Page 1

Applying the TEKS for the STAAR

UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE H E L P SAM ATION TEXT ALLY! EDUC LY R

L A R . 9 9 . 8 88

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Reading and Argumentative Writing


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Focus on Specific STAAR Skills

S TA A R

NEW!

Specific Focus on Reading & Writing D

Understanding Complex Reading

Understanding Persuasive Text

Understanding Poetry

Understanding Drama

Literature & Informational Text by Theme

Reading & Argumentative Writing

Reading to Analyze and Interpret

Reading to Analyze and Interpret

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADES 3-8

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADES 3-8

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADES 3-8

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADES 3-8

Five Parts for Focused Instruction Part A: Understanding How to Read Complex Passages with rigorous passages and questions

Teaches students how to understand and analyze persuasive texts and how to write persuasive essays. Students will analyze a range of persuasive texts including editorials, letters, speeches, historical texts, and responses to literature. Students learn about the purpose and structure of persuasive texts, and then practice the techniques used to persuade readers.

Teaches students how to understand and analyze different types of poetry, such as lyrical, free verse, limerick, and more. Students will learn the structural elements of poetry such as rhyme, meter, and stanzas.

Teaches students how to understanding and analyze dramatic literature. Students will learn to draw conclusions and make inferences about the structure and elements of drama. The book also teaches how to interpret interactions between characters, dialogue, and stage directions.

Part B: How to identify a theme Part C: Glossary of Complex Reading Terms Part D: Instruction with complex texts Part E: Independent Practice: Complex Reading Passages of multiple themes with multiplechoice and open-ended questions

Special Features: • Glossary of important terms • Independent practice with five persuasive texts followed by questions

Special Features: • Glossary of poetic terms • Instruction with individual as well as paired poems, followed by questions • Each poem includes key background information to help students understand the text • Independent practice with multiplechoice and open-ended questions

• Independent practice with four writing prompts

Special Features: • Glossary of terms needed to understand dramatic literature • Each dramatic piece is introduced with background information to help students understand the work. • Independent practice with multiple-choice and open-ended questions

. All 4 Books Available in 1 Package! Understanding Complex Reading, Understanding Persuasive Text, Understanding Poetry, Understanding Drama

Class Set includes 15 of each title (total 60 books)

Level C Level D Level E Level F Level G Level H

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Understanding Complex Reading

Understanding the Common Core Standards Class Set Level

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Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8

Understanding Persuasive Text

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Understanding Poetry

Understanding Drama

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UNDERSTANDING H PERSUASIVE TEXT PLE SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8 Reading and

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Argumentative Writing


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Copyright ©2013 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 0912 RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing . . . . . . . . . . .6 An Introduction to the Key Features of Persuasive Writing and the Structure of Persuasive Essays Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Definitions of the Key Terms Needed to Analyze Persuasive Writing Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Five Persuasive Texts with Background Information and Instruction

Independent Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 TER.

MAS

Five Independent Practice Persuasive Texts and Four Persuasive KLINE C A L B A Writing Prompts O BE S NOT

IT I . D OOK T E B T S H I G H I Part 1: Reading . . .CO .P . .YR . . . . . . . . .FO .R . . T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 N S E I . V I K BOO . . . .IS. .N.O.T. G. . . . .IN. . A. N. Y. .W. A.Y. . . . . . . . . . . .60 E L Part M 2:PWriting A D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Introduction Understanding Persuasive Text: Reading and Argumentative Writing teaches students how to understand and analyze persuasive texts and how to write persuasive essays. Students will understand and analyze a range of persuasive texts, including editorials, letters, speeches, essays, historical texts, scientific texts, and responses to literature. Students will learn about the purpose and structure of persuasive texts and will understand the techniques used to persuade readers. Understanding Persuasive Text also includes writing prompts that will give students the opportunity to create persuasive writing. Students will make claims and produce well-supported arguments for those claims.

E L P AM S N O I T A Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY 888.

This section of the book gives background information on persuasive writing. It introduces and describes the key features of persuasive writing. The general . STER A M structure of a persuasive essay is also described. Students can refer to the structure E N ACKLI when analyzing persuasive writing and when creating persuasive T A BL writing.

IS NO OOK TO BE T I . D IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O Glossary K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E L IS terms that NA The glossarySgives ofNthe will need to understand AMPdefinitions D Istudents O I S E S C S U I I H D M T O R R E to analyze persuasiveP writing. Students REP can refer to the glossary as they learn to

analyze persuasive writing.

Instruction This section contains five persuasive texts. Each persuasive text is introduced with key information that will help students understand the purpose of the text and the structure of the text. Key information is also given on the claims made, the arguments presented, and the evidence included. After reading each persuasive text, the student then answers questions about it. This section of the book contains multiple-choice and open-ended questions.

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Independent Practice Part 1 of this section contains five persuasive texts. Each persuasive text is followed by several questions that students will answer on their own. This section of the book contains multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Part 2 of this section contains four persuasive writing prompts. Students will apply their understanding of persuasive writing to create four essays.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing Persuasive writing can have many different purposes. It can be written to persuade someone to do something. It can be written to convince readers to believe something. It can be written to persuade readers to accept the writer’s opinions, ideas, or judgments. The different types of persuasive writing often have different forms. An editorial might focus on giving a personal opinion. A letter might focus on encouraging someone to do something. A science article might draw a conclusion about the topic, and then give details to support the opinion. One thing that is common to all persuasive writing is that a claim is made or a position is taken and then supported.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! The Structure of the Persuasive Essay Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

ER. The chart on the next page shows a general structure for a persuasive essay. TThe S A M essay starts with an introduction. The introduction usually introduces KLINE the topic. C A L B E of the OT Aimportant It may provide background information as well. The Nmost S I TO Bpart T K I O . D O introduction is that the claim is stated.IGHTE HIS B

T COPYR GIVEN FOR S I K WAY. is given to support Y OInT the body, BOOis the body. N N E The next part of M the essay information A L S I P N A CED INmain ideas. Each main idea may Useveral IS Sinformation ISisSIOsorted D M the claim.THThe into O R R E P REP include supporting information such as facts, statistics, data, quotes, or personal anecdotes. The final part of the essay is the conclusion. The conclusion usually restates the main claim. It may also summarize the points made in the body. In some essays, the conclusion will include a call to action. This is a statement that will encourage the reader to take some action.

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The Structure of the Persuasive Essay Introduction Paragraph 1

Body

The introduction should: • introduce the topic of the essay • give any necessary background information • state the main claim

The body should: • give information to support the claim • divide the information into several main ideas

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . Paragraph 3 9 9 888. Paragraph 2

Main Idea #1 • supporting details

Each main idea should: • be the focus of one section or paragraph TER. S A • include supporting details or evidence M E

KLIN C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I Main Idea #2 The evidence form of: D. be inHthe HTEcan IS BOO G I T R Y R COP • supporting details K I•Sfacts EN FO WAY. V I G O T O O statistics IS Nand PLE B SI•Odata N ANY I M N A D S E C IS DU THIS Paragraph 4 PERM • quotes REPRO

Main Idea #3 • supporting details

Conclusion Paragraph 5

• expert opinions • personal anecdotes • reasoned arguments

The conclusion should: • restate the main claim • summarize the main ideas of the body • include a call to action, if appropriate

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Glossary Anecdote An anecdote is an account of a certain event. An anecdote usually describes a personal experience.

Argument An argument is a set of reasons designed to support a claim.

Assumption

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

An assumption is something that is assumed to be true.

Call to Action

A call to action is a statement that encourages people to take action.

Claim

A claim is a statement that something is true. In persuasive writing, the claim TERis. S A M the main idea that the author wants the reader to believe or accept. CKLINE

BLA A T O IS N TO BE T K I O . Conclusion D O SB IGHTE FOfacts THIand R Y R P A conclusion is a decision reached by considering O EN IS C . other evidence. V Y I K A G O W T O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S ControllingTHIdea IS IS DU PERM REPRO A controlling idea is the main idea of an essay.

Editorial An editorial is a piece of writing that expresses the author’s opinion. Editorials are commonly found in newspapers and magazines.

Evidence Evidence refers to the facts, figures, quotes, data, examples, or other sources used to provide support for ideas.

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Expert Opinion An expert opinion is an opinion given by someone who has strong knowledge of the topic.

Fact A fact is a piece of information that can be proven to be true.

Mood Mood refers to how a text or part of a text makes the reader feel, or the feelings created in the reader.

Opinion

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

An opinion is a statement that cannot be proven to be true. It is a personal view of something.

Point of View

Point of view refers to the position of the speaker of a work. The point of view can be first person, second person, third person limited, or third person omniscient.

