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Applying the TEKS for the STAAR

UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE E E L P TEXT SAMEDUCATION ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A IS NOT OOK TO BE T I . D IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O IVEN K IS C G O WAY. T O Y O B N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

Reading and Argumentative Writing


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Focus on Specific STAAR Skills Reading Comprehension & Writing

Understanding Complex Reading & Writing Literature & Informational Text by Theme

Reading/Language Arts

Applying the TEKS for the STAAR

Understanding Drama

supported arguments for those claims.

Understanding Persuasive Text

Understanding Poetry

Reading and Argumentative Writing

Reading to Analyze and Interpret

Reading to Analyze and Interpret ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADE LEVELS 3-8

Applying the TEKS for the STAAR ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADE LEVELS 3-8 Five Parts for Focused Instruction Part A: Understanding How to Read Complex Passages with rigorous passages and questions

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADE LEVELS 3-8

ALIGNED TO THE READINESS & SUPPORTING TEKS GRADE LEVELS 3-8 Five Parts for Focused Instruction

3 Parts for Focused Instruction Part 1: Glossary of drama terms presented with background information to help readers better understand drama.

Part 2: Poems are presented with

Part A: Understanding Persuasive writing

background information to help readers better understand the poem.

Part B: How to identify a theme

Part B: The Structure of a Persuasive Essay

Part C: Glossary of Complex Reading Terms

Part C: Glossary of Persuasive Reading and Writing Terms

Each poem is followed by comprehension questions.

Part D: Instruction with increasingly complex texts

Part D: Instruction to develop the understanding of persuasive text structure and purpose, and understand techniques used to persuade readers.

Part 3: Independent Practice: Poems

Part E: Independent Practice: Complex Reading Passages of multiple themes with multiple-choice and open-ended questions

Part 2: Drama selections are

3 Parts for Focused Instruction Part 1: Glossary of poetry terms

Each selection is followed by comprehension questions.

Part 3: Independent Practice: Drama selections with comprehension questions for students to answer on their own.

with comprehension questions for students to answer on their own.

Part E: Independent Practice: Persuasive Passages with multiple-choice and openended questions Writing prompts for developing persuasive writing skills including editorials, letters, speeches, essays, historical texts, scientific texts, and responses to literature. Students will make claims and produce well-

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UNDERSTANDING E PERSUASIVE E L P M A S TEXT Y! EDUCATION L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S S IS DU THI PERM REPRO

Reading and Argumentative Writing


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing . . . . . . . . . . .6 An Introduction to the Key Features of Persuasive Writing and the Structure of Persuasive Essays Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Definitions of the Key Terms Needed to Analyze Persuasive Writing Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Five Persuasive Texts with Background Information and Instruction

Independent Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 TER.

MAS

Five Independent Practice Persuasive Texts and Four Persuasive KLINE C A L B A Writing Prompts O BE S NOT

IT I . D OOK T E B T S H I G H I Part 1: Reading . . .CO .P . .YR . . . . . . . . .FO .R . . T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 N S E I . V I K BOO . . . .IS. .N.O.T. G. . . . .IN. . A. N. Y. .W. A.Y. . . . . . . . . . . .60 E L Part M 2:PWriting A D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Introduction Understanding Persuasive Text: Reading and Argumentative Writing teaches students how to understand and analyze persuasive texts and how to write persuasive essays. Students will understand and analyze a range of persuasive texts, including editorials, letters, speeches, essays, historical texts, scientific texts, and responses to literature. Students will learn about the purpose and structure of persuasive texts and will understand the techniques used to persuade readers.

E L P SAM ATION C U Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing D E ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 888.

Understanding Persuasive Text also includes writing prompts that will give students the opportunity to create persuasive writing. Students will make claims and produce well-supported arguments for those claims.

This section of the book gives background information on persuasive TER. S A writing. It introduces and describes the key features of persuasive writing. M LINE KStudents C A L B The general structure of a persuasive essay is also described. can E OT A B N O S I refer to the structure when analyzing persuasive K T when creating ED. IT Twriting BOOand T S H I G H I persuasive writing. OPYR FOR

K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O Glossary I S E S C S S U I I H D T PERM REPRO

The glossary gives definitions of the terms that students will need to understand to analyze persuasive writing. Students can refer to the glossary as they learn to analyze persuasive writing.

Instruction This section contains five persuasive texts. Each persuasive text is introduced with key information that will help students understand the purpose of the text and the structure of the text. Key information is also given on the claims made, the arguments presented, and the evidence included. After reading each persuasive text, the student then answers questions about it. This section of the book contains multiple-choice and open-ended questions.

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Independent Practice Part 1 of this section contains five persuasive texts. Each persuasive text is followed by several questions that students will answer on their own. This section of the book contains multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Part 2 of this section contains four persuasive writing prompts. Students will apply their understanding of persuasive writing to create four essays.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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Understanding Persuasive Reading and Writing Persuasive writing can have many different purposes. It can be written to persuade someone to do something. It can be written to convince readers to believe something. It can be written to persuade readers to accept the writer’s opinions, ideas, or judgments. The different types of persuasive writing often have different forms. An editorial might focus on giving a personal opinion. A letter might focus on encouraging someone to do something. A science article might draw a conclusion about the topic, and then give details to support the opinion. One thing that is common to all persuasive writing is that a claim is made or a position is taken and then supported.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y The Structure of the Persuasive Essay LY L L A L R A R . 9 9 . 8 88

R.

E STessay. A The chart on the next page shows a general structure for a persuasive M E N ACKLI introduces Lusually The essay starts with an introduction. The introduction B A T E IS NOas well. TO Bmost the topic. It may provide background information The T K I O . D O GHTE Oclaim HIS B important part of the introduction OPYRisI that the F R T is stated.

K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E A PL essaySisIOthe IN body, N ISbody.UIn AMthe The next part of information is given to Dthe S E C S S I I H D M T O R R E support the claim. PThe information REP is sorted into several main ideas. Each

main idea may include supporting information such as facts, statistics, data, quotes, or personal anecdotes. The final part of the essay is the conclusion. The conclusion usually restates the main claim. It may also summarize the points made in the body. In some essays, the conclusion will include a call to action. This is a statement that will encourage the reader to take some action.

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The Structure of the Persuasive Essay Introduction Paragraph 1

Body

The introduction should: • introduce the topic of the essay • give any necessary background information • state the main claim

The body should: • give information to support the claim • divide the information into several main ideas

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . Paragraph 3 9 9 888. Paragraph 2

Main Idea #1 • supporting details

Each main idea should: • be the focus of one section or paragraph TER. S A • include supporting details or evidence M E

KLIN C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I Main Idea #2 The evidence form of: D. be inHthe HTEcan IS BOO G I T R Y R COP • supporting details K I•Sfacts EN FO WAY. V I G O T O O statistics IS Nand PLE B SI•Odata N ANY I M N A D S E C IS DU THIS Paragraph 4 PERM • quotes REPRO

Main Idea #3 • supporting details

Conclusion Paragraph 5

• expert opinions • personal anecdotes • reasoned arguments

The conclusion should: • restate the main claim • summarize the main ideas of the body • include a call to action, if appropriate

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Glossary Anecdote An anecdote is an account of a certain event. An anecdote usually describes a personal experience.

Argument An argument is a set of reasons designed to support a claim.

Assumption

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

An assumption is something that is assumed to be true.

Call to Action

A call to action is a statement that encourages people to take action.

Claim

A claim is a statement that something is true. In persuasive writing, the TER. S A M claim is the main idea that the author wants the reader toCbelieve KLINE or accept.

BLA A T O IS N TO BE T K I Conclusion O . D O TE IS B and other evidence. IGHconsidering THfacts R Y R A conclusion is a decision reached by P O O F K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E IS PL IN A ControllingTHIdea IS SAM ERMISSION RODUCED P REP A controlling idea is the main idea of an essay.

Editorial An editorial is a piece of writing that expresses the author’s opinion. Editorials are commonly found in newspapers and magazines.

