did above, we also trying to simplify the logic and transfer it into something easy to fabricate. The series diagram indicate the study of depositing wire on rigid frames from bottom to top. The process is very easy and can be complete by robot arm.

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CHAPTER 3 PROTOTYPING BRAID SET UP After studying logics and researches, we set up our own logci and methord to create initial prototype of braiding.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Inspired by logic of generating spider silk and industrial braiding ropes, the concept is manipulating industrial weaving by using 3D navigation logic to created dynamic 3 dimensional weaving fabric and structures.'Learn how natural complex system can be used to help us create our complex designs.' (Complexity Ceilings) So, we looked into the generation of spider silk and found that this logic is extremely similar to the logic of braiding industrially ropes. But, instead of numerable spins, thousands of ‘spinnerets’ create silk out of protein and braid them together. In this way, individual silk thread braid into groups, groups braid into clusters, and clusters braid into component, etc. The hierarchy of the braiding creating a decentralized and redundancy system make it more structural and more adaptive.

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archivo:Spider_web_Teruel.jpg http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2010/mar/23/spiders-super-strong-silk-relies-on-its-crystals http://www.popularmechanics.co.za/sci-tech-news/a-spider-webs-strength-lies-in-more-than-its-silk/ http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/426834/view http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/spider/page2h.htm

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

INITIAL RESEARCH Inspriation And Analysis The logic is extremely similar between spider silk’s generating and industrial braiding ropes, this idea can be transform into different scale, as potential as building blocks to build architecture or structures. We start to study the concept of industrial braid ropes in order to create structural stability of the spacing filling strands. The concept of braiding can create very high resolution intricacy fabric and also high quality structure performance. The interlock logic give us a way to organize individual material into a structure integrity fabric.

http://solidsmack.com/3d-cad-technology/3d-printing-your-days-arenumbered-lexus-uses-3d-loom-to-weave-the-lfa/

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

In the same idea like architecture where there are different materials were used in construction system, the same appear with spider webs' fabrication. Each spider will make different types of silk (more sticky or more tenacious), which serve for different purposes in the construction process, from a sticky kind of silk for hunting for food to a non-sticky one for strong structural frame for the whole web. A phase-changing material prevents silk from damage and makes it flexible enough to allow for different configurations with the same material. Different configurations of how to build the silk increase the possible structure typologies and give spider web the ability to adapt many different site conditions.

01001110001010111010001011101000101011101000101110100010111010100010111100010101 11010001011101000101011101000101110100010111100010101110100010111010001010111010 00101110100010111010100010111010100101010100010111010100101010100101001011110001 01011101000101110100010101110100010111010001011101010001011101010010

http://www.ted.com/talks/cheryl_hayashi_the_magnificence_of_spider_silk.html

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

In order to study the basic logic of weaving, we start with the simplest logic of two thread. There are only two situations. Thread A is on top of thread B or the other way around. We use 0 or 1 to describe these two situations. Then, the weaving patterning can be defined by this binary system. We translate our project's name into these binary code shown on the left and programmed to weaving according to this pattern and get the result below. Then we find the connection between data and the weaving pattern, just like the spider silk.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93OTngx_mXo https://vimeo.com/24069938

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j19na8LMBnE

Our project start with hack in industrial rope manufacturing process. Two dementional pattern shown in red diagram is the spin movements, with multipul of this spin move like this in a two dimensional plane, it will drag the tread and create three dementional structure.

Our project start to hack in industrial rope manufacturing process. The diagram demonstrate the principle of braiding machines. Using spin moving in 2D plane drag thread create 3D structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

The diagram shows the path of typical braiding machine, within the crossing path, thread will be braiding into ropes.

Our project start to hack in industrial rope manufacturing process. The diagram demonstrate the principle of braiding machines. Using spin moving in 2 dimensional plane drag thread create 3D structure. As we learned different movement different pattern, instead of this repetitive pattern of path creating mechanical fabric. By using/ programming altering path can we get dynamic woven fabric , surfaces and even organism tissue like architecture. -031-


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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

physical Prototyping The very first prototype is using magnetic to control shuttle moving freely. First hand made prototype give us a way to fabricate. By exploring the model, we corroborate the possibility of creating a 3D structure by moving spins 2D.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

In order to make spins moving freely, we used magnet to control them. By placing magnet on both side of a sheet, we can move the spin on top without touching or interfere other spins.

By attaching on end of the thread, and moving the magnet, the spins on top will pull the thread and braid them into structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

The study of the form of different spider webs show different configurations and patterns was used to create the net to adapt different host structures. In order to achieve this flexibility, we started to find how to create the varieties of weaving patterns. http://www.layoutsparks.com/pictures/spider-black-0

The model was made by rigid wood stick and soft wires, as shown in the diagram, the wires behaved flexible in the wood sticks, it can slid on the frame and create different distributions. But it is not hard to notice that the typology is not change, and the shift of pattern is only deformations.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Agency Braiding Typical weaving’s pattern has eliminate the puritanical typological development. But structure weaved according to programmed agent have properties of adaptation and distribution Use agent control space configuration, quality and structure distribution and performance

Then we start to look into the agency system, where the curve digrom shows how the strands overlapping each other. We take the idea of the form and use the previous weaving fabrication methods. An even more stable structure was made. Because the thread is not only weaving the stick and also weaving themselves. And unexpectedly, the supper structure nodes were created by this methods. This methods have the ability to distribute structures.

