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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Skill Skill

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

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RALLY! EDUCATION 22 Railroad Avenue Glen Head, NY 11545 888-99-RALLY Fax: 1-516-671-7900 www.RALLYEDUCATION.com LESLIE@RALLYEDUCATION.com …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Reading Comprehension Skills Key Comprehension Skills with Scaffolded Instruction

………….. Reading Skill-by-Skill Reading Levels 2–8 •

• • •

6 Separate Books: Main Idea & Details, Sequence, Vocabulary in Context, Compare & Contrast, Conclusions & Inferences, Cause & Effect Scaffolded Instruction: Skills Increase in Difficulty from Sentences to Paragraphs to Complete Passages Lesson Plans Pacing Calendar

Level B C D E F G H

Reading Level 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interest Class Set Level Includes 10 Each of 6 Skill Books 2-5 5152-8 3-6 5153-5 4-7 5154-2 5-8 5155-9 6-HS 5156-6 7-HS 5137-3 8-HS 5158-0

-----------------------------------888-99-RALLY www.RALLYEDUCATION.com


LEVEL

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO


To the Teacher Reading Skill-by-Skill is a powerful instructional tool that has been designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension. Each book in this series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill. The focus of this book is vocabulary and details. In Part 1 of this book, students will learn practical techniques and strategies for answering questions that relate to vocabulary and details. Using a scaffolded approach to differentiated instruction, Reading Skill-by-Skill teaches students about vocabulary and details by increasing the difficulty of what they read from sentences to paragraphs to full-length passages.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In addition, each of the sections in Part 1 provides students with modeled instruction, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher support will be required for students to complete the skill introduction, modeled instruction, and guided practice pages in Part 1. Students can complete the independent R. practice pages on their own. MASTE

LINE K C A L B E read O1.T AStudents Part 2 reinforces what students have learned in IPart N O Bwill S T T K I O . 10 passages and answer a series of vocabulary detail GHTED and HIS BOquestions about I T R Y R P O F each passage. Students work S COtheir own EN strengthen IVto K Ion AY. their reading G O W T O Y O B N N E A L comprehension Askills. MP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE Reading Skill-by-Skill will enable R you to target the reading comprehension skills for which your students need the most practice. Upon completing this book, you may elect to proceed to other books in this series. These books can be taught in any order.

ISBN 978-1-4204-4202-1 R 4202-1 Copyright ©2009 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 1010.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Part 1 Instruction: Vocabulary in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sentences Modeled Instruction with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Guided Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Independent Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Paragraphs Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Guided Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Independent Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passages Modeled Instruction with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Guided Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . Independent Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 ASTER

LINE M K C A L OT A B TO BE N S I T Part 2 BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R On Your Own: Passages with Questions COPY G.IV. E. N. .F.O.R. . . . .AY. .. . . . . . . . . .27 S I K O W IS NOT C.E.D. I.N. A. N. .Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 PLE BO SI–ONonfiction The DownySWoodpecker M N A U IS THIS – Nonfiction Toothpaste PERM . . . R. .EP. .R.O.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Devon’s Magazine – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 How Animals Defend Themselves – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Dinosaur Names – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Grandmother’s Favorite Memory – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Creatures of Myth – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Earth Day – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 The Tryouts – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Maps of Yesterday and Today – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

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Vocabulary in Context Sometimes when you read you see new words. You may not know what these words mean. You need to look for context clues. Context clues are other words or details that can help you find the meaning of a word you do not know. If you read a sentence with a word you do not know, look at other words around it. You may find important context clues. Context clues may come before or after the word you do not know.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In the sentence below, look for a context clue to help you find the meaning of the word flask. The flask was filled with water.

new word

context clue

STER. A M E LIN words “filled In this sentence, the context clue comes after the new word. ACKThe L B A with water” tell you that a flask is a type of container ObeBEused to S NOT thatOcan I T T K I . hold water. GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B Below is a sentence They LE twoIOcontext IN ANboth come before the MPwith N IS N clues. A D S E S C S S U I I D new word.TH PERM REPRO The house where they lived was a small dwelling.

context clue

context clue

new word

In this sentence, the words “house” and “lived” are important context clues. They tell you that a dwelling is a place where people live.

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Context clues sometimes come before or after signal words. Signal words tell you “look here for context clues.” Below is a list of some signal words you may see. is

are

such as

means

is like

including

for instance

for example

was

were

known as

or

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When you see a word you do not know, look for signal words. The signal words can help you find important context clues. The band plays instruments such as flutes and oboes.

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A NOT comeKafter In this sentence, the signal words are “such as.” O BEthe context SThey I T T I O . ED GHT“instruments.” clue. They help to connect “oboes”YR with HIS BO I T R P O O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I +Dsuch as + oboes TH PERMinstruments REPRO context clue

signal words

new word

Look at each of these words. Think about what the words tell you when you put them together. They tell you that oboes are a type of instrument. Remember, there may not always be signal words. But it is always a good idea to look for them first. If you cannot find any signal words, you can still look for important context clues.

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Modeled Instruction with Sentences Directions: Read the sentence and follow along. 1

When I smelled the fragrant flowers, it made me smile. What does the word fragrant mean? In this sentence, there are a few context clues. Find each of the context clues. Think about what each clue tells you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Context clues

What does each context clue tell you?

smelled

The word fragrant has something to do with smell.

flowers

it made me smile

Flowers can be fragrant.

Fragrant flowers can make a person smile.

ER.