Evidence Evidence refers to the facts, figures, quotes, data, examples, or other sources used to provide support for ideas.

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Expert Opinion An expert opinion is an opinion given by someone who has strong knowledge of the topic.

Fact A fact is a piece of information that can be proven to be true.

Mood Mood refers to how a text or part of a text makes the reader feel, or the feelings created in the reader.

Opinion

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

An opinion is a statement that cannot be proven to be true. It is a personal view of something.

Point of View

Point of view refers to the position of the speaker of a work. The point of view can be first person, second person, third person limited, or third person omniscient. R.

STE A M E N LACKLI Position B A T O how theTOauthor BE feels IS Nto In persuasive writing, the author’s position. Irefers T K O D O IGHTE FOR THIS B about a topic, or the author’s viewpoint. R Y P O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E Quote N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I H D A quote,Tor quotation, PERMis the repetition REPRO of exact words from a source. A quote can be someone’s exact spoken words, or it can be exact written words from a source.

Statistics Statistics are numerical facts and data.

Theme A theme is the main topic or the main idea of a work.

Tone Tone is how the author feels about the subject.

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Instruction Each persuasive text is introduced with key background information that will help students understand the purpose of the text, the structure of the text, and the techniques used to persuade readers.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 1 Introduction: The main purpose of this article is to persuade people to consider taking up photography. The author persuades the reader by describing the benefits of photography. The first paragraph introduces the topic. The next four paragraphs each focus on one main benefit of photography. Each of these paragraphs begins with a statement of the main benefit. This is the main idea of the paragraph. Then information is given to support the main idea. The last paragraph sums up the article and then ends with a call to action. This call to action is designed to make the reader feel excited about taking up the hobby.

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E L P M A S N / Taking Up Photography \ O I T A C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Photography is a hobby that everybody should consider trying. It has more benefits than most people realize. It is challenging and entertaining, ER. SThealth. and it gives you the chance to be creative. It is even good forEyour A M ACKLINtaking up L Here are just some of the reasons that you should Aconsider B NOT O BE S I photography. T I D. OOK T

IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O IS C to challenge . Photography is a great are K way GIVEN yourself. O WAYThere T O Y O B N N E A L S I P photography CED INand taking photographs that SSION all Rthe Utime, IS SAM competitions I H D M T O R E can be enteredPpresents a unique REP challenge each time. Many

competitions have themes. The competition might ask for a portrait of someone, a landscape, an action photograph, or a photograph in black and white. Every time you accept the challenge, you get to try a new style. It is always a learning experience. 3

Photography is also entertaining. One of the things that many people do not realize is that photography is a great hobby to combine with other interests. If you love sports, you can go to sporting events and take action photographs. If you love animals, you can focus on taking photographs of animals. If you are interested in history, you can take photographs of special landmarks. Many people end up having one

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special area of interest. They become skilled in this area and can even become famous for it. Annie Leibovitz is an American photographer who is famous for taking photographs of people. Anne Geddes became famous for taking photos of babies and toddlers. She has sold millions of books and calendars containing her images. Photography is a great way to explore your interests and to share them with others. Imagine that you love architecture. It would probably be hard to explain to people what you love about it and to get them interested in it. Now imagine that you take photographs of beautiful buildings and make a display of your photographs. Now you have a way to share your passion with others. People are much more likely to see the beauty of the buildings and then start to share your interest. ER.

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E L P N M O I A T S A C U D E ! Y RALL .99.RALLY 888

MAST E N I L K Photography also gives you the chance to be creative. a good BLACI am not A T E O B N O S I artist and could never draw a beautiful Thankfully, IT OOK T photography ED. sunset. B T S H I G H I gives me the chance to capture to have great OR T having Fwithout COPYRa sunset N S E I . V Y I K A G everyone W be creative. Another artistic skills. It Emakes NY to NOTfor A L BOO itIOpossible S I P N I M N A S photography S is editing CED photographs. Computer key part DUyour THIS of O R ERMIS P P E R all types of effects. It is a great way to software can be used to create experiment and try new things, and anyone can do it.

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You might be surprised to hear that photography is also good for your health. Last weekend, I hiked to the top of a mountain early in the morning to take a picture of the sun rising over the city. When I was on vacation last year, I walked over a mile down a beach just to get the perfect shot. When you are a keen photographer, exercise is not a chore. It becomes something you are more than willing to do to get a better shot. Photography is a great hobby that gets you active without your even realizing it.

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These are just some of the reasons you should consider taking up photography. It is also a hobby that is not as expensive as many people think. You can get a digital camera for quite a low price. Once you have a digital camera, there is no need to spend money getting photographs developed. You can just put them on your computer, edit them as you please, and then print them once you are happy with the result. This makes photography more affordable than many other hobbies. The benefits that it offers make it well worth the relatively small cost. You might even win a photography competition, sell a few photographs, or decide to make photography your career. You could actually make money from your hobby! So why not give it a try? I am sure you will find that it is worth it.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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1

How does the author support the argument that photography is good for your health? A By listing medical facts B By quoting experts C By describing personal experiences D By comparing photography to other hobbies

2

In paragraph 3, the information about taking photographs of buildings is included to show —

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A how photographs can be used to share your interests B how there are opportunities for taking photographs everywhere you look C how photography helps people notice and appreciate beauty D how each photographer needs to find a unique area of interest

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4

TER. S A M What is the main idea of the article? KLINE C A L B TA IS NOthink. TO BE T A Photography is not as expensive asD.people K I O O IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P B Photography offers many benefits. O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E C Photography IS or aCEcareer. AMPL canISbeSIOaNhobby D IN A S S U I H D T O be creative. D Photography PEisRMa good Rway EPRto Which statement would the author of the article most likely agree with? A Photography is a difficult hobby that requires a lot of training. B Photography is a flexible hobby that suits many different types of people. C Photography is a hobby best suited to people with strong computer skills. D Photography is a simple hobby that most people can be good at right away.

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5

Which benefit of photography does the author think readers will find most unexpected? A It is challenging. B It is entertaining. C It allows people to be creative. D It has health benefits.

6

In paragraph 4, why does the author compare being a photographer to being an artist?

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Persuasive Text 2 Introduction: This passage is a book report a student wrote on Stephen King’s book titled On Writing. The main purpose of this book report is to state whether or not people should read the book. The student does this by describing the benefits of reading the book. The student describes what the book is about, but also focuses on what people can gain from reading the book. The book report is partly a description of the book. However, it is also one reader’s opinion of the book.

/ A Book Report: On Writing \ E L P M 1

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As the name suggests, Stephen King’s book titled On Writing is all about writing. This focus means the book is mostly aimed at writers. Writers can admire King and read his story of success. They can also apply what he knows about writing to their own writing. The book also has TEaR. S A something to offer for non-writers. The first section of the book is M INE KLchild C A L memoir. It describes how King went from nothing but a with B E OT A B N O S I T dreams to a man with all the success Dhe E . ITever Timagined. BOOK The book is T S H I G H I R worth reading because it has OReveryone. Ffor COPYsomething

K IS GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E IN A life. It begins with his time N ISdescribes The firstS section book AMPL of the DKing’s O I S E S C S U I I H D T RMfirst wrote as a child whenPEhe REPRa Ostory. It then describes his teenage years

when writing became a focus. It continues to when he achieved success. Whether the reader is a writer or not, this section is inspiring. We see how King found his special skill early in his life and how he developed it. We see how King dreamed of being a successful writer. He worked hard and achieved his goal. The story of King’s life contains all the elements of a good fiction story. In the beginning of the story, we have King as a child with a dream. We follow him through his struggle and we finally see him succeed against all odds. There is a message in this story for anyone with a dream who hopes to succeed. It does not matter whether you want to be a writer or not. You can still see how hard work

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can lead to success. You can see how you can start working toward your goals even when you are young. You can be inspired by how much success this could lead to. 3