With many numbers of these individual to build global forms, even individual fails or not functional, it will not effect in a global perspective, because many others are still work and function well. Cells on our body are dying and boning all the time without our consciousness or hurting us. We can build up a resilient system with high level of fault tolerance and adaptability by making redundancy. -039-


BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Next step we tried is taking the frame out and see how the treads braiding themselves to create structure, the process is still conducted by agency system. Using the trail of agents behavior, make a node of thread at overlapping point. A structure network will be created. After pulling the network in tension, thread will come strait but node is still working and create a woven network.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Agency braiding has the ability to create distribution and density variation of patterns.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

The braiding structure have the ability to morph and transform. The tensile structure was tied into two stick, when we pull sticks up higher every thread of the structure will pull in tension to share the load add by stick. When we added the pulling strength, these nodes starting to slide on threads and we can see that whole form was changing in order to make a new form which can make every thread to share the load equally. If we starting to change the shape of frame, for example we kept the same tension and moved one of stick parallel, the structure will also organize and transform itself into a shape will more adapt to the changing frame. Like spider web can be built in many different site, even in growing trees. Any fabric or cloth texture material, braiding structure has the adaptability towards external environment. For example, like cloth put on bodies, the forms of fabric will change according to the movement of host. What's more, braiding structure does more than just changing shape, with node sliding on thread, the topology of structure is also changing. The processes give structures a new level of adaptability. After structures being fabricated, it will continuously adapt to its environment, until it reach the perfection or structural balance. As the process we can understand by comparing to one property of nature, phenotype. Even if they are designed and fabricated by exactly same form, they may appear differently when they are put into different environment.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Adaptative structur The soft tensile structure has a high level of flexibility to transform, and adapting to the changing environments.

Just like two same kind of trees, one survive in windy site will looks different than the one plant in normal site. Even if they enjoy the same genetic code, the form they appear is still quite different. It is because of phenotype aspect of biology, in order to survive in some local conditions, biology have the ability to rebuild themselves to adapt into environments just like the tree in the picture has to band its branch to minimize the affect causing by strong wind. So, we can see the future potential to apply the braiding structure into architecture, especially architecture in extreme environment. This adaptability will help architecture survive from most of earthquakes, and other natural disaster like flood, tornado, hurricanes, and tsunami. The fabric of the braiding structure itself is also self-organnized system. Each thread or even segment of thread can be considered as individual agents, following laws of phyical, interacting with local neighbors. But, at global perspective, these emergence physical behaviours give the intergal structure abilities of changing and transform physically, and also the ability of adaptation.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

SIMULATION PROTOTYPING In order to put the project into a larger population, we need to create a simulation prototype

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Multi-agent system research We cannot build architecture like the way biology build organism. In order to materialize the ideas we need a system work as media, transfer the code and data into something buildable, like physical behaviors. So we look into multi-agent system. And these kind self-organize adaptive behaviours’ systems are already existed in nature. For example, flocks of birds, school of fishes, and swarm of termites, the shifting sand dunes, or even the economy systems. In these collective behaviour systems, each individuals like a bird, a fish, a termite, or a grain of sand behaves individually on their own. There is no designated controlling agent or command centre giving orders. But when individual forming a group, they start to acquiring swarming intelligence having global adaptive appearances, and appearing to be self-aware and autonomous. For example, flocking birds and fishes can avoid predators and response to environments as groups. With only a few individual position on the edge knowing the appearance of predators and reacting, most of the member never known if there is a predator. Same phenomenon with termites, without a blue print or plans, termites' society are still able to build their cave by working together. And these caves built by them turn out to be very efficiency in ventilation, structure and many other aspects to make the species adapt to their living environments. It is easy to notice that these cases show dynamic and adaptive structures which respond to specific performance criteria in different scenarios.

"By using advanced computer systems, intricate algorithms, and massive computations, designers are able to extend their thoughts into a once unknown and unimaginable world of complexity." (Algorithmic Complexity) So, we set up a model to simulate this situation, so that we don't need to design the route of each spins, which is also impossible. At this point, we introduced agents to represent spins, so that we can controls the movement of spin by writing algorithms to drive the behaviour of agents. We can view each individual behavioural agent which cooperates with other agents like swarming intelligence. We used each agent’s behaviour to simulate the movement of each spin which have a thread attached and then braided. And agents will also act responsively to other agents' data and environment. From learning agency system developed by Reynold's boid, agents are programmed bottomup, which means we design the behaviour of each agent and expecting global behaviour of the collective group. Self-organised structures can be regarded as a kind of computation performed by the interactions of physical particles or agents. Through simple interactions of alignment, cohesion and separation we can create basic self-organizing flocking behaviour. And by adding variable value of other basic behaviours to agents, in our case moving circle around with other, another layers of behaviour designed according to fabrication or material conditions, we are able to create the system help us making knot of thread to weave or braid the fabric. As what you can see from figure10 is different time frame of the agents when they are braiding. By parameterizing rhythmic interaction of the system and organizing different hierarchies of behaviours run though variable durations, many different expressions of collective behaviour of agents can be programmed.

http://www.bioteams.com/2006/03/21/swarm_behavior_and.html

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

High population agent systems increase the resolution of the fabric of architecture through local interaction and replication these systems generate a heterogeneous intricacy. The open nature of Processing enables agency to be encoded within diverse substrates. Consequently the notion of the agent can be expanded from a position or vector to consider the agency of a line, network, surface or component. This conceptual programming of matter encodes micro design decisions within a distributed population of agents that interact locally to give rise to a self-organized macro design intent. Such large scale/high population multi-agent systems provide resilient fabric that can eventually adapt and learn when connected to external inputs (such as weather data, programmatic inputs, fabrication and constructability constrains including material science). Redundancy and temporal rhythms (including parallel realities of computational time with its massive probabilistic iterations and poly-dimensionality), could be synchronized with the targeted agencies of the host conditions. -047-


We use spring force and particles system to simulate strands, by arranging the particle linearly, and connect them with spring force, movement of one particle will add force to neighboring particles. The diagram shown different properties of stand creating by spring system by change K value.

k = 0.1

k = 0.2

k = 0.5

k = 1.0

k = 3.0

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Mass Spring System

Computational Physics

Hooke's low & Spring force

In order to simulate the real physic in realty, we need to find a system perform like real thread and also have collide to simulate knots.