TER. S A M E KLINfeels C A L In persuasive writing, the author’s position refers to how the author about a B TA E O B N O S I T topic, or the author’s viewpoint. ED. IT THIS BOOK T H G I COPYR GIVEN FOR S I K Quote WAY. Y OT BOO N N E A L S I P IN A quote, or quotation, of exact ION UCED words from a source. IS SAM ERisMthe ISSrepetition H D T O R P A quote can be someone’s exact spoken REP words, or it can be exact written words

Position

from a source.

Statistics Statistics are numerical facts and data.

Theme A theme is the main topic or the main idea of a work.

Tone Tone is how the author feels about the subject.

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Instruction Each persuasive text is introduced with key background information that will help students understand the purpose of the text, the structure of the text, and the techniques used to persuade readers.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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Persuasive Text 1 Introduction: This passage is a letter to the editor written to a local newspaper. The author, Erica Jameson, addresses the letter to the editor of the newspaper and expresses a complaint about the newspaper. Her complaint is that the newspaper seems to view men as being more important than women. Erica supports her opinion by analyzing the publication’s sports news. She uses this analysis of the sports news to make a broad claim about the newspaper’s biases. She also tries to encourage the newspaper to change and describes how the changes could benefit the community.

E L P / It’s Time AM forTaIO\ S N Fair Playing DUCAField

Dear Editor,

1

E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY 888.

TER. S A M I want to start by asking you an important question. Do youKthink LINE that men C A L B are more important than women? Actually, do notObother BE that N T A Kanswering O S I T T I question. I already know what your answer OO You are going to say HTED. is going IStoBbe. G H I T R Y R that of course men and women FO EN important. IS COP are Tequally .That is the politically V Y I K A G O W O correct thing to Lsay, you NO say it. IINwant ANYto ask your writers and IS will P E B andSso M N A D O I S E C journalists question, but I D know U they will also say what is considered IS THIS the same PERM REPRO

the right thing to say. The great thing is that I do not have to rely on you, your writers, or your journalists to admit how you all really feel. I do not have to ask you because you have created the evidence that proves you do believe that men are more important than women. As the old saying goes, actions speak louder than words. Your publication is filled with examples that show that you consider men to be more important than women. The sports pages are the clearest example of your bias. 2 This weekend, the finals for the local basketball competitions were held. The

results of the competitions were the major stories in the sports section. With a quick glance at your paper, it would be easy to miss the fact that there was a women’s competition as well as a men’s competition. The results of the men’s

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competition took up almost two pages. There were details of the game, feature articles on the game’s top players, and an article on the fighting spirit of the losing team. There was even a large color photograph taking up most of the back page. What coverage did the women’s basketball final get? A total of just two paragraphs. That’s right. The women got 15 lines total, or 142 words. There were no photographs and hardly any description of the players or the game. The whole 15 lines were a dry summary of the events without a hint of enthusiasm. It was clear the journalist had no interest in the sport he was writing about. The men’s final was presented as an exciting event that captured the spirit of great sporting events. The women’s final was presented as an irrelevant event that inspired nobody. I was at the women’s final, and I can assure you that it was an exciting event. It is a shame that it did not receive the recognition it deserved.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

3 This is one example from this week’s newspaper, but it is far from being an

exception. The newspaper routinely covers men’s sports in great detail, while providing little or no coverage of women’s sports. There are two reasons that can explain this. The first is that your publication does not care about women’s sports. The second is that you think your publication’s readers don’t care about TtoERa. lot women’s sports. Unfortunately, the second reason is partly true. I spoke S A M KLINE a few C of people in the community about the issue and began to conduct A L B OT A maleTsporting Ntown’s surveys. I found that people mainly knew ofTour O BE teams, S I K I O . D O B HTE of ourR local and that a lot of people knew of the In contrast, I IGstars THIS teams. R Y P O O F C N S E I could even . a women’s team. found only one person WAYon T GIVname aANplayer OOKwho Y O B N E L S I P Most people did not evenIO know N that the AM D IN basketball team is the Pumas, CEfemale S Sfemale UMarlins. ISS team D M THIthe O R R or that softball is the I am left to wonder whether E P REP they do not want to know, or whether they do not have the chance to know. After all, if you don’t cover women’s sports, how will local people know about them? If you continue to cover women’s sports without any enthusiasm, how will local people become excited about them? It is clear that our local newspaper is part of the problem. You don’t cover female sports because people are not interested, but people are not interested because you don’t cover them! If you can be part of the problem, you can also be part of the solution! 4 I know that this problem is not just limited to your publication. In society,

male sports always get more coverage than female sports. Female sports are treated as less important and often only mentioned in passing. Even the

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people on television giving the sports news are usually male. It will be hard for this to ever change, but starting local seems like a good place to start. Think about the good you could do for your community. Imagine if our newspaper gave equal space to male and female sports. Imagine if you made the effort to find great sporting stories revolving around our local female sports teams and sportspeople. Imagine if you presented female sports in a way that makes them seem as important and as exciting as male sports. You would encourage young girls to take part in sports more and to strive to be better. You would inspire young girls to believe that they are valued. It would be a positive step for our community and something your publication could be proud of. 5 I hope that you will consider how you present sports and make the effort to be

less biased.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Sincerely, Erica Jameson

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ŠiStockphoto/Kayann Legg

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1

Which word best describes the tone of the first paragraph? A Hostile B Anxious C Demanding D Somber

2

Read these sentences from the letter. Do you think that men are more important than women? Actually, do not bother answering that question. I already know what your answer is going to be.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Why does Erica believe that the editor will not answer the question truthfully? A The editor does not realize how biased he is.

B The editor will say what is considered the right answer. C The editor will stand up for his writers and journalists.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B A BE NOTconsiders S I TOwomen’s How does Erica support the idea that the newspaper T K I O . D O IGHTE FOR THIS B sports unimportant? R Y P O C K ISmany AY. were covered GIVENwomen’s O Wsports T O Y O B A By giving facts on how different N N E A L S I P IN SSIONgivenRto UCED sports and women’s sports IS SAM Ethe Ispace D M THcomparing O B By men’s R P REP D The editor does not respond to reader’s concerns.

3

C By describing the results of several surveys of community members D By listing reasons that women’s sports are often ignored

4

Which sentence does Erica include to appeal to the editor’s emotions? A As the old saying goes, actions speak louder than words. B This weekend, the finals for the local basketball competitions were held. C Female sports are treated as less important and often only mentioned in passing. D You would inspire young girls to believe that they are valued.

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5

What does Erica hope to accomplish by writing her letter? A To convince readers to take a greater interest in women’s sports B To explain to female readers that they can play a range of sports C To encourage the editor to provide equal coverage to male and female sports D To request that the newspaper retrain its writers and journalists

6

In the letter, Erica describes some surveys she conducted. Explain how effective the survey results are in helping Erica make her argument.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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Persuasive Text 2 Introduction: This passage is an essay written by a student in response to Joan Didion’s memoir titled The Year of Magical Thinking. The student introduces the topic by describing what the book is about and then gives her opinion on whether the book is worth reading. The body of the essay analyzes the book and gives reasons that the book is worth reading. The conclusion of the essay praises the book and its author and restates the opinion that the book is worth reading.

/ A Book Report \

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. by Silvia Diaz

1 Joan Didion’s The Year of Magical Thinking is her account of coming to terms

with the death of her husband. She describes her experience during the year following his death, a period that also included caring for her seriously ill daughter. The book is a personal account of grief, and also an analysis of grief TER. S A M and the difficult issues raised by the death of a loved one. The book is KLINEDidion’s skill C A L B challenging to read and deals with some intense topics. However, E NOT A K TThe O Bstory S I T as a writer prevents her story from becoming overwhelming. she tells I O . D O E B T S H I G H I and the way she presents it make OPYRit a worthwhile FOR Texperience for the reader. 2

K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E IS is anCaccount Didion’s book Nwhich AMPisLa memoir, D IN A of a person’s life. However, O I S E S S S U I I H D T book isPnot ERMlike mostREmemoirs. Didion’s Didion presents her story in a unique PRO

way that blends her own experience with research on the topic. The research component blends seamlessly with the personal story. The research could have seemed out of place with the true story or taken away from the true story. Instead, it added to the book and flowed well with the story. One of the reasons for this is that Didion is searching for answers in the book. She is describing her experiences, while also trying to make sense of them. The way Didion looks to research on grief to understand herself makes sense in the book. It seemed like reading the factual information about grief was her way of understanding herself. The factual information also acted like a break from Didion’s personal, emotional story. Didion’s account of her grief was intensely sad and could easily have been overwhelming. The shift from describing her

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experience to analyzing it and presenting research makes the book more like a search for meaning than someone simply relating their negative emotions. This unique format of the book makes the book more meaningful and more enjoyable. The outside sources contribute to the meaning in the book and make the book a search for understanding as much as a personal story. They also make the book about understanding life, death, and grief, rather than just understanding one person’s story. The outside sources make the book relevant to all readers because the book becomes more than just Didion’s story. 3 Didion’s book deals with some challenging themes, including grief, loss, the

inability to control what happens to you, and mortality. It is a tribute to Didion’s writing skill that she is able to address these themes without overwhelming the reader. The factual information is included as Didion tries to deal with these issues. This factual research made it easier to consider these tough issues. A good example is in the first chapter of the book. Didion describes how unremarkable the circumstances were when her husband died. They were having a typical dinner and then he was gone. This was shocking to read because it was easy to imagine the same thing happening to anyone. It also raised the difficult issue of accepting that life is not controllable. Just like ER. Tthen Didion, every person could lose someone they love at any time. Didion S A M LINE thing, such Ksame C includes some historical accounts of other people noting the A L B A BE NOTbombings as people in Honolulu noting that the Pearl THarbor on an S I TOhappened K I O . D O E B T IS from reflecting to ordinary day. The factual information THtone YRIGH changes Rthe P O O F C N S E . analyzing, which makes to really the issue of AYdifficult W T GIV consider OOK itI easier Y O B N N E A L S I P mortality. SThe AM overall Ieffect ONis that you ED INlike you are on the same journey Cfeel SSIto Uone D M THIS You are O R R as Didion. forced consider difficult question, and then you E P REP delve into trying to find understanding. This was an effective technique and a good way to explore the themes.