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The second part of the book focuses more on the craft of writing. This section has something to offer the general reader, but much more to offer the writer. For the writer, this section offers hints and tips on the actual craft of writing. Even though this section is written as a lesson in writing, it is not done so in a dry and boring manner. It is filled with examples and anecdotes that illustrate the points. For the non-writer, this section also has interest. There is an insight into the world of the writer. You start to see how writers think about more than just plot. They think about characters and the language they use. For everyone reading this section, there is an opportunity to learn more about writing. As a reader, you can then read a story with a greater understanding of it.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

In all, the book is well written, entertaining, and engaging. It is partly a memoir and partly a how-to guide. The story is especially aimedASat TER. M INE enough writers, but the story of a man who achieves his dream is KLbroad C A L B T A a lot E NOteaches to interest any reader. For the writer, the book how to S I TO Babout T K I O . D O E B T write well. For everyone, the book THIS that can allow the YRIGHgivesN an Rinsight P O O F C S E I appreciate reader to understandOK and AY. on a deeper level. T GIVbooks andWwriting

LE BO ION IS NO P N ANY I M A D S E S C IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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7

Which sentence from the first paragraph describes the main claim of the passage? A As the name suggests, Stephen King’s book titled On Writing is all about writing. B They can also apply what he knows about writing to their own writing. C The first section of the book is a memoir. D The book is worth reading because it has something for everyone.

8

According to the passage, the book On Writing contains a message about —

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A discovering what you are good at

B working hard to achieve your goals C being open to new ideas

D listening to and learning from other people

9

TER. S A M E Which sentence best supports the idea that Stephen LKing’s KLINbook C A B is entertaining? NOT A K TO BE S I T I O ED. HTskill IShisBOlife G H I T R A We see how King found his special early in and how Y R FO COP N S E I . V Y I K A he developed Eit.BOO NOT G IN ANY W L S I P M N A S of King’s ED elements of a good fiction story. ISSIO PRODallUCthe B The THISstory PERM life contains E R C For the writer, this section offers hints and tips on the actual craft of writing. D You start to see how writers think about more than just plot.

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10 Read this sentence from paragraph 3. Even though this section is written as a lesson in writing, it is not done so in a dry and boring manner. Why does the author most likely include this sentence? A To warn that this section may not interest all readers B To show that the book is more interesting than it sounds C To support the idea that Stephen King is a skilled writer D To describe what writers can learn from the book

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

11 What does the author believe all readers can gain from the book On Writing? A A better understanding of how to write a memoir B The ability to write better fiction

C Encouragement to follow your dreams

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

D Information on how writers develop their ideas

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Persuasive Text 3 Introduction: This passage is a review of a children’s toy. The first paragraph introduces the topic and gives background information by describing the toy. The author then describes how the manufacturers claim that the toy helps with infant development. The author then focuses on determining whether the toy does help with infant development. In the last paragraph, the author recommends the toy to parents and summarizes the benefits of the toy.

/ The Spin and Learn \ E L P M

SA N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY 888.

1

The Spin and Learn is a toy designed for infants from 4 months until they walk. It is a toy that the infant sits in, with the seat able to bounce and swivel. On the outside of the Spin and Learn are various activities for the infant. These activities include items that can be spun, pushed, R. SofTEthe A or squeezed. It also has items that make noise when moved.E All M N KLIthe C A L items are bright and colorful. The manufacturers describe Spin and B E OT A B N O S I Learn as being designed “to encourage coordination and IT OOK T ED. hand-eye B T S H I G H I T it is important to assess mental development.” The PYRis expensive, FOR so COtoy N S E I V I K O just aNtoy. WAisY.whether the toy will whether it is more Y OT GThe question BOthan N E A L S I P IN SAM with Minfant actually UCED If it does, it is worth the cost. If ISSIONdevelopment. D THIShelp O R R E P EP it does not, it is not worthRpaying a high price for something that will only entertain the infant.

2

Reaching is one of the key motor skills developed during the infant stage. At 3 months old, reaching usually begins to occur and improves over the coming months. At 7 months, reaching has improved and continues to develop over the next few months. Grasping is another motor skill associated with reaching. At 4 or 5 months, infants begin to explore objects with their hands. They often grasp an object in one hand and explore it with the other. By 1 year old, infants are well coordinated in being able to grasp and control objects.

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3

Infants also develop their senses during these early years. Touch, sight, and hearing are three key senses for infants. They develop over the months as infants gain more experience. At a few months old, infants may only be able to tell that objects feel hard or soft. They later learn that hard objects can feel smooth or rough. Infants also learn how the senses work together. For example, an infant might learn how objects rattle when they are touched. Abilities related to sight also develop during infancy. At about 2 months, infants can focus on objects and recognize colors. Vision then continues to develop until 6 months.

4

Considering the toy and how infants develop, I would recommend this toy to parents. Dr. Rebecca Hill is an expert in child development. She has a degree in early learning and has worked with infants for over a decade. She has stated that infants learn a lot by grasping. They learn how to move and work with items. She also states how important it is for infants to use all of their senses. “Infants develop more quickly when they are able to use two or more senses at a time,” she says. “This gives them the chance to link new ideas together.” The Spin and Learn STER.of A offers the chance to practice grasping and the chance to useE aMrange IN KLrange C A L senses. It encourages reaching and grasping by having a of objects B E OT A B N O S I that the infant can reach for. These objects respond OOK T in different ED. IT also B T S H I G H I T be pushed, some can be ways. For example, some make some FORcan COPYRnoise, N S E I V I K AY. way the objects can WThe pulled, some feel OO andISsome Y OT Gfeel smooth. Bfluffy, N N E A L P IN AM SION be moved motor UCED skills. The way items feel, the D THIS ShelpsPEwith O RMISdeveloping R EP that can be seen encourage noises they make, and the Rcolors development. Overall, the Spin and Learn is a good choice for infants. It will help infants develop the key skills they are learning at that age.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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12 The author mainly assesses the Spin and Learn toy based on — A whether it is safe for infants B whether it will entertain infants C whether it benefits infants D whether it is made well

13 The author includes the information in paragraphs 2 and 3 to — A describe some of the key skills that infants develop B compare infants in their first year and second year

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

C show her personal experience with using the toy D demonstrate that infants have limited skills

14 Read these sentences from paragraph 4.

Dr. Rebecca Hill is an expert in child development. She has a degree . STER in early learning and has worked with infants for over a decade. NE MA

LACKLI B A T What is the main reason the author includes O sentences? IS Nthese TO BE T K I O . D O TE IGHcarefully THIS B A To show that the toy hasPbeen tested R Y R O O F VEN as simple K IS C toysOare GInot O WAYas. they seem T O B To show that children’s Y B N N E A L S I P IN UCED can be trusted IS SAMthatERebecca ISSIONHill’s D C To opinion M THshow O R R P REP D To show that Rebecca Hill uses the toy

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15 Which sentence from the passage gives the author’s opinion? A The Spin and Learn is a toy designed for infants from 4 months until they walk. B On the outside of the Spin and Learn are various activities for the infant. C The question is whether the toy will actually help with infant development. D If it does not, it is not worth paying a high price for something that will only entertain the infant.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

16 Which detail about the Spin and Learn best shows that it encourages hand-eye coordination? A The seat bounces and swivels.

B The items on the outside are brightly colored.

C It has items that can be spun, pushed, and squeezed.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I . OO Spin and Learn is Using information from the passage, why HTEDexplain IS Bthe G H I T R Y R O a good toy for infants. Give two EN Freasons. IS COPat least V I K G O WAY. T O Y O B N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R D Some of the items make noise.

17

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Persuasive Text 4 Introduction: This speech is adapted from part of a speech given by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961. In this part of the speech, Kennedy states his wishes for America’s space program. Kennedy argues that the United States should commit to putting a man on the Moon within a decade. He asks Congress for the funding needed to achieve this goal. One of the purposes of the speech is to ask for this funding and explain why it is needed. However, the speech is also made to encourage all people to support the goal. Kennedy emphasizes that a great commitment is needed, and shows that the goal will not be easy to achieve. He then asks people to consider the issue and make a decision on whether or not to commit to the goal.