ST Think about the context clues you found and ask yourself questions: INE MA

A CK L L B A • What are some different ways that OT can describe O BE a smell? S Nyou I T T K I O . • How do most flowersIG smell? HTED R THIS BO R Y P CO would • What typeKofISsmell make N FO a person E V Y. smile? I A G O W T O Y O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I D MaybeTHthe wordPfragrant “having a good smell.” People like ERMI means REPRO

to smell flowers. Something that smells good can make a person smile. This answer seems to make sense.

6 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer each question. 1

The spider was able to snare the fly in its web. What does snare mean? HINT List as many context clues as you can find. Write what each context clue tells you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Context clues

2

What does each context clue tell you?

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I In this sentence, the word snare means . . BO TED S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L There were no IN desert. AMPplants or animals ON IS in the Dbarren THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R What is another word for barren? A busy

C

empty

B comfortable

D broken

To answer this question, you must find a word that means the same thing as barren. One way to do this is to try each answer choice. There There There There

were were were were

no no no no

plants plants plants plants

or or or or

animals animals animals animals

in in in in

the the the the

busy desert. comfortable desert. empty desert. broken desert.

Now, circle the answer choice that makes the most sense. 7 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer the questions on your own. Circle the correct answer to each question. 1

Angela sat up straight and smiled when she posed for the picture. What does the word posed mean? A to look a certain way B to act in a sneaky way

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C to feel very tired

D to think very hard

What context clues helped you to choose your answer? Context clues

2

What does each context clue tell you?

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH who dreamed The boy PERM of becoming REPRO an astronomer stared at the stars. What word in the sentence helps you understand what an astronomer is? A boy B dreamed C becoming D stars What do you think an astronomer is?

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3

The well-mannered students spoke respectfully to their teacher. From reading this sentence, you can tell that respectfully means A politely B loudly C greedily D strangely What context clues helped you to choose your answer?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Context clues

4

What does each context clue tell you?

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A T O BE S NOfallen I T The bus had to take a detour to get around the tree. T K I O . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O The word detourEmeans T O O B MPL N IS N UCED IN AN A O I S S S S I I D TH backward A to move PERM REPRO B to go on a vacation C to return home D to go a different way Explain how you chose your answer.

9 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along. 1

Mr. Dobbs was opening a new store. He wanted to have something for everyone in the neighborhood. He sold games and toys, books and movies, and all kinds of food. Mr. Dobbs wanted more kinds of products, though. He started selling tables, chairs, and even televisions. In this paragraph, what does the word products mean?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are a few context clues that can help you answer this question. Context clues

What does each context clue tell you?

opening a new store

The products would go in the store.

something for everyone

People would want to have the products.

TER.

games and toys, books and These are examples of the products E MAS N I L K C movies, and all kinds of food Mr. Dobbs has. T A BLA E

S NO I TO B T K I O . D O E B he started selling tables, started HT THISto sell these items. RIGDobbs YMr. R P O O F C chairs, and even televisions GIVEN NY WAY. OK IS T O O B N E L IN A MP N IS A D O I S E S C S S U I I D TH PERM REPRO

Now, use these context clues and think about what the word products means. Maybe it means items that can be sold. People often go to stores to buy different kinds of items. This answer seems to make sense.

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Guided Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows. Circle the correct answer. 1

Tim was worried when he joined the basketball team. He was the shortest player on the team. All of the other players looked a mile high next to Tim. He felt like he would never be able to play as well as they did. Tim practiced hard each day, though. He felt like he had to do his best no matter what his size. By the first game, he scored the most points of all!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The phrase looked a mile high means A to play games well B to stand very tall

C to practice very hard

D to be mean to others

STER. A M E HINT ACKLIN L B A T context E you NOthe Before you answer this question, list all O Bclues S of I T T K I O . O context clue can find in the paragraph.RThink what GHTEDabout HIS Beach I T Y R P O O tells you. IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

Context clues

What does each context clue tell you?

Read the question again. Choose the best answer.

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Independent Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer all questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

Did you know that some things are too small to be seen? Our eyes can’t see these tiny things. Scientists have to work hard to find them. Special machines such as microscopes are needed. These tools can show us things that our eyes would otherwise miss. Some of these things are very important to us.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The word microscopes means A something very important B a tool for seeing

C something very small D a special scientist

2

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . I have heard some people say bad Gthings HTED about IS BO They complain that Hothers. I T R Y R P O O people are mean and greedy. say have EN F people Y. bad ideas and act IVthat K IS C They A G O W T O Y O B AN But, it takes a special person silly. It is easyMto IS N in Cthis PLEcondemn INway. Nothers A D O I S E S S S U I I H change Pthings to try Tto ROD I always try to work for what’s best ERM for the REPbetter. for everyone.

What clues from the paragraph help you understand what the word condemn means?

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3

Animals are much smarter than you may think. In fact, animals are born with special kinds of knowledge. They also are born with skills that help them live. These instincts come in many forms. Many animals know how to fly or swim without ever learning. Others are born knowing where to look for good food. List the context clues that will help you find the meaning of the word instincts. What can you tell from each clue? Context clues

What does each context clue tell you?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What does instincts mean?