KEY WARDS: rigid joint, stretch formula: Fs = -kx

x2

x1

Fs = -k(x1- x2) Fs = -k(|x1 - x2| - L) vn+1 = vn + dtF/m

L

xn+1 = xn + dtvn+1

x1

x2

x1

x2

FS

x1

x2

FS

Physical Collision

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Agency Braiding Study By using agency system, we can create the distribution according to structure performance, space quality or the data collected by local environments. The diagram was made to show where is the node located, or where is the density distribution. Geographically speaking, the agent can be behaved locally creating a vertical structure, or globally emigrating to create a horizontal structure. (Use agent create heterogeneous distribution and adaptation)

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Braiding Catalog With the expression of different behavior of spin moving, these thread will weave and braid in a three dimensional space and create a tensile structure. What we only need to do is design different e x p r e s s i o n s o f b e h av i o r a n d unlimited possible fabric can be produced.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Anchoring plateform Braiding fabric Fabricating plateform carrying agents moving from top to bottom pull strands along movment create braided pattern behand

Top Anchor point position at

Frame 01

Fabrication behavior

Fabrication behavior

Frame 200

Frame 500

agent position at

agent position at

Bottom Anchor

point position at

Frame 1000

The color code suggest the structure properties of the braiding fabric, the tension of the threads. Green means the tension is low, yellow means average and red means the thread is under a great tension. From the simulation we can find out that the threads is red when they just given out from the moving agents, because the behaviors of agents doesn't have the structure meanings, but after the relaxing, the color turns all green. Threads will shrink and braid with others.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Different configurations of structures can be produced. Then, using the multi-agent system gives us a tool to make different configuration and typologies of structure to adapt different environments. We explore prototype design as a behaviour-based agenda engages experimental forms of computational practice. With the computational power of computers, what we only need to do is design different expressions of agents’ behaviours and unlimited possible fabric can be produced. "A sufficiently complex digital universe will drive evolution and development toward useful complex solutions."

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Hierarchy Study First layer of agents create dynamics distribution variation adaptability and probability to evolution. Secondary layer of agent create pattern local structure reinforcement

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Hierarchy Study First hierarchy to create distribution and secondary basic braiding behaviorspeaking, the agent can be behaved locally creating a vertical structure, or globally emigrating to create a horizontal structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Frame: 50

Frame: 100

Frame: 150

Frame: 200

Frame: 250

Frame: 300

Frame: 350

Frame: 400

Frame: 500

Frame: 550

Frame: 450

Frame: 650

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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Digital Tooling In this phase, we have already initially set up the digital prototyping process. With development of agency systems, we can not only braid patterns or surfaces, but very high resolution and intricate three dimensional tissue like structure as well. The scale of the project is also very flexible, it can be architectural scale or even unban scale. But also, it can be microcosmic scale to build material like spider silk.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

FABRICATION RESEARCHES With the development digital prototype, we are developing fabrication methods simultaneously. As the behaviors of agents is non-linear matters, it is very hard to use conventional construction process. Also because the population of the agents, it makes us to find fabrication systems have the same properties with the multi- agent system.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

We used robotic arm to wrap threads on rigid frames made by iron wire, with the layering go again and again, more and more infill can be produced on frame. And we can also control the deposition and density of threads. It is simple circling movements for robot but ropes was placed on the frame according to initial design and create a variations of patterns.

Robotic Arm Research Instead of handcraft, robot is more efficient and precise. The initial research we did to study robotic fabrication is wrapping.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Tool:

this tool was designed like a pipe can entangle the handle of magnet spins and move it on the sheet.

Magnet Spin: placed on both side of the fabrication plane Handle Thread Holder

Frame: used to hold the fabrication plane and the threads Fabrication Plane

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Robotic Arm Fabrication Set up a prototyping tool to braid threads using robotic arm. We still used the idea of magnet but move with robotic arm.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Step 1: place tool on top of the handle

Step 2: move the arm towards the plane to incert tool into the handle

Step 3: move the arm and place the spin to next location

Step 4: move the tool out of the handle and prepare for next target

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion University of Stuttgart have completed a research pavilion that is entirely robotically fabricated from carbon and glass fibre composites.. The research focused on the material and morphological principles of arthropods’ exoskeletons as a source of exploration for a new composite construction paradigm in architecture.

Multi-robotic Systems The work of Raffaello D’Andrea along with architects Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler, who built a 20-foot tall twisted tower by using 1,500 foam bricks. Each brick was precisely placed by flying drones, as shown in Figure 27 They are using multi-robotic systems for fabrication. By using parallel groups, systems perform more efficiently and resilient. A wide distributed sensing and wide distributed action expend our working platform. Also, the redundancy of the system gives it fault tolerance, which makes the system can still work with failure of single robot. But, based on the self-organising system of collective behaviour, it can be more resilient and adaptive if the robot have its own behaviours. Spaxels / Klangwolke - Quadrocopter Linz, Austria by Ars Electronica FutureLab: The project uses 49 quadrocopters to carry light balls and carry out a programmed choreography. We looked into this project to understand the notion of choreographed movement between the robots and the ability to control multiple robots from a single computer.

http://www.archdaily.com/340374/icditke-research-pavilion-university-of-stuttgart-faculty-ofarchitecture-and-urban-planning/

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Adaptation In Construction (Robotic Development)

Robotic arm is very limited in scale and efficiency. Use robotic arm can only allow us move one or few spin at one time, but a multi-robotic system can move many more spin at the same time. So we are wondering if we can set up an parallel system like mult-thread computing technology Kind of quctor computer all things run simultaneously. Just like computers multi-thread process, the system can solve the complex systems. Fromt the comparation, we can simply noticing the the different efficiency in two system, that is way we researching in multi-robotic system instead of robotic arm.