E L P SAM ATION / Sending a Man toC the Moon \ U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. Adapted from a Speech by President John F. Kennedy

1

2

Since early in my term, our efforts in space have been under review. With the . IT IS D E T H G is advice of the Vice President,YRwho OP I . C S I R Chairman of the Space OK STECouncil, BONational A E M L E P M THIS we have where strong KLIN we are R C O A L F HIS SAexamined B T N may A not, where GIVEwe OT are and whereNwe T O N S ION I we may not. Now it is succeed and where S S I M R PEtake time to longer strides. It is time for a great new American enterprise. It is time for this nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement. This, in many ways, may hold the key to our future.

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

I believe we possess all the resources and talents necessary. But the facts of the matter are that we have never made the national decisions. We have never organized the national resources required for such leadership.

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We have never stated long-range goals. We have never had an urgent time schedule. We have never managed our resources and our time so as to ensure the goals are met. 3

4

5

I now ask the Congress to provide the funds which are needed to meet the following national goal. I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind. None will be more important for the exploration of space. And none will be so difficult or expensive to achieve. We ask for funds to develop appropriate lunar space craft. We ask for funds for engine development. We ask for funds for unmanned explorations. These explorations are particularly important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook. That purpose is the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the Moon. It will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

I believe we should go to the Moon. But I think everyone should TER. S A M consider the matter carefully in making their judgment. KLItINisE a heavy C A L B A prepared OTare Nwe burden. There is no sense in agreeing unless S I TO BE to do the T K I O . D O E burdens work. We must be prepared to Rbear IGHTthe THIStoB make it successful. Y R P O O F C N If we are not, we should year. AY. OK ISdecide today T GIVEand this W

LE BO ION IS NO P N ANY I M A D S E S C IS HIS DU This Tdecision demands commitment of scientific and technical PERM a major REPRO

manpower. It requires materials and facilities. We may take time and money away from other important activities where they are already thinly spread. It requires new commitment and organization. This is not always how we have managed our research efforts. It means we cannot afford undue work stoppages. We cannot afford high costs. We cannot afford waste. We cannot afford high turnover. New objectives and new money cannot fix these issues. They could in fact worsen them. We need every scientist to agree. We need every engineer to agree. We need every civil servant to agree. Everyone must agree that this nation will move forward in the exciting adventure of space.

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18 In paragraph 1, Kennedy says that “it is time to take longer strides.” This statement means that it is time — A to take more chances B to try to do more C to give up and move on D to create a new plan

19 Read these sentences from the speech. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the Moon. It will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

These sentences are included to —

A emphasize the commitment required

B illustrate that the goal will take years to achieve

C explain how many challenges will have to be overcome

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I BOO What is the main purpose of theIGinformation 2? HTED. R THinISparagraph R Y P O O F N in theApast K IS C hasObeen GIVEslow A To explain why progress O W Y. T O Y B N N E A L S I P IN ION B To to important UCED goals IS SAM how ISSachieve D M THdescribe O R R E P REP C To suggest that the United States will succeed D show that the achievement will inspire people

20

D To explain the benefits of space exploration

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21 The information in the last paragraph is mainly organized by — A stating opinions about scientific research and then giving facts to prove them B listing actions that need to be taken in the order they should occur C describing problems and then stating the solutions to the problems D comparing the workforce today with the workforce in the past

22 What is the tone of paragraph 4? A Excited

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B Cautious

C Demanding D Impatient

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 5 Introduction: This passage is an article describing how there may be ice present on Mercury. The main purpose of the article is to inform people of this possibility and convince people to believe that there may be ice on Mercury. The author uses details of scientific studies as evidence and also makes reasoned arguments that explain how ice could exist on the surface of Mercury. The author also recognizes that many people would not believe it was possible and addresses those concerns.

/ An IcyMPossibility \ PLE

SA N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

Photo courtesy of NASA

1

For a long time, scientists have wondered whether there could be water on other planets in the Solar System. The main reason this has interested scientists is that water is considered to be necessary for life. If there is water on other planets, there could also be simple forms of life. Scientists have studied Mars and Venus because they seemed most likely to possibly have water on their surfaces. Scientists did not expect that there would be water on the surface of Mercury. Most people would not expect that there would be water on Mercury. However, careful observations have shown that there could actually be water on Mercury.

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2

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. The temperature on Mercury is much higher than on Earth. The average temperature is about 150 degrees Fahrenheit. When Mercury is close to the Sun, its surface temperature can reach about 800 degrees Fahrenheit. At these temperatures, any water would quickly evaporate. Mercury also lacks an atmosphere, so any water that evaporates would not remain in the atmosphere like it does on Earth. It would be lost into space. This makes it seem highly unlikely that there would be any water on Mercury. That is why even scientists were surprised when studies revealed that there may be ice on Mercury.

3

Several studies completed by NASA have shown that there could be ice on the poles of Mercury. These studies have focused on how light reflects off Mercury. They have found that at the poles, light reflects in the same way it reflects off ice. If the surface was rocky, the light would reflect in a different way. An article published in the journal Science compares the data from Mercury to data from other planets and moons. The article describes how the surface of Mercury in some areas seems ER. Tof S A very similar to icy regions on Mars and icy regions on the moons M LINEpoles Kthe C A L Jupiter. The data gained is not enough to conclude that B A BE NOTthat S I definitely contain ice. However, it does suggest itKisTO possible. T I O . D O B TE IGHmissions THISshowed R Photographs taken by laterONASA also what appeared Y R P O F C N S E I . V Y I K A to be ice. NOT G E BOO ANY W

4

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

IN N IS AMPL O I S S S S UCED I I H D M T O R R E Scientists then Pbegan to consider REP if the conditions on Mercury would

allow ice to survive. On Earth, the poles are always covered by ice and snow. The poles do not receive enough light for the ice at the poles to ever melt completely. But Mercury is a lot closer to the Sun than Earth is. Scientists have determined that direct sunlight would melt the ice on the poles of Mercury even if the poles only received direct sunlight for a short time. How could there possibly be ice then? The answer that scientists came up with relates to the surface of Mercury. Mercury is covered with craters. These craters are created by meteor impacts. Some of these are hundreds of meters across, and the largest is about 1,300 kilometers across. The depth of the craters has been estimated

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by studying shadows. It is thought that some could be a kilometer or more deep. One theory about the ice on Mercury is that craters at the poles are deep enough that the bottom of the crater is always shaded from sunlight. This would explain how the ice could remain there and never melt. 5

Scientists are still undecided on whether there is actually ice on Mercury. There are theories that suggest that it is possible. However, the data on how light reflects may not be caused by ice at all. Further studies in the future may solve this mystery for good. Until then, it is interesting to consider whether water, and even simple life forms, could be living deep within the craters on Mercury’s surface.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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23 Which feature of Mercury best explains why water was not expected to be found on its surface? A Its large number of craters B Its high surface temperature C Its rocky surface D Its lack of any forms of life

24 Which idea from paragraph 1 does the author base on an assumption? A Water is considered to be necessary for life.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B Scientists have studied Mars and Venus for signs of water. C Most people would not expect that there would be water on Mercury. D Studies have shown that there could be water on Mercury.

TER. S A M LINE Kwater C A L B give details that show that it is unlikely thatTthere is NO A K TO BE S I T on Mercury I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y O that. there could describe the evidenceS supporting EN Fbelief I COP T GIVthe K O WAY O Y O B be water on Mercury N N E A L S I P IN AM ION UCED whether there is water D THIS S howPEscientists O explain determine RMISS could R REP

25 The author uses the third paragraph mostly to — A B C

on Mercury

D give the opinions of experts on whether there is ice on the surface of Mercury

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26 The photograph is included to support which idea? A The surface of Mercury is covered with craters. B The insides of some of Mercury’s craters are always in shadow. C It seems unlikely that there could be water on the surface of Mercury. D Any water on Mercury would quickly evaporate and be lost into space.