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4 Didion’s book is also effective because it avoids being too emotional. The tone

of the book is serious and matches the content. Even in describing her experience of grief, Didion is more factual than thoughtful. She describes things she did but rarely directly states her emotions. This helps make the research blend with her personal story. It also makes the emotion more understandable, because the book does not describe how she felt but describes what happened. Instead of being told that Didion felt sad, you read about Didion being unable to throw out a pair of shoes because her husband might need them. You can

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easily relate to not wanting to let something go and holding on to such a hope even though you know it is not realistic. Didion effectively shows readers how she felt without having to tell readers how she felt. 5 Overall, the book is challenging to read because of the sadness of the story, the

emotions it evoked, and the difficult issues it raised. However, it is also rewarding and worth reading because it forces reflection on these major issues. The book is a great example of how factual information can take a personal story to a new level. Didion’s skill as a writer and her willingness to share such a personal story make it a book that deserves appreciation.

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Which sentence from the first paragraph states the main claim of the passage? A Joan Didion’s The Year of Magical Thinking is her account of coming to terms with the death of her husband. B The book is a personal account of grief, and also an analysis of grief and the R. difficult issues raised by the death of a loved one. MASTE

LINE NOT S I TO BE experience T K I D The story she tells and the way she presents it make it a worthwhile O . D O IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y for the reader. P O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I H D M T RO based on — PERassesses The author mainly the REPbook K C The book is challenging to read and deals with some intense A BLACtopics.

8

A Didion’s writing skill B Didion’s honesty C the relevance of the book’s themes D how entertaining the book was

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9

How does the author most likely feel about Didion? A She is confused by her. B She is jealous of her. C She feels sorry for her. D She admires her.

10 The information in paragraph 4 is mainly organized by — A describing important events in the book in order B stating a main idea and then providing details to support it

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C comparing the book to other memoirs

D listing several factors that make the book effective

11 Read this sentence from the passage.

The outside sources make the book relevant to all readers because the book becomes more than just Didion’s story. STER.

NE MA I L K C A Lthe book — The phrase “more than just Didion’s story” refers to how OT A B TO BE N S I T OOK A has similar themes to other worksHTED. I B S I G H I YR FOR T Y. COPpeople N B includes quotes from other S E I V I K OT G IN ANY WA BOO N E L S I P C offers meaning to all readers AM D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R D is part fact and part fiction

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Persuasive Text 3 Introduction: This passage is an editorial written by a student. The purpose of an editorial is to state an opinion on a topic. This editorial focuses on the space program and the research conducted by NASA, and it questions whether the money budgeted for NASA is a good use of funds. In the editorial, the student describes some of NASA’s main achievements and their impact on the American people. The author does not argue that the achievements were not significant, but does question whether they were significant enough to justify the cost. The author includes facts about the money spent by NASA, analyzes whether NASA meets its stated mission, and encourages the reader to consider whether the space program has actually provided any real benefits.

E L P AM S N O I T / Space \ A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY 888.

1 In 1969, the NASA space

mission called Apollo 11 TER. S A M KLINE landed on the Moon. Neil C A L B Armstrong became the first NOT A K TO BE S I T I person to walk on the HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y Moon. It was a televisedK IS COP EN FO WAY. V I G O T O B LE people event watched IS NO CED IN ANY Pby M N A O I S S DU MIS THISthe United all over PERStates REPRO and around the world. It signified America’s achievements and capabilities in science. It also signified America’s Galileo spacecraft ability to dream of Photo courtesy of NASA seemingly impossible things and then actually make them happen. For people all over the United States, the Moon landing was an inspiring event that made them feel proud to be American. In 1989, the spacecraft Galileo was launched into space by NASA. In 1995, it began to orbit Jupiter and sent back data and photographs of

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Jupiter’s moons. It was not the major event the Moon landing was, but people were still amazed to see new images of objects from millions of miles away. NASA, or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is the government body responsible for the Galileo and Apollo missions. It manages the space program, as well as researches aeronautics and other scientific topics. There is no question that the work of NASA has made some remarkable achievements. The question remains as to whether the achievements are worth the cost. 2 In both 2010 and 2011, the United States government budgeted $18 billion

for NASA. It is estimated that NASA will continue to be given funding of about $18 billion for the next few years. NASA was created in 1958. In just over the 50 years it has operated, over $500 billion has been spent. Is this a good use of money? Are the costs worth the benefits? Could there be better uses for this money? These are questions that deserve careful consideration.

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3 NASA’s vision is “to reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that

what we do and learn will benefit all humankind.” NASA has certainly reached for new heights and has certainly revealed the unknown. However, it is not so certain whether this has benefited humankind. As described, the Moon TER. S A M NE landing had a major positive impact on many people. It was KaLIlandmark C A L B TA moment that many people will always remember. oneBhas NOHowever, S I TO E to wonder T K I O . D O whether it achieved anything other than people HIS B feel good. Is anyone’s IGHTE making T R Y R P O O F life in America better because the. Moon? The same IVEN about K IS C moreOTisGknown AY O W O Y B N N question can be asked about the knowledge that the Galileo spacecraft gained E A L S I P N I M N A D O I S E S C IS IS DU more about Jupiter and its moons. aboutTHJupiter. Scientists PROmuch PERM now Rknow E But how does this help anyone? Does it improve a person’s quality of life? Does it solve a problem here on Earth? Does it benefit all humankind? While NASA’s research is certainly fascinating, it does not provide practical benefits. It does not help people live better lives or solve problems that people and nations face. 4 The money that is spent to operate NASA would be better spent in other areas.

Environmental issues are problems faced by all people on Earth. Global warming and climate change are significant concerns that impact everyone. What if the money spent on NASA was redirected to understanding and managing environmental issues? What if the leading scientists that are part of NASA were instead focused on understanding climate change? Surely

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it is more important to understand our own planet before focusing on understanding other planets. If these changes were made, I feel sure that scientists would learn more about managing, protecting, and repairing the environment. This would have practical benefits for all people. It would improve people’s lives and make the world a better place. 5 I do feel sad about the idea that NASA would not continue to make its

amazing discoveries. Focusing on issues on Earth will probably be far less exciting. There will be no amazing images from far in outer space or footage of a person setting foot on something other than the Earth. However, even though it would be nice to continue this type of research, it is not responsible to do so. There is a limited amount of money and probably a limited amount of scientific expertise. These have to be put to use in a way that will deliver real benefits for people. The responsible thing to do is to spend money on projects that will solve or prevent real problems. Those real problems now are environmental, and that is a better use of the money currently budgeted for journeys into outer space.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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12 In the first paragraph, why are the Apollo and Galileo missions described? A To give examples of NASA’s achievements B To suggest that successful missions are rare C To imply that the results were unimportant D To show the costs of missions into space

13 Why does the author most likely ask questions in paragraph 3? A To suggest that the issue does not have a solution B To encourage the reader to think about the issue

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C To show that the author is unsure of his opinion D To imply that the issue needs to be researched

14 Which aspect of NASA’s vision does the author most question? A Whether NASA’s achievements are significant

TER. S A M KLINE C Whether NASA has learned from its experience A BLAC NOT S I TO BE T K I D Whether NASA’s activities have benefited humankind O . D O IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E IS MPL purpose N paragraph Amain D IN A O What isISthe of 4? I S E S C S U I H D T PERM REPRO A To give an alternative use for the money spent on the space program B Whether NASA has explored the unknown

15

B To show that studying other planets could help scientists understand Earth C To demonstrate that NASA’s research is more exciting than other research areas D To illustrate that NASA’s other activities should be given more recognition

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16 Which sentence from the passage states the author’s main claim? A For people all over the United States, the Moon landing was an inspiring event that made them feel proud to be American. B It is estimated that NASA will continue to be given funding of about $18 billion for the next few years. C While NASA’s research is certainly fascinating, it does not provide practical benefits. D Global warming and climate change are significant concerns that impact everyone.