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Self-organised systems’ structure can be regarded as a kind of computation performed by the interactions of physical particles or agents. In the construction process, we are developing B-Bot to be like an agent, more in the sense of it being in an intelligent agent.


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Mobile Robot Research In order to develop the system, increase efficiency, we start to look into mobile robots.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Arduino overview The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. Revision 2 of the Uno board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. Revision 3 of the board has the following new features: 1.0 pinout: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible with both the board that uses the AVR, which operates with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operates with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin, that is reserved for future purposes. Stronger RESET circuit. Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2.

Summary

Memory

Microcontroller ATmega328 Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 6 DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA Flash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328) EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328) Clock Speed 16 MHz

The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB used for the bootloader). It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).

Power The Arduino Uno can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm centerpositive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts. The power pins are as follows: VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. 5V.This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 - 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don't advise it. 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA. GND. Ground pins. http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Arduino Research The mobile robot is control by Arduino board, by writing code, we are able to program and hacking into these robots.

Digital input/output: 0 or 1 PWM input/output: interger form 0 to 255

Microcontroller

Power Supply

Analog Input Pins From 0 to 1024

Using sensors to collect data from enviorments

Input single

Electric Input/Output Pins

Microcontroller

Writing code to program how to response the input single

Output single

The numbers of 0 1 or 0~255 can given by output pins

Motors PWM input/output: interger form 0 to 255

The board will give different voltage level according to the output numbers to power motors to drive robots

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

L298N electronic principle drawing

This is the study of trying to test out whether the change of PWM and change of speed is linearly.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Motor Speed Control Research

Driving Wheel

In order to fully hack in the robot, we need to control the speed of it. The page include the research of achieving precise control of motors by using Ardruino boards.

powered and controled by arduino chip

Driven wheel keep balance of the robot Driving system diagram

610

948

1135

1335

Distance

100

160

200

255

PWM

After measuring the distant our robot travel in certain amount of time and change the parameters of PWM value, a chart can be made to see the mathematical function convert PWM to the speed.

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BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Path Curve to be analysis

Divide the curve into segments

Find the tangent vector of each divided point

Find the perpendicular vector of each divided point

2 1

Offset point position along perpendicular direction according to the width of the robot

Measuring each length of the segments

Connect each point to form a array segments

According to the chart we made before, we can get a PWM value of each segment.

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From beginning to trace the curve, during the same period, left wheel need to finish length of 1 and right wheel need to finish length of 2

Similar principle to finish 3 and 4

At last, a serise of value need to put in sequence and writhe into code to control the robot tracing the path


BRAID - Chapter 3 Prototyping Braid Set Up

Path Control Now we achieve the ability to fully control the movement path of the robots. The diagrams show the process we used to analysis the curve and transfer the data into PWM control.

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CHAPTER 4 BEHAVIORS STUDY Weaving described as a systematic interlacing of two or more elements to form a structure. This interlock logic give us a way to organize individual fibrous material into a integrate structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

We have tried to borrowed a mathematical logic to help us to set up a stable braiding pattern, and this mathematical movement will be regarded as basic fabrication behavior. After testing, our conclusion is that it will be a knot if the moving path of strings is not a parallel movement, and that the first string`s phase conversion 1.5 times bigger than the second string are easy to tie a knot.

Top view

Left view

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Basic Braiding Behavior In order to increase the chance to create knots, a fabrication behavior as the lowest level of behavior need to be studied.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

By this repetitive mathematical logic, patterns or units can be understand as "building block" was revealed.

By looking into the repetitive patterns of braiding, we found a way to make articulated braiding fabric and achieve more control of the structure. Using of the basic braiding behavior is will help us creating more knots. Next step, we can just apply this behavior to the self-organized agency system, then we gain both advantage of order and chaos.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Pattern

Braid

Figure1: amplitude A = 1

Figure2: amplitude A = 2

Figure3: amplitude A = 5

Figure4: amplitude A = 10

we adjusted the amplitude value. Though the way of adding more strings and increase the value of amplitude, we can find that braiding pattern change with amplitude. The conclusion is that the smaller amplitude, the more nodes, each string movement is more local. On the contrary, the bigger amplitude, the less nodes and the strings` movement are more global. Base on this, we can easily adjust the braiding pattern and add or reduce the number of knot.

Despite of the strategies mentioned before, Iteration has been used to increase complexity of current system. Iteration here means that when dynamic braiding system is used many times layer by layer, the tracks of braiding strands in previous layer can be used as axis in current layer. With this kind of strategy, complexity, hierarchies and high resolution can be achieve. On the other hand, elementary units will vary with different iterations.

When we change the parameters, such as amplitude and initial phase in mechanical layer, it would affect the probability of intertwining with neighbor strands. Furthermore, the pattern and texture of this braiding will change. So, it gives us a chance to change some properties, such as the transparency and density of material in practical application in the future.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

In the final process, we use mathematical logic to create local pattern and local reinforcement, structural speaking, and use physical dynamics (agent base system) to create variation, adaptability, and probability of evolution.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Phase. 1

The yellow trail is agents' moving trail, and we add a fabrication behavior, which can be described by sin function, to the moving agent. Thus, agents can be used to generate distributions, bifurcating and intricacy, and the fabrication will great knots alone the movement of agents.