27 Which statement best describes the author’s view on whether there is water on Mercury?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A It is unlikely and will probably be disproved soon. B It is possible but has not yet been proven.

C It is likely, and scientists will prove it in future studies. D It is almost certain, but it is difficult to ever prove it.

28

TER. S A M INE be Using the fact that Mercury has craters, explain whyLice KLcould C A B present on Mercury’s surface. NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Independent Practice Part 1 contains five persuasive texts with questions for students to complete on their own. Part 2 contains four writing prompts to give students practice creating persuasive writing.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Part 1: Reading Persuasive Text 1

/ Letter to the Principal \ Dear Principal Carter, 1

2

3

Last week, our school made a new rule saying that playing handball was no longer allowed during breaks. The rule was made because handball is considered to be dangerous, is making people too competitive, is making people antisocial, and provides no benefits to students. These claims are completely untrue. In fact, playing handball is making people more social and teaching people important social skills. Playing handball is more than just a game. Playing handball is about being part of a group. From playing, I have learned a lot of important lessons that have helped me in many ways.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

R. First, I have learned that you have to earn respect. When you start TEout S A M INE you are KLOnce playing handball, you have to wait patiently for a game. C A L B T A waitOagain. NOthen invited in for a game, you play your game and S I T BE You T K I O . D O TE have toTHwait IS B your turn. This has cannot force it here. Instead, Yyou IGHjust R R P O O F N start you IS C taught me a lot about IVEthe Kacceptance. GAt O WAY.cannot make T O Y O B N N E A L S I P IN N wait forUthe demands. to accept you. Once you AM just have CED group IS SYou ISSIOto H D M T O R R E P have proven yourself, thenRthe EP group accepts you. But there is a certain amount of time that you have to pay your dues. You’ll be playing less games than the others and waiting for that approval to come. This has taught me about being patient. I have also learned a lot about sportsmanship by watching how other people react to winning and losing. I have seen some people who gloat each time they win. Others either make excuses every time they lose or become annoyed. Those players that are respected are the ones that accept either winning or losing without either gloating or reacting badly to losing. I do not believe that handball is too competitive. It actually teaches a lot about how to compete in a fair way.

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4

I have also learned that to play the game well, you have to concentrate on yourself. Some players purposely annoy others to put them off their game. This does work sometimes, but usually does not. The best players are those that remain calm and remain focused on their own game. I have applied this lesson to my studies. I have learned to focus on doing my best in class. I have learned not to let other people distract me.

5

Probably the most important thing I have learned is that you never know what might happen. There is one player that is clearly the best, yet some days he is beaten. I have learned that everyone has their on and off days. The best way to look at it is to take every game as “just a game” and always remember that tomorrow is a new day. There is never a certainty in handball. Anyone may win or lose, and you have to treat each new game separately.

6

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Handball also brings a broad group of people together. In this way, it is a social game. In class, most people have a set group of friends and stick to those friends. But when we play handball, many different groups of people come together. I play against people I rarely speak to at other ER. T S A M times. It becomes like a common ground that brings us all E KLINtogether. C A L B Even if we are not friends, we cheer each otherOTon a BE N A andK congratulate O S I T T I strong player. How can this possibly D. called antisocial? BOO TEbe

YRIGH N FOR THIS P O C S I urge you to reconsider K I the ruleOTbanning GIVE handball. O WAY. Without handball to O Y B N N E A L S I P IN play, everyone ION around UCEinD their own small groups and not IS SAM isERnow ISSsitting H D M T O R P As I have Rdescribed, socializing at all. handball has also taught me a lot EP

about myself and others, and I have changed how I approach many things in life. I have described just some of the things I have learned about myself and about getting along with others. It is unfair and untrue to say that playing handball is antisocial. If you still do not agree, why don’t you allow it again for a trial period? Then you should come down and watch us play. I am sure that you will see that it is not dangerous, too competitive, or antisocial. I am sure that you will see that it is a positive part of our school life that should be allowed to continue. Yours with hope, Marty Stewart

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1

What does Marty hope to accomplish by writing his letter? A To encourage more students to play handball B To request that the ban on handball be removed C To teach people how to act when playing handball D To convince readers that sports are not dangerous

2

How does Marty mainly support his argument? A By giving researched facts B By comparing handball to other activities

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

C By telling about his personal experience D By describing the rules of handball

3

In the first paragraph, Marty describes the reasons that handball was banned. Which reason listed does Marty fail to address in the letter?

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B That it makes people too competitive NOT A K TO BE S I T I That it makes people antisocial HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y EN FO WAY. IS COP toT Gstudents That it provides no benefits V I K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

A That it is dangerous B C D

4

Which statement about handball would Marty most likely agree with? A It teaches lessons that can be applied to other areas of life. B It would be a better sport if there were fewer rules. C It should only be played between people who are friends. D It is more important than the classes that students take.

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5

What is the main reason Marty suggests that handball be allowed again for a trial period? A So the players can work on improving their behavior B So students have time to find a new activity to take its place C So Marty can continue to develop his personal skills D So the principal can see students playing handball for himself

6

Using information from the letter, explain why you would or would not like handball to be played at your school. Use at least two details from the letter to support your response.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 2 Introduction: This passage is adapted from a paper written by Thomas Jefferson in 1784. At the time, America had just won its independence from the United Kingdom. There was not yet an accepted American currency. The states of America were using a mix of currencies. These included Portuguese coins such as the gold half joe, Spanish coins such as the bit, the United Kingdom’s pound, and copper pennies. In this paper, Thomas Jefferson describes what he believes should be the coinage adopted by everyone in America.

E L P / CoinageSfor States \ AMthe United N O I T A C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. Adapted from a Paper by Thomas Jefferson

1

In fixing the unit of money, these circumstances are of principal . importance. ASTER

INE M

A CK L I. That it be of convenient size to be applied as aLmeasure B A T O BE S Nlife. to the common money transactions OK TO . IT Iof HTED

IS BO

TH proportion to YRIG be inNan Reasy II. That its parts and multiples P O O F C S E V KI AY. T GIarithmetic. each other, ANY W LE BsoOOas to assist S NOthe

NI AMP O I S ED IN S S S UCdivisions, I I H D III.T That the P unit or be so nearly of O R ERMand itsRparts, EP

the value of some of the known coins, as that they may be of easy understanding for the people.

The Spanish dollar seems to fulfill all these conditions.

Condition I 2

Taking into our view all money transactions, great and small, I question if a common measure of more convenient size than the dollar could be proposed. The value of 100, 1,000, 10,000 dollars is easily understood by the mind. The tenth or the hundredth of a dollar should also be easily understood. Few transactions are above or below these limits.

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Condition II 3

The easiest ratio of multiplication and division is that by ten. Everyone knows the decimal system. Everyone remembers how much more difficult it is to add pounds and ounces, or feet and inches. The bulk of mankind are schoolboys through life. These little difficulties are always great to them. And even mathematical heads feel the relief of an easier process taking the place of a harder one. Foreigners, too, who trade or travel among us, will find great relief by a simpler system. Where we are free to choose between easy and difficult options, it is most rational to choose the easy. It is therefore proposed that our coins should be in decimal proportions to one another. If we adopt the dollar for our unit, we should strike four coins as follows.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . Condition III 9 9 888. 1. 2. 3. 4.

4

5

A golden piece, equal in value to ten dollars The dollar itself, of silver The tenth of a dollar, of silver also The hundredth of a dollar, of copper

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B T AsimilarOinBEvalue to NOare The third condition required is that the coins S I T I OK T estimate their Oeasily ED. be able B T S H some of the known coins. People should to I G H I YR OR Ta long Ftake COPpeople N S E I . time to adopt the value. If this is not the case, may V I K OT G IN ANY WAY BOO N E L S I P new coins, them at all. Let us examine, in this point of M not adopt IS SAor ISSION PRODUCED H M T R E P four coinsREproposed. view, each of the 1. The golden piece will be 1/5 more than a half joe and 1/15 more than a double guinea. It will be readily estimated, then, by reference to either of them.

