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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.


To the Teacher Reading Skill-by-Skill is a powerful instructional tool that has been designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension. Each book in this series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill. The focus of this book is main idea and details. In Part 1 of this book, students will learn practical techniques and strategies for answering questions that relate to main idea and details. Using a scaffolded approach to differentiated instruction, Reading Skill-by-Skill teaches students about main idea and details by increasing the difficulty of what they read from sentences to paragraphs to full-length passages.

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In addition, each of the sections in Part 1 provides students with modeled instruction, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher support will be required for students to complete the skill introduction, modeled instruction, and guided practice pages in Part 1. Students can complete the independent practice pages on their own. Part 2 reinforces what students have learned in Part 1. Students will read 10 passages and answer a series of main idea and detail questions about each passage. Students work on their own to strengthen their reading comprehension skills. Reading Skill-by-Skill will enable you to target the reading comprehension skills for which your students need the most practice. Upon completing this book, you may elect to proceed to other books in this series. These books can be taught in any order.

ISBN 978-1-4204-4196-3 R 4196-3 Copyright ©2009 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 110.MAQ. Printed on recycled paper. C RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Part 1 Instruction: Compare and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sentences Modeled Instruction with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Guided Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Independent Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Paragraphs Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Guided Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Independent Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

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Passages Modeled Instruction with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Guided Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Independent Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Part 2 On Your Own: Passages with Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Individual Passages Making Beautiful Music – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 The History of Pennies – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Planning a Vacation – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Working for Rights – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Sailors of the Seas – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Growing a Garden – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Paired Passages Animal Friends in India – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Don’t Feed the Bears! – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 The Story of Swimming Pools – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 A Good Place for a Swim – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

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Compare and Contrast Can you tell how two things are alike? Can you tell how two things are different? If so, you already know how to compare and contrast. The words compare and contrast have opposite meanings. When you compare, you look for ways that two things are alike: A pumpkin is a fruit. An apple is a fruit.

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When you contrast, you look for ways that two things are different: A pumpkin is orange. An apple is red.

Sometimes it can be helpful to use a diagram to compare and contrast. Below is an example of a Venn diagram.

Pumpkins

Both

Apples

orange color grow on vines are big

are fruit used to make pie have seeds

red color grow on trees are small

How they are alike (Comparing)

How they are different (Contrasting) 4

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You can compare and contrast many things—people, events, ideas, actions, and just about anything else you can think of. When you read, you may see signal words that can help you compare or contrast.

Signal Words for Comparing

Signal Words for Contrasting

like also as well as likewise both similarly

unlike but on the other hand however in contrast on the contrary

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Look at the sentences below. Notice how the signal words are used to compare and to contrast. There is sand on a beach. There is also sand in a desert.

Signal Word for Comparing

Alexander and Leila both like to read books.

Signal Word for Comparing Unlike most birds, penguins cannot fly. Signal Word for Contrasting Kino lives in Japan, but Terrence does not. Signal Word for Contrasting When you read, always look for compare and contrast signal words. They will help you to understand how things are alike or how they are different. This can help when you must answer questions about what you have read.

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Modeled Instruction with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and follow along. 1

Hiram likes to play the piano, and Koto likes to sing. They both enjoy music. How are Hiram and Koto alike? HINT This is a compare question. It is asking you how two people are alike. Read the sentences again and look for details that tell you how Hiram and Koto are alike.

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The first sentence tells you two things:

• Hiram likes to play the piano. • Koto likes to sing.

This tells you how they are different. It does NOT tell you how they are alike. In the second sentence, there is a signal word. They both enjoy music. The word both is a signal word that tells you two things are alike. In this sentence it tells you how Hiram and Koto are alike—they like music.

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Guided Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer each question. Write your answer to question 1. Circle your answer to question 2. 1

Unlike Nadia, Omar likes to play checkers. How is Nadia different from Omar? HINT This is a contrast question. Think about what the sentence tells you about Omar. How is Nadia different?

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Write your answer below.

2

Dogs like bones and cats like milk. Both animals make good pets. These two sentences compare and contrast A bones and milk B different foods C dogs and cats D different drinks HINT Look at the first sentence again. It is contrasting two things. Look at the second sentence again. It is comparing two things. Choose the best answer.

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Independent Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer the questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

On Monday, Matt played the piano and studied math. On Tuesday, Matt had a spelling test and played the piano. How was Monday the same as Tuesday? A Matt played the piano both days.

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B Matt had a spelling test both days. C Matt studied math both days.

D Matt studied spelling both days.

Explain how you chose your answer.

2

Bread is soft, white, and good to eat. Toast is crunchy, brown, and good to eat. What is one way in which bread and toast are the same?

What is one way in which bread and toast are different?

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3

Karen was wearing a big red hat and a sweater. Clark was wearing a small black hat and a coat. Karen and Clark were both A wearing red clothes

C wearing coats

B wearing hats

D wearing black hats

Explain how you chose your answer.

4

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8 Terry’s House Both Lorenzo’s House

Terry’s house has two bedrooms, a kitchen, and a garage. Lorenzo’s house has three bedrooms, a kitchen, and a basement. Complete the Venn diagram below.

How is Terry’s house different from Lorenzo’s house?

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Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along. 1

Dogs come in many sizes. Some are so small they can fit in a person’s hand, and others are as big as a small horse! The largest dog in America is a mastiff. It is a strong dog that has a friendly face. This big dog weighs almost 300 pounds! The smallest dog is a Chihuahua. A Chihuahua is a kind of dog that looks almost like a cat. The littlest Chihuahua ever was only four inches tall. When it was born it was only about as big as a person’s thumb!