4

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O F wanted June had many things IVEN She KtoISdoC afterOTschool. AY. to act in plays. She G O W O Y B N N E A L P N to go swimming. She liked wrote for the newspaper. also ION IS She ED Iliked S C S U IS SAMschool I H D M T O ER her friends. to go to the mallPwith REPR June’s mom had to drive her all around. That took hours each day. June’s mom got tired. She said all the driving was a full-time occupation! Which of the following means about the same as occupation? A treat B mood C force D job

13 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


5

Long ago, people got the idea to fly in the sky using balloons. The first balloons were lifted by hot air. Hot air rises more quickly than normal air. That action can lift a balloon very high. Later, people began using gases such as hydrogen to lift balloons. These gases worked well but they were often dangerous. The word hydrogen means A a kind of balloon B a kind of gas

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C making something D lifting something

6

Hal was in a funny play. He dressed up like a clown with a big red nose. He put on big clothes with dots all over them. Then Hal went onto the stage. He started a long act where he ran around, telling jokes and fallingTover. S ER. A M E The people laughed and laughed. He was happy to see that ACKLINthey were L B A amused. NOT O BE

. IT IS IS BOOK T D E T H IG OR TH . what the word OPYRhelp F C N What words from the paragraph you understand S E I V AY GI OK W T O Y O B N N E A L amused means? AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

14 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


7

Parrots are very beautiful birds. Their feathers may be blue, green, yellow, or red. These striking colors are wonderful to see. Their colorful bodies make parrots easy to see even when they are high up in trees. List the context clues that will help you find the meaning of the word striking. What can you tell from each clue? Context clues

What does each context clue tell you?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What does striking mean?

8

STER. A M E CKLINhis best. He Alook L Jamal knew it was picture day at school. He wantedA to B O BE times. Jamal S NOThis hair I T found his best shirt and pants. Then, he. combed three T K I O BO he went to school. HTED heRwas GWhen HISready, I T wanted every strand to be perfect. R Y P O O EN F clothes. IVstrange K IS C wearing AY. Their hair was G He saw all the other students O W T O Y O B N N E A L IS AMP pajamas. messy. Some is funny ION“Today ED IN picture day, Jamal!” they said. S C S U I D M THIS S wore O P ER REPR Read the different meanings for the word strand. 1. 2. 3. 4.

to leave behind to twist rope a piece of hair a length of yarn

Which meaning best fits the way the word strand is used in this paragraph? A meaning 1

C

meaning 3

B meaning 2

D meaning 4

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Modeled Instruction with Passages Directions: Read Part 1 of the passage below and follow along.

A Better Gift Wrap (Part 1) Gift wrap has been around as long as paper. It helps add surprise to a party. It is also a way to make a gift look nice. Gift wrap from a store can be pretty, but it also makes a lot of waste. New trees are cut down just so the paper can be used once and then thrown away. Instead, you can find things you already have in your house to make your own gift wrap.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

If you have paper shopping bags, you can cut them into big square sheets. You can use the side with no words. Your presents will look simple but pretty in plain brown paper. Another alternative is to cover the paper bags with your own artwork. You can use brightly colored paint to make pictures on the paper. If you do not want to paint or draw, you can also use stamps and stickers. 1

STER. A M E In the second paragraph, the word alternative means CKLIN A BLA BE T O N A mistake . IT IS IS BOOK TO D E T H G H B danger OPYRI IVEN FOR T Y. C S I OT G IN ANY WA BOOK C choice N E L S I P M A D ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE D reason R

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Answer A: There are no context clues that suggest alternative means something is a mistake. Choice A is not correct. Answer B: The author does not tell you to do anything that is dangerous. Choice B is not correct. Answer C: After the word alternative, there is information about a different way you can choose to make the gift wrap. Choice C is the correct answer. Answer D: There are no context clues that tell you an alternative is a reason. Choice D is not correct.

16 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Passages Directions: Read Part 2 of the passage below and write your answer to the question.

A Better Gift Wrap (Part 2) Another idea is to use paper that has color pictures. Flip through old magazines for pretty pictures. Shots of mountains, trees, or flowers will add charm to your gift. If you know the person who is getting the present loves sports, you could cut out great action shots. If your gift is clothing, you could cut out pictures of the latest fashions. Pictures of tasty food are a great paper idea for someone who loves to cook. If the page is big enough on its own, wrap the present with it. Newspapers are another good choice. Their paper is big, and the comics give your friends something funny to read after they open presents. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What does the word fashions mean?

STER. A M E ACKLIN HINT L B A E can find. OT O Byou S Ncontext I Before you answer this question, list the clues T T K I O . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

Read the question again. Write your answer below.

17 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Passages Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

A Simple Fix Lara was sitting in class when her nose started to itch. Then, all of a sudden— achoo! She sneezed loudly. The other students, who were trying to take a test, jumped at the noise. Lara’s nose began to itch again. “Uh oh,” Lara thought. She fumbled through her bag for a handkerchief. Achoo! She sneezed again. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 What is another word for fumbled? A sneezed

B searched

STER. A M E D mumbled ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . HTEDbeganR feeling Lara could not wait to get out of class. GShe HIS BOvery sick. Her head I T R Y P O CO N F on sneezing. was pounding. Her nose was She At the end of the IVEkept K ISrunning. AY. G O W T O Y O B N N E A L P N was wrong with her. Maybe day, Lara hurried She Ikept ON ISwondering ED Iwhat S C S SAMhome. S U I I H D M T O it was something bad, PERshe thought. REPRThe next morning, when she still felt ill, C faded

her mother took her to the physician. 2

In this paragraph, the word physician means A doctor B school C friend D mother

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When it was her turn, Lara went in to see Dr. Turner. Dr. Turner looked her over and asked some questions. Lara was worried. “Will I be okay?” she asked. Dr. Turner smiled. “You’ll be fine. You just have a cold,” he responded. Dr. Turner then gave her some tips about what to do to get better again. 3

Which word means the same as responded in this paragraph? A replied B smiled C worried D yelled

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The next day, Lara stayed in bed. She ate two oranges. Dr. Turner had said that oranges can help make people healthy. Lara also drank lots of tea and soup. The hot drinks made her feel better. Lara read a book and took a nap. After all that rest, her cold began to go away. Her sneezing stopped and her nose began to behave. Soon, Lara felt as good as new.