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17 Using information from the passage, explain whether you feel that spending money on space research is irresponsible. Use at least two details from the passage to support your response.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 4 Introduction: This passage is an excerpt from a speech given by Hillary Clinton on September 5, 1995. At the time, Hillary Clinton was the First Lady of the United States. The speech was given at the United Nation’s Fourth World Conference on Women, which was held in Beijing. The speech is addressed to the representatives from many different countries attending the conference. The speech argues in support of women’s rights and tries to persuade listeners “to act on behalf of women everywhere” by ensuring that women are treated equally.

Excerpt from a Speech E L P AM Clinton N / bySHillary \ O I T A

C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

1 Those of us who have the opportunity to be here have the responsibility to

speak for those who could not. As an American, I want to speak for those women in my own country, women who are raising children on the Aminimum TER. S M wage, women who can’t afford health care or child care, Lwomen KLINEwhose lives C A B OT A own homes. are threatened by violence, including violenceISinNtheir TO BE 2

ED. IT THIS BOOK T H G I YR are fighting I want to speak up for mothers FOR for good COPwho N S E I . schools, safe V Y I K A G O W T O neighborhoods, Lclean NYolder women, some of them NO airwaves. ISclean P E B air,SIOand N AFor I M N A D S E C widows, that, U families, their skills and life ISafter raising Dtheir THISwho find PERM REPRO

experiences are not valued in the marketplace. For women who are working all night as nurses, hotel clerks, or fast food chefs so that they can be at home during the day with their children. And for women everywhere who simply don’t have time to do everything they are called upon to do each and every day. 3 Speaking to you today, I speak for them, just as each of us speaks for women

around the world who are denied the chance to go to school, or see a doctor, or own property, or have a say about the direction of their lives, simply because they are women. The truth is that most women around the world work both inside and outside the home, usually by necessity.

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4 We need to understand there is no one formula for how women should lead

our lives. That is why we must respect the choices that each woman makes for herself and her family. Every woman deserves the chance to realize her own God-given potential. But we must recognize that women will never gain full dignity until their human rights are respected and protected. 5 Our goals for this conference, to strengthen families and societies by

empowering women to take greater control over their own destinies, cannot be fully achieved unless all governments, here and around the world, accept their responsibility to protect and promote internationally recognized human rights. The international community has long acknowledged and recently reaffirmed at Vienna that both women and men are entitled to a range of protections and personal freedoms, from the right of personal security to the right to determine freely the number and spacing of the children they bear. No one should be forced to remain silent for fear of religious or political persecution, arrest, abuse, or torture.

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6 Tragically, women are most often the ones whose human rights are violated.

Even now, in the late 20th century, the rape of women continues to be used as an instrument of armed conflict. Women and children make up a large TER. S A M majority of the world’s refugees. And when women are excluded KLINEfrom the C A L B A abuse. I Bbelieve political process, they become even more vulnerable that NOT to S I TO E T K I O . D O now, on the eve of a new millennium, to break HIS B the silence. It is time IGHTitE is time T R Y R P O O F for us to say here in Beijing, the Eworld N to hear, Y.that it is no longer K IS Cand for Ahuman GIVseparate O W T O Y O B N N acceptable to discuss women’s rights as from rights. E IS PL IN A 7

AM D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R Now it is the time to act on behalf of women everywhere. If we take bold steps

to better the lives of women, we will be taking bold steps to better the lives of children and families too. Families rely on mothers and wives for emotional support and care. Families rely on women for labor in the home. And increasingly, everywhere, families rely on women for income needed to raise healthy children and care for other relatives. 8 As long as discrimination and inequities remain so commonplace everywhere

in the world, as long as girls and women are valued less, fed less, fed last, overworked, underpaid, not schooled, subjected to violence in and outside their homes, the potential of the human family to create a peaceful, prosperous world will not be realized.

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9 Let this conference be our, and the world’s, call to action. Let us heed that call

so we can create a world in which every woman is treated with respect and dignity, every boy and girl is loved and cared for equally, and every family has the hope of a strong and stable future. That is the work before you. That is the work before all of us who have a vision of the world we want to see, for our children and our grandchildren.

18 The description of girls and women in paragraph 8 implies that women are —

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A powerful

B defenseless C cowardly

D courageous

TER. S A M KLINE C To give examples of some of the struggles that women face A L B NOT A K TO BE S I To show how women’s human rights are threatened T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y To praise women for their P EN FO WAY. IS COachievements V I K G O T O B To encourage to stand themselves IS NOup for PLEwomen N ANY I M N A D O I S E S C IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

19 What is the main purpose of the second paragraph? A B C D

20 How does the speaker most likely feel about women living in countries where they are not treated equally? A They need to be protected. B They should fight for their rights. C They should ask for help. D They need to educate themselves.

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21 In paragraph 9, the speaker most likely aims to sound — A demanding B questioning C reassuring D inspiring

22 Read this sentence from the speech. If we take bold steps to better the lives of women, we will be taking bold steps to better the lives of children and families too.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

How does the speaker support this statement?

A By explaining that every young girl is part of a family

B By describing the important role that women play in families C By comparing free women with powerless women D By listing ways to improve the lives of women

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 5 Introduction: This passage is an essay written by a student after the class studied different ways computers had impacted society. This essay is on the topic of cyber warfare. The essay begins by describing what cyber warfare is and introducing the topic of whether the government needs a policy on cyber warfare. The student then states his opinion on the topic and summarizes the reasons that support his claim. The body of the essay expands on the reasons and makes arguments to support each of the reasons given.

/ Cyber PWarfare LE \

SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. by Adam Leckie

1 The rise of technology and the Internet has led to many advances in society.

However, it also leads to new concerns. One issue that has become a concern is the use of cyber warfare. Cyber warfare refers to the use of computers to . SaTER A M attack other computers or networks. In theory, cyber warfare could be E N LI ACKthe Lby B weapon used against the United States, or a weaponTused United States. A E O B N O S I Tmake T This has led to a debate on whether the United States should cyber K I O . D O E B T S H I G H I warfare part of government policy. OR Tcyber .warfare should be a Fthat COPYR I believe N S E I V I K part of the government’s policy. warfare WAYcould be an effective Y OT G Cyber BOO public N N E A L S I P IN weapons. Cyber warfare may N AM tool and conventional UCED D MISSIO than THISaSbetterPalternative O R R E also be necessary because other REPgroups are developing this kind of weapon and will have an advantage if the United States does not match the technology. I also think having a policy is essential so that the use of cyber warfare is effectively controlled. 2 The first reason I think cyber warfare should be part of policy is that it may be

more effective than conventional weapons. Imagine that the situation occurs where a foreign nation is threatening to launch air attacks on another nation. One option is to send in armies, soldiers, and fighter planes to prevent the attack. Another option is to use cyber warfare to disable the power supply to the airports that are necessary for the planes to take off. Cyber warfare can be directed at one target and potentially achieve its goal without putting soldiers

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©iStockphoto/Tony Tremblay

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Computers manage the traffic lights that control traffic flow. or civilians at risk. Cyber warfare may be carried out from a remote location, reducing the need for soldiers to risk their lives. Cyber warfare may also be .less ER damaging to civilians. For example, a cyber attack on a target such asASaTphone M E N I LACKLbe network may disable communications. The same result could achieved by B A T E in the O B N O S I T result dropping a bomb on the target, but this second option would T K I O . D O HTE IS B loss of life. PYRIG OR TH 3

EN F IS CO . V I K G O T O Y WAYis that other groups are Owarfare isINnecessary B on cyber N N E A L S Another reason a policy I P AM SION The CED States relies on computer DUUnited THIS S this Pkind O developing R ERMofIS weapon. P E R

networks, and this means cyber attacks become a viable option for those wanting to launch attacks on the United States. Technology has become a major part of the world. Countries developing weapons based on technology are moving ahead. If the United States does not match this trend, it will find itself with inferior weapons and become a greater target for attack. A study completed by Dartmouth College and funded by the Department of Homeland Security aimed to determine whether several nations had the capability to carry out cyber attacks. The study found that several nations did have the capability and that several were developing technology designed to carry out cyber attacks. The study also referred to information technology as an “inviting target to a potential adversary.” It is also worth noting that cyber

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attacks could be carried out for many different purposes. They could be used to access confidential data or even change the data. They could be used to disrupt public transport, telephone services, or the Internet itself. They could also be used to damage financial systems, such as by interfering with banks or the stock market. The capability of many groups to carry out these attacks, and the large number of possible purposes, make the risk of cyber warfare being used significant. It is important that the United States takes actions so it can prevent problems and respond quickly if problems do occur. 4 The third reason I think cyber warfare should be included in the government’s

policy is so that it can be controlled. It seems that cyber warfare is a valuable and necessary tool and that the United States should make use of it. I think developing a policy is essential to controlling the use of cyber warfare. Developing a policy means considering when cyber attacks may be used, for what purpose they might be used, and what problems they might lead to. I think this policy making will help ensure that cyber attacks are used in an effective and responsible way.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