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What is one way in which mastiffs and Chihuahuas are alike? A They both weigh about 300 pounds. B They both look like cats.

C They are both as big as a horse. D They are both types of dogs.

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Answer A: The paragraph states that a mastiff can weigh about 300 pounds, but a Chihuahua is much smaller. Choice A cannot be correct. Answer B: The paragraph only states that a Chihuahua looks like a cat. A mastiff is not described this way. Choice B cannot be correct. Answer C: Details in the paragraph tell you that some dogs may be as big as a small horse. But, details in the paragraph also tell you that a Chihuahua is much smaller. Choice C cannot be correct. Answer D: Details in the paragraph tell you that both mastiffs and Chihuahuas are types of dogs. Choice D is the correct answer.

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Guided Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows. 1

Carlita went to the baseball game to see the Baxter Buzzards play. She liked the Baxter Buzzards because they were from her town. Carlita’s older cousin, Eddie, also went to the game. He lived in a different town but still wanted the Buzzards to win. Both Carlita and Eddie enjoyed watching baseball games. They both cheered loudly when the Buzzards scored.

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What is one way that Carlita and Eddie are alike? What is one way they are different? HINT Before you answer this question, complete the Compare and Contrast chart below.

Look at the chart and read the question again. Write your answer below.

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Independent Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer all questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

People use paper and cardboard all the time. These things are very common around the world. Both come from trees and are often used in homes, classrooms, and workplaces. People use paper for writing. Cardboard is mostly used to make boxes. Cardboard is much thicker than paper and is usually brown in color. Paper can be different colors, but most paper that people write on is white.

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How is cardboard different from paper? A Cardboard is used in workplaces. B Cardboard is colorful.

C Cardboard is made from trees. D Cardboard is thick.

2

Prince was a big gray cat who was always making a lot of noise. He meowed so much that people thought he was trying to talk to them. But, nobody could understand what Prince was saying. He didn’t use words like people use. He made sounds to show when he was happy or sad. Like most cats, Prince loved to climb. Most cats like to climb trees. But, Prince liked to climb on cars and trucks. How was Prince like others cats?

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3

In school, we do a lot of reading and writing. Both are very important. Reading is important because it helps us to learn. Books are filled with many facts and ideas. We can read about many different people, places, and things. Writing is important because it is a way to share what we know with others. We can write about things we have leaned, or we can write stories. Without writing, there would be nothing to read! What does this paragraph compare and contrast? A books and stories B reading and writing

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

C facts and ideas

D learning and sharing

4

I met two new friends when I moved to the town of Benton. They are both a lot of fun. The first friend I met was Shelley. She is nine years old, just like me. She also goes to the same school as me. Shelly and I play games together and sit together at lunch. The other friend I met is Mrs. Cooper. She is much older than I am and teaches at the school where Shelly and I go. Mrs. Cooper and I like to talk and read stories together. How are Shelley and Mrs. Cooper alike? How are they different? Complete the Venn diagram below.

Shelley

Both

Mrs. Cooper

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5

Pasta and pizza and are two kinds of food that many people enjoy. Pasta can come in many different shapes and sizes. Some pasta, such as spaghetti, is long and thin. Other pasta, such as lasagna, is big and flat. Pasta is usually cooked in hot water. Pizza is different from pasta. It is made from dough and cooked in an oven. Pizza is a round, flat bread with different toppings. Some pizza toppings are tomatoes, cheese, and peppers. People can also put toppings on pasta. How are pizza and pasta alike? A They can both have toppings.

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B They are both long and thin.

C They can both be made from cheese. D They are both cooked in hot water.

6

Raymond and Billy are good friends, but they did not always get along well with each other. When they first met, they always argued over what to do. Raymond liked soccer, but Billy only wanted to play basketball. Billy liked to read comic books, but Raymond preferred wizard stories. The boys could not agree on anything! One day, Raymond was riding his bike and he got lost. Luckily, Billy saw him and told him how to find his way home. After that, the boys became great friends. How were things different for the two boys when they first met?

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7

In China, many people like eating rice and fruit. Many people in China eat foods that are very good for them. This helps keep many of these people healthy for a long time. In America, people may have different ideas about Chinese food because of what they eat in restaurants. Many Chinese restaurants in America use a lot of salt and fat in their foods. This is not usually the case in China. What does this paragraph compare and contrast? A Chinese food in America and in China B Chinese food and American food

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888.

C healthy foods people eat in America D rice and fruit people eat in China

8

Aaron and Sandra both wanted to write stories. Aaron enjoyed writing stories about people he knew. He liked to write adventures that were fun to read. Aaron always drew pictures to get ideas for his stories. Sandra enjoyed writing adventure stories, too. But, she liked to write about make-believe characters. Sandra always took a long walk to help her think of ideas for her stories. How are Aaron and Sandra alike? How are they different? List details from the paragraph in the chart below.

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Modeled Instruction with Passages Directions: Read Part 1 of the passage below and follow along.

Stories Come To Life (Part 1) Not all stories are in books. Real people sometimes bring stories to life. People, called actors, can act out different stories. Sometimes they act out stories on a stage. This is called a play. Other times they act out stories that are made into television shows or movies.