TER. S A M E 4 What does as good as new mean? ExplainKhow you know. AC LIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Most Unusual Machines Think about a simple chore, such as pouring water into a glass. This chore does not take much time for most people. It might take much longer, however, if you use a Rube Goldberg machine. Rube Goldberg machines use many steps to perform simple tasks. The machines got their name from a man named Rube Goldberg. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which word helps the reader know what tasks means? A longer B steps

C chore

D people

STER. A M E LIN young, he ACKwas Rube Goldberg was born in San Francisco in 1883. When he L B A E O Bengineer. S NtoOTbecome liked to draw pictures. Later, Rube went to college an After I T T K I O . D O E B T S H I G H his first job as an engineer, Rube decided to draw pictures. OPYRI IVtoENfollow FOR This dream C S I . Y He took a job working Bfor Soon, OOaK newspaper Y WA a few of his drawings OT Gcompany. N N E A L S I P N I M N appeared in Ithe Rube’s CED popular. Sometimes, he would Ubecame ISSIOcartoons H S SApaper. D M T O R R E P P draw large machines. RE 2

In this paragraph, what is another word for cartoons? A machines B napkins C newspapers D drawings

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The machines in the drawings did very simple jobs for people. One of his drawings showed a machine that wiped a person’s mouth with a cloth. The machine performed many steps to make the cloth move. People called the devices in the pictures “Rube Goldberg machines.” Goldberg became famous for his drawings. People became interested in the machines. Some people starting building Rube Goldberg machines for fun. 3

Which of the following means the same as devices? A machines B drawings

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 C moves

D famous

Over the years, people have had Rube Goldberg contests. In these contests, people build Rube Goldberg machines. They try to build machines that perform simple chores. The machines use many steps to do the chores. The machines are full of great detail. These elaborate machines are made from R. STEto A M many different objects. The objects perform many steps. One step leads E CKLIN do the Afinally L B another step. After many back-to-back steps, the machines A S NOT OK TO BE I T I simple chores. . ED BO

T YRIGH N FOR THIS P O C IS . IVE Explain AYhow Gmean? OK elaborate W T O Y O B 4 What does you know. N N E A L IN MP N IS A D O I S E S C S S U I I D TH PERM REPRO

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Building of Books Ashley sat in her room. On all sides of her bed were bookshelves stacked with colorful books. There were big books and little books and all sizes in between. Some had a lot of pictures and some were just words. Some looked like schoolbooks and others looked like comic books. She had a great variety of books to choose from. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 In this paragraph, the word variety means

A range B story

C change

D enjoy

STER. A M E IN her happiest ACKLof Ashley loved reading ever since she learned how to do Ait.BLOne OT library.TOAshley BE looked S Nthe memories was the first time her father took .her to I T K I O TED S BOnever seen so many! GHshelves. HIhad I with awe at the books that were on the She T R Y R P O O F IVENlong K IS C about Ashley was amazed. She thought how it would AY. take to read them G O W T O Y O B N N E A L MP sheSScould all. But, her Ifather ION ISonlyODchoose ED INone. So, Ashley had to make C U I H S SA said M T P ER a choice. REPR 2

Which word helps you understand the meaning of awe? A first B shelves C loved D amazed

22 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


For hours, Ashley looked at the books. Her mind wandered as she looked at books about many different topics. First, she thought about getting a book about the Wild West. Then, she wanted to read about hot air balloons. Next, she thought about reading a book about China. She walked around and around the library until she was very tired. 3

What does the phrase her mind wandered mean? A She walked around slowly. B She thought of many things. C She had a bad headache.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 D She felt confused and afraid.

When the library was ready to close, Ashley’s father told her it was time to go. She still hadn’t picked a book. She told her father that she wanted to read about Helen Keller, songbirds, and World War II. She wanted a book with a lot of facts. She also wanted to read adventure books with exciting stories. Ashley’s father gave her a new library card. Now she’d have the opportunity to read R. all E T S A the books she wanted. LINE M

BLACK E A T O B TOyou T IS NExplain K I O . 4 What does opportunity mean? how know. D O E B GHT HIS I T R Y R P O O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

The Science of Sneezes Did you ever wonder what makes people sneeze? Sometimes, something can get in your nose and it can bother you. Lots of different things can bother your nose. Dust, fur, and pepper can get into a person’s nose. This makes the person sneeze. A sneeze is caused by something that bothers your nose. The body sneezes to get rid of the thing that is annoying your nose. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 What is another word for annoying?

A dropping

B wondering C running

D troubling

STER. A M E LIN sends a ACKnose The nose wants to get rid of the thing that is bothering Ait.BThe L NOT center” O BofE your brain. S“sneeze message to the brain. It sends the message to. the I T T K I O ED GtoHTsneeze. HIS BallO the parts of the body I The sneeze center instructs your body It Ttells R Y R P O O F IVENparts K IS Cto do.OTMany that work during a sneeze what of the AY.body work together G O W O Y B N N E A L P belly, chest, AMThe when you sneeze. D INeyelids all help you sneeze. ON IS throat, and THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R 2

The word instructs means A catches B tells C keeps D watches

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These parts of the body all work together. The sneeze center tells them what to do. When you sneeze, the sneeze sends tiny particles out of your nose and into the air. This is why people have to cover their mouths and noses when they sneeze. 3

Which word helps you understand the meaning of the word particles? A tiny B nose C air

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 D sneeze

People sneeze for different reasons. Sometimes people get sick with colds. Colds can make people sneeze. Allergies can also make people sneeze. People with allergies cannot be around certain things. Some people are allergic to animals, trees, flowers, dust, or foods. When people have allergies, being around certain things can trigger a sneeze. Even a tiny amount of the thing R. a E T S A person is allergic to could cause him or her to sneeze. LINE M