Phase. 2

Math

order, logical, easy to control, easy

fabrication.

Physic

Dynamic space, adaptive, coherent

connection, randomness.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Fabrication Behavior on Robots When we create some behaviors in simulation, it is also necessary to put onto robots and test the results. A series of study in this page shows how we control the robot doing the circling movments.

Moving curvilinear

220mm

Curvature Radius: 220mm PWM: Left 240 Right 255

160mm

Curvature Radius: 160mm PWM: Left 220 Right 255

120mm

Curvature Radius: 120mm PWM: Left 200 Right 255

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Curvature Rad PWM:


dius: 95mm Left 180 Right 255

45o v

BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

36o 30o 25o 22o 20o

95mm

75mm

55mm

Curvature Radius: 75mm PWM: Left 160 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 55mm PWM: Left 140 Right 255

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42mm

Curvature Radius: 42mm PWM: Left 120 Right 255


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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Curvature Radius: 36mm PWM: Left 100 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 22mm PWM: Left 70 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 30mm PWM: Left 90 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 16mm PWM: Left 60 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 26mm PWM: Left 80 Right 255

Curvature Radius: 9mm PWM: Left 50 Right 255

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Parent Children Behavior In order to introduce the hierarchy of braiding structure, children agents will circling around parents agents and braiding around them. By manipulating radius and neighbor finding distance, different numbers of strings can be braid together into cluster. A variation was made from local braiding to global braiding.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Change Parent Behaviors Children will appear in cluster study around their parents, to increase the resolution, as they are changing their parents, bifurcate and branches will created.

Bundled Children Bundled children will always stick to parents location and create high density area in the field

Semi-nomadic Semibundled children Hybrid behavior children will keep a distance to parent location and form a outer ring around parents. As a bridge connection inner ring and outer ring.

Nomadic Children Nomadic children are unstable agent, who are switching parent frequently, connecting each parents.

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B-Bot Basic Behavior B-BOT could have a behavior of their own, to acquire swarming intelligence, Behavior-based robotic system need to be developed. It could adapt to local environment and the system will be flexibility scalability and self organize, also can be controlled by feeding data. Instead running a predetermine paths simulated in computer. The robots could have behaviors of their own, and become real agent themselves. In order to achieve a self-organizing systems and swarming intelligence, Behavior-Based Robotic system need to be created, which have the ablity to adapt to local environments. It will be flexibility scalability and self organize, also can be controlled by feeding data. We believe that the mobile robots have a better application than just placing of bricks and system should be merged between human and machine, rather than using robotic duplicate human or the replacement for labour. Instead of design of the layout is already predefined and programmed for the drones. We can add sensors and program these mobile robots react to local environments. By giving them behaviours like agents in simulations, robots are programmed to be controlled by a computer code just like how we control agents in simulation, also the way they interact with the neighbouring agent to build up a structure. bricks and system should be merged between human and machine, rather than using robotic duplicate human or the replacement for labour. Instead of design of the layout is already predefined and programmed for the drones. We can add sensors and program these mobile robots react to local environments. By giving them behaviours like agents in simulations, robots are programmed to be controlled by a computer code just like how we control agents in simulation, also the way they interact with the neighbouring agent to build up a structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

The diagram shows the prototype of the braiding robots--B-BOT. Built in with 7 infrared sensors and 3 light sensors, B-BOT has the ability to detect surrendering obstacles, other B-BOT, boundary condition and lightness of environments. In order to create knots, we programmed the robots to move circling around each other as basic fabrication behaviour.

The B-BOT is a hybrid with mechanical system and biological system to some degree. Motor system and the bobbin are traditional machine in industrial manufactory. We use these to supply power for B-BOT and pull braiding threads. Micro-controller and feedback system are the “brain” and “nerves”. They give some biological characteristics to B-Bot. Based on these components; we got start with researching the relationship between mechanical part and bio part. For instance, curve between voltage supplied by micro-controller and revolving speed of motors. Then, we tried to scripting behaviors for B-BOT: The core behavior is “Hover” and “Change Neighbor”, specifically, “Hover” means that when B-BOT detect there is a neighbor around him, he will begin to circle around him neighbor, by executing this behavior, we can achieve the basic braiding. “Change Neighbor” means that when B-BOT detect more than one neighbor, it has a chance to change a neighbor to circle around. By using this behavior, we can get a braiding pattern emerged out from several v instead of bonding two threads into bolder one.

Alignment Behavior

Encounter Behavior

Circling Behavior

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Ailment: B-Bot could still have the aliment behavior just like the simulation does. This robot will march towards the direction of neighbor robots.

Encounter behavior: when the robot run into others, the IF sensors in the front will detect and turn the robot to right, then the sensor on the left will detect other robot and begin to make the robot move around that one.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Change behavior: in order to prevent two robot circling each other infinitely, we develop the change behavior. If the robot is circling one neighbor and meet another new neighbor, it will switch to move around the new neighbor.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

In order to create knots, we programmed the robots to move circling around each other as basic fabrication behaviour.

Infrared sensor helps B-BOT to detect nearby obstacles and each other, code has been written to control their behaviors when encountered. Very simple behaviors with higher population will generate collective behaviors and self-organized swarming system. Within the system, robotic swarm can create structure and fabric.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Specifically, there are 3 situations. 1. When B-Bots are in the bright area, they can execute all behaviors they have. 2. When B-Bots are at the edge between brightness and darkness, they can find out which direction is brighter to go towards. 3. When B-BOTs are in dark area, what they can do is just navigate randomly until they find the bright area. Thus, light projection can be used to make cluster distribution among B-BOTs, and control the global form in physical fabrication with aggregation, diffusion, migration of light spots. In addition, the animation of light will be the interface between physical fabrication and digital simulation.