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Special cameras are needed to make a movie. The cameras are used to record people as they act out the story. Different parts of the movie, called scenes, can be recorded in any order. Later the scenes are put together in the correct order to tell the story. Unlike movies, plays are acted out in front of a crowd of people. The scenes in a play must be acted out in the correct order. The actors must perform the play from the very beginning to the very end. If they make a mistake, they cannot go back and fix it. 1

How are movies and plays alike?

A They are both recorded with special cameras. B Scenes in both can be acted out in any order. C They are both performed in front of large crowds. D People act out scenes in both to tell stories. Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Answer A: The passage states that only movies are recorded with special cameras. Choice A cannot be correct. Answer B: Details in the second paragraph tell you that a play must be acted out from beginning to end. Choice B cannot be correct. Answer C: The passage states that only plays are performed in front of large crowds. Choice C cannot be correct. Answer D: Details in the passage tell you that people act out scenes in both movies and plays to tell different stories. Choice D is correct. 16 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Passages Directions: Read Part 2 of the passage below and write your answer to the question that follows.

Stories Come To Life (Part 2) People can watch a movie many times. They can also watch it different ways. Movies are shown on large screens in movie theaters. People can also watch some movies on television. Movies can even be viewed on a computer. If you watch a movie more than once, it will always be the same. The actors are the same, and everything looks the same. Plays, however, can change each time.

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Plays are different from movies. You can only see a play if you go to a theater where it is being performed. If you go to the play more than one time, you may see different actors on the stage. Some scenes may even look different. Many people like plays better than movies because they can see the story being acted out right in front of them. This can make the story seem more real. 1

What is one difference between a movie and a play?

HINT In the space below, create a Venn diagram or a Compare and Contrast chart to help you answer this question.

Write your answer below.

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Independent Practice with Passages Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Rosa Goes to Camp It was the end of the school year, and Rosa had a lot of homework, tests, and other things to do. Rosa felt as if she was spending all of her time writing, reading, and counting. Finally, it was the last day of school. Summer vacation had come at last! Now, Rosa had no more schoolwork—she had nothing to do at all! 1

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How were things different for Rosa when summer vacation began? A Rosa had less to do.

B Rosa had more to do.

C Rosa had to read a lot.

D Rosa had to write a lot. A few days later, Rosa wished she had something to do. Rosa’s mother told Rosa that she should sign up for summer camp. At summer camp, there were many things for children to do. Rosa and her mother read about some nearby camps. At the Learning Town Camp, campers could learn about music, sports, and math. At the Wild West Ranch, kids could spend time with animals and go on long trips in the woods. 2

How are the Learning Town Camp and the Wild West Ranch alike? A They both have animals to play with. B They are both near where Rosa lives. C They both are closed during the summer. D They are both good places to learn about music. 18

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Rosa decided to go to the Wild West Ranch. It was a little scary at first. She had to share a room with five other girls and had a very small bed to sleep in. Rosa’s bed was high above another bed, and the mattress was very hard. Her room was hot in the day and cold at night. Back at her house, Rosa’s was used to sleeping in her big, soft bed. Her room back at home also had many cute and cuddly stuffed animals. There were no stuffed animals in her room at camp. 3

How was Rosa’s room at camp different from her room at home?

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A At home she had a very small bed.

B At camp her bed had a soft mattress. C At home there were stuffed animals.

D At camp the room was warm at night.

Rosa soon felt better, though. The other girls staying in her room were very nice. One of the girls, Kara, knew how to play music on a violin and could ride a horse. Another girl, Larissa, liked to collect leaves and could play the piano. Rosa even knew one of the girls from school. Her name was Emily. Emily and Rosa liked to talk about the fun they had at school. Soon, Rosa was having a great time at camp. 4

How are Kara and Larissa alike?

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Kids Who Care Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts are children who work together to learn and have a good time. The first Boy Scout group in America was started in 1910 by William Boyce. Boys who have completed fifth grade can become Boy Scouts. Younger boys must become Cub Scouts first. Cub Scouts have different levels, or ranks. A Cub Scout’s rank is based on his age. Boys who are 7 years old can become “Tiger Cubs.” Boys who are 8 years old can become “Wolf Cubs,” and boys who are 9 years old can become “Bear Cubs.” Webelo Scouts are 10 years old. All of these scouts can become Boy Scouts when they are old enough. 1

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Webelo Scouts are different from Tiger Cubs because A Tiger Cubs are older than Webelo Scouts B Tiger Cubs cannot become Boy Scouts

C Webelo Scouts are older than Tiger Cubs

D Webelo Scouts cannot become Boy Scouts The Girl Scouts were started in 1912 by Juliette Gordon Low. Girl Scouts also have ranks. Daisy Girl Scouts are the youngest. A girl must be 5 or 6 years old to be a Daisy Girl Scout. Brownie Girl Scouts are 6 to 8 years old. Junior Girl Scouts are 8 to 11 years old. Studio 2B Girl Scouts are 11 to 17 years old. Girl Scout groups are called “troops.” 2

How are Daisy Girl Scouts and Junior Girl Scouts alike? A They are younger than Studio 2B Girl Scouts. B They are the same age. C They are older than Brownie Girl Scouts. D They are in the same troop.

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Boy Scouts like to have fun and do many different things. They stay in good shape and do things outdoors. Boy Scouts often play sports, walk in the woods, and go camping. All of this exercise helps scouts to stay healthy. They learn many things, too. One important thing that they learn is first aid. This means that they learn how to take care of people who are sick or hurt. Boy Scouts know it’s important to help others. 3

How is doing exercise different from learning about first aid? A You exercise to help others, and you learn first aid to stay in good shape.