BLACK E A T O OB Tknow. T IS N how K I O . 4 What does trigger mean? Explain you D O E B T YRIGH N FOR THIS P O C AY. GIVE OK IS W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

25 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

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On Your Own E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passages with Questions

THIS

The Downy Woodpecker – Nonfiction Toothpaste – Nonfiction Devon’s Magazine – Fiction How Animals Defend Themselves – Nonfiction STER. A Dinosaur Names – Nonfiction M E ACKLIN L Grandmother’s Favorite Memory – Fiction B A S NOT OK TO BE I Creatures of Myth –. Nonfiction T I ED G–HTNonfiction HIS BO I T EarthPDay R Y R O CO NF IV–EFiction K ISThe AY. G Tryouts O W T O Y O B N N E A L P D IN – Nonfiction of ION IS and SAMMaps ISSYesterday DUCEToday

PERM

REPRO

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Downy Woodpecker Downy woodpeckers are the smallest and most common type of woodpecker in the United States. This species of woodpecker is found throughout much of North America. They are covered in black and white feathers. The males have patches of red feathers on their heads. These kinds of birds have small, pointed beaks. They are about six to seven inches long.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

These birds live in many different places. Downy woodpeckers can be readily found in the wooded areas. They can also be easily found in yards and near homes. Downy woodpeckers go to places where there is food. So birdfeeders will attract them. Downy woodpeckers have a diet that is the same as many other woodpeckers. They eat bugs and insects. To find and eat the insects, the woodpeckers search . in tree branches and bushes. The birds’ pointed beaks allow them to grab STERfood A M E CKLIN down on from small holes in the branches. These woodpeckers also Achow L B A E OT fruit, seeds, and sap. K TO B IT IS N

BOO TED. S H I G H I T R PY COwarmer N FOR do not S Downy woodpeckers thatOlive in climates E I V I K AY. fly south. Others that G W T O Y O B N N E A L IS the winter. P fly south during live in cooler places N Sometimes when they fly S SAM ERMISSION RODUCED I I H T south, downy woodpeckers will Rtravel P EP with other kinds of birds. These other birds are usually small and possess similar habits and eating patterns. Like most birds, downy woodpeckers make nests for their young. They make their nests in hollow trees and tree limbs. These birds also nest in hollow trees during the winter.

28 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

4

Which words help the reader know what species means? A smallest and common

1. kinds of food eaten 2. eating less to lose weight 3. provided or experienced repeatedly 4. part of a government in some countries

B found and covered C much and most D type and kinds

2

What does the word possess mean in the fourth paragraph? A hide B have C claim D change

Read the different meanings of the word diet.

Which meaning best fits the way the word diet is used in this passage?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A meaning 1

B meaning 2

C meaning 3

3

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A NOT O BE S I T T K I O . different IS BOchow down mean? GHT5ED What Hdoes I T R Y R P O O found IVEN AF toYeat K IS C AY. G O W T O O B N N E A L easily SAMP ION IS ODUCED IBN to cut S S I M THIS P ER REPR live D meaning 4

Which of the following means the same as readily? A B C D

C to save

D to share

6

What words help you understand what the word attract means?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Toothpaste For thousands of years, people have been using toothpaste to keep their teeth clean. The first toothpaste was used in ancient Egypt. But, toothbrushes weren’t invented yet. People later used toothpaste in ancient Greece, Rome, China, and India. These people worried about the same problems that people today worry about. These concerns are fresh breath and healthy, clean, and white teeth.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Ancient toothpaste wasn’t like the kind we have today. It contained different things. People in Egypt mixed salt, pepper, iris flowers, and leaves called mint. Some candies also included mint leaves. It helps make breath fresh. Greeks and Romans used grainy toothpaste. They believed the rough paste scratched stuff off of their teeth. These scratchy, gritty pastes cleaned their teeth. They were made from grounded up bones and shells. Some were made of ashes, STER. eggshells, or rocks. Romans used charcoal and tree bark to fight bad E MAbreath.

ACKLIN L B A Many older toothpastes were powders. PeopleITthought powders O BE were best S NOT these I T K O . D a longHtime. IS BO Then, companies GHTEfor for their teeth. They considered this true I T R Y R P O O VEN F Y WAY. toothpaste from Imanufactured began to make and sell toothpaste. K IS C They G O T O O B IS N were IN ANnuts, and charcoal. The paste MPLE of these Nthings A different things. Some soap, D O I S E S C S S U I I M TH PRODthis was in paste form. PERtoothpaste was sold in a jar. Most REafter Companies finally stopped using soap. They replaced the soap with things that made the paste smooth, like toothpastes of today. They kept teeth healthy. Some toothpaste made teeth white. Other kinds protected teeth from disease. These toothpastes are different from the old powders. But they are used for the same reasons.

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1

3

What is another word for concerns?

What does gritty mean? A scratchy

A powders

B useful

B worries

C shiny

C brushes

D awful

D minds 4 2

The word included means

Which of the following words means the same as considered?

A appeared

A carried

B tasted C took

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 B listened

C believed

D taught

D contained

5

6

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B What does manufactured mean? Explain how you know. A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO What clues from the last paragraph help you understand what the word replaced means?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Devon’s Magazine Devon sat in the kitchen and ate his oatmeal. While enjoying his breakfast, he read his favorite magazine. He read an article about a woman who wrote a magazine about her neighborhood. Devon suddenly had an idea. He showed his mother the article. Then Devon asked his mom if she thought it would be a good idea to write a magazine about their neighborhood. “Yes, Devon, I think that is a terrific idea,” she replied.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Devon began to make his magazine immediately. He wanted to make a magazine that was fun. Devon also wanted to produce a magazine that would teach people about the neighborhood. He took pictures and wrote down what happened. He wrote fun stories. His neighbors were like his characters. Devon composed articles about important things and only wrote the truth. He made sure his information was accurate. Devon didn’t write anything that was untrue.