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6

7

8

2. The unit, or dollar, is a known coin, and the most familiar of all to the minds of the people. It happily offers itself as a unit already introduced. I know of no unit which can be proposed in competition with the dollar, but the pound. But what is the pound? The pound is 1547 grains of fine silver in Georgia. It is 1289 grains in Virginia, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. It is 1031 grains in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. It is 966 grains in North Carolina and New York. Which of these shall we adopt? It is difficult to familiarize a new coin to the people. It is more difficult to familiarize them to a new coin with an old name. Happily, the dollar is familiar to them all. It is already known as a measure of value.

E L P SAM CATION U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

3. The tenth will be precisely the Spanish bit. This is a coin perfectly familiar to us all. When we shall make a new coin, then, equal in R. value to this, it will be easily accepted by the people. MASTE

KLINE C A L B 4. The hundredth, or copper, will differ little from BE of the NOT A theKcopper O S I T T I four eastern states. It will differ less BOO of New York and HTED.fromRthe ISpenny G H I T R Y North Carolina. It will FO the penny COP a little ENfrom IS differ . of Jersey, V Y I K A G O W T O B Pennsylvania, S NOMaryland. Iand PLE Delaware, N AItNYwill be about the medium I M N A D O I S E S C IS the new DU between of these states. In Virginia, THIS thePold ERMand EPROcoppers R coppers have never been in use. It will be as easy, therefore, to introduce them there of one value as of another.

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7

What is the main reason the pound is less suitable than the dollar? A It is not known in all the states. B It has a different value in all the states. C It is already being used. D It is made of fine silver.

8

What is the main purpose of paragraph 1? A To describe the main purposes of money B To list the requirements of suitable units of money

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

C To warn about problems with the current units of money D To explain why several different types of money are needed

9

According to the passage, why is it important that the coins be similar to known coins?

ER.

ST A So many coins will already be available and not need to NEbeMAmade ACKLI IS TO BE T K I O . D O So people will understand the HTE easily IS Baccept them IGcoins THand R Y R P O O F C So people in different will VEN needYtoWbe K IS states AY. trained GInot O T O O B N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

BL B So regular people will be able to calculateNwith OT A money C D

10 Which sentence from the passage gives a personal opinion?

A Where we are free to choose between easy and difficult options, it is most rational to choose the easy. B The pound is 1,547 grains of fine silver in Georgia. C The hundredth, or copper, will differ little from the copper of the four eastern states. D In Virginia, coppers have never been in use.

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11 The passage states that the decimal system should be used because it makes calculations easier. What does the decision to use the decimal system most influence? A The value given to each coin B What each coin is made of C What current coin each new coin is similar to D How many coins of each type there should be

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 3

/ Why Dodos are Extinct \ 1

The dodo was a large flightless bird that lived on the island of Mauritius. Dodos were discovered when the island of Mauritius was explored in the early 1500s. By the late 1600s, dodos were completely extinct. There are several reasons for this extinction, and man played a role in all of them. People did not know they were doing it, but they did cause the dodo’s extinction.

2

The first reason that dodo numbers began to decline is that people sought out dodos for their meat. In the 1500s, Mauritius was a stopover point for ships. The dodo became a welcome source of meat. The TER. S A dodo was a large bird. They were usually M KLINE C A L about a meter tall and could weigh up to B NOT A K TO BE S I 50 pounds. They were like an oversized T I ED. HTeasy IS BOO G H I T R turkey. For sailors, the dodo was an Y R FO ENmeat IS COP enough V I K G O WAY. T meal. The largeLEbird provided O Y O B N N A S I P AM D IN ION wereOeasy for many and UCEto ISSthey D M THIS Speople, R R E P REParound people and had no fear of them. catch. Dodos had never been In fact, it was this behavior that gave them their name. When they were first discovered by the Portuguese, they seemed unafraid, unintelligent, and clumsy. The Portuguese gave them the name dodo, which is a slang term for someone who is foolish and clumsy. These qualities made the dodo easy prey for the sailors. The dodos were not afraid and did not avoid people, and they were slow and clumsy. This made them easy to catch. They also did not fly, and so this was not a means of escape for them. Over time, dodo numbers began to decline as they were used as a source of food.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

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3

4

The hunting of dodos for meat started the decline. However, it probably would not have led to their complete extinction. It was another human action that caused this. In the 1600s, the island of Mauritius began to be settled by the Dutch. The settlements were unsuccessful, and less than one thousand people ever lived on Mauritius. However, the Dutch people did one thing that changed Mauritius forever. They introduced non-native species including dogs, pigs, cats, and rats. The dodos had lost the ability to fly because they did not need the ability. On the isolated island of Mauritius, there were no ground predators. The introduction of the new species changed everything. The dodo was now hunted by these animals. With no experience of these predators, they did not have any suitable way to defend themselves or escape. Most birds that can fly lay their eggs in nests high up in trees. This protects the eggs from predators on the ground. Dodos laid their eggs on nests on the ground. This had not been a problem before the new species were introduced. Now, the dodo eggs became easy meals for pigs, rats, and other introduced animals. Fewer and fewer new dodos were born to replace those being lost. The extinction of the dodo became almost TER. S A M a certainty. KLINE

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

BLAC A T E O IStoNclear Oforests. TO BMauritius One other action of the Dutch settlersD.was T K I O B HTE treesRare IGThese THISprized R had large forests of Ebony O trees. for their dark Y P O F C N S E I . V Y I K A wood. The settlements Mauritius cutting NY W down the trees and NOT G began A LE BOO Ion S I P N I M N A D home to the dodo were now S O forestsOthat exporting ISThe DUCEwere THIS Sthe wood. R P PERM E R being lost. As the dodo’s habitat disappeared, their chance for survival fell even further.

5

The exact date of the extinction of the dodo is not known. There was a sighting in 1662, which could have been the last ever sighting of the dodo. Scientists have used known data to calculate that the dodo was probably extinct around the year 1690, but almost certainly extinct by 1715. Regardless of the exact date, the dodo became extinct within about 200 years. It was first sighted in 1505 when humans entered its home of Mauritius for the first time. Almost immediately, the actions began that would lead to the dodo’s decline. At first, dodos were hunted

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for their meat. Later, animals were introduced that hunted dodos and ate their eggs. As forests were cut down, the dodo lost its habitat. Within about 200 years, the dodo was completely lost forever. The actions of man led to the extinction of the dodo. This extinction of the dodo can be described as an accident. It can be assumed that the sailors did not know that hunting a few dodos would lead to their extinction. The Dutch probably did not realize the great impact the introduction of ground-based animals would have. The Dutch probably did not think that cutting down some Ebony trees would cause the complete loss of an animal. However, these actions did cause the loss of the dodo. It is a valuable lesson to all people to not underestimate the impact that human actions can have.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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12 What is the main argument in the passage? A Human actions caused the dodo to become extinct. B The dodo was not intelligent enough to survive. C People should not interfere with nature. D The actions of people alter the environment.

13 How is the information in paragraphs 2 through 4 organized? A The paragraphs describe actions that impacted the dodo from most serious to least serious.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B The paragraphs describe the history of the dodo in Mauritius from earliest to latest. C Each paragraph describes one factor that led to the dodo’s extinction.

D Each paragraph describes one feature of the dodo that led to its downfall.