5 Cyber warfare is a current concern and something that the United States needs

to act on. It could be used as a weapon against the United States in a number TER. S A M INE has several of ways. It could also be effectively used by the United States KLand C A L B benefits over traditional warfare methods. It is important BEUnited NOT A that S I TOthe T K I O . D O States develops a cyber warfare policyHT E allowsTthreats HIS B to be recognized and IG that R Y R P O O F problems to be prevented,ISwhile allowing N the United K C also AY. States to use cyber GIVEeffective O W T O Y O B N N warfare in a controlled, responsible, and way. E IS PL IN A

AM D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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23 Which idea does the study by Dartmouth College mainly support? A That cyber warfare has many benefits over traditional warfare B That there is a reasonable threat of cyber warfare being used against the United States C That cyber attacks could be used for a range of different purposes D That potential cyber attacks are difficult to detect and prevent

24 How is the information in paragraphs 2 through 4 organized? A Each paragraph describes one reason that a cyber warfare policy is necessary.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B Each paragraph explains one possible use of cyber warfare. C Each paragraph compares an advantage and disadvantage of cyber warfare. D Each paragraph states a problem with cyber warfare and then gives a solution.

25 According to the passage, why is cyber warfare better than KLINE C A L conventional warfare? B A A B C D

R. MASTE

NOT S I TO BE T K I O . D O It has a lower cost. IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O There is less risk toOhuman K IS C life.OT GIVEN NY WAY. O B E IS N PL out Squickly. M N It can be carried A D IN A O I S E C S S U I I H D M T PERways REPbeROused. There are many it can

26 What is the main purpose of the first three sentences of the passage? A To state the main claim B To describe a problem C To introduce the topic D To define key terms

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27 Why is the photograph most likely included in the passage? A To illustrate that cyber warfare could be used against banks B To show that the technology needed to carry out cyber attacks already exists C To suggest that society relies too strongly on computers D To give an example of how cyber warfare could be used to create disruptions

28 The author gives several reasons that a cyber warfare policy is necessary. Write a paragraph comparing the reasons given and stating which one is most convincing.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Independent Practice Part 1 contains five persuasive texts with questions for students to complete on their own. Part 2 contains four writing prompts to give students practice creating persuasive writing.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Part 1: Reading Persuasive Text 1

/ Letter to the Editor \ Dear Editor, 1 The Internet has changed a lot of things, including how people shop. Many

people now shop for clothing, books, electrical goods, furniture, and even food online. The usual arguments are that it saves people money and that it saves people time. While these may seem like important benefits, shopping online is not always the great experience that people hope it to be. It is important to be careful when shopping online, and shopping locally is often a better and safer option.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

2 The main argument for shopping online is that it saves money. In many cases,

products are cheaper online. Online stores do not have the costs of retailER. AST that Mmean E stores and often can offer a cheaper price. But this does not always N I L K BLAC a saucepan A people really save money. Jerry McCartney recently purchased set T O BE N O S I T T K I online. It was somewhat cheaper thanTher OO offer, so she S Bcould H ED. localR stores I G H I T R Y considered that it was a good she realized that it was not P OnceEitN arrived, FO IS COdeal. V I K AY.What she thought was G O W T O as good quality LasE it Y Oin the photographs. B had appeared N N A S I P N cheaplyUmade SAM CED INand flimsy. She decided not to a quality turned M out ISStoIObe D THISset O R R E P REPhave been able to get the postage back and return it because she would not would have had to post it back at her own expense. It lasted less than six months, and then she bought a new set locally. She paid more for it, but she had seen it and knew that it was a quality set. Jerry would have saved a lot if she had just bought the set locally in the first place. There are many cases of people buying things online at a cheap price only to realize later that they are poor quality. The cost of replacing them a short time later means that people are wasting money instead of saving money. The key to spending smartly is to look for good value instead of looking for the cheapest price. It can be difficult to assess the quality of products online, so determining that a product is good value is often difficult.

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3 Another argument that is often made is that you save time by shopping

online. Here is an exercise that will prove that this is incorrect. Go online now and pretend you have $250 to spend on a juicer. You will be bombarded with choices. There are different types, different brands, and different stores you could buy it from. You will have to read through the advantages and disadvantages of each type and decide which one is right for you. You will have to assess different brands and decide which one is best. You might read reviews from other users or watch videos on their use. Then, once you have decided which type and brand to get, you will have to find the best site to buy it from. You will probably then also consider things like postage cost and the site’s return policy. Now imagine you go to your local electrical goods retailer. Again, you have $250 to spend on a juicer. You tell the salesperson this, and she asks you a few questions about what you plan to use it for. She recommends two products, shows you their features, and answers your questions. A few minutes later, you leave the store with your purchase. You don’t have to wait for it to arrive, and you are certain that you have made the right choice. Clearly, shopping online was not a time saver at all! Many people fail to recognize how important salespeople are. The owner of Bren’s Books notes that her salespeople undergo extensive training. As she states, “They .are STER A M not just there to take the money. They are there to make recommendations E N LACKLI to share, and B and help customers.” Salespeople have a wealth of information A T NO and money. O BE making use of their expertise can save you IT IS time D. both OOK T

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

4

IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O C relates Another issue with online K ISstores GIVtoENtrust.NAY store O WAY. might have a bright T O O B N E A L S I P and friendly who N are youUreally AMwebsite, but CED INbuying from? Craig Davis ISSaIOmajor D M THIS Sthat this O R R discovered was issue when he bought a faulty exercise bike. E P REP

The service had been good as he purchased it, but now that he had a problem, it was a different case altogether. He received no response to his inquires through the website, his emails were completely ignored, and there was no contact information anywhere. He was stuck with a faulty product, and he finally resorted just to fixing it himself. While many online stores are trustworthy, many others are not. And it’s often not until you have a problem that you will realize that you are on your own. This is not such an issue with retail stores for two reasons. First, you can always just go to the store to have your problem resolved. You will always be able to find someone to speak to. A retail store cannot ignore you the same way a website owned by an anonymous person can. Second, retail stores need the support of local

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customers. They have a reason to keep customers happy and will usually work hard to resolve problems. In contrast, online stores will often shrug you off because there are millions of other potential customers. You simply will not receive the quality service and respect that you deserve. 5 Clearly, shopping online is not the ultimate way to shop. The benefits are not

as great as many people assume, and it is common for people to experience problems. It is time to stop looking to the Internet for your shopping needs and start looking local instead. There are many local businesses that need your support. They may not be able to match the cheapest online price, but they will always outperform the online stores in terms of service, trust, and customer satisfaction. Local retailers in our town need the support of the public more than ever, and they are working hard to deliver. Don’t shun and dismiss them when they have so much to offer. I urge everyone reading this to look beyond just price and choose to shop local every time.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Sincerely, Odell Jackson President, Small Business Bureau

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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1

The author probably wrote the letter mainly to — A help readers choose trustworthy online stores B convince readers not to shop at online stores C persuade readers to buy better-quality products D inform readers of the problems that retail stores face

2

Which of these sources does the author use to demonstrate the dangers of shopping online? A Interviews with local business owners

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B Real-life examples of problems that people encountered C His own personal experiences of online shopping D Facts collected from online surveys

3

Read this sentence from the letter.

A retail store cannot ignore you the same way a website owned by an STER. E MA anonymous person can. ACKLIN

T A BL O BE O N S I The author’s use of the phrase “an anonymous OK T that website D. IT person” Oimplies E B T S H I G H I owners are — T COPYR GIVEN FOR S I K WAY. Y OT BOO A lazy N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE B arrogant R C unreliable D selfish

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4

Why does the author include paragraphs 2 and 3? A To support the claim that local businesses need support B To explain why local businesses cannot compete with online stores C To disprove common beliefs about the benefits of shopping online D To help the reader make better decisions when shopping online

5

In paragraph 3, why does the author compare buying a juicer online with buying a juicer in a retail store? A To show that shopping in a retail store is simpler and quicker

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B To show that retail stores offer a wider range of choices

C To show that products are more expensive in retail stores D To show that there are no postage costs with a retail store

6

The signature of the letter shows that the author is the president of the Small Business Bureau. Does this indicate that his opinion can be trusted? Explain TER. S A your answer. M E

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Persuasive Text 2 Introduction: This speech was made by President Franklin Roosevelt on March 12, 1933. The speech was made over the radio and was addressed to all citizens. The topic of the speech is a bank run that occurred. This involved large numbers of people trying to withdraw money from banks over fear that the money would soon be unavailable. The panic caused the government to close banks in what is referred to as a bank holiday.