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B You exercise to have fun, and you learn first aid to teach others about camping. C You exercise to help yourself stay healthy, and you learn first aid to help others. D You exercise to have rest, and you learn first aid so you can play sports. Girl Scouts do many of the same things as Boy Scouts. Girl Scouts camp in the woods, learn first aid, make things, and help others. When Girl Scouts learn something new, they get a patch to put on their uniforms. Each patch lets others know that they are doing well as a Girl Scout. There are many different patches that Girl Scouts can earn. Joining Boy Scouts or Girl Scouts is a great way to make friends, have fun, and learn a lot. 4

How are the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts alike?

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Tonya Tries on Her Clothes Tonya watched her mother take a few boxes out from the closet. Inside the boxes were some old clothes. Mother told Tonya it was time to try on her winter clothes. Tonya did not like wearing her winter clothes. All of her winter shirts had long sleeves and buttons. Tonya liked her summer clothes better. All of her summer shirts had short sleeves and buttons. Tonya thought her summer clothes looked much prettier than her winter clothes. 1

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How were Tonya’s winter shirts different from her summer shirts? A Her winter shirts looked prettier. B Her winter shirts were old.

C Her winter shirts had buttons.

D Her winter shirts had long sleeves.

Mother took two shirts out of the box. They were both fluffy and soft. One of the shirts was pink, and the other was green. Tonya tried on the pink shirt first. The shirt was too tight to button up. Tonya had grown a lot since the last time she wore the shirt. Mother and Tonya both thought the pink shirt was too small. Mother said Tonya should try on the other clothes. 2

Both mother and Tonya A thought the pink shirt was small B tried on the green and pink shirts C took two shirts out of a box D were wearing shirts that were too tight

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Next, Tonya tried on the green shirt. It was just like the pink one—too small to wear. She tried to button up the shirt, but it was too tight. Then, Tonya tried on a blue pair of pants and another shirt. The pants would not button, and the shirt was too short—everything was too small. Tonya was sad that her clothes no longer fit her. 3

What was the same about Tonya’s green shirt and blue pants? A Tonya liked to wear both her green shirt and her blue pants. B Tonya’s green shirt and Tonya’s blue pants were both new.

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C Tonya could not button her green shirt or her blue pants. D Tonya’s green shirt and Tonya’s blue shirt were both too big. Mother told Tonya not to be sad. She told Tonya that they could go to the store to buy some new clothes for the winter. Tonya picked out a pink shirt and a green shirt that looked just like her old winter clothes. But, the new shirts she picked out were bigger than her old shirts. They fit her just right. Tonya also picked out a pair of blue pants that fit her. Tonya was very happy with her new clothes. She liked her new clothes even better than her summer clothes. 4

How were Tonya’s new clothes different from her old clothes?

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer the extended-response question on the next page. Support your answer with details from the passage.

Oak Trees and Maple Trees Some people enjoy looking up at big trees. Two big trees you might know about are oak trees and maple trees. Oak trees are very tall and very strong. To grow so big and strong, oak trees use their roots to take in food and water from the dirt. This food and water also helps oak trees to grow leaves and acorns. Acorns are seeds that can grow into new trees after they fall to the ground.

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How tall do oak trees grow? Oak trees can grow as tall as 100 feet. An oak tree trunk can be 32 feet around. Because they are so large and strong, oak trees can live for a very long time. One oak tree in Maryland, called the Wye Oak, is more than 400 years old! Maple trees can also grow to be very big, but not as big as oak trees. Maples trees are usually smaller than oak trees. Most maple trees grow to be about 60 to 75 feet tall. Maple trees can also grow to be a few hundred years old. Maple trees grow slowly and need a lot of sun. They also need wet dirt in which to grow. A maple tree uses its long roots to take in water that is needed to help the tree grow. In the fall, maple tree leaves turn many beautiful colors. As it gets colder, these leaves fall off the tree and float to the ground. Maple trees also grow little green stem pods that fall to the ground. Inside the pods are seeds that can grow into new maple trees. Both oak trees and maple trees are very important to people. People can use wood from oak trees to make tables, chairs, and floors for houses. People can also make tables, chairs, and floors using wood from maple trees. Maple trees also give us maple syrup. So, next time you are having a stack of pancakes covered in maple syrup, remember to thank a maple tree.

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1

What are two ways that oak trees and maple trees are alike? What are two ways that oak trees and maple trees are different? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

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On Your Own E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. Passages with Questions

Making Beautiful Music – Nonfiction The History of Pennies – Nonfiction Planning a Vacation – Fiction Working for Rights – Nonfiction Sailors of the Seas – Nonfiction Growing a Garden – Fiction Animal Friends in India – Nonfiction Don’t Feed the Bears! – Fiction The Story of Swimming Pools – Nonfiction A Good Place for a Swim – Fiction

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Making Beautiful Music George Gershwin was a famous songwriter during the early 1900s. George is known as one of America’s greatest composers. A composer is someone who writes music. Other famous composers include Leonard Bernstein and Andrew Lloyd Webber. George Gershwin was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1898. He grew up with his parents, two brothers, and his sister. By the time George was a young man, he was playing the piano. He enjoyed playing the piano, but what he really wanted to do was to write music. Around the age of 15, George started writing songs for a living in New York. George became famous when he wrote some songs that many people enjoyed listening to. Some of the songs he wrote were for plays that were performed on a stage. George wrote songs for movies, too.