STER. A M E IN to read Meanwhile, his neighbors began to get excited. They couldn’t ACKLwait L B A E what Devon had written. All the neighbors talked the O Babout S NtoOTeachOother I T T K I . D O E B T magazine. They discussed what would magazine. They talked about THIS YRIGHbe inNthe R P O O F C S E I . V Y whether Devon would make magazines. Y WofA them wrote letters to OT GI INSome BOOK more N N E A L S I P M A their letters Devon. Devon put D He was also excited. ONin his magazine. THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

Finally, Devon’s magazine was finished. Devon began to hand out his magazine. He distributed the magazines by going door to door. He knocked on each door. Devon gave a magazine to every neighbor. All the neighbors thanked Devon for writing the magazine. They all loved it! Devon promised to make more magazines.

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1

3

What is another word for terrific? A lonely B shiny

Which of the following words means the same as composed in this passage? A marked

C great

B received

D careless

C corrected D wrote 2

The word produce means A make B gain C work D learn

4

What does accurate mean?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A curious B true

C merry D dark

5

6

STER. A M E N ACKLIwhat L B What clues from the third paragraph help you understand A E the word OT B N O S I T T discussed means? BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R What does distributed mean? Explain how you know.

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

How Animals Defend Themselves Wild animals often must defend themselves and their homes against attacks from other animals. Creatures use many different methods to scare away their enemies. One way that animals defend themselves when another animal gets too close for comfort is to hide in plain sight. An animal’s coloring can help it escape harm. This helps the animal blend in with the natural setting around it. A zebra’s stripes make it stand out in the zoo. In the wild, these same stripes confuse enemies. The stripes make it hard to tell the zebras apart from one another.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Toads stand on their tiptoes and puff up their belly. This makes the toads look much larger. Many other animals are scared away by this. Turtles have the ability to pull the soft parts of their bodies inside their hard shells.MThis STERis. a A E KLIN very useful skill. It makes most enemies look for their lunch else. BLACsomewhere

OT A N O BE S I T T K I O . D Skunks have found an interesting wayIGto themselves. HTEprotect HIS BO They spray a T R Y R P O O bad-smelling mist at theirOenemies smell distracts EN F The Y. IVstartled. K IS C when Aterrible G W T O Y O B N N E A L P the other animal. this O happens, the skunk N IS AMWhile D IN is able to get away safely. THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

Porcupines also have a built-in way to stay safe. The hairs on the porcupine’s back are very sharp. These can easily cut into another animal’s skin. The hair quickly becomes stuck. This hurts the porcupine’s enemy very badly. It may take a long time for the animal to get the hair out of its skin. Many animals have learned to steer clear of the porcupine’s path.

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1

3

What is another word for methods?

The word ability means A skill

A notes

B time

B dreams

C drive

C ways

D gear

D hopes 4 2

Which of the following means the same as confuse? A interest B pretend C leave D puzzle

Which sentence helps you understand the meaning of the word distracts?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A They spray a bad-smelling mist at their enemies when startled.

B While this happens, the skunk is able to get away safely.

C Skunks have found an interesting way to protect R. themselves. MASTE

5

6

LINE K C A L D It makes enemies look for OT A Bmost BE N O S I T T their lunch somewhere else. K I O . BO TED S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L What does too close for comfort mean? Explain how you know. IN MP N IS A D O I S E S C S S U I I D TH PERM REPRO

Which words from the last paragraph help you understand what the phrase to steer clear of means?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Dinosaur Names Have you ever wondered how a plant or animal got its name? The scientists who discover new plants and animals typically name them. The names of dinosaurs are also chosen this way. A scientist even coined the word “dinosaur.” The word dinosaur means “great and terrible lizard.” People choose dinosaur names for different reasons. Some are named after people. Often, dinosaurs are named after the person who discovered them. The Lambeosaurus was named for Lawrence Lambe. He was the scientist who first exposed that this dinosaur once lived. Sometimes, dinosaurs are named for someone other than the person who discovered it. Once, two married scientists discovered a dinosaur. They named it after their daughter.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dinosaurs can also be named for their physical figure and bodily shape. Some . people name dinosaurs because of an observable, or easily seen, feature. STERThe A M E CKLIN Triceratops Triceratops got its name from three horns on its head. The Aword L B A E other body means a head with three horns. Still other dinosaurs O Bfor S NOTare named I T T K I O . HTED noses, IS BO and so on. parts. Some are named for their teeth, YRIGarms, R THheads,

COP N FO S E I V I K AY. G O W T O Y O B N N E A L IS the place where Pthe animals for Some people name they are found. The N S SAM ERMISSION RODUCED I I H T Albertasaurus is so named because P REPit was the first one found in Alberta,

Canada. Another dinosaur was named the Utahraptor because scientists discovered it in the state of Utah. Others have been named for places such as countries, cities, and other regions. Many dinosaur names have interesting stories behind them. The next time you come across an interesting name, try to find where it came from.

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1

2

A able to be seen

B usually

B able to be tasted

C sadly

C able to be felt

D nicely

D able to be heard

4

Which of the following words means the same as exposed?

B ruined

6

In the third paragraph, the word observable means

A greedily

A named

5

3

What does the word typically mean?

What is another word for regions?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A dinosaurs B places

C discovered

C scientists

D bought

D names

STER. A M E LIN ACKthe L B What words from the passage help you understand what word A E OT B N O S I T T K I physical means? O . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

What does coined the word mean? Explain how you know.