/ The Banking Crisis \

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. Adapted from a Speech by Franklin Delano Roosevelt

My friends:

1 I want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the United States about

.

STERit banking. I want to tell you what has been done in the last few days, why A M E N CKLI when you was done, and what the next steps are going to be. I know LAthat B A T NO I shall understand what we in Washington have been O BE to have ISabout, Tcontinue T K I O . D O your cooperation as fully as I have GHTEyour sympathy Ihad THIS Band your help during R Y R P O O F C the past week. GIVEN OK IS WAY.

2

LE BO ION IS NOT D IN ANY P M A CE when you deposit money in a bank, S Slet me Estate ISS DUthat First T ofHIall, fact O R P P RM the simple E R the bank does not put the money into a safe deposit vault. It invests your money in many different forms of credit. It invests it in bonds, in commercial paper, in mortgages, and in many other kinds of loans. In other words, the bank puts your money to work to keep the wheels of industry and of agriculture turning around. A comparatively small part of the money that you put into the bank is kept in currency. This amount, in normal times, is wholly sufficient to cover the cash needs of the average citizen. In other words, the total amount of all the currency in the country is only a comparatively small proportion of the total deposits in all the banks of the country.

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3 What, then, happened during the last few days of February and the first few

days of March? Because of undermined confidence on the part of the public, there was a general rush by a large portion of our population to turn bank deposits into currency or gold. It was a rush so great that the soundest banks couldn’t get enough currency to meet the demand. The reason for this was that on the spur of the moment it was, of course, impossible to sell perfectly sound assets of a bank and convert them into cash, except at panic prices far below their real value. By the afternoon of March third, a week ago last Friday, scarcely a bank in the country was open to do business. Proclamations closing them, in whole or in part, had been issued by the governors in almost all the states. It was then that I issued the proclamation providing for the national bank holiday.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

4 This bank holiday, while resulting in many cases in great inconvenience, is

affording us the opportunity to supply the currency necessary to meet the situation. Remember that no sound bank is a dollar worse off than it was when it closed its doors last week. Neither is any bank which may turn out not to be in a position for immediate opening. The new law allows the twelve Federal Reserve Banks to issue additional currency on good assets, and thus . the banks that reopen will be able to meet every legitimate call. MASTER 5

KLINE C A L B T Abanks not Another question you will ask is this: Why are allNO the S I TO BtoE be T K I O . D O reopened at the same time? The answer and HIS BI know you will IGHTEis simple T R Y R P O O F understand it. Your government notEN . history of the past V intend Ythat K IS C does AYthe GIwant O W T O O B N N few years shallPbe repeated. We do not and will not have another E L IS NA I M N A D O I S E S C DU epidemic THIS of bankPEfailures. RMIS REPRO

6 As a result, we start tomorrow, Monday, with the opening of banks in the

twelve Federal Reserve Bank cities. Those banks have already been found to be all right. That will be followed on Tuesday by the opening of banks in about two hundred and fifty cities of the United States. On Wednesday and succeeding days, banks in smaller places all through the country will resume business. Please let me make it clear to you that if your bank does not open the first day, you are by no means justified in believing that it will not open. A bank that opens on one of the subsequent days is in exactly the same status as the bank that opens tomorrow.

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7 It is possible that when the banks resume a very few people who have not

recovered from their fear may again begin withdrawals. Let me make it clear to you that the banks will take care of all needs, except, of course, the hysterical demands of hoarders. It is my belief that hoarding during the past week has become an exceedingly unfashionable pastime in every part of our nation. It needs no prophet to tell you that when the people find that they can get their money, the phantom of fear will soon be laid. People will again be glad to have their money where it will be safely taken care of and where they can use it conveniently at any time. I can assure you, my friends, that it is safer to keep your money in a reopened bank than it is to keep it under the mattress. 8 The success of our whole national program depends, of course, on the

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

cooperation of the public. It depends on the public’s intelligent support and its use of a reliable system. 9 I do not promise you that every bank will be reopened or that individual

losses will not be suffered, but there will be no losses that possibly could be avoided. And there would have been more and greater losses had we continued to drift. We shall be engaged not merely in reopening sound banks but in the creation of more sound banks through reorganization. STER. 10

11

NE MA I L K C A L It has been wonderful to me to catch the note of confidence OT A B Tfrom BE all over the N O S I T K I country. I can never be sufficiently grateful to the people for the loyal support OO ED. B T S H I G H I T judgment that has dictated that they have given me in their ORthe Fof COPYRacceptance N S E I V I K AY. seemed clear to them. W our course, even Ethough processes not have Y OT G may BOO all our N N A L S I P IN IS SAM ERMISSION RODUCED H T After all, there isPan element R inEPthe readjustment of our financial system more important than currency, more important than gold, and that is the confidence of the people themselves. Confidence and courage are the essentials of success in carrying out our plan. You people must have faith. You must not be stampeded by rumors or guesses. Let us unite in banishing fear. We have provided the machinery to restore our financial system, and it is up to you to support and make it work.

12 It is your problem, my friends, your problem no less than it is mine. 13 Together we cannot fail.

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7

The speech starts and ends by referring to listeners as “my friends.” This was most likely intended to make the president seem — A trustworthy B authoritative C approachable D appreciative

8

Which sentence from the speech best supports the idea that money kept in the bank helps the public?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A It invests it in bonds, in commercial paper, in mortgages, and in many other kinds of loans. B In other words, the bank puts your money to work to keep the wheels of industry and of agriculture turning around. C A comparatively small part of the money that you put into the bank is kept in currency. D This amount, in normal times, is wholly sufficient to cover the cash needs R. STE A M of the average citizen. E N LI

9

LACK B A T IS NO OOK TO BE T I . D IGHTE FORgiven THISinB paragraphs What is the main purpose of the explanations R Y P O K IS C 2 through 4? GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E A MPL N IS Apeople D INthe O I S E S C S S U I I A To calm by educating them about situation H D T PERM REPRO B To inspire people to want to help the banking system C To warn people about possible banking problems D To teach people how to protect their money

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10 Read this sentence from the speech. Let me make it clear to you that the banks will take care of all needs, except, of course, the hysterical demands of hoarders. The use of the phrase “the hysterical demands of hoarders” creates an image of the hoarders as being — A irrational B tough C comical D determined

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11 In paragraph 5, the word epidemic emphasizes that the bank failures were — A temporary B repairable

C unnecessary

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

D contagious

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Persuasive Text 3

/ Pangaea \ 1 The world is divided into seven continents: North America, South America,

Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. Most people are familiar with the map of the world and know the positions of the continents. It’s hard to imagine the Earth any other way. However, the Earth was different millions of years ago. The continents were combined in one supercontinent known as Pangaea. This idea was first presented by Alfred Wegener in 1915. At the time, it seemed unbelievable to most and it was mainly rejected. However, it gradually became accepted over the years as more and more evidence emerged to support it. Today, the evidence that supports the idea of Pangaea is strong enough that it has become widely accepted.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

2 The first piece of evidence is what led Alfred Wegener to develop his theory in

the first place. He looked at the edges of the continents today and noticedR. TE SAmerica A M how they seemed to fit together. It is especially noticeable with South E N LI

©iStockphoto/bortonia

LACK B A T IS NO OOK TO BE T I . D IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I H D T PERM REPRO

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and Africa. The eastern edge of South America seems to match almost perfectly with the western edge of Africa. Wegener referred to the continents as pieces of a puzzle that seem to fit together. A model of what Pangaea looked like shows how the continents today were joined together into one major landform. If the continents were not once joined, how can you explain how well they all fit together? It would be a major coincidence that the continents would just happen to have shapes that form one perfectly matched continent. It was this observation that led Wegener to believe in his theory even though he could not explain how the continents moved at the time. 3 The second set of evidence relates to the fossil record. The fossils that exist

within the Earth’s crust are the remains of plants and animals that once lived. Examining the fossils in layers of rock is a way of looking at the history of the plants and animals that lived in a region. An analysis of the fossil record has found that the same plants and animals existed in regions that are now separate continents. For example, fossils in Africa are the same as fossils in South America. The plants and animals would not be the same in these locations if the continents were in separate locations as they are today. It simply does not make sense that two regions far apart from each other would TER. be home to exactly the same plants and animals. The existence of Pangaea S A M LINE once joined. Kwere C explains this because it shows that Africa and South America A L B NOT A haveK Tbeen While they were joined, the plants and animals would O BEthe same, S I T I O . D O HTE would IS B The existence of and so the fossil records of the two IGregions THmatch. R Y R P O O F IS C that Gwould . Pangaea explains fossil otherwise. IVEN not makeAYsense OKevidence

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4

LE BO ION IS NOT D IN ANY W P M A S UCE IS S Dgeological RocksTHthemselves the history of a location. Rocks may O RMISrepresent R P PEalso E R seem permanent, but they are changing all the time. Rocks are initially created as sediment is deposited. The layers of rock at a location are evidence of what happened at that location in the past. The rock layers in the separate continents today follow the same patterns. This suggests that they were once joined and part of the same continent. Another key indicator is that there is coal under the Antarctic ice cap. Coal forms from plant life, so this indicates that Antarctica was once home to forests. This does not mean that this area at the bottom of the Earth was once warm. Instead, it means that this area that is now at the bottom of the Earth was once much farther north. This is consistent with how Antarctica seems to fit with the bottom of Africa.