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George was good at writing music, but he did not write words for it. In 1924, George and his older brother Ira started working together to write songs. George wrote the music and Ira wrote the words. Both brothers became famous for their music. Today the songs the brothers wrote are known around the world. Both George and Ira are still honored today for their great work. People liked to listen to the style of music that George wrote. One of his most famous songs is called Rhapsody in Blue. Like many of the other songs that George wrote, there are no words—there is just music. This style of music was very popular in the early 1900s. Over the years, many different people have played George Gershwin’s music. Today, his work can still be heard on the radio, in movies, and sometimes even in television shows. You may not know it, but you have probably heard some music that was written by George Gershwin. You might even know Rhapsody in Blue.

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1

2

3

How was Ira Gershwin different from George Gershwin?

The third paragraph compares and contrasts

A Ira wrote words for songs, but George wrote music.

A different songs George Gershwin wrote

B Ira was born in New York, but George was not.

B music for plays and music for television

C Ira wrote songs for plays, but George wrote songs for movies.

C George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin

D Ira was famous, but George was not.

D different styles of music people like

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 888. 4

According to the passage, George and Ira both

Rhapsody in Blue is like other songs that

A were born in New York in 1898

A people like to sing

B are still honored for their work

B no one has heard

C played the piano as young men

C were written for television

D wrote Rhapsody in Blue

D do not have any words

5

How are George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, and Andrew Lloyd Webber all alike?

6

How did George Gershwin’s life change after he began writing music?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The History of Pennies People in America use many different types of money. Money can be bills or coins. Bills are made from paper. One dollar bills, five dollar bills, and ten dollar bills are examples of paper money. Pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters are examples of coins. Coins are made from metal. A penny is a coin that is worth one cent. Pennies have been around for a long time in America.

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The first pennies ever made in America were made in 1787. These pennies were different from the pennies we use now. The first pennies were much larger than the pennies we use today. Also, the picture on the penny has changed. There have been eleven different designs on the penny. Today, there is a picture of Abraham Lincoln on the front of a penny. The first pennies ever made had a picture of a woman known as Lady Liberty. Like all other coins used in America, pennies are made from metal. The very first pennies were made from copper. But, copper costs more today than it used to. So, now pennies are made mostly from another metal called zinc. Pennies we use today are only covered in copper. This is what makes them look a different color than nickels, dimes, and quarters. The way that pennies are made has changed a few times. In 1943, pennies were made with no copper at all. This was during World War II when the government needed more copper for other things. So, for a short time, steel was used to make pennies instead of copper. Because copper was not used to make the 1943 penny, it did not have the same color that we are used to seeing. Up until 1982, pennies were made mostly from copper. But, beginning in 1982 copper has only been used on the outside of pennies. These pennies have the same color as older pennies, but there is one way to tell how they are different. Just weigh pennies made before 1982 and after 1982. The pennies made after 1982 will weigh less.

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1

2

3

One difference between pennies and all other coins is that

Which of the following is true of all coins made in America?

A pennies are a type of money

A They are all the same color.

B pennies are made from metal

B They are all the same weight.

C pennies are larger and heavier

C They are all made from metal.

D pennies are covered in copper

D They are all made from copper.

All pennies that were ever made 4

A were made mostly from copper

How was the first penny ever made different from the pennies we use today?

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B had a picture of Abraham Lincoln

A It was smaller.

C were worth one cent

B It was bigger.

D had a picture of Lady Liberty

C It was made from paper.

D It was made from steel.

5

What does the last paragraph in the passage compare and contrast?

6

How were pennies made during World War II different from all other pennies?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Planning a Vacation Every year, Mariah’s family chooses a different place to go to for summer vacation. Last year, Mariah and her family had a wonderful time on their vacation. Mariah’s younger brother, Matthias, chose the place for their vacation. He was very certain about where he wanted to go. Mathias chose a water park where the whole family had a great time going on water slides and swimming in a giant pool. This year, Mariah got to choose the place for their family vacation.

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Mariah thought about where she wanted to go. She thought about going to the beach because she liked the sun. Then, Mariah thought that biking on a mountain could be fun because she liked adventure. Mariah also thought about going to places with tall buildings and a lot of things to see, such as New York City or Chicago. Mariah could not decide where she wanted to go. She needed help to make up her mind. Mariah decided to ask Matthias if he had any ideas about where they should go for their vacation. Mathias suggested to Mariah that she should choose a place where there is a lot of sun and adventure. Matthias told Mariah that he would pick the Grand Canyon if he were choosing. While her brother seemed as if he knew where he would go, Mariah still could not decide where she wanted to go. Then, Mariah had an idea. Mariah gathered her family in the living room. She told them that she could not choose a place to go for their vacation. She asked each person in her family to write where he or she would like to go. Then, Mariah placed each piece of paper inside a hat. Mariah closed her eyes and reached into the hat. She pulled out one piece of paper and opened her eyes. On the piece of paper she saw the words “Grand Canyon.” Mariah looked at Matthias and smiled.

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1

3

Which of the following is true about Mariah and Mathias?

Both New York City and Chicago A have tall buildings

A Both chose to go to a water park.

B are in the mountains

B Both liked sun and adventure.

C have many beaches

C Both could not decide where to go.

D are places Matthias wants to visit

D Both wanted to ride their bikes. 4 2

5

What does the second paragraph compare and contrast?

How was the way Mariah chose a place to go different from the way Matthias chose?

A ideas that Mariah and Mathias have

A Mariah chose a place by asking Matthias his thoughts.

B places that Mariah has been to before

B Mariah chose a place by thinking about fun things to do.