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Grandmother’s Favorite Memory Jerome visited his grandmother every weekend. He loved spending time with her. He always asked her to talk about her life. One Saturday, Jerome visited his grandmother. He asked her to tell him about her favorite memory. She thought for a moment. Then, Grandmother smiled as she began to reflect on something that happened many years ago.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Grandmother told Jerome that during the 1950s and 1960s many people did not have equal rights. Some people were treated differently. People with different color skin were kept separate at schools, restaurants, and on buses. Grandmother told Jerome she wanted everyone to have equal rights. All her life she worked to get what she desired. “One person gave us all hope. He believed that one day all people would be R. treated the same,” said Grandmother. “His name was Dr. Martin Luther STEKing, A M E Jr. He inspired us. He told us never to give up. He alwaysBLencouraged us. My ACKLIN A T E O N favorite memory is the day I saw him give a very speech.” K TO B IT IS famous

BOO TED. S H I G H I T R PY had traveled COshe N FORto Washington, S Jerome’s grandmother said that D.C., in E I V I K AY. G O W T O Y O B N N E A L IS Dr. KingNplanned a huge march in the P there because August 1963. She went S SAM ERMISSION RODUCED I I H T city. Many people would P get together REP to show the country that they wanted change.

“We could not wait for Dr. King to speak. He always spoke very well. He was never tongue-tied. He told us about a wish he had. He dreamed of a time when people would not be judged by the color of their skin. Today, we must still work to make Dr. King’s vision come true.”

38 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

What words in the first paragraph help you to understand what reflect means?

What is another word for desired? A thought

A talk and something that happened

B wanted

B ask and visited his grandmother

C remembered

C smiled and every weekend

D decided

D thought and many years ago 4 2

What does the word separate mean?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A explained

A not together

B borrowed

B poor

C threatened

C not happy D equal

5

6

In the third paragraph, the word inspired means

D encouraged

STER. A M E IN ACKLwhat L B What words from the last paragraph help you understand A E the word OT B N O S I T T tongue-tied means? BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

What does vision mean? Explain how you know.

39 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Creatures of Myth Long ago, many people believed in strange animals. They believed that these strange animals lived in the real world. People thought that dragons really existed. They told myths about these creatures flying through the sky. In these stories, dragons were very important to the world. They watched over people. Dragons monitored the way people lived their lives. They made sure people did the right things. They punished those who acted badly.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Since there were no real-life dragons, people made up ideas of what dragons looked like. People mostly imagined them as strange-looking animals. People thought dragon heads looked like horse heads. Others said dragon teeth resembled dog teeth and that dragons had whiskers like a cat. They were also supposed to have fish-like bodies to help them swim! People imagined dragons as being red, green, yellow, and many other bright colors.

STER. A M E Just as dragons had many colors, they had many jobs. Dragons ACKLINwere believed L B A T E families. to bring good luck to kind people. They couldIThelp and O Btheir S NOfarmers I T K O . O help of dragons, the HTED RWith Gdecisions. They could even help kings make wise HIS Bthe I T R Y P O O IVEN F that kings could become veryOO strong. believed some K IS C It was AY. dragons could also G W T Y O B N N E A L IS their money MP help people Ilearn or ONuse Ito ED IN wisely. Dragons could assist S C S U I H S SA toPread D M T O R stop people from cheating, stealing, or people in many ways.ER They could REPeven doing other dishonest things. People loved thinking that dragons were around them. In fact, people put dragon pictures everywhere. They painted dragons on their chairs or sewed them on their clothes. They put images of dragons on bridges and houses. Everywhere you looked, a dragon was looking back at you!

40 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

Which words help the reader know what existed means? A people and thought

In the second paragraph, which words help you understand what resembled means?

B dragons and creatures

A supposed to

C believed and strange animals

B looked like

D lived and real world

C bright colors D made-up

2

The word monitored means 4

A watched over

The word assist means the same as

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B flew with

A scare

C waited above

B change

D stopped from

C give

D help

5

6

STER. A M E IN ACKLthe L B Which words from the passage help you understand what A E word OT B N O S I T T dishonest means? BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

What does the word images mean? Explain how you know.

41 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Earth Day Does your school do something special for Earth Day each year? Perhaps you plant trees or clean up your neighborhood. Whatever you do, you and your classmates are sharing in a very important event. Many of us understand that Earth Day was founded to help the planet. But, few people know the whole story behind this holiday.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Earth Day was Senator Gaylord Nelson’s idea. The senator believed that people in the government didn’t pay enough attention to the planet. They weren’t worried about how people might be damaging the earth. He decided to do something about this. In 1962, the senator spoke with President Kennedy about his ideas. The president liked Nelson’s plan. He went on a conservation tour around the country to show citizens how to protect the earth. He wanted people to think about what they could do to help our planet. Sadly, few people TER. took notice. E MAS

ACKLIN L B A BE Nelson kept fighting to protect the earth. TheITsenator 25 He O states. S NOTvisited I T K O . D O E B S GHT help spoke to people about ways that they the In the fall of 1969, THIearth. YRIcould R P O O F C N S E I . V Y Nelson told everyone that K plannedOTtoGIhold a national Y WA demonstration the BOOhe N N E A L S I P N I M following spring. would from UCEDall around. He invited everyone to ISSIONgather HIS SA People D M T O R R E P P contribute to this event. On April RE 22, 1970, more than 20 million people across the country took part in Earth Day. Finally, Nelson’s efforts had paid off. People were beginning to understand how important it is to care for the earth. Word of this amazing call to action spread around the world. The following year, the United Nations made Earth Day an international holiday. Today, Earth Day is more important than ever. People around the world are realizing what Senator Nelson knew more than 30 years ago. We all need to do our part to keep the earth healthy and beautiful.