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5 The final evidence for the existence of Pangaea is the key fact that Wegener

was missing. At the time he developed his idea, he could not explain how the continents moved. Today, the theory of plate tectonics is widely accepted. This theory explains that the continents are on tectonic plates that gradually move. The moving of the plates caused Pangaea to break up and explains how the continents are in their current positions. This theory has even been proven by using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and satellite technology to monitor the movements of plates. This has provided data on the exact positions of plates and changes in their positions over time. Even though the plates may only move less than a centimeter each year, these movements can be tracked and observed. While scientists cannot go back in time and observe Pangaea breaking up, they can use the current movement of the plates to explain how the continents moved in the past.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

6 At first glance, it certainly seems unlikely that there was once a huge

supercontinent. However, the scientific evidence is strong enough to suggest that the Earth’s continents were once joined together. The fossil evidence and the matching rock layers in different locations cannot be explained any other way. The final piece of evidence is that the movement of the continents has TER.like been proven. This shows that science has proven what the Earth was once S A M NE KLIenough C as well as how it changed so much. The evidence is nowBLgreat that A A T E O B almost all scientists accept that Pangaea once SN T Iexisted. K TO

ED. I T H IS BOO G H I T R Y R IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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12 The background information in the first paragraph mainly explains — A why Pangaea does not exist today B the history of the idea of Pangaea C the positions of the continents today D what evidence supports the existence of Pangaea

13 According to the passage, how does research using GPS support the idea that Pangaea once existed? A It confirms that tectonic plates do move.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B It confirms the original locations of the continents. C It confirms that there is coal in Antarctica.

D It confirms that the rock layers on different continents match.

14 Which statement best describes the author’s view on Pangaea?

TER. S A M KLINE C B More proof is needed to confirm that Pangaea is real. A L B NOT A K TO BE S I C It seems hard to believe, but Pangaea once existed. T I D. HTEbe IS BOO G H I T R Y D Pangaea is a myth that will one day disproved. R IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S DU MIS the author THIS PERdoes Which assumption REPRO make about readers? A Pangaea is more science fiction than science fact.

15

A They will find it hard to imagine that the continents were once in different locations. B They will be impressed by Alfred Wegener’s creativity. C They will accept the idea of Pangaea without questioning it. D They will be most convinced because of the fossil evidence that exists.

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16 The diagram is included to support which idea? A There were once forests on Antarctica. B The continents fit together like a puzzle. C Fossil evidence supports the existence of Pangaea. D The Earth is made up of tectonic plates.

17 Using details from the passage, explain how the fossil record provides evidence that Pangaea once existed.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 4

Book Review: / End of the Line \ 1 In End of the Line: The Rise and Coming Fall of the Global Corporation, Barry

Lynn argues that globalization will lead to the downfall of American corporations. According to Lynn, the global economy is like “a house that every day is more likely to collapse, and when it does it may fall faster and harder than we can imagine.” It is a dramatic view that seems to overstate how serious the situation is. However, Barry Lynn does make valid points about how American corporations are making the future look bleaker. Barry Lynn’s main argument is based on American corporations outsourcing their work and the risk that this creates for the United States. These risks will now be described and analyzed to determine whether his concerns are valid. 2

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TER. S A M NE Lynn argues that American corporations become vulnerableCK toLIthreats because A L B of the processes they place in the hands of otherNcompanies in other OT A BE nations. O S I T T K I By outsourcing, they become partially Tdependent BOO nations. At the H ED. R Ton ISother G H I R Y same time, American corporations not Nrealize risks they face. This E FO the IS COP do V Y. I K A G O W T O Omay not Ihave B First, they occurs for two reasons. aY full understanding of the N N E A L S I P ION chain CED Nbe a network of manufacturers Ucould IS SAMchain. entireTHsupply The ISSsupply D M O R R E P REP and distributors. These companies could even outsource some of their tasks to other companies. Second, by outsourcing manufacturing, there is a suggestion that it is not important to the company’s operations. In effect, it becomes somebody else’s problem. With this outlook, risk is not clearly identified or assessed. Lynn’s argument is valid because outsourcing does separate companies from their activities. A company then does not have control over all its operations. It is less able to predict problems, or to deal with problems when they do occur. By putting the company’s activities into someone else’s hands, American companies are inviting problems. The risk that American companies face was clear in the example given by Lynn on the experience of Dell when their chip supplier in Taiwan cut production after an earthquake. Lynn describes how Dell was shocked to find that they relied on

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only one supplier in Taiwan. Even more concerning was the fact that nobody at Dell had any idea of the supply chain. These details of production were placed in the hands of other companies, and Dell was unaware that a drop in production was a risk. In this example, production was only delayed for a week, but this caused massive disruptions to Dell’s operations. The situation could have been much worse if the problems in Taiwan had been greater, and could have even led to Dell becoming bankrupt. This shows that outsourcing does create a much greater risk than many people realize. 3 Lynn also argues that outsourcing creates potential risks, where the companies

that are now partners could become competitors. As companies outside of America are doing work for American companies, they are also developing skills. This leads to a situation where the foreign countries are developing the skills and abilities that the United States is relying on. The United States once prospered because of its superior technologies, manufacturing abilities, and skills. The risk is that the countries that the United States outsources their work to will begin to develop these skills themselves. As Lynn notes, these countries could then become a strategic rival to the United States. This leaves the companies of the United States with little ability to sustain themselves. TER. Lynn’s argument is strong, and he does show that outsourcing is developing S A M KLINE Another C outside talent that could then compete with American companies. A L B NOTtoA develop issue is that this process robs America of theTchance S I TO aBEskilled K I O . D O E workforce itself. The outsourcing R may short-term IGHTprovide THIS B benefits to American Y R P O O F EN long-term . companies, but it is robbing that skilled and K IS CAmerica GofIVthe O WAYbenefits T O Y O B N N E A L S I P experienced would M IONoffer. SAworkers ED IN

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4

ISS PERM

DUC O R P E R Lynn also argues that corporations have changed to focus primarily on creating THIS

shareholder value, while focusing less on doing what is right for workers, the industry, the local area, and the United States as a whole. As Lynn puts it, the CEO was once the “company’s man in the boardroom” but is now the “investors’ man in the company.” With this change in focus, actions are often taken that benefit the company in the short-term. Changes are made if they provide an immediate financial gain because this will improve the share price. Lynn’s argument is that this focus does not create a situation where American corporations are doing what is best for them in the long-term or what is best for America as a whole in the long-term. Skills are being transferred overseas rather than maintained and developed in America because this provides an

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immediate reduction in costs. There is no thought for how this could increase future labor costs later because the focus is only on right now. This approach is one where the future looks bleaker instead of brighter. 5 Overall, Lynn does make valid arguments about the way that American

corporations are operating. He effectively shows that outsourcing is a longterm risk to American companies. It gives companies less control and could create future competitors. It develops skilled workers outside of America instead of inside of America. Lynn also shows that corporations are neglecting concerns about the future of America by focusing so heavily on actions that have immediate benefits. The end may not be the dramatic finale that Lynn proposes, but he does show that the approaches of corporations are likely to make America weaker instead of stronger.

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18 The author most likely considers that Barry Lynn’s opinion is —

TER. S A M KLINE C B completely subjective and only based on facts A L B NOT A K TO BE S I C basically accurate but a little too extreme T I TED. Hpersonal IS BOO G H I T R Y R D significantly biased because of his experiences IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S DU MIS the passage. THIS PERfrom Read this sentence REPRO A understating the seriousness of the consequences

19

The situation could have been much worse if the problems in Taiwan had been greater, and could have even led to Dell becoming bankrupt. This sentence is best described as — A a prediction B an observation C a fact D a definition

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20 Which idea about outsourcing do the problems experienced by Dell mainly demonstrate? A Companies that outsource lack understanding of their operations. B Companies that are outsourced to may also outsource some of their activities. C Companies that are outsourced to may later become competitors. D Companies that outsource are focusing more on cost savings than performance.