C ideas about how to choose a place to visit

C Mariah chose a place by picking an idea from out of a hat.

D places the family could go for their vacation

D Mariah chose a place by looking at pictures in a book.

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How were last year and this year different for Mariah and her family? How were last year and this year alike? Complete the Venn diagram below.

Last Year

Both

This Year

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Working for Rights During the 1950s and 1960s, many people in America worked hard to be treated fairly. At the time, not everyone in America was treated the same. People such as Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks believed that everyone should be treated fairly, no matter what their skin color was. Like most other African Americans, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks were not always treated fairly. So, they worked very hard to get “equal rights” for everyone who lived in America.

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Rosa Parks became famous for being brave while riding on a bus in December 1955. Unlike today, back then people riding on a bus were separated by skin color. One day, Rosa was riding the bus home from her job. She was tired from a long day. Another passenger wanted Rosa’s seat. But, she would not give up her seat. Other passengers on the bus did not have to give up their seats. But because of Rosa’s skin color, she was asked to move. Rosa wanted to be treated the same as all the other passengers on the bus. So, she did not move from her seat. After Rosa Park’s brave act on the bus, Martin Luther King, Jr., asked people not to ride the buses. He asked people not to ride until they were allowed to sit where they wanted, no matter what their skin color was. Many people listened to Martin Luther King, Jr. He was one of the most important leaders during his life. He gave many important speeches. Martin Luther King, Jr., worked all of his life so that everyone would have the same rights. Rosa Parks became famous for her one act of bravery. Martin Luther King, Jr., became famous for many different things that he did and said to make sure that all people were treated fairly. Both of these people are very important to the history of America. Martin and Rosa did different things to help people, but they both worked hard for the rights of others.

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1

3

How was Martin Luther King, Jr., different from Rosa Parks? A He was allowed to sit on a bus.

2

What words from the passage tell you that things are different today than they were in 1955?

B He gave many important speeches.

A “one day”

C He was always treated fairly.

C “many different things”

D He became very famous.

D “both worked hard”

B “unlike today”

4

Rosa was treated different from other passengers on the bus because

What does this passage compare and contrast?

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A two things that happened in 1955

A she was asked to give up her seat

B she allowed to have a seat

B two ideas Martin Luther King, Jr., had

C she was not allowed on the bus

C two very important people

D she allowed to sit by a window

D two important days in our history

5

What is one way that things are different today than they were in 1955?

6

How were Martin Luther King, Jr., and Rosa Parks alike?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Sailors of the Seas Long ago, people from Europe began to sail around the world. They looked for new places. They went to faraway places that they had never been to before. These people were called explorers. Two important explorers during this exciting time were Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan. Both explorers were looking for ways to sail from Europe to East Asia, where things like gold and spices could be found.

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Christopher Columbus was from Italy. But, it was the country of Spain that asked him to sail across the ocean. The king and queen of Spain gave Columbus the money he needed to go on the long journey. They had hoped that he could find a faster way to get to East Asia. Columbus, with three boats, left Spain in August 1492. Columbus and his men sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean. A few months later, their boats landed on an island that was close to North America. No sailors from Europe had come to this area for many, many years. Columbus thought he had reached East Asia. Ferdinand Magellan was another explorer. He was born in a country called Portugal. He also wanted to find a faster way to get to East Asia. Before sailing on his own journey, Magellan studied the way Columbus had traveled across the ocean. Like Columbus, Magellan was given money by the king of Spain to pay for his long trip. Magellan left Spain with five boats in 1519. Just as Columbus did, Magellan and his boats sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean. They sailed around South America. However, Magellan and the other sailors he traveled with had many problems. They had to sail through very bad storms and did not have enough food. They had a much harder journey than Columbus had had. More than a year after leaving Spain, Magellan’s ships reached a group of small islands in East Asia. Magellan had sailed a long time, but had finally found a new way to East Asia.

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1

3

Which of the following is true? A Both Columbus and Magellan left Spain in 1492. B Both Columbus and Magellan sailed west across the Atlantic.

A Magellan took less time to finish his journey.

C Both Columbus and Magellan sailed with five boats.

B Magellan had fewer boats. C Magellan sailed east across the ocean.

D Both Columbus and Magellan reached islands in East Asia.

2

D Magellan had more problems on his journey.

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Which word in the last paragraph helps to contrast Magellan’s journey with Columbus’ journey? A “other” B “finally” C “after”

4

Where did both Columbus and Magellan begin their journeys? A Spain

B South America

C Asia

D North America

D “however”

5

How was Magellan’s journey different from Columbus’ journey?

How were Columbus and Magellan alike? How were they different? List details from the passage in the chart below.

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Growing a Garden Troy and Jason liked Mr. Chen’s class. They both learned many things from Mr. Chen. One day, Mr. Chen explained that he wanted to plant a garden. He said that any students who helped with the garden could earn extra points in class. Troy and Jason both enjoyed being outdoors. They agreed that it would be fun to help plant a garden. Troy had helped to make a garden at his uncle’s house once before. But, Jason had never helped to make a garden. This would be the first time.