42 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

2

3

Which words help the reader know what conservation means?

In the third paragraph, the word contribute means

A tour and citizens

A move away from

B went and around

B take part in

C protect and earth

C pay attention to

D show and how

D think about

4

Which sentence helps you understand what a demonstration is?

What does the word international mean?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A all around the world

A Nelson kept fighting to protect the earth.

B in the United States

C all of the time

B The senator visited 25 states.

D in a few different places

C People would gather from all around.

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I H RMIpassage What Twords from PRODyou understand what the phrase PEthe REhelp D People were beginning to understand how important it is to care for the earth.

5

efforts had paid off means?

6

What does call to action mean? Explain how you know.

43 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Tryouts Rose and Tyrone loved playing baseball together at the playground. Rose and Tyrone practiced their pitching and batting skills. They learned a lot by practicing. They both made vast improvements and were ready to try out for the school team. On the day of the tryouts, Rose and Tyrone both took their turns. Their parents came to cheer them on. Rose got to first base after she hit the ball. Tyrone almost hit a home run! Then, the coach announced who would be on the team. Rose was gleeful when she heard her name called. She made it onto the team. Tyrone was not happy at all. The coach did not say his name. Tyrone started walking toward home. He was bewildered and puzzled. He did not understand how Rose made the team and he did not. Tyrone thought about how Rose would be busy with baseball. She might never have time to practice TER. with him again. E MAS

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

ACKLIN L B A OT the Tpath. Suddenly, Tyrone heard Rose call for him. SheITran O BE Rose had a S Ndown I K O . O ED He Twas huge grin on her face. Tyrone could not for his friend, GHTsmile. HIS Bhappy I R Y R P O O F C EN to speak, but sad about not making K IS team. ORose AY. but she was out of GIVtried Othe W T O Y B N N E A L breath from running. AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE “I am happy for you, Rose,” saidRTyrone. Rose finally caught her breath. She said, “Don’t feel blue, Tyrone. The coach made a mistake. He neglected to call your name even though it was on the list. You made the team!” Tyrone and Rose scurried back to the baseball field. They ran as fast as their legs would take them. They wanted to meet the rest of the team.

44 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

2

3

Which word or phrase means the same as vast? A few

A walking

B great

B tired

C too much

C puzzled

D too many

D thought

4

What does the word gleeful mean? A not sure B upset C worried

6

In the last paragraph, the word scurried means

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A ran B fell

C yelled

D jumped

D very happy

5

What word helps you understand what bewildered means?

STER. A M E LIN ACKthe L B What words from the passage help you understand what phrase A E OT B N O S I T T K I feel blue means? O . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

What does neglected mean? Explain how you know.

45 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Maps of Yesterday and Today Have you ever been lost? If you have, you may know why maps are so important. Maps are pictures of different places. People use maps to find their way from one place to another without getting lost. People have relied on maps for a very long time. Maps have helped thousands of people travel all over the world. They continue to help us every day.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Long ago, maps were very simple and practical. They showed big, important locations such as mountains, lakes, and rivers. They showed paths that people used to travel and trade. They also indicated where you could hunt or fish. As early people explored, they added more and more features to their maps. Soon, maps became even better. People could use maps to find almost any place they were looking for. Some maps showed very small details. Travelers now could find a single house or camp, not just massive mountainMA ranges STER. or E large bodies of water. As more roads were built, they were quickly ACKLIN added to L B A E OT maps. Maps were soon full of all kinds of details. K TO B IT IS N

BOO TED. S H I G H I T R ORairplanes OPY taken Cpictures N Fby S Most maps today are based on E I V I K AY. or satellites in the G O W T O Y O B N N E A L IS way the land Pshow the exact sky. These pictures N looks. They also show how far S SAM ERMISSION RODUCED I I H T it is between places. PThere are almost REP no mistakes. Some maps are so clear you

can see cars and swimming pools. You can find your house or school in no time. Today, numerous maps are kept on computers. This makes it easy for many people to use them.

46 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

The word relied means A found

Which word helps you understand what indicated means?

B trusted

A continue

C wanted

B hunting

D given

C showed D swimming

2

In the second paragraph, what does practical mean? A useful B funny C heavy D pretty

4

What does the word numerous mean?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 A difficult B many

C unusual

D old

5

6

STER. A M E KLIN ACmassive L B What clues from the passage help you understand what A E means? OT B N O S I T T BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R COPY GIVEN FOR S I K AY. O W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

What does the word exact mean? Explain how you know.

47 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

48 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO


LEVEL

D

The Skill-by-Skill series includes: Main Idea and Details Vocabulary in Context Sequence Compare and Contrast Conclusions and Inferences Cause and Effect

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Reading Skill-by-Skill is designed to help students strengthen their R. MASTE reading comprehension skills. Each book in the series provides E N I L A CK instruction and practice for a different reading Ocomprehension T A BL E skill.

T IS N BOOK TO B I . D E T Part 1: YRIGH N FOR THIS P O C AY. difficulty GIVE by increasing OK IS thatNOteaches W • Scaffolded instruction T O Y B N E A L AMP ION IS Ofull-length ED IN passages) S C (sentences—to S U I D M THIS S Pparagraphs—to ER REPR • Differentiated instruction • Modeled instruction—guided practice—independent practice • Multiple-choice and open-ended questions Part 2: • On your own full-length passages with questions

Reading Skill-by-Skill targets the comprehension skills students need to master for reading success.

Skill vocab d sample[1]