Infrared sensor helps B-BOT to detect nearby obstacles and each other, code has been written to control their behaviors when encountered. Very simple behaviors with higher population will generate collective b e h a v i o r s a n d s e l f- o r g a n i z e d swarming system. Within the system, robotic swarm can create structure and fabric.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

And as agents reading local environments, we also make B-BOT can recognize boundary condition. In this way, the robots have ability to adapt to boundaries.

Also, by giving them other sensor, the can achieve the abilities to adapt other aspect. For example, we added light sensors in the robots making then responses and adapt to change of lights. From the diagram below, we can see how the robots responses to light from a projector. For, each B-BOT is reading different data of light intensity, which can trigger different behaviours. We programmed these robot only braid in light zoning. Then, a mapping of light intensity can control the distribution and density of the agentsďźŒ because they are constantly adapting to the light.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

B-Bot Research and Development and Productization In order to study multi-robotic system, we need to produce a certain number of robots to get the initial expression of swarming behaviors, which means B-BOT can't just stay in prototyping phase, it also need to get into industrial manufacturing. We have to find a stable component supplies, a simple method to assemble, a stable and unify robotic performance, and most importantly economic efficient. That is how we developed four version of this robot.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

B-Bot Version Update By shifting versions of B-BOT, we are shifting from prototyping to industrial. We use 3D printing techniques to test out our ideas and learn principles. Then, we looked into commercial products to increase the efficiency. Also we have been trying to find smaller component to make our robot smaller.

Bobbin development

Power supply development

Also we have been trying to find smaller component to make our robot smaller.

L298N motor drive development

Detecting ring

Motor

Electronic connecion

Wheels

Sensors connection

Robot exploration

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Looking into the detail of the structure braided by basic fabrication behavior, we are surprising to see the high le Only the one in the middle is render of simulation

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Fabrication Behavior Braiding Test The initial test we did for the robots are the fabrication behavior. Dividing six of B-BOT into 3 or 4 cluster by using the white boundary on the ground, and program them just behave the fabrication behavior. They can create a geomatric regular pattern fabric.

phase_01

phase_01

phase_01

evel of similarity between the digital simulation and physical fabrication.

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Hand-made Model In order to study the principle of the robotic braiding and the ability to control the texture and variation expressions of the fabric, we made a model by hand. The braiding structure can be understood as a network, and vectors can be used to explain the direction and expression of the fabric. For example, the model we made was focusing to create a variation from horizontal vector structure or vertical vector structure. It is clear that geographic location of spin is important in this case. If the spin just behavior around on position, it will create vertical structure. On the other hands, if the spin travel across the field one knots located far from the precious one, a horizontal structure can be braided. -130-


horizontal

vertical -131-


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The robots were programmed keep circling, so they normally will still near their initial position, and the knots braided are also local and vertical.

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Principle Test After this we begin to study how to parameterize the fabrication behavior to control the texture and variation expressions of the fabric. As we learned before, geographic location is a crucial value effect the directivity of the fabric. The comparison diagram shows two different expression of fabric braid by two different basic behavior of B-BOT. Also the digital simulations give the same results.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Borrowing logic from the mathematical braiding study we made ahead, agent behavior was programmed to circle around each other. By manipulating radius and neighbor finding distance, different numbers of agents can be braid together into cluster. A variation was made from local braiding to global braiding.

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BRAID - Chapter 4 Behaviors Study

Also this radius lead to a geographic dislocated, smaller radius will get robot stay nearby, and bigger radius will help robot travel trough fields. The diagram above and below indicate the principle of creating whether horizontal or vertical structure.

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CHAPTER 5 COLUMN REPRESENTATION With the study and development of agent behaviors, we achieve the ability to create different characters and texture of the braided fabric. Then we focus on creating smaller scale architectures components to test out our theory and techniques. We chose to braiding columns, like Michael Hansmeyer's high resolutions and intricate structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Column Slice Diagram The characters of agents swarming behavior can be still found in the structures. For example, the clustering, bifurcating. The strands can be distributed evenly in the plan or unevenly to create structure and void space. This high level of resolution allow us to build architecture from microcosmic level and create different structural performance at the same time.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Redundancy study Braiding structure enjoy very high structure performance created by these individual interlocking strand. By programming agent behavior, a global geographic emigration can be achieved. In this global pattern, one thread was structurely spport by many of others, even if one or a few threads fail, it wouldn't affect on the whole systems. As one of results using self-organized multi-agent system, the structure will acquire the features which make building's system more adaptive and resilient-- decentralization and parallelism. Hundreds of continues threads go across from top to bottom are braided into one integral structure. According to law of physic, load will be distributed almost evenly to each of thread. Many of the threads serve as structural purpose together to make the system resilient and adaptive. Even if we cut some of these threads, it won’t affect much on the whole structure. Structurally speaking, this typology can be understood by comparing of chain and woven fabric.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Resolution of structure The layers of agents can be represent the hierarchy of threads. In variation of scale and resolution, one thread in macroscopic scale can be composite by a cluster thread microcosmic scale. It is also a common phenomenon in biological world.