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Troy and Jason both stayed after school to work on the garden. Some other students stayed, too. Everyone was excited about helping Mr. Chen make a garden. Troy and Jason were in charge of digging holes for the plants. The other students put plants into each of the holes. After one hour, the students were done planting the garden. The garden had flowers and vegetables. All the students were delighted. Over the next few weeks, Troy, Jason, and the other students cared for the garden. All the plants grew quickly. Troy’s favorite plants were the blue and yellow flowers growing along the edge of the garden. Jason’s favorite plants were the carrots and corn at the center of garden. They both liked the peanuts and berries that were planted between the flowers and the vegetables. On the last day of school, Mr. Chen let each student bring home one plant from the garden. Troy chose a big yellow flower and Jason chose a corn plant. Troy was glad that Mr. Chen let him keep the yellow flower, but he was sad that it was the last day of school. Jason, on the other hand, was happy that it was the last day of school. On their way home from school, Jason and Troy had an idea. They agreed to start their own garden. The two boys raced to Troy’s backyard and dug holes for the plants that Mr. Chen had given them. Jason and Troy placed the plants in the ground and smiled.

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1

3

What was one way in which Troy and Jason were alike? A They both had helped make a garden before.

A different students in Mr. Chen’s class

B They both learned a lot from their teacher.

B different ways to make a garden C different vegetables that people like to eat

C They both liked yellow and blue flowers.

D different things that were planted in the garden

D They both had gardens in their backyards.

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2

What does the third paragraph compare and contrast?

To help Mr. Chen, both Troy and Jason

Which words from the passage signal that Jason and Troy are different in some way?

A dig holes for the plants

A “they agreed”

B put plants in the ground

B “both learned many things”

C choose flowers for the garden

C “on the other hand”

D find peanuts and berries

D “other students”

5

How did all the students feel about helping Mr. Chen make a garden?

6

How was the way Jason felt on the last day of school different from the way Troy felt?

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Directions: Read the next two passages. Then, answer questions 1–9.

Animal Friends in India In the country of India, people have a special love for animals. Many people think that animals are just as important as people are. When animals are nearby, people treat them very kindly. People act as if the animals are friends, and often offer them food. People in India don’t just give food to house pets, such as cats or dogs. They feed all kinds of animals, from tiny in size to very big!

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What would you give an elephant if one showed up at your house? You might say, “Anything it wants!” In India, many people have special foods that they give to elephants. These foods include bananas and rice pudding. People in India also give bananas, fruit, and peanuts to monkeys. They even feed bulls, cows, and other larger animals. In America, we are used to seeing people take care of animals such as dogs, cats, and birds. People in India also treat these animals very well. But, there are many other animals that are treated well in India—even animals that can cause problems for people. Some of these animals include rats, snakes, and ants. Most people around the world would rather stay away from these animals. But, in India they are treated quite well. Some people in India give milk to snakes and candy to rats! Many times, large groups of animals that are looking for food and water will come near the places where people live in India. The people are always willing to help. The people hope that if they are kind to the animals, the animals will be kind to people. This may sound like a good idea, but there are times when being nice to animals can cause problems. Some animals are wild and dangerous. It is best not to get too close to these animals. Next time you feed a dog or a cat, just think what it would be like to live in India. Maybe you would need to feed and elephant or a monkey!

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Don’t Feed the Bears! Tyrone had two pets. One was a dog named Rex, and the other was a cat named Clara. It was very early in the morning, and both Rex and Clara were hungry. They ran to the kitchen for their breakfast. Tyrone smiled to see his pets. Tyrone and his family loved animals and took great care of all their pets. Tyrone filled one bowl with dog food and another bowl with milk. He placed the two bowls on the floor. Rex started crunching away at his food, and Clara began to drink her milk. They were both very happy.

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A few minutes later, Tyrone could hear his sister’s pet bird chirping away. His sister, Katie, was just getting out of her bed. She picked up a box of birdseed and walked over to the bird cage. She poured some birdseed in the cage for Izzy. Izzy was a bright red bird who loved to eat birdseed. After feeding Izzy, Katie went to the kitchen to make her own breakfast. Katie joined Tyrone and the rest of her family at the kitchen table. Katie had a bowl of cereal, a banana, and a glass of orange juice. Tyrone ate a banana and drank a tall glass of milk. Their mom and dad both had toast and a cup of tea. As soon as they were done with breakfast, everyone helped pack the car for a weekend camping trip. Then, everyone climbed inside the car and off they went. When they arrived at the campsite they were greeted by a ranger. The ranger told them to be careful with their food. “Never feed wild animals,” he told them. He explained that wild animals could be dangerous—especially bears. If any food was left out, wild bears could come looking for it. Someone could get hurt! During the camping trip everyone was careful not to feed any wild animals. At night, they packed their food inside the car. One night, a bear came to their campsite! Tyrone and his family watched the big animal as it walked around. They were glad they hadn’t left any food out. Soon, the bear lost interest and walked away. Tyrone and Katie had been very scared. They told their mom and dad that they would remember never to feed any animals that were not their own pets.

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Use the passage titled “Don’t Feed the Bears!” to answer questions 4–6.

Use the passage titled “Animal Friends in India” to answer questions 1–3.

4 1

What animal is treated very differently in India than it is in America?

A They are all dogs B They are all cats.

A a rat

C They are all wild animals.

B a dog C a cat D a bird

D They are all pets.

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2

How are Rex, Clara, and Izzy alike?

How are rats and snakes alike?

For breakfast, Tyrone and Katie both had A a bowl of cereal

A They both live only in India.

B a glass of orange juice

B They can both eat a lot of candy.

C a banana

D a piece of toast

C They both live only in America.

6

D They can both cause problems for people.

3

How is a bear different from Tyrone’s pets? A A bear does not eat much food.

In India, people give both monkeys and elephants

B A bear is a wild animal. C A bear does not like to go camping.