14

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B T AdescribeO the Which word would the author most likelyISuse NOto T BE loss T K I O . D O of the dodo? IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O K IS C GIVEN NY WAY. O A Regretful T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I B Embarrassing H D T PERM REPRO C Shameful D Curious

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15 Based on the information in the last paragraph, how does the author most likely feel about the people who caused the loss of the dodo? A They were selfish and should have considered others. B They were unaware of the impact their actions would have. C They were heartless and should have been kinder to the natural wildlife. D They were foolish and not intelligent enough to realize what they were doing.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

16 Why does the author most likely compare the dodo to an oversized turkey in paragraph 2? A To suggest that the dodo was an appealing meal B To explain why the dodo was unable to fly

C To show that animals similar to the dodo have survived D To imply that dodos should have been able to protect themselves

17

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B A mayBhave OT dodo Using details from the passage, explain why Nthe S I TO E T K I O . D O E Use atTleast survived if dodos had been able Ito GHTfly. HIS Btwo details from the R Y R P O O F C passage to support your K ISresponse. GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E N IS AMPL D IN A O I S E S C S S U I I H D T PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 4

/ Book Review \ 1

2

Ten Fun Things to Do Before You Die is a book by Karol Jackowski. In the book, she gives advice on how to have a good life. The book is not meant to be taken too seriously. It is humorous and includes many funny anecdotes. It even includes cartoons and funny illustrations. However, it does still offer some good advice on how to live a happy life. The book describes ten general lessons that can be applied to make life better. I will now describe some of these lessons and consider whether or not each one does offer useful advice.

E L P SAM ATION C U Enjoying Life D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Jackowski says to have more fun than anyone else. Her idea of fun is R. also focused on spending time with other people. She says to find TEfun S A M INE She KLperson. people, to be interested in other people, and to be a Lfun C A B OT A soulTOthat BE always also says that “each of us is endowed with aN playful S I T K I O . D O IS B experiences as divine the mostRinteresting of times” (p. IGHTE FOand THfunniest Y R P O C N S E I 11). The basic message first is toWenjoy IV AY. life and to enjoy Y OT Gchapter BOOK of the N N E A L S I P IN to life that is not all about other people. UCED IS SAM It EisRgood ISSIOtoN seePRanODapproach H M T P serious. Part being completely RE of life is about being joyful and enjoying other people. So while there are struggles in life, I think it is important to also enjoy life.

Knowing Yourself 3

Jackowski advises people to get some insight. She says that “finding your best self and being that person is the end result of getting some insight” (p. 17). Jackowski also describes insight as occurring slowly and naturally. The focus is on a journey to knowing yourself. Jackowski also refers to stillness, saying that “before you can get some insight, before you can see and hear what’s going on within, you will most likely need

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some peace and quiet in order to hear yourself think” (p. 17). Knowing yourself is not something you can force, but more a process of being quiet so you can hear yourself. 4

Jackowski continues with ideas on knowing yourself in chapter three, where she says that gaining insight and having fun will result in gaining depth. I thought one of the important things is that meaning does not come from looking outside. Instead, people need to look inside themselves for the answers. In the end, knowing yourself is about understanding who you are and being happy with that. This is good advice that everyone can easily apply.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Escaping Reality 5

6

Jackowski says when you’ve had enough and feel confused, overwhelmed, or overloaded, escape reality. Jackowski also says that you can escape to “places inside and out” (p. 36). Escaping can be about physically leaving a place to get away from your problems. It can be about escaping to your inner world. Another way she says that people TER. S A M can escape is by doing exercise. I think the important thing KLINEis to find C A L B whatever escape works for you. I think the main BE you have NOT ApointK isTOthat S I T I a way to get away from things, soHyou BOOrecharge. TED.can relaxISand

YRIG R TH P O O F C N S E K I alone, AY. GIV Wdescribes In chapter eightE on also the peace and Y OTJackowski BOOliving N N A L S I P N I M N A IO S home MasIS“providing quietTHofISher DUCED relief” (p. 95). This is a place R S REPROinstant E P she can go at the end of the day, and I think having this escape can help you get through the day and deal with things better.

Writing 7

Jackowski says to write something at the end of every day. I think this process is related to stillness and to knowing yourself. Writing something at the end of the day means thinking about yourself, your day, and how you feel. It also means putting these thoughts into words. This is a way of getting to know yourself better and gaining insight. This means that you think about yourself and your life each day.

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Make Yourself Interesting 8

One of the important things Jackowski says in the “Make Yourself Interesting” chapter is that you cannot blame life for not being interesting. Jackowski says that you have to blame yourself and make the effort to make it interesting. I think this advice applies just as much to other areas as it does to being interesting. Essentially, you can’t just look at others and assume they have something you don’t or assume that life is to blame. Instead, you have to take control and help yourself. This is an important message that all people can apply.

Live Like You Have Nothing to Lose 9

10

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

In this chapter, Jackowski refers to the “cyclic movements of life” (p. 117). She talks about how winter may look dead, but the seeds of spring are just under the snow. Jackowski also says that “having lost all there was to lose, what remains is mysteriously not dead but secretly stirring with some kind of new life” (p. 117). For Jackowski, nothing to lose seems to mean taking away all the complications of life. I think that ER. T S A M having nothing to lose might mean different things to different KLINE people, C A L B depending on what we are most scared of losing. BEpoint seems NOT AThe Kmain O S I T T I O to be that you do not fear anythingTEand accept yourself and H D. just IS BObeing G H I T R Y R being on your own journey. S COP EN F O

I . OT GIV IN ANY WAY BOOK N E L S I P AM Overall, UCED is useful. It does offer good ISSION inPthe Dbook Madvice THISISthinkPEthe O R R E R happily no matter what your issues are in advice for how to live more

life. It offers readers a chance to take control of their own lives and make changes to improve their lives. These changes are about the person changing how they think about things. This is something that everyone can do. The way the book is written with humor also helps to communicate the message. It is reminding people not to take things too seriously. The book encourages you to make the effort to make your life better. I would recommend the book because it is entertaining and meaningful and will inspire readers to be happier and better people.

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18 The author includes headings in bold print to — A describe and assess each section of the book in turn B show which ideas from the book were most important C explain why the author wrote the book D provide key background information on the author

19 The author describes how the book includes “cartoons and funny illustrations.” Which idea does this detail best support? A The book offers advice about how to live a good life.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

B The book is not meant to be taken too seriously.

C The book describes ten lessons that people can follow. D The book encourages people to be themselves.

20 Which sentence from the passage best supports the idea that Jackowski believes that people have to take control of their own lives? ASTER. A B C D

NE M I L K C A L Jackowski says to have more fun than anyone else. OT A B TO BE N S I K . ITend ofISevery Jackowski says to write something TatEDthe OOday. B H G H I R OR Tfeel confused, Fand COPYhad Jackowski says when you’ve enough N S E I V I K O WAY. Y OT G reality. BOoverloaded, N N E A L overwhelmed, or escape S I P IN IS SAM ERMISSION RODUCED H T Jackowski says P that you have REP to blame yourself and make

the effort to make it interesting.

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21 The author organizes the information in paragraph 2 by — A stating a main idea and then giving evidence to support it B describing the book and then giving her opinion on it C contrasting Jackowski’s ideas with her own ideas D listing ways that Jackowski could improve the book

22 How do the quotes included in the book review most add to the passage? A They demonstrate that the book is humorous.

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B They help the reader understand Jackowski’s advice. C They show that the author researched the topic.

D They suggest that Jackowski believes in what she writes.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Persuasive Text 5

/ Is Honesty the Best Policy? \ 1

There is a common phrase that says that honesty is the best policy. In my life, I’ve often been told just to be honest. People seem to believe that as long as you tell the truth, everything will work out just fine. It sounds simple enough, but it is not always easy to be honest. It is also not always beneficial to be honest. There are many times when being dishonest makes life a lot easier.

2

One area where honesty is not always the best policy is in friendship. It is said that friends should always be honest with each other. While this may be a nice statement in theory, in reality this is rarely the case. When your friend asks for your advice or opinion on something, it is not always best to be honest. The other TER. S A day, my friend asked me what I M KLINE C A L thought of her outfit. I did not like it B NOT A K TO BE at all. But it was the start of the day D. IT IS HTE IS BOO G H I T R and she would have to wear it all Y R S COPthe Tpoint EN FO WAY. Ibeen V I K G O day. What would have O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S of me telling her itMwas awful? IOjust THIS R DU ER IS P P E R would have made her feel bad. I lied a little and said it was “fun.” My other friends told her the same thing. The interesting thing is that she spent the day appearing happy and confident, and by doing that, she pulled the outfit off. By the end of the day, I really thought it looked fun and not ridiculous like I had first thought. In this case, a few small lies made things better.