We focus more on the characteristics of spider silk instead of the spider web’s structure and try to find more details under the microscope. In the microscopic world, the structure of spider silk is not as smooth as we imagine. When we zoom in for different multiples, it is interesting that each tiny wire connected to each other. Every tiny silk has their own form and they all connect together. It is like a rope that is braided by amount of lines. The rope is strong enough and cannot be destroyed. After zooming out, it still appears as a silk completely. Probably this is the reason why spider silk is so sturdy. Therefore, we did some researches about spider silk and came up with the strategy of parasite architecture. We define this parasite architecture as a dynamic braiding system that is based on the microstructure of spider silks. -145-


BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Braided Elevation The elevation of the column reveal not only evolve and massive trend of the structure, but local detail texture and intricacy as well. Rendering shows internal space and detail of adhesion. Even if thread was braid into clear cluster, a subconnection and adhesion could still be achieved to create integrity of whole structure. The elevation of the column reveal not only evolve and massive trend of the structure, but local detail texture and intricacy as well.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Bradi Section

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Fabrication behavior will create this circling patterns, and under the force of spring force, it will relax and collide each other and create knots. The frames show the simulation processes.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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In this phase, we used dynamic braiding to generate a series of column which is in 50x50x100 cm, with 400 3mm thickness threads. Column is one of the basic elements in architecture. With observation on these prototypes, we could find the diversity of structure, form, hierarchy and resolution.

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Braided Diagram Braided Diagram

This is the project using agency to creat

This is the project agencyNot to create wovenusing fabric. only dynamic surfaces, but a woven fabric. Not only surfaces, but also three dimensional organism tissue like arch dimensional organism tissue like architecture. Programming agents to control space con Programming agents to control space configuration, quality and structure distribution and per quality and structure distribution and performance, simultaneously enjoying properties simultaneously enjoying properties of living organic of livi structure. Porosity, adhesion, structural structure. Porosity, adhesion, structural integrity, and adaptation. and adaptation.

ProgrammedProgrammed agents controlagents space configuration, control space conf quality and structure distribution and performance, quality and structure distribution and per simultaneously enjoying properties of living organic simultaneously enjoying properties of livi structure, porosity, adhesion, structural integrity, structure, porosity, adhesion, structural and adaptation.

and adaptation.

Rendering from inside of the column showing internal space and detail of adhesion. Rendering from inside of Even the column if thread was braid into clear cluster, a internal space and detailsubof adhesio connection and adhesion could still be achieved to if thread was braid into clear cluste create integrity of whole structure.

connection and adhesion could still be a create integrity of whole structure.

In micro views of the formation of the fabric, we can see the parallel and redundancy make it In micro views ofWhile, the formation more adaptive and resilient. in a global of the can seestructures the parallel and many redundancy point of view, woven also enjoy efficient properties, which canand be found in nature.While, in more adaptive resilient. The global structure of the braiding also en point of performance view, woven structures fabric is very like bones. The lattice and adhesion efficient properties, which can be found makes it efficiently lightweight and also able to The global structure performance of th withstand forces in many different directions. From fabric is very like bones. The lattice and the comparison diagram between figure15 (our makes and it efficiently lightweight braiding rendering) figure17(cross section of and als manyproperties. different directi birds' bone), withstand you may seeforces a greatin similar Hollow, adhesions, and porosity, diagram these are not just the comparison between figu about form, itbraiding meets structural requirement, which rendering) and figure17(cross give biological species adaptability. birds' bone), you may see a great similar p

Hollow, adhesions, and porosity, these a about form, it meets structural requireme give biological species adaptability.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Braided Diagram This is one section piece of the column showing the space quality the structure can achieve. Within increasing the density of braiding, the structure can also appear to be very solid and begin to form a certain geometry.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

Braided Wall These kind of light tensile structures are characterized by high intricacy, ability to organize heterogeneous spatial sequences and yield fresh aesthetics for architectural and design applications.

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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BRAID - Chapter 5 Column Representation

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CHAPTER 6 FURTURE APPLICATION We are developing a system could lead to space creation, space filing and organization and deployment strategies for many different site conditions. The tensile structure will also be parasite structure, survive upon host structure. The structure has a big variation of scales. It could be as small as a pavilions as a section built under bridges of highways, or as large as a inhabitable parasite structure built on a suspension bridge. From the pavilion scale, the following figures also shows the structural flexibility as a space filling fabric to adapt into different physical environments.

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BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

In our project, we chose a type of basic biological system-swarm behavior. Swarm intelligence has been applied in computational architecture design. It contributes to its emergent, decentralized and self-organized properties. It is typically made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment. Agent is the minimal unit and lowest level in this kind of system, and always follows very simple rules. In our behavior, the fundamental rules are: cohesion, separation, alignment. With continues adjustment of parameters, we built up our own library of biological swarming to match our mathematical braiding.

Data Matrix from top to bottom, frame 20-1000 different color means different value of data. Agents have different behavior in different color. Red is space agents will avoid going though Yellow is the field agents will run parallel to create a regular patterning. White is the field agents will run freely by self-organizing behaviors. It will have different data weight and agents will compute locally and behavior with adaptive. With the adaptability of swarming, it can be used to interact with context and environment. Specifically, we created a data matrix to collect and accumulate various data. When swarming agents navigate in the data matrix, they can read the data and change behaviors according to the data.

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BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

Data Matric And Agent Distribution We use a matrix to collect and store data and using agents to run though the matrix, certain behaviors will be appear upon different data, in this method, agents was distributed across the field and differentiate the infill structure and space.

Heterogeneous adaptive distribution High population agent systems increase the resolution of the fabric of architecture through local interaction and replication these systems generate a heterogeneous intricacy. The open nature of Processing enables agency to be encoded within diverse substrates. Consequently the notion of the agent can be expanded from a position or vector to consider the agency of a line, network, surface or component. This conceptual programming of matter encodes micro design decisions within a distributed population of agents that interact locally to give rise to a self-organized macro design intent. Such large scale/high population multi-agent systems provide resilient fabric that can eventually adapt and learn when connected to external inputs (such as weather data, programmatic inputs, fabrication and constructability constrains including material science). Redundancy and temporal rhythms (including parallel realities of computational time with its massive probabilistic iterations and poly-dimensionality), could be synchronized with the targeted agencies of the host conditions. -171-


BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

We have tested multi-agent system can create resilient fabric of architecture, giving it some tolerance of fault and damage. More into our project in material and the interlocking logic, the whole structure and treated as integral structure and adapt into physical changing of context. Issues of context, site and infrastructure are challenged and changing. Facing this situations, we explore the ideas of adaptation and evolution using our systems. The goal is to design systems that have the ability to evolve contextual parameters through direct engagement and using data's feedback. This openended systemic approach tests its ability adapt in different and changing sites interventions evolving solutions through this interaction with physical environmental. -172-


BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

From the cross section we can see that the infill structure is very flexible, which can preserve and achieve many difficult forms.