A candy B bananas

D A bear is a big pet.

C milk D pudding

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Use both passages to answer questions 7–9. 7

8

Both passages compare and contrast

Which of the following is true? A Both passages tell you what dogs and cats like to eat.

A pets that are dangerous

B Both passages tell you why you should not feed bears.

B places where animals live C why different people own pets

C Only one of the passages tells you what monkeys like to eat.

D what different animals eat

D Only one of the passages tells you that wild animals can be dangerous.

9

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How is the way Tyrone and his family treats their pets the same as the way people in India treat most animals? Include details from both passages in your answer.

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Directions: Read the next two passages. Then, answer questions 1–9.

The Story of Swimming Pools Most people enjoy swimming in a pool when it is hot outside. Some towns have large swimming pools where people can go to have fun. Some people have small pools in their yards or even inside their homes. Swimming pools have not always been around, though. Long ago, people had to swim in lakes or rivers to cool off. Then, people thought about making their own pools.

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People first began building pools close to their homes so that they did not have to travel far to find a lake or river. Pools were safe and clean. They were good places to swim and spend time with family or friends. Some people built pools indoors so they would not have to worry about rain or storms. Today, people use pools in different ways. Some people use pools to exercise. Swimming is a great way to stay in good shape and become strong. Most people just swim because it is a fun thing to do. Swimming in a pool on a hot day is great way relax and have a good time. Long ago, people used pools for these same reasons. But, they also used pools to clean themselves. Pools were like big bathtubs. Some things about pools have not changed much over time. All pools are filled with a lot of water. Even most small pools need a great amount of water. But, people have made some improvements. For example, many pools today can be heated so that the water is not too cold. We even have “hot tubs.” A hot tub is like a small pool with very hot water. The water in a hot tub is hot enough to keep a person warm on a cold winter night. Another way that pools have changed is that they are cleaner and safer. Most pools people swim in today use machines that have filters and pumps. This helps to keep the water clean. The first pools that people built did not have these machines. Today, people also put special chemicals in the water to help keep pools clean. Now pools are safer and more fun than ever before!

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A Good Place for a Swim Angela stood in her backyard and looked around. She could see the swimming pools in her neighbors’ yards. The pools looked like so much fun. The water looked clean and blue, and big wooden decks near the pools looked like great places to sit and enjoy the sun. Machines with filters and pumps sat next to the pools and made a funny rrrrr-rrrrr sound. Some neighbors even had hot tubs! Angela could see some of her neighbors in their hot tubs during the winter. But, Angela just wanted a pool to swim in and to cool off in during the hot summer.

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Angela asked her parents if they could get a pool. Angela’s mom said they could not. Their yard was smaller than their neighbors’ yards, and pools cost a lot of money. Angela’s mom said they could take a trip to the lake to go swimming, but that was far away. Some people like swimming in a lake because it is bigger than a pool, but not Angela. She like liked swimming in a pool because the water was cleaner. Angela was disappointed that she could not go swimming in a pool. Then she remembered the town pool, which was much closer than the lake. Angela put on her bathing suit and walked into town with her mother. They went to a big place with a fence around it. Angela looked inside and saw a very big, blue pool! There were many people in and around the pool. There were old people and young people, and everyone was laughing and having fun. It looked like many people were enjoying the sun and having a good time. Angela and her mother sat down next to the pool. After a few minutes in the sun, Angela was ready for the pool. She slowly walked into the pool and could feel the cool water all around her. “This is great!” she thought to herself. Then, Angela saw some friends from school. They played together all day and had a lot of fun. Angela had a great time at the town pool. It was safe, it was clean, and it cost a lot less than building a pool in the backyard. At the end of the day, Angela gave her mother a big hug. She thanked her mother for taking her to the town pool. Angela still hoped that she would have a pool of her own some day, but she was pleased that she could go to the town pool. She couldn’t wait to go back again. 45 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Use the passage titled “The Story of Swimming Pools” to answer questions 1–3.

Use the passage titled “A Good Place for a Swim” to answer questions 4–6.

1

4

How are most pools alike? A They are very small.

Angela’s yard and her neighbors’ yards are different because

B They can hold a lot of water.

A Angela’s yard has a pool

C They are built indoors.

B her neighbors’ yards are bigger

D They look like bathtubs.

C Angela’s yard has a lake

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D her neighbors’ yards have fences

2

How are newer pools different from the first pools?

5

A Newer pools are not as big.

Angela and her friends

B Newer pools help people cool off.

A all had fun swimming in the town pool

C Newer pools are cleaner.

B all have swimming pools in their yards

D Newer pools do not need to be heated.

C all wanted to go to the lake D all live next to each other

3

Hot tubs are different from other pools because

6

A hot tubs are bigger

How is the lake different from the town pool? A The lake is cleaner than the town pool.

B hot tubs are warmer C hot tubs are older

B There are more people swimming at the lake.

D hot tubs are more fun

C The lake is closer to Angela’s house. D The lake is farther away from Angela’s house.

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Use both passages to answer questions 7–9. 7

8

Which of the following is true about both passages?

Both passages compare and contrast

A They both tell you swimming pools cost a lot.

A different kinds of pools

B They both tell you most people have swimming pools.

C different places people go

B different ways to cool off D different ways to have fun

C They both tell you people go in hot tubs during the winter.

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D They both tell you most people like swimming in lakes.

9

What are three ways that Angela is like most other people who like to swim in a pool? Include details from both passages in your answer.

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