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©iStockphoto/Slobodan Vasic

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3

Of course, not all cases are about such simple things. The case may come where the decision has to be made whether the issue is important enough for the truth to be told. This sort of question arises when a person realizes their friend is making a mistake. At this point, the person has to make a decision. You can continue to pretend that there isn’t a problem or you can really be honest and tell your friend what you think. Telling someone something they do not want to hear is sometimes referred to as being “brutally honest.” The word brutally shows just how hard this can be. Even if you know being honest is the best thing, it is hard when you know you are going to hurt your friend’s feelings. Being honest in this way can easily lose you friendships.

4

It is also not always a benefit to be honest in other situations. In class the other day, I was asked what I thought of a poem we were studying. My truthful answer would have been that I had no idea what the poem was about. It made no sense, it confused me, and I didn’t even want to learn more about it. I did not give this response. I said it was challenging, but I liked that it was making me think about issues and TER. S A that the language use was clever. Why did I lie? I did not want the M INE KLunderstanding C A L teacher to think that I wasn’t trying, or to see how little B A BE one who NOIT was S I TOonly I had. I was also embarrassed and worried that the T K I O . D O IS B little I understood. IGHTE knew THhow R didn’t understand it. I lied Oand nobody Y R P O F EN you W IS C K dishonest AY.of trouble. If I was GIVkeep O This shows thatEbeing can out T O Y O B N N A L S I P AM SION my Olife CED IN be a lot harder. honest DUwould THISallS the time,MIISthink

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. P ER

5

REPR

In some cases, I think people also expect you to be dishonest. Think about what happens when someone asks you how you are. I always reply by saying I am fine, or good, or great. I don’t think people want to hear how I really am. It is polite to ask someone how they are, and it is also polite to respond by saying something positive. Now imagine you are sitting at the dinner table and there is one piece of garlic bread left. Your friend says, “Would anyone like the last piece of bread?” You would like the last piece, but everyone else is saying that they’re fine. It is expected that you will say no, so you do. This is an example of how having good manners sometimes requires being dishonest. There

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are answers you are expected to give, so you give them. If someone told the truth and said they wanted the last piece, they would look rude. 6

The thing about honesty is that it is a choice. It is good to be honest, but it’s not always the right choice. In many situations, it is better to be dishonest. Sometimes dishonesty is expected, sometimes it is easier, sometimes it prevents problems, and sometimes it saves you hurting someone’s feelings. Is honesty the best policy? In some cases, it is. However, it is also important to realize that complete honesty is not necessary all of the time.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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23 Which sentence from the first paragraph states the main claim of the passage? A There is a common phrase that says that honesty is the best policy. B In my life, I’ve often been told just to be honest. C People seem to believe that as long as you tell the truth, everything will work out just fine. D There are many times when being dishonest makes life a lot easier.

24 In paragraph 2, the author includes an anecdote about lying about her friend’s outfit. What is the main point of the anecdote?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

A It is not right to lie to your friends. B Lying can have positive results.

C It is best when a group of people lie.

D There is no harm in lying about unimportant things.

25

TER. S A M E In which paragraph does the author argue that people are KLINexpected C A L B to be dishonest? NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R A Paragraph 2 Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O B ParagraphP3LE B IS NO CED IN ANY M N A O I S S DU THIS C Paragraph 4PERMIS REPRO D Paragraph 5

26 In paragraph 3, the word brutally is emphasized to show — A the consequences of lying to someone B how hard it can be to hear the truth C the best way to tell someone the truth D that some situations require telling a lie

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27 Why does the author include examples of good manners? A To educate readers about how to avoid being rude B To suggest that lying is an example of having bad manners C To show that having good manners requires that people lie D To identify some of the problems that lying can cause

28 Using information from the passage, explain what you think is the main problem that occurs when people are too honest. Use details from the passage to support your answer.

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TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Part 2: Writing / Writing Prompt 1 \ READ the following quotation. It has been said that if you are never challenged, you will never improve. THINK carefully about the following statement.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Challenges create a need for someone to do better. Challenges can inspire people and help them improve. WRITE an essay supporting the opinion that challenges help people improve. Be sure to — TER. S A M • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea KLINE C A L B • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas NOT A K TO BE S I T I • organize and develop your explanation HTED. effectively IS BOO G H I T R Y R • choose your words carefully IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O • use correctMspelling, grammar, IS NO CEpunctuation, PLE B Scapitalization, N ANY I N A D O I S S S U I I H D and T sentencesPERM PRO

RE

Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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/ Writing Prompt 2 \ READ the following quotation. A famous saying is, “Actions speak louder than words.” THINK carefully about the following statement. Sometimes what people do is more important than what they say. WRITE an essay stating your opinion on whether a person’s actions are the most important thing, or whether a person’s words are the most important thing.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully TER. S A M • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, KLINE C A L B and sentences BE NOT A

K TO IT IS O . D O E B T YRIGH N FOR THIS P O C S IVE K I BelowOto GPlan O WAY. T O Y B Use the Space Your Composition N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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/ Writing Prompt 3 \ READ the information below. Some people write in a diary every day. They write about things that have happened, and they write about their thoughts and feelings. Many people find that writing in a diary makes them feel better. THINK about how you could benefit by writing in a diary. WRITE a persuasive essay arguing the benefits of writing in a diary. Explain how writing in a diary could help you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar,E KLIN C A L and sentences B A

R. MASTE

NOT S I TO BE T K I O . D O IGHTE FOR THIS B R Y P O C IVEN Your YComposition K IS Below Use the Space to GPlan O WAY. T O O B N N E A L S I P AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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/ Writing Prompt 4 \ READ the information below. Everyone gets stressed sometimes. It is important to be able to find a way to relax. THINK about what you do to relax and how you feel after relaxing. WRITE an essay arguing that it is important to relax.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 88Below. to Plan Your Composition Use the8 Space

Be sure to — • clearly state your main claim or controlling idea • include 2 or 3 supporting ideas • organize and develop your explanation effectively • choose your words carefully • use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentences

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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Use the Space Below to Plan Your Composition

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

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TER. S A M KLINE C A L B NOT A K TO BE S I T I HTED. R THIS BOO G I R Y IS COP T GIVEN FO WAY. K O O PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO


Understanding Persuasive Text: Reading and Argumentative Writing teaches students how to understand and analyze persuasive texts, how to write persuasive essays and prepares them for the STAAR. Students will understand and analyze a range of persuasive texts that appear on the STAAR, such as editorials, letters, speeches, essays, historical texts, scientific texts, and responses to literature. Students will learn about the purpose and structure of persuasive texts, and will understand the techniques used to persuade readers. Understanding Persuasive Text also includes writing prompts that will prepare students for the STAAR Writing test. Students will make claims and produce well-supported arguments for those claims. The Instruction section contains five persuasive texts. Each text is introduced with key information that will help students understand the purpose and structure of the text. Key information is also given on the claims made, the arguments presented, and the evidence included. Students then answer multiple-choice and open-ended questions about each persuasive text.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

TER. S A M E KLINpersuasive ACEach Part 1 of the Independent Practice section contains five persuasiveAtexts. L B E OTtheir own.TThis Non O Bsection S I text is followed by several questions that students will answer of T K I O . D O E B T S H I G H I the book contains multiple-choice and questions. YR FOR T Y. COPopen-ended N S E I V I K O WA T G four Apersuasive Y Ocontains BOPractice N N E L S Part 2 of the Independent section writing prompts. I P N AM D IN O I S E S C S S U I I H D M T will apply their O Students writing to create four essays. PERunderstanding REPofRpersuasive

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Understanding Persuasive Text