Parasite Fabric We are developing a system could lead to space creation, space filing and organization and deployment strategies for many different site conditions. The tensile structure will also be parasite structure, survive upon host structure. It is an intelligent system which can sense and interact with its physical environment and constantly adapt to it. Also the structure has a big variation of scales. It could be as small as a pavilions as a section built under bridges of highways, or as large as a inhabitable parasite structure built on a suspension bridge. From the pavilion scale, the following figures also shows the structural flexibility as a space filling fabric to adapt into different physical environments.

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CHAPTER 7 REAL SCALE CONSTRUCTION As the project we did using a really scale robot, and strand, we are able to create a real scale installation or parasite architecture.

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BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

Laying out all the component and ready to put them together.

Half done robots

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BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

MANUFACTURING ASSEMBLE Components preparation We got involved in a 9 days summer workshop with Tsinghua University in Beijing. Local human resource and goods supply really increase the efficiency of the assembling and lower the coat a lot. 9 days workshop was spend in Beijing with 5 students built robot from scratch. Including purchasing parts, laser cutting, assembling, adjustment, and many other processes. 30 mobile robots was made using local material and resources in Beijing to create multi-robotic swarming system to braid structures. With larger population of this robots, higher resolution fabric can be fabricated.

BRAID - Chapter 6 Furture Application

Robots armyďźš 30 mobile robots was made using local material and resources in Beijing to create multirobotic swarming system to braid structures. With larger population of this robots, higher resolution fabric can be fabricated.

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

Hand making Going beyond prototyping design phase, we push the project into industrial production. With 8 people, we make 30 robots in two days. This gives us the possibility to turning prototypes into industrial products to make real architecture. Now, B-BOT has complete its production process, and also we finally developed the tool which can be controlled by programming and create braided structure.

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Workshop Tsinghua 9 days workshop was spend in Beijing with 5 students built robot from scratch. Including purchasing parts, laser cutting, assembling, adjustment, and many other processes.

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

Teaching in Tsinghua Studio worked with a library of code developed by BIOTHING and Research Cluster 01 at the UCL Bartlett in London. Code is used not only to render attractive speculative designs, but it is also explicitly precoded to communicate to the swarm of robotically enabled vehicles performing the multithreaded weaving. Students learned how to construct Arduino powered vehicles which were programmed for different swarming/weaving behaviors. After the completion of a studio, robotic swarm will travel to London to reappear in its further iteration at the exhibition at the Bartlett in September. Scripting / Simulation: Softimage ++ Arduino

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Robotic Braiding set up After setting up everything, finally it is ready to braid the structure.

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

Braiding Site Set Up We need to set up a site before start braiding, the site including a projector, a field for robot to walk, a frame can raise up and down.

Projector

Top suspending plane

Fabrication Plane (Robot Walking Plane)

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light sensor input value

Color Blue: 60~200

Color Purple: 500~900

Color Green: 200~500

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BRAID - Chapter 7 Real Scale Construction

Projector Adjustment As explained before, we are using a light projector to feeding light data to control the global behaviors of the robots, in order to different the light value and give them different information. We used different colors that the robot can read as different light intensity. We are testing the color and intensity using code.

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In near future, the whole robotic systems can function all bases on physical sensin numbers of the robot provide a wider sensing range and more accurate data. On the can deploy a few hundreds or thousands of these robots and they will behave fully work like silkworms weaving it own cocoon. Silkworm doesn't need to design a cocoon and build it according to his blueprint, it leading us to a new future. Design, construction and occupation process can be co can read data from inhabitant ordinary life and feeding genetic algorithm to control b -200-


ng and reacting. For the experiment of bridge scenario, we can put the save sensors monitoring the bridge into these mobile robots. A huge e other hands, this local data collect by local robots can also feed on them and lead their behaviours. Then, after setting up this system, we y on their own. They can finish constrictions without further interfere of human beings only adapt to their environments. These robots will

t just has to follow its instinct to add silk wherever make it comfortable, and at last a complete perfect house can be made. This might be ompleting simultaneously, just like a true biological form's reproduction. Human inhabit may interact with these fabrication robots. Robots back this robot’s behavior. At this point, we may create architecture like living organism keep adapting, evaluating and mutating. -201-


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Light Control Light was project into the ground averagely, there isn't a global control of the swarming robots. It is pure self-organizing behaviors. But the behaviors appear to be random and out of control, it still able to create structure, but it is also vey random.

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Light Control As we have explained before, a light projector was used to feed light data to the robot the control their distributions and global behavior. With this global control, we can distribute the robotic systems to create the structure where we want or simulated. Globally speaking, we can simulated the agents swarming in computer according to the space or any form we designed and project to the robot. Locally speaking, B-BOT can only recognize the very neighbor robots around them, the individual doesn't have the concept of clustering or grouping. With the control of projector, we can divided them into different clusters and then switch the members to create the bifurcate and branching.

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The robots are control by light project by projectors and swarming on the ground. A braided structure will created by the movement, as the frame on top is moving up, the fabric comes out from the robots just like 3D printing.

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Paranet the bartlett