21 Read this sentence from the passage.

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The outsourcing may provide short-term benefits to American companies, but it is robbing America of the long-term benefits that skilled and experienced workers would offer. Why does the author most likely use the word robbing? A To suggest that a law should be put in place

TER. S A M KLINE C A C To emphasize how America is damaging itself L B NOT A K TO BE S I T D To show that the situation is not logical I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O NOidea thatINfocusing E B supports ANY on shareholder value is ISthe PLbest M N Which sentence A D O I S E S C S DU MIS as a whole? THIthe PERStates bad for United REPRO B To persuade readers to take action

22

A As Lynn puts it, the CEO was once the “company’s man in the boardroom” but is now the “investors’ man in the company.” B With this change in focus, actions are often taken that benefit the company in the short-term. C Changes are made if they provide an immediate financial gain because this will improve the share price. D Skills are being transferred overseas rather than maintained and developed in America because this provides an immediate reduction in costs.

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Persuasive Text 5

/ The Impact of Working Women \ 1 The most significant social change that has impacted society in the last half

century is the increase in women working. The increase in women working has changed what is expected of women, what is expected of men, how men and women work together, and society itself. While there are many social changes that have had an impact, the increase in women working is the most significant because it impacts so many areas and does so in such a significant way.

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2 The first and most obvious impact is the change in what is expected of

women. Around the time of the half-century, the role of women was largely based on just being wife and mother. This began to change during and after World War II when women entered the workforce on a large scale. This led to the current time where women are not only able to work, but expected to work. This includes values changing with women valued at least as muchRfor E . T S A M working as for being mothers. While a woman still has the option KLINE to choose C A L B not to work, women that do not work are often looked down on.ETherefore, B NOT Aa reversal S I TO from T K I the change in the first half of the century has caused what was O . D O E B T S H I G H I expected of women. While women once to be housewives and RT FOexpected COPYR were N S E I . V Y I K A G as wellNasY W mothers, they areE now be housewives and NtoOTwork A L BOO expected S I P N I M N A S expectation mothers. become DUCED a requirement based on the MISSIOhas Ealso THIS This O R R E P P R financial perspective. A single-income family in modern times would find it very difficult to support a family, meaning that mothers often find that they need to work even if they would prefer not to. Therefore, society has changed from being one where women were not able to work, to being one where women have to work. If women had not begun to enter the workplace around the time of the half-century, this trend would not have continued up to the point where it is now. This illustrates that the social change that occurred midcentury has had an ongoing impact, starting a trend that continues to the modern day.

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3 This change with women working has also had a significant impact on men.

Fathers were once considered the head of the family, and their main role was to provide for the family. With the mother working as well, the father has experienced a significant loss of power. In some cases, this means that the father has lost his sense of purpose and is struggling in his role. The father was generally comfortable in the role of providing the income, while allowing the mother to manage the more nurturing aspects of the family. With women working and providing the income as well as still taking on the nurturing role, the father figure is often left feeling that he is not contributing to the family. This creates the sense that the father is replaceable and is not contributing as much as the mother. In short, the father feels replaced, suffers a loss of power, and struggles with what his role should be. This illustrates that women working is not just impacting women, but also men.

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4 The fact that many women work has also changed how men and women work

together. The family no longer functions with women taking charge of the home and of parenting duties. Instead, men and women often share home duties and parenting duties. These changes also mean that more may be expected of children in the family. With both parents working or in a oneTER. parent family, children may be expected to be more independent and to S A M NE impact KaLImajor C contribute more to the family. Women working has alsoBhad A L A NOT and on whether or not a family is made up of a husband wife. S I TOInBEthe times T K I O . D O before women began to work andRfunction IGHTE independently, THIS B women were forced Y R P O O F to rely on their husbands IVENmeantYthat K ISforC income. GThis O WAYit. was difficult if not T O O B N N E A L S I P impossibleSfor a woman to leave a marriage INand function as a one-parent S AMwomen UCED to work, women now have the ISSION and D M THIWith O R R family. working expected E P REP ability to be independent and do not have to rely on their husbands. This makes the one-parent family a possibility and helps explain why single-parent families are more common. This illustrates that women working has impacted the structure of the family. The variety in forms the modern family takes is one of the major differences. These many structures can be seen as existing partly because women are working and are not confined to roles as mothers or dependent on a husband. This has increased the options that people have and has meant that a wide range of family structures have developed.

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5 Society has also been forced to change in response to women working. Child

care services are required more than ever. Companies have identified that this is a need and adapted their businesses. For example, a recently built golf course offers child care services. This decision was made based on recognizing that fathers have family responsibilities and would use the service. Shopping malls, gyms, and other places often offer similar services. Workplaces are also beginning to change in response to the requirement for people to effectively manage both home and work responsibilities. For example, some workplaces offer family leave, others offer child care, and others have programs that allow employees to manage family requirements. Many people have developed careers that allow them to work from home because this makes it easier to manage family and work commitments. This has led companies to consider working with flexible at-home workers instead of full-time employees. This illustrates that society itself is changing in response to the changes that have occurred since women began working.

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6 Overall, this shows that women working has had a major impact. It has

changed what is expected of women, it has impacted fathers, it has changed how men and women work together, and it has changed society’s approach. ER. The change mid-century when women entered the workforce started aSTtrend A M KLINEit. This C that has continued to the modern day and will continue beyond A L B NOT A Ksocial makes women entering the workforce the most significant S I TO BEchange that T I O . D O E has occurred in the last half century. THIS B RIGHT

COPY GIVEN FOR S I K WAY. Y OT BOO N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

23 What is the main purpose of the first sentence of the passage? A To give background information B To state the main claim C To describe the main problem D To introduce the topic

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24 Which sentence best supports the idea that the increase in women working has had some negative effects? A This includes values changing with women valued at least as much for working as for being mothers. B In some cases, this means that the father has lost his sense of purpose and is struggling in his role. C Instead, men and women often share home duties and parenting duties. D This has led companies to consider working with flexible at-home workers instead of full-time employees.

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25 The author establishes a tone that is — A casual B lively C serious

D concerned

26

TER. S A M LINE Kanalyzed C A L The change that women working has had on men is mainly based B TA E O B N O S I T on men’s — ED. IT THIS BOOK T H G I A social life COPYR GIVEN FOR S I K WAY. Y OT BOO N N E A L S B workingAlife I P IN IS S M ERMISSION RODUCED H T C family life P REP D financial life

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27 Read this sentence from paragraph 5. Society has also been forced to change in response to women working. How does the author support this statement? A By describing advantages and disadvantages of the changes B By giving examples of changes that have occurred C By comparing society in the past with society today D By telling about her own personal experiences

28 Using information from the passage, describe two ways that life today might be different if women had not started working on a large scale.

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Part 2: Writing / Writing Prompt 1 \ READ the following quotation. Mark Twain once wrote, “Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do than by the ones you did do.” THINK carefully about the following statement.

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Some people believe that it is important not to live with regrets. WRITE an essay arguing that it is important not to live with regrets. Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas TER. S A M • organize and develop your explanation effectively KLINE C A L B • choose your words carefully TA NOgrammar, O BE S I Tand T • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, K I O . D O GHTE OR THIS B sentence structure OPYRI F

K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I H D T ERMSpace Below UsePthe REPROto Plan Your Composition

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

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/ Writing Prompt 2 \ READ the following quotation. A famous saying is, “A problem shared is a problem halved.” THINK carefully about the following statement. One step that many people take when facing problems is to talk to other people about the problems. WRITE an essay supporting the opinion that it is helpful to share your problems with others.

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Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and E KLIN C A L sentence structure B A

R. MASTE

NOT S I TO BE T K I O . D O IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O C IVEN Your YComposition K IS Below Use the Space to GPlan O WAY. T O O B N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

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/ Writing Prompt 3 \ READ the information below. Many people gossip. They talk to others about things that they hear, pass on information, and sometimes pass on rumors. THINK about how gossip can be harmful. WRITE an essay arguing that gossip can be harmful.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 Use the8 Space 88Below. to Plan Your Composition

Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

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/ Writing Prompt 4 \ READ the information below. Good friends will tell you what you want to hear. Great friends will tell you the truth. It is not always easy to be a great friend to someone. THINK about how it can be challenging to be a great friend. WRITE an essay giving your opinion on why it is sometimes difficult to be a great friend. Explain what people can do to be great friends.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8 Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentence structure

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

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TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO


Understanding Persuasive Text: Reading and Argumentative Writing teaches students how to understand and analyze persuasive texts, how to write persuasive essays and prepares them for the STAAR. Students will understand and analyze a range of persuasive texts that appear on the STAAR, such as editorials, letters, speeches, essays, historical texts, scientific texts, and responses to literature. Students will learn about the purpose and structure of persuasive texts, and will understand the techniques used to persuade readers. Understanding Persuasive Text also includes writing prompts that will prepare students for the STAAR Writing test. Students will make claims and produce well-supported arguments for those claims. The Instruction section contains five persuasive texts. Each text is introduced with key information that will help students understand the purpose and structure of the text. Key information is also given on the claims made, the arguments presented, and the evidence included. Students then answer multiple-choice and open-ended questions about each persuasive text.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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Understanding persuasive h staar sample[1]  

Persuasive Reading and Writing